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Probability is based on observations of certain events. Probability of an event is the ratio of the

number of observations of the event to the total numbers of the observations. An experiment is a

situation involving chance or probability that leads to results called outcomes. An outcome is the

result of a single trial of an experiment. The probability of an event is the measure of the chance

that the event will occur as a result of an experiment.

P(A) ≤ 1.

Probability Formula

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Probability is the measure of how likely an event is. And an event is one or more outcomes of an

experiment. Probability formula is the ratio of number of favorable outcomes to the total number

of possible outcomes.

Probability Formula

Measures the likelihood of an event in the following way:

- If P(A) > P(B) then event A is more likely to occur than event B.

- If P(A) = P(B) then events A and B are equally likely to occur.

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The probability of an event tells that how likely the event will happen. Situations in which

each outcome is equally likely, then we can find the probability using probability formula.

Probability is a chance of prediction. If the probability that an event will occur is "x", then the

probability that the event will not occur is "1 - x". If the probability that one event will occur is

"a" and the independent probability that another event will occur is "b", then the probability that

both events will occur is "ab".

Probability of an event A can be written as:

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A probability is determined from an experiment, which is any activity that has an observable

outcome like tossing a coin and observing whether it lands heads up or tails up. The possible

outcomes of an experiment are called sample space of the experiment.

Solved Examples

Question 1: Two dice are rolled once. Calculate the probability that the sum of the numbers on

the two dice is 5.

Solution:

Possible outcomes (Sample Space) = {(1, 1), (1, 2),...............,(1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2),................,(2,

6), (3, 1), (3, 2),...........,(3, 6), .............,(4, 1), (4, 2),..........,(4, 6), (5, 1), (5,2),...............,(5, 6), (6,

1), (6, 2),......................,(6, 6)}

Number of outcomes of the experiment that are favorable to the event that a sum of two events is

6

=> Favorable outcomes are: (1, 5), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2) and (5, 1)

= 536

Solution:

Sample Space = {H, T}

(because of only one head)

=> Probability of getting head = Number offavorable outcomesTotal number of possible outcomes

= 12

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