Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

# BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS

## B.E. 1th Year (BT-1004)

Prepared by
Durgesh Choudhary
Assistant professor
Electrical Engineering Dept.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-1(a)
Object: - To Verify Thevenin’s theorem

Apparatus Used

## 1. D.C. power Supply

2. Pure resistances of known value
3. Ammeter
4. Voltmeter

Theory: - “Any circuit having a number of voltage sources, resistances and open output
terminals can be replaced by a simple equivalent circuit consisting of a single voltage source Vth
in series with resistance Rth, where the value of the voltage source is equivalents to the open
circuit voltage source across the output terminals, and resistance is equal to the network across
the output terminal.

Circuit Diagram:-

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Procedure:-

1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram with all the resistance

R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R7 of known value.

## when R3 is kept open .

3. Shot circuit the voltage source E1 measure Rth across terminal A and B

## when R3 is kept open

Observation Table:-

R1 R2 R3

R4 R6 R7

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Calculation:-

VTH = E1 * ( R2 + R7 )
R1 + R2 + R7 + R6 + R4

## RTH = (R2+R7) (R1+ R6 + R4)

R1 + R2 + R7 + R6 + R4

IL = VTH

RTH+RL

Result:-

## RTH (calculated) = ------------ Ω

Calculated vales of & are approximately same as measured value hence verified thevenin
theorem.

Precautions:-

## 1.) All the connections should be tight.

2.) Reading’s should be taken carefully.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-1(b)
Object: - To Verify Norton’s theorem.

Apparatus Used

## 1. D.C. power Supply

2. Pure resistances of known value
3. Ammeter
4. Voltmeter

Theory: - “ The current flowing through a load resistance connected across any two terminals
of a network can be determined by replacing the whole network by an equivalent circuit of a
current source having a current output of IN in parallel with a resistance RN.”

## RN = value of resistance looking back from open terminal a and b

Circuit Diagram:-

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Procedure: - 1) Make connection shown in circuit diagram.

and B.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-2
Object: - To Verify Superposition theorem.

Apparatus Used

## 1. D.C. power Supply

2. Pure resistances of known value
3. Ammeter
4. Voltmeter

Theorem:- “ If there are two or more than two sources of emf acting simultaneously in a linear
bilateral network, the current flowing through any sections is the algebraic sum all the currents
which should flow in the section if each source of emf were considered separately and all other
sources are replaced for the time being by there internal resistance.”

Procedure:- 1) Connect the circuit as shown in the figure with all resistance and both voltage
source E1 and E2.

2) Switch of the supply and record the current in the section A and B.

3) Connect the circuit as shown in the figure with all the resistance and voltage
source is short circuit(E1).

4) Connect the circuit with all the resistance and voltage source is short circuit(E2).

Result:- Algebraic sum of I’ and I’’ is approximately same as I, hence theorem is satisfied.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.- 3
Object: - To verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law & Kirchhoff’s Current Law.

Apparatus used:-

1. DC supply.
2. Kirchhoff law kit.
3. Pure resistance
4. Ammeter

Theory: - KVL: Consider a closed loop ABC, in clockwise direction starting from point A. The
algebraic sum of the voltages is

VAB+VBC-VT=0

In determining the algebraic sum for the voltages terms, first mark of the polarity of each voltages
as shown above, now go round consider path and consider any voltages, plus terminal is reach
positive and negative terminal is reach negative.

## Thus in above closed path starting from A, clockwise.

VAB is +ve

VBC is +ve

VT is –ve
KCL: “The algebraic sum of the currents entering & leaving any point in the circuit must be equal
to zero. An algebraic sum means combining positive & negative values. All current into a node is
positive & all currents directed away made is negative. For
a given node A,I1 & I2 is positive as they are into the node & I3is negative as it is out from the
node

## We can rewrite the above equation as I1 + I2 = I3

Kirchhoff’s current law act as the basis for the practical rule in parallel circuits, that the total line
current must equal the sum of branch current.

Circuit Diagram:-

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Procedure: - KVL: 1. Make connection as shown in circuit diagram.

2. Consider a closed loop CABDXC clockwise. Measure the voltage and tabulate
the results.

3. Consider the second closed loop AEYFBA clockwise. Measure the voltage &
tabulate the results.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-4
Object: - To verify Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.

## Apparatus Required:- 1. Maximum Power Transfer kit.

2. DC supply.

4. DC voltmeter.

5. Ammeter.

Theory:- These are contain situation in circuit diagram where it is desirable to transfer as much
single power as possible from single source to load. The pertinent example is that of the output
voltage of a power amplifier.

It has been observed that “ The transfer of power from a source to given load is a
function f the load itself & for maximum transfer of power the source & load resistance must be
matched i.e they should be equal.”Consider the circuit shown in figure, power delivered to load
RL. P delivered to the RL = P = I2x R = (RL Vs2) / (RL+ Rs)2

For P to be maximum,

## dP/ dRL = (Vs2) / (RL+ Rs) (1- (2 RL / (RL+ Rs)) = 0

Circuit Diagram:-

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Procedure: - 1. Measure the value of all resistors & note down.

## 2. Make power on to the load unit.

3. Connect the resistance say R1 across power supply V1. Measure the voltage
across resistance R1 & note the voltage in observation table.

Repeat the step 2 for resistance R2, R3, R4--------- & tabulate the result. Repeat the
power process using another source V2.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.- 5
Object: - To draw voltage-current characteristics of incandescent lamp.
Apparatus used:-

1. auto transformer
2. Incandescent lamp
3. Voltmeter
4. Ammeter
Theory: - The incandescent lamp consists of a glass bulb having a fine metallic wire within it.
The different types of materials which can be used for the production of light in incandescent
lamps are carbon and tungsten .Out of which tungsten is the most common material used as
filament in modern lamp the chemically pure tungsten is very strong.

Circuit Diagram:-

Procedure:-

1). Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram, with all switches of load in off positions.

2). Switch on the supply then varies the voltage up to rated voltage.

3). Record the reading of ammeter and voltmeter at the different voltages.

## 4). Switch of the supply.

Observation Table:-

1.

2.

3.

Result: - The graph has been plotted between V and I. If there is no much variation in
temperature then graph must be a straight line.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.- 6
Object: To measure current power and power factor of R-L-C series circuit.
Apparatus used: 1). Autotransformer

3). Voltmeter

4). Ammeter

## Theory: In A.C. Circuit there are three types of Powers:

1. Apparent Power
2. Active Power
3. Reactive Power

1. Apparent Power: it is the product of r.m.s. value of the applied voltage and circuit current.
Apparent power = Volt Amp KVA of MVA

2. Active power: It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit resistance.
Active power = V I Cos Φ watts or KW OR MW

## 3. Reactive Power: It is power developed in the reactance of the circuit.

Reactive power = VI Sin Φ Volt Ampere reactive (VAR), KVAR,MVAR

Circuit diagram:

Procedure:

## 1. Connections are made as per diagram.

2. Supply is given through auto transformer upto 220 volt.
3. Vary the auto transformer regulator for different supply voltages.
4. Take different set of reading of ammeter,voltmeter, wattmeter and tabulate them.
5. Calculate the real power (Active power and compare readings.)

Observation Table:

(in volt) (in Amp) Watt

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Precautions:

## 1. All connection should be tight.

2. All reading should be taken carefully

Result: The values of current, voltage, power and power factor are given in table.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.- 7
Object: - To verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law & Kirchhoff’s Current Law.

Apparatus used:-

1. DC supply.
2. Kirchhoff law kit.
3. Pure resistance
4. Ammeter
Theory: - Consider a closed loop ABC, in clockwise direction starting from point A. The algebraic
sum of the voltages is

VAB+VBC-VT=0

In determining the algebraic sum for the voltages terms, first mark of the polarity of each voltages
as shown above, now go round consider path and consider any voltages, plus terminal is reach
positive and negative terminal is reach negative.

## Thus in above closed path starting from A, clockwise.

VAB is +ve

VBC is +ve

VT is -ve

Circuit Diagram:-

## Procedure: - 1. Make connection as shown in circuit diagram.

2. Consider a closed loop CABDXC clockwise. Measure the voltage and tabulate
the results.

3. Consider the second closed loop AEYFBA clockwise. Measure the voltage &
tabulate the results.

## Precautions: - 1) All connections should be tight.

2) All readings should be taken carefully

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-8
Object: Calibration of energy meter using voltmeter and ammeter.

Apparatus Used:

## 1. Auto transformer (0-270V)

2. Ammeter (0-10A)
3. Voltmeter(0-300V)
4. Energy meter (5A,230V)
6. Stop watch
Theory: Single phase energy meters are extensively used for measurement of electrical energy
in an a.c. circuit. It consists of (i) two a.c. electromagnets, the series and shunt magnet, (ii) an
aluminum dise or rotor placed between the two electromagnets, (iii) brake magnet and (iv)
counting mechanism. The shunt coil is round with fine wire of many turns and is connected
across the supply. The series coil is round with a heavy wire of few turns and connected in series
with the load so that it carries the load current. The no. of revolution, N is directly proportional to
energy and the counting mechanism is so arranged that the meter indicates kilowatt hour (kwh)
directly.

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

1. Connect the ammeter, voltmeter, and energy meter through auto transformer as
shown in circuit diagram and set up the auto transformer to zero position.
2. Switch on the supply and adjust the auto transformer till a rated voltage. Note
down the reading of voltmeter and ammeter.
4. Record the reading of ammeter, voltmeter and energy meter.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Observation Table:

(V) (I)

1.

2.

3.

Precaution:

## 1. All connection should be tight.

2. All reading should be taken carefully.
Result: The energy meter is properly calibrated.

1. E (measured) = E (calculated)
2. There is a difference in reading.
3. % error = E (calculated)- E (measured) X 100
E (calculated)

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-9
Object: To perform Open circuit test on single phase transformer.
Apparatus Used:

## 1. Wattmeter (2.5 Amp, 300V)

2. voltmeter (0-300V)
3. Ammeter (0-1Amp)
4. Auto Transformer
5. 1- Single phase transformer.
Theory: This test is carried out to determine the iron loss in a transformer. The HV winding is
kept open and the LV winding is excited to its rated value. The input power to the transformer is
measured by wattmeter Wo, rated input voltage by voltmeter Vo and no load current by ammeter
Ao. Now the input power to no load transformer (HV winding open) is consumed in core of
transformer because the no load current i. e. exciting current is 2 to 6% of rated current and
therefore no load copper loss is negligible. The core loss is due to hysterisis and eddy current
losses in the core.

## The reading of wattmeter, Voltmeter and Ammeter are noted. Let W o, Vo

and Io be their reading, the iron losses,

Pi = W o = Vo Io Cos ¢o

## The various parameters Io, Im , Ro and Xo can be calculated as –

Cos ¢o = W o/ Vo Io

Ic = W o/ Vo

Im = (Io 2 - Ic2)1/2

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

## 1.Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2.Keep auto transformer at low voltage.
3.Slowly adjust the auto transformer knob at rated voltage of the transformer.
4.Note down the readings of no load current, voltage applied and the power during no
load condition and switch off supply.
Observation Table:

S.No. Vo Io Wo

Calculation: The reading of wattmeter, Voltmeter and Ammeter are noted. Let W o, Vo and Io be

Pi = W o = Vo Io Cos ¢o

## The various parameters Io, Im , Ro and Xo can be calculated as –

Cos ¢o = W o/ Vo Io

Ic = W o/ Vo

Im = (Io 2 - Ic2)1/2

Precaution:

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-10
Object: To perform short circuit test on single phase transformer.
Apparatus Used:

## 1. Wattmeter (2.5 Amp, 300V)

2. voltmeter (0-300V)
3. Ammeter (0-1Amp)
4. Auto Transformer
5. 1- Single phase transformer.
Theory: This test is carried out to determine the equivalent resistance and the leakage
reactance of the transformer. The connections are made as shown in fig.. The LT winding is
short circuited. A very low voltage is adjusted so that the full load current flow through the HT
and LT windings. Since low voltage is applied, the iron loss is negligible small as compared to
copper loss. The wattmeter reading gives the copper loss. Let reading be Wsc, Vsc, Isc then

R = Wsc/Isc2

Z = Vsc/Isc

X = (Z2 – R2)1/2

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. Keep auto transformer at zero voltage.
3. Slowly adjust the auto transformer knob so that the rated current flows through the
transformer.
4. Note down the readings of short circuits current, voltage applied and the power during
full load condition and switch off supply.

Observation Table:

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

S.No. Vsc Isc Wsc

R = Wsc/Isc2

Z = Vsc/Isc

X = (Z2 – R2)1/2

Precaution:

## 3. Instrument connected should be of proper range.

4. The voltage applied should be initially set zero, then increase slowly.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT NO.-11
Object:- To study the constructional details of 3-phase induction motor.

Theory :- A 3-phase induction motor consists of two main parts stator and rotor

1. Stator :- It is the stationary part of the motor. It has three main parts
a) Outer frame
b) Stator core
c) Stator winding
Outer frame:- It is the outer body of the motor .Its function to
support the stator core and to protect the inner parts of the machine. For small machines the
frame is casted but for large machines it is fabricated. To place the motor on the foundation,
feet are provided in the outer frame.

Stator core:- The stator core is to carry the alternating flux which produces hysteresis and
eddy current losses. In order to reduce the eddy current and hysteresis losses, it is made of
high grade silicon steel stampings. The stampings are assembled under hydraulic pressure
and are keyed to the frame. Each stamping is insulated from the other with a thin varnish layer.
The thickness of stampings varies from 0.35mm to 0.65mm.Slots are punched on the inner
periphery of the stampings to accommodate stator winding .The air gap between the stator and
rotor is made very small ,0.3 to 0.35mm in small machines and 1.0 to 1.5mm in high power
machines. Some motors, especially of large rating, now open type slots.
Stator winding:- The core carries a three phase winding which is usually supplied from a three
supply system. The 3-phase of the winding can be connected in either star or delta depending
upon the methods of starting used. The six terminal box of the machine. The stator of motor is
wound for definite number of poles , the exact number being determined by the requirement of
speed. It is seen that greater the number of poles, the lower the speed and vice-versa, for a
supply of given frequency.

## REC, Rewa | Department of Electrical Engineering

Rotor:- It is the rotating part of the motor. There are two types of rotors, which are employed in
3-phase induction motors.

## a) Squirrel cage rotor b) Phase wound rotor

a) Squirrel cage rotor:- The motors employing this type of rotor are known as squirrel cage
induction motor. Most of induction motors are of this type because of simple and rugged
construction of rotor. A squirrel cage rotor consist of a laminated cylindrical core having
semi-closed circular slots and the outer periphery. Copper and aluminum bar conductors
are placed in these slots and short circuited at each end by copper and aluminum rings,
called short circuiting rings .Thus the rotor winding is permanently short circuited and it is
not possible to add any external resistance in the rotor circuit.

b) Phase wound rotor:- Phase wound rotor is also called slip ring rotor and the motors
employing this type of rotor are known as phase wound or slip ring induction motor. Slip
ring induction motor consists of a laminated cylindrical core having semi- closed slots at the
outer periphery and carries a 3-phase insulated winding .The rotor is wound for the same
number poles as that of stator. The three finish terminals are connected together forming
star point and the three star terminals are connected to three copper slip rings fixed on the
shaft.