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Foundations

of Management Specialization
Organizational Behavior: Managing People
Prof. Anneloes Raes


Quiz 1 Solutions

Week 1: (Motivation)
1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, despite not having much empirical support, is an
important reference for understanding motivation. Look at the needs listed
below, the first one being at the top of the pyramid and the last one at the
bottom. Which two are out of order and would need to be swapped to reflect
Maslow’s theory?
a. Self-actualization
b. Esteem
c. Physiological needs
d. Safety
e. Social
2. What is the major distinction between Maslow and McCLelland’s approach to
needs?
a. McClelland sees needs as dynamic, Maslow as static.
b. MclCelland’s theory recognizes that different needs can actually occur
simultaneously. Maslow sees needs restricted to different stages;
people experience them one at the time.

3. According to Hackman, there are three job dimensions that managers should
include in job design that produce the psychological states yielding positive
outcomes. What are those three core job dimensions?
a. Skill variety, task identity and task significance
b. A living wage
c. Autonomy
d. Feedback

4. Research shows that when it comes to goals, they don’t necessarily need to be
specific to be motivating.
a. True
b. False

5. In clip 7, Prof. Raes discusses Vroom’s Process Theory. In this theory, valence is
a key component that, combined with expectancies and instrumentality, must
be present in order for there to be motivation. What does Vroom mean by
“valence”?
a. The extent to which the reward linked to the performance is actually
valuable to you. In other words, the reward is relevant and important
and worth the effort.
b. The extent to which the challenge associated with the goal is something
achievable, given your abilities and experience.

6. According to McGregor, managers have either an “X” or ”Y” expectation of
their employees. A self-fulfilling prophecy emerges from how the manager
views the employees. What did he mean by that?
a. Employees are either lazy or motivated to contribute. The managers job
is to figure out which of the two they are and develop his or her
management style accordingly. For the former, it would be very
authoritative. For the latter, the manager would give employees greater
autonomy and recognize their ability.

b. If managers expect employees to be lazy, those are the expectations
that the employees will fulfill. If the manager expects them to be
hardworking and motivated to contribute, this is how they will in fact
act.
7. According to Equity Theory (Clip 9):
a. People care about being treated fairly and equally.
b. People care about the ratio of their inputs to outcomes being equal
compared to relevant other people.
c. Both A and B are correct.