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Glossary

of Terms
The519.org The519 Education and Training
“__________“ism Cultural Competence

“__________” phobia

A Differently-Abled

Accommodation Disability

Ally Discrimination

Anti-Racism Dominant Group

Asexual Drag King/Drag Queen

Duty to Accommodate

Barrier E

Bias Equality

Bisexual Equity

Biphobia Ethnicity

Bullying

C Gay

Coming Out Gender

Cis/Cisgender Genderqueer /Gender Non-Conforming

Cisnormativity /Gender Variant

Cissexism Gender Binary

Colonization Gender Expression

Cross-Dresser Gender Identity

Culture Gender Norms

Glossary of Terms
Gender Role MSM

Gender Spectrum

H Oppression

Harassment

Hate Crime P

Heteronormativity Pansexual

Heterosexism Passing

Homophobia Polyamory

Human Rights Power

Poz

I Prejudice

Inclusion Privilege

Indigenous Peoples

Internalized Oppression Q

Intersectionality Queer

Intersex Questioning

L R

Lesbian Race

M S

Marginalization Sex

Misogyny Sexual Orientation

Glossary of Terms
Sex-Positive This Glossary is by no means an exhaustive

Social Determinants of Health list of definitions related to our communities,

Social Justice and has been carefully crafted in the hopes

Stealth that it will aid in the facilitation of shared

Stereotype understandings around equity, inclusion and

Stigma awareness.

Straight

Tokenism

Trans/Transgender

Transition

Transmisogyny

Transphobia

Trans Man (FTM)/ Trans Woman (MTF)

Transsexual

Two-Spirit

WSW

Ze/Hir

Glossary of Terms
“________”ism ability. Accommodations are provided so that

Harmful beliefs, behaviours or institutional individuals are not disadvantaged on the basis

practices by a group or person with power of the prohibited grounds of discrimination

directed against specific groups, rationalized identified in the Ontario Human Rights Code

by an underlying belief that certain people are or other similar codes. Accommodation with

superior to others. Examples include: ageism, dignity is pursuing the principle that our

anti-semitism, audism, cis-sexism, classism, society should be structured and designed for

ethnocentrism, heterosexism, racism, sexism, inclusiveness.

shadism, sizeism.

Ally

“________”phobia A person who works to end a form of

A learned dislike, aversion, or an extreme, oppression that gives them privilege(s). Allies

irrational fear and/or hatred of a particular listen to, and are guided by, communities and

group of people. It is expressed through individuals affected by oppression. Forms of

beliefs and tactics that devalue, demean and oppression include: able-ism, ageism, audism,

terrorize people. Examples include: biphobia, classism, biphobia, homophobia, transphobia,

homophobia, Islamophobia, transphobia, racism, sexism, and others.

xenophobia and others. Anti-Racism

Beliefs, actions, policies and movements

Accommodation developed to actively identify and eliminate

An adjustment made to policies, programs prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination.

and/or practices to enable individuals to

benefit from and participate in the provision of

services equally and perform to the best of their

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Asexual

A sexual orientation where a person Biphobia

experiences little or no sexual attraction. Negative attitudes, feelings, or irrational

aversion to, fear or hatred of bisexual people

Barrier and their communities, or of behaviours

Any overt or covert obstacle that prevents a stereotyped as bisexual, leading to

person from fully taking part in all aspects of discrimination, harassment or violence against

society. For example, a belief, policy, practice, bisexual people.

object or environment that prevents or limits a

person’s access to opportunities, benefits, or Bullying

advantages that are available to other members The use of threat, coercion, or force to cause

of society. fear, distress or harm to a person.

Bias Coming Out

A subjective opinion, predisposition, A process of revealing more openly to self or

preference, prejudice, generalization or others one’s LGBTQ identity.

inclination, formed based on personal

characteristics or stereotypes.

Bisexual

A person who is emotionally, physically,

spiritually and/or sexually attracted to people of

more than one gender, though not necessarily

at the same time.

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Cis/Cisgender Cissexism

Cisgender is used to explain the phenomena A system of oppression that considers cis

where a person’s gender identity is in line people to be superior to trans people. It

with or “matches” the sex they were assigned includes harmful beliefs that it is “normal” to

at birth. Cis can also be used as a prefix to an be cis and “abnormal” to be trans. Examples

assortment of words to refer to the alignment include scrutinizing the genders of trans people

of gender identity and the assigned at birth more than those of cis people or defining

sex status including; cisnormativity, cissexual, beauty based on how cis people look.

cisgender, cis male, and cis female.

Colonization

Cisnormativity The process of focusing on and devaluing

Cisnormativity (“cis” meaning “the same as”) people’s differences in order to dominate and

refers to the commonplace assumption that all control them, including various economic,

people are cisgender and that everyone accepts political and social policies by which a powerful

this as “the norm”. The term cisnorma­tivity is group maintains or extends control over other

used to describe systemic prejudice against people or areas.

trans. This form of systemic prejudice may go

unrecognized by the people or orga­nizations Cross-Dresser

responsible. A person who, for various reasons, wears

gender atypical clothing or occasionally dresses

in clothing of the “opposite” gender. They may

or may not self-identify as a cross-dresser.

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Culture Differently-Abled

The sum of many things an individual learns (and An umbrella term used to describe people with

may modify or pass on) from being immersed in different physical, emotional, and cognitive

a particular context – the shared (or perceived abilities.

to be shared) ideas, beliefs, values, behavioural

norms, knowledge, customs and traditions of Disability

a group of people who share some historical, Under the medical model, this term refers to

geographic, religious, racial, linguistic, ethnic or a limitation or loss of physiological abilities,

social context. whether apparent or not. These can be physical,

cognitive, learning, and visual disabilities. Under

Cultural Competence the social model, disability is identified as a

A person’s ability to interact effectively disadvantage or a restriction of activity caused

with people of different cultures. Cultural by systemic barriers, negative attitudes and

competence has four components: (a) exclusion by society.

Awareness of one’s own cultural worldview;

(b) Attitude towards cultural differences; (c)

Knowledge of different cultural practices

and worldviews; and (d) Cross- cultural skills.

Developing cultural competence results in

an ability to better understand, communicate

with, and effectively interact with people across

cultures.

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Discrimination “opposite” gender for performance. Drag

Any form of unequal treatment based performers can be of any gender identity or

on a ground protected by human rights sexual orientation.

legislation, that results in disadvantage,

whether imposing extra burdens or denying Duty to Accommodate

benefits. Discrimination can be intentional The legal obligation that employers,

or unintentional; and it may occur at an organizations, service providers and public

individual or systemic level. It may be include institutions have under human rights legislation

direct actions or more subtle aspects of rules, to ensure fair and equal access to services in a

practices and procedures that limit or prevent way that respects the dignity of every person,

access to opportunities, benefits, or advantages if to do so does not create undue hardship.

that are available to others. The principle of dignity strives to maximize

integration and promote full participation in

Dominant Group society, in consideration of the importance of

A group that is considered more powerful and privacy, confidentiality, comfort, autonomy,

privileged in a particular society or context and individuality and self-esteem.

that has power and influence over others.

Equality

Drag King/Drag Queen The practice of ensuring equal treatment to all

Someone who dresses in the clothing of the people, without consideration of individual and

“opposite” gender for performance. Drag group diversities.

performers can be of any gender identity or

sexual orientation.

Someone who dresses in the clothing of the

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Equity Gender

The practice of ensuring fair, inclusive and Gender is based on the expectations and

respectful treatment of all people, with stereotypes about behaviours, actions, and

consideration of individual and group roles linked to being a “man” or “woman” within

diversities. Access to services, supports and a particular culture or society. The social norms

opportunities and attaining economic, political related to gender can vary depending on the

and social fairness cannot be achieved by culture, and can change over time.

treating individuals in exactly the same way.

Equity honours and accommodates the specific Genderqueer/Gender Non-Conforming/

needs of individuals/ groups. Gender Variant

Individuals who do not follow gender

Ethnicity stereotypes based on the sex they were

A socially defined category or membership of assigned at birth. They may identify and express

people who may share a nationality, heritage, themselves as “feminine men” or “masculine

language, culture and/or religion. women” or as androgynous, outside of the

categories “boy/man” and “girl/woman.” People

Gay who are gender non-conforming may or may

A person whose enduring physical, romantic, not identify as trans.

spiritual, emotional, and/or sexual attractions

are to people of the same gender. The word can

refer to men or women, although some women

prefer “lesbian.” Sometimes used as an umbrella

term for the LBGTQ community.

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Gender Binary chosen name, preferred pronoun and apparel

A social system whereby people are thought are common ways they express their gender.

to have either one of two gen­ders: “man” or People who are trans may also take medically

“woman.” These genders are expected to supportive steps to align their body with their

correspond to birth sex: male or female. In the gender identity.

gender binary system, there is no room for

living between genders or for transcending the Gender Identity

gender binary. The gender binary system is A person’s internal and individual experience of

rigid and restrictive for many people whose sex gender. It is a person’s sense of being a woman,

assigned at birth does not match up with their a man, both, neither, or anywhere along the

gender, or whose gender is fluid and not fixed. gender spectrum. A person’s gender identity

may be the same as or different from their

Gender Expression birth-assigned sex. A person’s gender identity is

How a person publicly expresses or presents fundamentally different from and not related to

their gender. This can include behaviour and their sexual orientation.

outward appearance such as dress, hair, make-

up, body language and voice. A person’s chosen

name and pronoun are also common ways of

expressing gender. Others perceive a person’s

gender through these attributes.

All people, regardless of their gender identity,

have a gender expression and they may express

it in any number of ways. For trans people, their

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Gender Norms Gender Spectrum

The gender binary influences what society The representation of gender as a continuum, as

considers “normal” or acceptable behaviour, opposed to a binary concept.

dress, appearance and roles for women and

men. Gender norms are a prevailing force in our Harassment

everyday lives. Strength, action, and dominance A course of comments or actions, such as

are stereotyp­ically seen as “masculine” traits, unwelcome attention, jokes, threats, remarks,

while vulnerability, passivity, and receptiveness name-calling, touching or other behaviours that

are stereotypically seen as “feminine” traits. are known, or ought reasonably to be known,

A woman expressing masculine traits may be to be unwelcome, offensive, embarrassing,

chastised as “overly aggressive,” while a man humiliating, or demeaning. Harassment under

expressing “feminine” traits may be labelled as human rights legislation is based on the

“weak.” Gender norms can contribute to power prohibited/protected grounds.

imbalances and gender in equality in the home,

at work, and in communities. Hate Crime

Criminal acts which promote hatred against

Gender Role identifiable groups of people, motivated by

The oppressive culturally and historically bias, prejudice or hate. Although individuals and

specific expectations and restrictions that are groups that promote this destructive form of

placed on a person based on whether they are human rights-based discrimination often defend

assigned at birth as male or female. their right to “free speech,” it is a criminal

offense to disseminate hate propaganda and/or

to commit hate crimes.

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Heteronormativity people and communities, or of behaviours

Refers to the commonplace assumption stereotyped as “homosexual.” It is used to

that all people are heterosexual and that signify a hostile psychological state leading to

everyone accepts this as “the norm”. The term discrimination, harassment or violence against

heteronormativity is used to describe prejudice gay, lesbian or people.

against people that are not heterosexual, and

is less overt or direct and more widespread Human Rights

or systemic in society, organizations, and The universal entitlement that all people

institutions. This form of systemic prejudice may should have access to freedom, justice and

even be unintentional and unrecognized by the protection from discrimination and harassment,

people or orga­nizations responsible. and that people should have equal access to a

climate that preserves the dignity and worth of

Heterosexism individuals and groups.

The assumption that everyone is heterosexual

and that heterosexuality is superior and Inclusion

preferable. The result is discrimination against An approach that aims to reach out to and

bisexual, lesbian and gay people that is less include all people, honouring the diversity

overt, and which may be unintentional and and uniqueness, talents, beliefs, backgrounds,

unrecognized by the person or organization capabilities and ways of living of individuals and

responsible for the discrimination. groups.

Homophobia

Negative attitudes, feelings, or irrational

aversion to, fear or hatred of gay, lesbian, or

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Indigenous Peoples feelings of inferiority, resignation, isolation,

An umbrella term for self-identified descendants and powerlessness. It is a mechanism within

of pre-colonial/pre-settler societies. In Canada an oppressive system for perpetuating power

these include the First Nations, Inuit and Métis imbalance.

peoples as separate peoples with unique

heritages, economic and political systems, Intersectionality

languages, cultural practices and spiritual When two or more oppressions overlap in the

beliefs. While the collective term has offered experiences of an indi­vidual or group, creating

a sense of solidarity among some indigenous interconnected barriers and complex forms of

communities, the term should not serve to discrimination that can be insidious, covert and

erase the distinct histories, languages, cultural compounded.

practices, and sovereignty of the more than fifty

nations that lived in Canada prior to European

colonization.

Internalized Oppression

When members of a marginalized group

accept negative aspects of stereotypes

assigned to them by the dominant group,

and begin to believe that they are inferior.

The incorporation by individuals within an

oppressed group of the prejudices against

them within the dominant society can result in

self-hatred, self-concealment, fear of violence,

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Intersex Marginalization

A term used to describe a person born with To relegate individuals or groups to an

reproductive systems, chromosomes and/or unimportant or powerless position within

hormones that are not easily characterized as a society or group by excluding them from

male or female. This might include a woman meaningful participation and/or confining them

with XY chromosomes or a man with ovaries to the outer edges of society.

instead of testes. Intersex characteristics occur

in one out of every 1,500 births. Typically Misogyny

intersex people are assigned one sex, male or The hatred and denigration of women and

female, at birth. Some intersex people identify characteristics deemed feminine.

with their assigned sex, while others do not, and Transmisogyny

some choose to identify as intersex. Intersex

people may or may not identify as trans or Negative attitudes, expressed through cultural

transgender. hate, individual and state violence, and

discrimination directed toward trans women

Lesbian and trans and gender non-conforming people

A woman who is emotionally, physically, on the feminine end of the gender spectrum.

spiritually and/or sexually attracted to women.

MSM

A man who has sex with men.

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Oppression Polyamory

The obvious and subtle ways dominant groups The practice, state or ability of having more

unjustly maintain status, privilege and power than one intimate, sexual and/or romantic

over others, using physical, psychological, social relationship at the same time.

or economic threats or force. Frequently an

explicit ideology is used to sanction the unfair Power

subjugation of an individual or group by a more Access to privileges such as information/

powerful individual or group, which causes knowledge, connections, experience and

injustices in everyday interactions between expertise, resources and decision making that

marginalized groups and the dominant group. enhance a person’s chances of getting what

they need to live a comfortable, safe, productive

Pansexual and profitable life. Each person has different

A person who has the potential for romantic and levels of power in different contexts depending

sexual attraction to people of any gender or sex. on a personal combination of privileges and

oppression.

Passing

This is the privilege given to a person who is Poz

believed to be a member of a dominant group An abbreviation referring to an HIV positive

(i.e., non-trans, cisgender, white, non-disabled). person.

When a trans woman is passing, (i.e., believed to

be a cisgender woman) she has an easier time

accessing privilege(s).

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Prejudice Questioning

A negative prejudgment or preconceived A period where a person explores their own

feelings or notions about another person sexual and/or gender identity, reflecting on such

or group of persons based on perceived things as upbringing, expectations from others,

characteristics, rather than empirical evidence. and inner landscape. The person may not be

certain if they are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or trans

Privilege and may be trying to figure out how to identify

Unearned power, benefits, advantages, access themselves.

and/or opportunities that provide unfair

advantage for members of the dominant Race

group(s) in society. People are not always aware Culturally or socially constructed divisions of

of the privileges they have. Examples include: humankind, based on distinct characteristics

cissexual privilege, straight privilege, male that can be based on: physicality, culture,

privilege, white privilege. history, beliefs and practices, language,

origin, etc. Racial discrimination is prohibited

Queer within Canada as part of the Canadian Human

Formerly derogatory slang term used to identify Rights Act, and the United Nations has a

LGBT people. Some members of the LGBT committee devoted to the elimination of racial

community have embraced and reinvented this discrimination.

term as a positive and proud political identifier

when speaking among and about themselves.

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Sex Social Determinants of Health

The classification of people as male, female Things that are needed for people to avoid

or intersex. Sex is usually assigned at birth illness and to be physically, mentally and socially

and is based on an assessment of a person’s healthy (e.g. income, employment, housing,

reproductive systems, hormones, chromosomes access to services).

and other physical characteristics.

Social Justice

Sexual Orientation A concept based on a vision of society in

The direction of one’s sexual interest or which the distribution of resources is equitable

attraction. It is a personal characteristic that and individuals and groups are given equal

forms part of who you are. It covers the range opportunity, fairness, civil liberties, and

of human sexuality from lesbian and gay, to participation in the rights, freedoms and

bisexual and straight. responsibilities valued by society.

Sex-Positive

An attitude that promotes and embraces the

diversity of human sexuality, focusing on;

advocating for a consent oriented culture,

safe sex awareness, and comprehensive sex

education that incorporates unbiased methods

in its approach.

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Stealth Stigma

When a trans person is not “out” about being Severe social disapproval or discontentment

trans in their social circles (with friends, with a person or group on the grounds of

employers, colleagues). There are many their particular circumstance, usually based on

different levels of being stealth, but in some differences from social or cultural norms.

cases a trans person may need to end contact

with those who once knew them as their Straight

assigned at birth sex, move to new locations, or A person who has romantic or sexual attractions

get a new job. These changes are significant, to people of another gender.

and may be due to personal reasons or based

on physical, cognitive and/or emotional safety. Tokenism

The practice of making a symbolic effort

Stereotype towards involving an underrepresented group

Overly simplistic, or unfounded assumptions of individuals under the guise of inclusivity

or judgments about a group of people that or equality, and is often seen within a group,

disregard individual differences among committee, organization, or workplace. The

group members and emphasize negative action itself or the type of involvement of the

preconceptions that characterize all members of underrepresented is limited, and the false

a group as being the same. appearance of inclusivity or equality can then be

used to promote a false appearance that hides

deeper systemic issues within the organization.

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Trans/Transgender identity. This may include changes to their

Umbrella terms that describe people with name, sex designation, dress, the use of specific

diverse gender identities and gender pronouns, and possibly medically supportive

expressions that do not conform to stereotypical treatments such as hormone therapy, sex-

ideas about what it means to be a girl/woman reassignment surgery or other procedures.

or boy/man in society. “Trans” can mean There is no checklist or average time for a

transcending beyond, existing between, or transition process, and no universal goal or

crossing over the gender spectrum. It includes endpoint. Each person will decide what meets

but is not limited to people who identify as their needs.

transgender, transsexual, cross-dressers or

gender non-conforming (gender variant or Trans Man (FTM)/ Trans Woman (MTF)

gender-queer). A person whose sex assigned at birth is “female”

and identifies as a man may also identify as a

Trans identities include people whose gender trans man (female-to-male, or FTM). A person

identity is different from the gender associated whose sex assigned at birth is “male” and

with their birth-assigned sex. Trans people identifies as a woman may also identify as a

may or may not undergo medically sup­portive trans woman (male-to-female, or MTF).

treatments, such as hormone therapy and a

range of surgical procedures, to align their Transmisogyny

bodies with their internally felt gender identity. Negative attitudes, expressed through cultural

hate, individual and state violence, and

Transition discrimination directed toward trans women

Refers to a host of activities that some trans and trans and gender non-conforming people

people may pursue to affirm their gender on the feminine end of the gender spectrum.

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Transphobia and spiritual role that certain people played

Negative attitudes and feelings and the aversion within traditional societies; they were often

to, fear or hatred or intolerance of trans people mediators, keepers of certain ceremonies; they

and communities. Like other prejudices, it is transcended accepted roles of men and women,

based on stereotypes and misconceptions that and filled a role as an established middle

are used to justify discrimination, harassment gender.

and violence toward trans people, or those

perceived to be trans. WSW

A woman who has sex with women.

Transsexual

A person whose gender identity differs from Ze/Hir

their sex assigned at birth. They may or may Alternate pronouns that are gender neutral

not undergo medically supportive treatments and preferred by some gender variant persons.

to align their bodies with their gender identity, Pronounced /zee/ and /here,/ they replace

such as hormone therapy, sex reassignment “he”/”she”and “his”/”hers” respectively.

surgery or other procedures or changes.

Two–Spirit

A term used by Indigenous People to describe

from a cultural perspective people who are gay,

lesbian, bisexual, trans, or intersex. It is used to

capture a concept that exists in many different

Indigenous cultures and languages. For

some, the term two-spirit describes a societal

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