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Describe and analyze the passages by looking at the following criteria:

1. Grammatical construction of the sentences

2. Choice of words and expressions
3. Details included
4. The order in which these details are presented

Guide Questions: What are the differences in the writing styles according to the criteria above? Why are certain
passages written in one style and another passage written in another style? What writing style is suitable and is
needed in writing a scientific paper and why?

Passage 1
Breast cancer is one of the most lethal diseases world-wide. However, there is a large difference in breast cancer
incidence among Caucasian, Hispanic, African and Asian (e.g. Chinese) women with Caucasian women being the
highest and Asian women being the lowest. It has been suggested that the dietary factors may account for
approximately 50% of the breast cancer. One of such dietary components which are typical to Asian but not
Caucasian diet is soy foods. A number of epidemiological studies have suggested that increasing soy consumption
could be related to the decreased risk of occurrence and/or mortality of breast cancer. In this review, we first
described briefly different types of soy products and their nutritional functions and consumption. Then, we described
briefly soybean isoflavones, i.e. genistein (GEN), daidzein, glycitein, and presented several lines of evidence to
demonstrate the possible association of soy flavone food consumption with incidence and prognosis of
breast cancer; finally, we summarized several possible molecular mechanisms, including the effects of GEN as an
agonist of ER_, epigenetic and genome-wide effects, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors,
induction of apoptosis and stimulation of autophagy, involved in the chemo-preventive effects of GEN on breast
© 2013 Beijing Academy of Food Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

- Fen-Jin He, Jin-Qiang Chen, Consumption of soybean, soy foods, soy isoflavones and breast cancer incidence:
Differences between Chinese women and women in Western countries and possible mechanisms

Passage 2

You mean it was this boy here-yeh. It was him. Washed its face and it was paint all over it made it look red. It all
come off. And it could talk- as good as me or you. But they’d tole it not to, so it never did. They’d tole it if anybody
was to come near it they was comin’ to git it- and for it to hit ‘em quick with what that iron bar an’ growl. So nobody
ever come near it- until that man. I was yellin’ outside, tellin’ ‘em to keep away, keep away. You could see where
they’d whup it. They had whup it some to make it eat all the chickens. It was awful dirty. They let it back home free, to
where they got it in the first place. They made them pay its ticket from Little Oil, Texas, to Cane Springs, Miss’ippi.
–Eudora Welty

Passage 3
It was the most fun they’d each had in years, following the smell of each other down the rabbit hole and into the room
where all the sexual positions were different, unlikely to please yet delightfully proving otherwise, where the water by
the bed never wanted for slivers of ice, where the soup tasted like it had basil in it, picked from the pot by the window,
the pot they bought from a stall along the highway that brought with it a lively discussion of saffron and anise and
cumin and the extravagant vocabulary for spice, the window framing the heft of a mountain they said they would
climb and did.
Nature of Science and Scientific Writing
It was fun, the years of each other down the rabbit hole and in the room where all the sexual positions pleased
delightfully, where the bed never wanted for taste and the extravagant vocabulary for spice.
The smell of the room, otherwise, had basil in it, pot from a stall along the highway, a lively discussion, saffron and
anise and cumin, a mountain.
The pot brought with it a lively vocabulary for the window framing the heft of a mountain they said they would climb
and did.
They wanted slivers of ice, soup from the pot, a stall of saffron and anise and cumin, a mountain they would climb.
They had each other to please and prove want, slivers of ice tasted and picked from the pot by the window.
Years down, the unlikely otherwise, the want stalled along the highway.
- Conchitina Cruz, Selective Memory

Passage 4

Business leaders and environmentalists say putting an economic value on nature could be the best way to
save it.
Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond will be among those speaking at the first World Forum on Natural
Capital in Edinburgh later.
The event has been organised by the Scottish Wildlife Trust in partnership with the UN and other
The concept of "natural capital" involves businesses calculating the economic value of nature.
This allows an assessment of companies' financial impact on the environment. This data is used to make strategic
decisions that conserve the natural raw materials they rely on, to ensure the future growth of the business.
The forum, being attended by senior business leaders and conservationists, is considering a new kind of
economics, according to Alan McGill from accountancy firm Price Waterhouse Coopers.
"Chief executives used to roll their eyes at the subject matter, but when you get Paul Polman who's running Unilever
standing up and saying that climate change is costing his business £250m a year, that's time to wake up, that's time
to do something, that's time to innovate," he told BBC News."We will see changes from top to toe in organisations. I
believe the chief financial officer will disappear, and you will have the chief information officer.
"It's taken around 150 years for accountants and governments to agree how financially to measure
performance. We're now in the process of doing the same for non-financial information, looking at the environment
and understanding how to value it.
"It won't take us 150 years to do that, because we haven't got 150 years to do it."Jonathan Hughes, director
of conservation at the Scottish Wildlife Trust, said that species were continuing to go extinct at an unprecedented
rate. "The true value of nature has been invisible and has not been factored in," he added.
He gave the example of the recent storm in the Philippines, where mangrove forests that would have helped
to protect many of the islands have been cut down.
"If sold for wood the value of mangrove is £1,000 per hectare. But if you factor in storm protection, the fact
fish use them to breed in, the carbon they absorb - the mangroves are worth around £21,000 per hectare to the local
communities," Mr Hughes explained. Such unrecognised benefits are sometimes referred to as "ecosystem
An increasing number of multinationals from B&Q to Harley Davidson are now starting to see the
environment in terms of natural capital.

Nature of Science and Scientific Writing
Kering, the company that owns brands such as Gucci, Saint Laurent and Balenciaga, is examining how the
environment impacts the whole group, for example where the leather and precious metals used in these products are
Jonathan Hughes from the Scottish Wildlife Trust tells Claire Marshall why valuing a peat bog could help
with conservation. "The planet is changing - it's climate change, it's social change. So you can't do business as usual
anymore," said Michael Beutler, Kering's sustainability operations director
"We need to reflect that change. It's the new business paradigm. You need to think about natural
However, there are environmental groups that believe that monetising nature will only damage it. The World
Development Movement views it as "The Great Nature Sale".
Nick Dearden told BBC News: "I don't know many people who believe that the financial markets will be able
to solve the environmental crisis. I would argue the very reverse, actually. What we need to do is remove finance
from nature and indeed remove finance from many of the places it is in the world today, and think about nature as
something that cannot have a price put on it, and that's why it needs to be held in common by all of us."
-Claire Marshall,
Edinburg Forum Says Putting Value on Nature Could Help Save It

Nature of Science and Scientific Writing