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Edited with Introduction,

Notes and Vocabulary by

E.C. Kennedy

Bristol Classical Press

This impression 2003
This edition published in 1983 by
Bristol Classical Press
an imprint of
Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. PREFACE
90-93 Cowcross Street, London ECIM 6BF
Every twenty or thirty years a new set of school text-
Tel: 020 7490 7300
Fax: 020 7490 0080
books for" 0" and " A" Level Latin pupils seems required, to suit the changing needs and abilities of succeeding generations of boys and girls. This is more than ever
necessary to-day, when changes in the teaching of Latin
First published in 1967 by University Tutorial Press Ltd are in the air. Whatever happens to formal grammar and
composition, it seems certain that the classical authors will
© 1967 by E.C. Kennedy continue to be read, though no doubt more rapidly and
with less attention to detail, and. of the prose writers the
All rights reserved. No part of this publication most suitable for beginners is undoubtedly Caesar. Rice
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or Holmes, the great English authority on Caesar's Gallic War,
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
whose work, though now over fifty years old, has not yet
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior permission of the publisher.
been superseded, said, "There is no more interesting book
for boys than Caesar's account of the Gallic War", adding,
A catalogue record for this book is available "providing that they will give their minds to it and have the
from the British Library help of a good teacher". Not all pupils perhaps would
agree with this statement, but they might do so if they
ISBN 0 86292 101 5 could read the books quickly enough and knew just what
was happening. To quote Rice Holmes again, "Even
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Macaulay's Essays might be dull if they were read by
Antony Rowe Ltd, Eastboume a foreigner with a dictionary at the rate of a single para-
graph a day". For Macaulay's Essays anyone who reads
these words should substirute his own favourite author.
So this edition is intended to help boys and girls to read
one of the most interesting of the books on the Gallic War
at a fair pace, with an analysis of each chapter at the
beginning of it so that readers should be able to realise
Cover illustration: Silver denarius of Caesar styled as exactly what is going on. Pupils of to-day need more help
general (IMPerator) wearing a laurel wreath, with syntax and transla.tion than was given even twenty
struck in 44 Be; British Museum, London. years ago, to say nothing of that in books written over sixty
[Drawing by Jean Bees] years ago and still in use. I have given what I hope may
be considered a satisfactory amount of help by means of

explanations and translations; but something must be

left for the pupil to get his teeth into, for an entirely pre-
digested diet would be as bad as the raw meat of a "plain
text" with no assistance whatever. I have also provided Besides the three books mentioned in the last paragraph
definitions, with some explanation when reqnired of the of the Preface, I recommend for general reading Caesar's
various uses of cases, tenses, and moods. These may one Invasions of Britain, by T. Rice Holmes (Oxford), which,
day be no longer considered necessary in onr classrooms, like its companion volume on Caesar's Conquest of Gaul,
but those who want to understand the Latin will find the contains a straightforward account of the events described
answers here, either for an examination or because they by Caesar, reinforced by copious explanations of doubtful
are of an enquiring turn of mind. points in the second part of each book. These are perhaps
The text is the Oxford Classical Text of R. L. du Pontet, teachers' rather than pupils' books, but the narrative can
by kind permission of The Clarendon Press, Oxford. be appreciated by readers of all ages. Younger students
This has been reproduced in its entirety except that I have will particularly enjoy The Conquered, by Naomi Mitchison
changed the -is ending of the accusative plural of third (Cape, reprinted 1966), which describes the adventures
declension nouns and adjectives into the more familiar of a young prince of the Veneti who was enslaved after the
-es, and I have made the following changes where the rising of his tribe in 56 B.C. and sent first to Rome and
O.C.T. has "obelisked" words: then back to Gaul with his owner, where he took part in
19, I, quod ad hostesfor tquod hostisf. many of the events described by Caesar in the war. A book
19, 5, porrecta loca aperta for fporrecta ac loca of short stories by the same author on similar subjects,
apertaf. called When the Bough Breaks, is out of print but may be
30, 4, muro se posse for fmuro essef. found in libraries. Julius Caesar by John Buchan (Peter
35,4, dierum for tdiest· Davies), a good and readable "biography, also out of print,
can be obtained from most libraries.
I have consulted the usual authorities and editions,
including the excellent translation of H. J. Edwards in the
Loeb Library, Olwen Brogan's Roman Gaul (Bell, out of
print), and in particular Caesar's Conquest of Gaul by
T. Rice Holmes (Oxford, 2nd edition, 19II), a book that is
absolutely indispensable to all students of Caesar's Gallic
campaigns. My former colleague, Mr John Hart, has very
kindly read and criticised the Introduction, and Dr Bertha
Tilly, the General Editor of the Palatine Classics, has made
some valuable suggestions.
Malvern. E. C. KENNEDY.



Part 1: The Abortive Rising of the Belgae 45
Contents Part II: The Defeat of the Nervii 55
Part III: The Punishment of the Aduatuci 65
Chapter 1: The Gauls I
I:Origins and Migrations Notes
II:The Gauls south of the Alps 2 Vocabulary 114
Ill:"The Province" 3 The Plates are bound as a section between the iilll'oductory matter and
IV: Gallia Camata 4 the text.
V: Gallic Politics and Religion 7
VI: The Druids and Religion 8
VII: Characteristics of the Gauls 10 MAPS AND PLANS
VIII: The last years before Caesar's arrival in Gaul II PAGE
Chapter 2: Julius Caesar I2 BELGIC GAUL ,8
I: Early life, 100·64 B.C. I2 CAESAR'S CAMP ON THE ArsNB 37
II: Rise to power, 63·61 B.C. 13 OPERATIONS ON THE AISNB 50
III: The Triumvirate, 60 B.C. 14 THE BATTLE OF THE SAMBRB 58
IV: Caelar's" Gallic War" 15
V: The Approach of Civil War, 54·50 B.C. 21
VI: The Ciflil War, 49·45 B.C. 22
VII: Caesar as sale ruler, 45·44 B.C. 23
VIII: The Murder of Caesar, 44 B.C. 23
IX: Caesar's character and appearance 25

Chapter 3: The Roman Army 27

I: The old Republican Army 27
II.' The Organisation 0/ Caesar's Legions 27
III: Order of Battle aud the march 31
IV: Equipment and arms 32
V: Other troops, and the baggage 34
VI: The Camp 35
VII: Sieges 38
V III: The Army IInder the Empire 40
Chapter 4: Pronunciation and Translation 42
I: Syllable Division 42
II: Stress Accent 42
Ill: HDOl; English" or "Gobbledegook" 43
vi vii
Chapter 1: The Gauls
The Celtic Gauls were a branch of the Indo-European
race which lived in pre-historic times in the basin of the
Upper Danube in central Europe. They began their
ntigrations westward across the Rhine in about 800 B.C.,
during the first Iron Age, called Iron Age "A" or the
"Hallstatt Culture" (from the. large setdement whose
remains were discovered at Hallstatt, near Salzburg in
Austria), which lasted in Europe from about 1000 to
500 B.C. But the second Iron Age, called Iron Age "B"
or.~' La Tene Culture" (from the village on Lake NeucMtel
in Switzerland where many specimens of Celtic art were
fuund), which lasted fur another 500 years, is specially
connected with the Celts of Gaul. These later immigra-
tions began in about 450 B.C., and the invaders found in
Gaul, besides their Hallstatt predecessors, Iberians and
an ancient race called Ligurians living in the south-east
(Liguria in north-west Italy still bears their name), and
also the Greeks who settled at Massilia (Marseilles) in
about 600 B.C. and brought Greek trade and culture to
their new country.
Both the Hallstatt and La Tene Celts crossed to Britain
a century or so after each entered Gaul, and the latter
built there the typical Iron Age hill-forts protected by earth
or stone ramparts, of which Maiden Castle in Dorset is the
best example; in the third century B.C. they brought with
them a highly developed form of Celtic art. Another
branch of the Celtic Gauls also began to move south-
eastwards from their original settlement, down the Danube
to Greece and Asia Minor. They attacked the famous
Chapter 1 Chapter 1

Greek religious centre of Delphi in 280 B.C. and settled in Gaul was made into a regular province by Sulla in 91 B.C.,
Asia Minor a generation or so later in the country called but it was regarded as being almost pan of Italy and indeed
Galatia after them; St Paul wrote his Epistle to the was often called [talia, even by its governor Caesar, though
Galatians to the descendants of these Gauls. like all provincial governors he was not permitted to leave
his province and enter Italy proper with an army during his
period of office. When he finally crossed the Rubicon, the
southern boundary of Cisalpine Gau1, in 49 B.C. with an
In the early sixth century a tribe of Gau1s called armed force he was committing an act of war against Rome.
Insubrians crossed the Alps, defeated the Etruscans on During Caesar's lifetime Cisalpine Gaul, now completely
the River PQ, and founded Mediolanum (Milan), to be Romanised, produced two famous poets, Catullus of
followed by other Gallic tribes which eventually possessed Verona and Virgil of Mantua, who were both probably of
the whole of the Po valley. The last comers, the Senones, at least partly Gallic origin; Catullus had met Caesar and
made an expedition much funher south, defeated the addressed an unflattering two-line epigram to him, and
Romans on the River Allia in 390 B.C. and actually captured Virgil as a schoolboy of twelve, may have seen him raising
and burnt Rome itself, but their leader, Brennus, allowed troops in Cremona for his first campaign in Gau1. Four
himself to be bought off, and the marauders withdrew, of Caesar's ten legions, the IIth, 12th, 13th, 14th, were
never to come so far south again. Roman tradition raised in Cisalpine Gaul from Roman settlers and native
related that Titus Manlius was roused by the cackling of Celts, and did excellent service for him in the Gallic and
geese which heard the footsteps of the enemy climbing up Civil wars.
the steep rock of the Capitol and saved the citadel from the
invaders. It was also said that when the ransom of gold III. "THE PROVINCE"
to buy off the Gauls was being weighed out a Roman com-
plained that the scales were unfairly weighted, whereupon Halfway through the second century B.C. the people of
Brennus increased the amount by throwing his sword into Massilia appealed for help against the Ligurian invaders,
the balance, with the words, Vae victis, "Woe to the whom the Romans drove off, and a similar appeal twenty-
conquered!" . Fighting went on at intervals for many five years later brought the Romans across the Alps once
years between the Romans aJ;Id these "Cisalpine" Gauls more, when after dealing with the Ligurians they were
(the name means "on this side of the Alps", i.e. on the opposed by the Gallic tribe of the Allobroges, who lived
Roman side) until eventually, after suffering several defeats between the Isere and the Rhone. The Aedui, a Gallic tribe
and after joining Hannibal in the Second Punic War living in Burgundy, had recently become "Friends and
(218-202), they gave up the struggle in 191 B.C. The Allies" ofthe Romans, and the Arverni, a powerful people
Insubres and Cenomani were allowed to keep theh from which Auvergne gets its name, noW came to help the
territories on condition of helping to guard the northern Allobroges. The Romans utterly defeated both tribes,
frontier of Italy, but the Boii lost half their country, in victories which led to their forming the new province of
which several Roman colonies were established. Cisalpine Transalpine or Narbonese Gaul (121 B.C.), which extended
2 3
Chapter 1 Chapter 1

from the Alps to the Pyrenees and inland to Geneva and lay in the extreme south-west, between the Garonne
Tolosa (Toulouse). It was known as Gallia Braccata, (Garumna) and the Pyrenees, and being nearest to the
because its inhabitants wore the native dress, trousers, but Province it quickly submitted to Caesar in 56 B.C. In the
the Romans called it simply PrO'Vincia Nostra or PrO'Vincia north-east was Belgic Gaul, from the Seine (Sequana) to
alone, "the Province", a name which survives to-day in the Rhine, comprising all that part of modern France and
Provence. The rest of Gaul north of the Province was Belgium and much of Holland. The Belgic tribes were of
called Gallia Comata, "Long-haired Gaul". The new mixed Celtic and Germanic origin, and only the Remi
province soon became civilised and prosperous, but it submitted to Caesar at once and remained loyal to the end.
suffered from the usual rapacity of governors and their The Nervii were the bravest of all the Gauls, and being the
staff and publicani, tax collectors, which caused several farthest away from Roman influence were the most bitterly
risings; but the process of Romanisation went steadily on, opposed to Roman aggression and almost ended Caesar's
and the Gauls provided large numbers of auxiliaries, mostly military career and his life too in.a desperate battle on the
cavalry, for the Roman army. Sambre. The rest of the country was called Celtic Gaul,
Within a few years the Province, and indeed Italy itself, or simply Gaul, and consisted of the whole of modern
was threatened with invasions by the migrating German France except the south-west and north-east. There
tribes of Cimbri and Teutoni, who wandered for several were fifty or sixty different communities in the various parts
years through central Europe and Gallia Comata and of the country north of the Alps.
defeated Roman armies more than once, the last time being Gaul was a country of dense forests and wide pasture-
at Arausio in the Province (105 B.C.). But they hesitated lands, fortunate in having so many navigable rivers that
to take the way to Italy that lay open to them until 102 B.C., made intercourse and trade among the different tribes
when Marius defeated the Teutoni at Aquae Sextiae (Aix) easy at a time before the Romans introduced the science of
and the Cimbri near Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul in 101 B.C. road-engineering, though the important towns were linked
This was the end of the German danger south of the Alps. by fairly good roads (at least in summer) carrying wheeled
traffic. The broad plains of the north and west were
suitable for tillage, and several improvements in agriculture
came to Italy from Gaul. The people had reached a
comparatively high degree of civilisation and were certainly
We now return to Transalpine Gaul before the encroach- not "barbarians", a word which to Caesar meant simply
ments of the Romans in the first century B.C. Geographi- "non-Roman", just as the Romans themselves had been
cally, as we are told by Caesar, it was divided into three barbarians to the Greeks because they did not speak Grepk
distinct parts, Celtic Gaul, Belgic Gaul, and Aquitania, when Greece represented the high-water-mark of Mediter-
each of which differed from !he others in language, customs, ranean civilisation. The Gauls lived in strong-walled
and laws, though it is likely that the language of the Celtic towns placed on hill-tops, sometimes in stone houses built
and Belgic Gauls was basically the same. Aquitania, partly undergound, or in fortified towns on the plains, and
whose people were probablY non-Celtic speaking Iberians, in the countryside there were villages built round large
4 5
Chapter 1 Chapter I

farmhouses made of timber and wattles, with good thatched

roofs. The Gauls of Brittany were skilful sailors and
traded with Britain in ships larger than those used in the
Mediterranean, and elsewhere trading barges moved up
and down the rivers, which were crossed by many bridges,
and paid toll to the chieftains through whose lands they
passed. There were skilled copper-miners in Aquitania
and elsewhere, and the metal-work of Gaul, both for
ornament and use, especially for swords, was famous, and
decorative art had flourished for several centuries, in
enamel as well as metal, and later in sculpture. From the
third century B.C. there had been a currency in gold and
silver, first in Greek coins from Massilia and Greece and
debased Gallic imitations, and then in Roman denarii from
the Province and Italy and local copies.


Each of the fifty or sixty tribes of Gallia Comata had its
own council of elders that Caesar calls a Senate. The
. kingship had recently been abolished in most communities
and the place of the king taken by an annually elected
magistrate called a vergobretus, but the Belgic and
...<II Aquitanian tribes were still ruled by kings. Each of the
~ til •~ •~ wealthy nobles had a more or less powerful following of
<II loyal clients and enslaved debtors, and there was constant
<ii: u • rivalry and jealousy among the aristocrats within the tribe,
::: '"'" as well as between tribe and tribe, which led to a fatal
'" '"~
.....:It/) e •• "'. disunity in war. The nobility was divided into Druids and

~Z ..c.-... • "· "'"'"

"knights", whose position was equivalent to that of the
~ feudal baronage of the Middle Ages, not of the rich middle-

... •

class equites of Rome. These two classes enjoyed all the

power and wealth in their states, and the knights provided
~ .-
t:: • the cavalry in war, which formed the flower of the Gallic
armies (except among the Nervii and the Helvetii), and
6 7
Chapter 1 Chapter 1

the magistrates and council. The poorer classes had no aspired to learn the craft, no part of which was ever com-
independence and were little better than serfs; they mitted to writing, though the Druids could write in Greek
provided the hordes of what was later called "cannon characters, apparently using the Celtic language, and some
fodder" in battle, dangerous from mere weight of numbers of them could also read Latin. They learned by heart an
in attack and while they were on the winning side, but too enormous number of verses concerning their religion, and
often ready to lIee at a reverse, being untrained, inade- taught in particular the doctrine of the transmigration of
quately armed and fed, and eager to return home after a souls and the importance of astronomy. They had the
few days' campaigning. But when well led, these tribal right to excommunicate wrong-doers, and presided, we are
levies fought gallantly and inflicted several defeats on the told, over the human sacrifices of criminals and prisoners of
seasoned Roman legions. war which was such a sinister part of Druidism. The cult
was apparently soon stamped out by the Romans in Gaul
but existed in the west of Britain for at least another
century. It should be remembered that no written records
Nearly everything that we know about the Druids comes of Druidism were ever kept, so that attempts to trace its
in Book VI of Caesar's "Gallic War", from information no later history, if it had one, must be imaginary.
doubt supplied by his friend the Aeduan Diviciacus, who Fundamentally, according to Caesar, the Gallic religion
was himself a Druid and had visited Rome in 61 B.C., was similar to the religions of Greece and Rome. Caesar
where he stayed at the house of Cicero and first made the does not give the names of any Gallic deities, but says that
acquaintance of Caesar. The Druids were a national the god whom the Gauls worshipped above all others was the
priesthood concerned with divine worship, sacrifices, the equivalent of Mercury, followed in importance by Apollo,
interpretation of ritual problems, and judicial cases, . Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva, and that the people claimed
especially murder. There was a Chief Druid, appointed descent from a common father whom he called Dis Pater;
for life, generally by vote by the other Druids, who but this information does not help much, and we know
assembled once a year in the very centre of Gaul to confer nothing more about these gods. The worship of animals
and hear disputes from all communities. Caesar was told and trees also seems to have been at one time part of the Celtic
that the Druidk discipline originated in Britain and spread religion. Inscriptions on altars, statues, and temples all
from there to Gaul, which may be true, in spite of the belong to the Roman period in Gaul, and consist almost
known course of Gallic migrations; possibly a purer form entirely of names alone; hardly any other traces of the
of the religion survived, if it did not actually originate, in Celtic language remain, for no written records have sur-
the western districts of Britain, which was therefore vived, if in fact there ever were any.
regarded as the source of the cult; at any rate, students of
Druidism crossed over from Gaul to Britain to learn more
about it.
Druids enjoyed special privileges, including freedom
from taxes and military service, and many young men
8 9
Chapter 1 Chapter 1
VII. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GAULS been successful, internal dissension would sooner or later
In appearance the Gauls are said to have been tall, fair- have nullified his victory.
haired, and blue-eyed (unlike our modern idea of the small,
dark "Iberian" Celts), and they attained a fairly high level VIII. THE LAST YEARS BEFORE CAESAR'S
of comfort or even luxury, at least in districts not too far ARRIVAL IN GAUL
removed from Roman influences. They wore trousers, and
The invading Cimbri and Teutoni from Germany had
the leaders had brightly coloured shirts and cloaks, and
been annihilated by Marius at Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae
gold rings, bracelets, and necklaces. Their hair was long,
in 102 and 101 B.C., but more Germans were pressing
and in battle they presented a fearsome appearance with
across the Rhine to settle in the fertile fields of Gaul. In
helmets shaped like the heads of wild beasts topped with
71 B.C. the Arverni and Sequani foolishly invited the
horse-hair crests of various colours, and long swords and Suebian leader Ariovistus to bring a German army to help
shields. The use of war-chariots had gone out in Gaul them against their fellow-Gauls the Aedui, who were
but still survived in Britain. defeated; ten years later the Aedui sent Diviciacus the
The main weaknesses in the Gallic character were a lack Druid on an unsuccessful embassy to get help from Rome,
of political foresight which prevented them from combining with whom they had been allied for sixty years. Then the
their forces in war to oppose an invader, and their impulsive Sequani found the Germans exercising dominion over
and mercurial temperament that caused them to alternate them, and tried to expel them, but without success. At the
between great gallantry and deep despair. Always quarrel- same time the Gallic tribe of the Helvetii, living between
some and jealous of each other, the chieftains not only failed the Alps and Jura, were preparing to migrate before the
to present a united front in their inter-tribal wars, but even pressure of the invading Suebi, hoping to pass through the
invited the help of foreigners such as the Germans and Province and find a new home in western Gaul; they began
Romans to overcome a neighbour, only to find that to move in the spring of 58 B.C. Julius Caesar had just been
their guests became their masters. Only Vercingetorix the appointed proconsul, or governor, of Illyricum (on the
Arvernian, an inspired and inspiring leader, was able to northern shores of the Adriatic), Cisalpine Gaul, and the
raise a really formidable national army in 52 B.C. byexercis- Province of Transalpine Gaul, and he determined to
ing the strictest dicipline, and very nearly defeated Caesar. prevent the Helvetii from travelling through one of his
Many of the Gauls, both noblemen and commoners, often provinces and then to drive Ariovistus back across the
showed the most fantastic bravery in battle, and if they had Rhine. Such were the causes that led to Caesar's invasion
combined their great talents from the beginning, instead of and eventual conquest of Gaul.
waiting to be attacked piecemeal by Caesar, their
enormously superior numbers would surely have been more
than a match even for the trained and disciplined Romans.
But lack of self-control, both on and especially off the field
of battle, proved their ruin, and even if Vercingetorix had
Chapter 2

found his late captors still celebrating their good luck. He

captured them in turn, recovered his money, and kept his
Chapter 2: Julius Caesar word by crucifying all the pirates, though he was kind
enough to have them killed first. Mter more military
1. EARLY LIFE, 100-64 B.C.
service in Asia Minor he became one of the younger leaders
of the Democratic party at Rome, showing himself an able
Gaius Julius Caesar was born on 12 July, 100 B.C., a demagogue in opposition to the Senate. In 68 B.C. he
member of one of the most ancient Roman families which served as quaestor (financial secretary to the governor) in
traced its descent back to the legendary Trojan Aeneas Spain, a post that gave him a seat in the Senate, and in
through his son Ascanius or Iulus, and hence to the 65 B.C. by lavish expenditure on gladiatorial shows to win
goddess Venus herself. The family was not famous in the favour of the mob became aedile, an official in charge of
history and had generally supported the Senatorial party in public buildings and entertainments; to pay for his
the civil strife of the second century B.C., but Julius' aunt candidature he had to borrow huge sums of money from the
had married Marius, the plebeian leader of the Democratic, rich financier Crassus, for he was recklessly extravagant in
or popular, party, and Julius himself married Cornelia, his personal expenditure and had already squandered his
daughter of Cinna, the successor of Marius. When Sulla private fortune.
led the Senatorial party back into power, Julius refused to
divorce his wife to please the Dictator, and was lucky not
to lose his life for his boldness. To keep out of the way,
he went abroad and served as a soldier in 80 B.C. at the siege In 63 B.C., through bribery and the manoeuvres of a
of Mytilene in Lesbos, where he won a "civic crown" for tribune called Labienus who was later to be his most trusted
valour in saving a comrade's life in action. He then ·iegatlls in Gaul and then one of his bitterest enemies in the
returned to Rome and unsuccessfully prosecuted two Civil War, Caesar was elected Ponti/ex Maximus, Chief
Senatorial ex-governors for maladministration of their Priest and the official head of the state religion, an office
provinces. usually reserved for elder statesmen. Like most educated
Though he had won a high reputation for oratory Romans, he had no real belief in the official deities but he
Caesar went to Rhodes to study rhetoric and on the way was willing to preside over the formalities of religion and
was captured and held to ransom by some Cilician pirates performed his duties efficiently in return for the prestige
on an island off the coast of Asia Minor. Professing disgust that the position gave him. In the same year Catiline's
at being valued at only twenty talents (about £5,000 in gold conspiracy to overthrow the state was thwarted by the
but worth far more in those days), he insisted on paying consul and orator Cicero, and Caesar spoke against the
fifty talents and lived for thirty-eight days on good terms proposal that the conspirators should be executed. In
with the pirates until the money arrived-but he promised 62 B.C. Caesar was one of the eight praetors, high officials
to come back and crucify them all. On being released he second only to the two consuls in rank, and divorced hi,
hired some ships and returned to the island, where he wife Pompeia (Cornelia had died in 69 B.C.) because she had
12 13
Chapter 2 Chapter 2

been involved in a scandal and, as he said, "Caesar's wife consulship for 59 B.C., though with a stubborn member of
must be above suspicion", though his own morals were the Senatorial party, Bibulus, as his colleague; he persis-
notoriously lax. He became propraetor, i.e. governor, of tently ignored the protests of Bibulus and carried through
Further Spain in 61 B.C., when he discovered at the age of all the legislation agreed upon by the Triumvirate, so that
thirty-nine that he had a genius for commanding troops in wits called that year "the consulship of Julius and
the field. He defeated the Lusitani, governed his province Caesar", not of Caesar and Bibulus. After his consulship
well, and made enough money, mainly by the sale of Caesar was to be proconsul (governor) of Illyricum (on the
prisoners of war as slaves, to payoff most of his enormous northern shores of the Adriatic) and Cisalpine Gaul, to
debts. which was added Transalpine or Narbonese Gaul (the
Province), which unexpectedly fell vacant, all three for the
unprecedented period of five years. The Triumvirate was
renewed in 56 B.C. at a conference held at Luca in Cisalpine
Caesar returned to Rome to stand for the consulship of Gaul, where it was agreed that Caesar should hold his
59 B.C. and the Senate deliberately offended him by with- governorship for another five years (probably with an
holding a triumph for his Spanish victories and assigning overlap which would make it end on 13 November, 50 B.C.),
to him a minor post to hold after the consulship which he that Pompey and Crassus should be consuls for 55 B.C.,
seemed certain to obtain. He now made an alliance with and that Pompey should then be governor of Spain for
Pompey and Crassus that is called the First Triumvirate. five years, with permission to stay in Rome and rule his
Pompey (106-48 B.C.) had won great victories in the near province through legali, and Crassus governor of Syria for
east and on returning to Rome in 62 B.C. had disbanded his five years.
armies before obtaining grants of land for his veterans and
before getting the ratification of the Senate for his settle- IV. CAESAR'S" GALLIC WAR"
ment of Syria, but the Senate foolishly refused to allow him
these reasonable requests. The wealthy Crassus had been Caesar wrote an account of his Gallic wars in seven books,
an opponent of Pompey in the past, but now he also was which he called Commenlarii, "Note Books", though they
offended by the Senate, which refused his request for some are far more than that. It is thought that he collected his
concessions in tax-contracts in which he was interested. own notes made at the time, the despatches he sent to the
The combination of Pompey's great reputation, backed by Senate, and the reports of his officers on each campaign, and
the potential aid of his 40,000 veterans, with Crassus' great expanded them in the winter of 52 B.C. into their present
wealth and Caesar's ambition and brains, was irresistible; form. They are therefore a Conunander-in-Chief's own
at the same time Caesar's beloved daughter Julia married account of his campaigns, written in clear, vigorous and
Pompey, which made an additional bond of union between straightforward language, and one of the best models of
her husband and father. Latin prose that we have. "The Gallic War" was partly
Pompey and Crassus obtained the concessions that they no doubt intended to justify the campaigns that he under-
demanded from the Senate, and Caesar was elected to the took without the specific sanction of the Senate, and also
14 15
Chapter 2 Chapter 2

to be an 1l11exaggerated record of exploits that were bound Aeduan on behalf of all Gaul begged Caesar for help against
to enhance his reputation in the eyes of his contemporaries Ariovistus the German, whom the Sequani had invited in
at a critical moment in his career. He makes the best of and now could not expel. Caesar tried to negotiate with
his few failures, such as the short-lived result of his Ariovistus, but in vain, and after another desperate battle
invasions of Britain, but the work is on the whole historically near Ostheim in the Vosges he drove the Germans back
accurate, and it was a remarkable achievement for one of across the Rhine. The legions spent the winter at Vesontio
the greatest military commanders of any age to have (Besan90n) in the land of the Sequani, an indication of
written such a literary account of his own campaigns. Caesar's intention to conquer eventually the whole of
His "Civil War" in three books, as far as the beginning of Transalpine Gaul.
the Alexandrine War in 48 B.C., shows all the graphic Book II (57 B.C.). The Belgae conspired against Caesar
vigour of the "Gallic War" and almost all its historical and raised a huge army to oppose him on the Aisne (Axona)
accuracy. Although no examples of his speeches survive, near Berry-au-Bac. He relieved the siege of Bibrax, a
Caesar was also regarded as one of the best orators of town of the Remi who alone of the Belgae submitted to him
his time. at once and remained loyal to the end, and checked an
In 61 B.C. the Senate had recommended that the governor attempt by the Belgae to cross the Aisne, after which the
of the Province and his successors should protect the whole Belgic army ·melted away owing to lack of supplies.
interests of the Aedui and other friends of Rome as far as The Bellovaci submitted, but the Nervii, the bravest of all
was compatible with his duty to the province; this was the Gauls, attacked the legions while they were entrenching
Caesar's formal justification for making war on the Helvetii a camp in difficult country and fought a battle which was
and on Ariovistus in 58 B.C., and in any case, it was his duty won by the Romans only when Caesar himself went into
to defend the Province and the neighbouring allies from .the line to rally his men. The Aduatuci surrendered their
invasion. His army consisted at first of four legions, town but made a treacherous night-attack and after being
which were eventually increased to ten by the end of the defeated were sold into slavery. All the maritime tribes of
campaigns. Most of the troops were north Italians living north-west Gaul submitted to P. Crassus, son of the
in Cisalpine Gaul, not yet all Roman citizens, and there Triumvir, and the Senate ordered a fifteen days' thanks-
were also native auxiliary soldiers serving in his anny. Here giving at Rome for Caesar's achievements.
is a summary of The Gallic War: Book III (winter of 57 B.C.). Galba repulsed an attack
Book I (58 B.C.). Caesar refused to allow the migrating of the Seduni and Veragri on his winter camp at Octodurus
Helvetii to pass through the Province on their way to settle in the RhOne valley. (56 B.C.) (In April the Triumvirate
in western Gaul, whereupon they moved through the land was renewed at Luca.) The Veneti in Brittany, who had
ofthe Sequani and reached the Aedui, who appealed to him submitted in 57 B.C., now led a rising of all the local tribes,
for help. He attacked the last quarter of the Helvetii which their coastal towns and specially built ships made it
while it was crossing the Saone (Arar), and after defeating hard for the Romans to suppress, until the galleys of
the main body in a hard-fought battle near Bibracte com- D. Brutus immobilised the Gallic fleet by cutting their
pelled the survivors to return home. Diviciacus the rigging and a sudden calm allowed him to defeat them in
16 17
Chapter 2

Quiberon Bay. Sabinus overcame the Venelli and Crassus

Aquitauia, and Caesar drove the Morini and Menapii of
north-west Gaul into their woods and marshes.
Book IV (55 n.c.). Caesar describes some of the
German tribes, of whom the Usipetes and Tencteri crossed
the Rhine in order to settle in Gaul. During a truce the
German cavalry attacked the Gallic cavalry serving in the
Roman army, which Caesar made the pretext for arresting
the German leaders at a parley and massacring the whole
host, 430,000 men, women and children. He then built
a bridge over the Rhine, attacked the Sugambri and
spent eighteen days in Germany; In August he landed
at Deal and made a reconnaissance-invasion of south-east
Britain, defeated the Britons twice, and returned to Gau1
after staying less than a month in Britain. Labienus over-
came the Moriui, and the Menapii withdrew once more into
their forests. A thanksgiving of twenty days was voted by
the Senate for Caesar's invasion of Britain.
Book V (54 n.c.). Caesar settled a dispute between two
leaders of the Treveri, Indutiomarus and Cingetorix, and
Dumnorix the Aeduan stirred up trouble and was killed.
Caesar invaded Britain in July, advanced inland after his
ships were wrecked in a storm-here follows a description
of the island and its inhabitants-defeated Cassivellaunus,
and then crossed the Thames and drove him out of his
fortress near St Albans. Four Kentish kings were repu1sed
in an attack on the naval camp (near Sandwich) and
Cassivellaunus submitted. In September Caesar returned
to Gaul after accomplishing very little in Britain. Ambiorix
of the Eburones induced Sabinus and Cotta with fifteen
cohorts to leave their winter camp at Aduatuca (perhaps
Tongres) and killed them all in an ambush. The Nervii
attacked Q. Cicero's camp, but he resisted with great
gallantry until relieved by Caesar, who defeated the
IS 19
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
blockading army of the Nervii. Labienus drove off the V. THE APPROACH OF CIVIL WAR,
Treveri and killed Indutiomarus. 54-50 B.C.
Book VI (53 B.C.). Caesar subdued another rising in
no~ern Ga';1l and at last crushed the Menapii, while The Triumvirate, which had been renewed in 56 B.C., was
Lablenus agam defeated the Treveri. Caesar crossed the weakened by the death of Julia (Caesar's daughter, married
Rhine once more and drove back the Suebi-here follows to Pompey) in 54 B.C., and was destroyed by the death of
a description of Gallic politics and religion, including the Crassus at the battle of Carrhae in Parthia in 53 B.C.
Druids, and of the Germans and their country. Caesar Rome was in disorder owing to the street-fighting between
returned to Gaul, ravaged the country of the Eburones and Caesar's supporter Clodius and Pompey's supporter Milo,
tried in vain to hunt down Ambiorix. The Sugambri who killed Clodius in 52 B.C. Pompey was appointed sole
crossed the Rhine and made a dangerous attack on Cicero's consul in that year to restore order, and was now moving
camp at Aduatuca. nearer to the Senatorial party, whose military leader he
Book VII (52 B.C.). Vercingetorix the Arvernian headed eventually became. The Senate· was determined to ruin
a general rising of all Gaul. Returning from Cisalpine Gaul Caesar when his governorship came to an end in 50 B.C.
Caesar attacked the Arverni and captured several towns, He had been excused by a special law from standing for
including Avaricum (Bourges), but he was driven off from the consulship of 48 B.C. in person, but unless his pro-
Gergovia with serious losses. The news of this repulse consulship was again prolonged, the gap between the end
at last induced the Aedui to join the rest of the Gauls in of the governorship and the beginning of his second consul-
rebellion. Labienus defeated the Parisii and combined ship would leave him a private citizen open to prosecution
forces with Caesar, who repelled an attack of Vercingetorix by his enemies. The "Tribunes of the People" had the
on the march and blockaded him in Alesia, round which he right to veto any proceedings in the Senate, and two of
built a double line of elaborate fortifications, the outer one ·them, Curio and Mark Antony, in tum prevented Caesar's
to keep off a large relieving force of Gauls summoned by opponents from getting him recalled. His request for an
Vercingetorix. Caesar won the last desperate battle and extension of his command until the end of 49 B.C. was
received the surrender of Vercingetorix. refused, and after making several proposals for a com-
Caesar's own account ends here, but the events of 51 and promise Caesar saw that the Senate was determined to
50 B.C. are recorded in Book VIII by his friend Aulus make no concessions and to force him to go to war, so in
Hirtius (consul in 43 B.C.). It describes the last year of January of 49 B.C. he crossed the Rubicon, the boundary of
fighting, when all resistance came to an end after the siege Cisalpine Gaul, and thus started the Civil War. It is said,
and capture of Uxellodunum, and the final year (50 B.C.) but not by Caesar himself, that he hesitated long before
of Caesar's proconsulship, spent in reconciling the Gauls to taking this decisive step, and that he finally declared "The
being governed by Rome. die is cast" before crossing the river into Italy.

20 21
Chapter 2 Chapter 2

VI. THE CIVIL WAR, 49-45 B.C. weaky".) After returning to Rome, where he was
The Senate was unprepared for a campaign in Italy, and appointed Dictator again, he crossed to north Africa and
Pompey left Rome for Greece, where he mobilised his defeated the Senatorial armies and King Juba at Thapsus
forces, both those that lie had brought with him and those in April, 46 B.C. He finally put an end to all armed opposi-
which he withdrew from the Near East or raised in Greece. tion by overcoming Pompey's sons and his own former
Caesar swept through Italy almost unopposed, then chief of staff, Labienus, at Munda in Spain (45 B.C.) in one
of the most hard-fought battles of his career.
defeated the Senatorial generals Afranius and Petreius in a
brief but brilliant campaign in Spain, and returned to
Rome as Dictator, to he elected consul for 48 B.C. Early VII. CAESAR AS SOLE RULER, 45-44 B.C.
in 48 B.C. he came to Greece and tried to blockade Pompey Caesar was now undisputed ruler of the Roman world,
in Dyrrachium with a much smaller army, seven legions Dictator for ten years, an office which was made perpetual
against eleven. Pompey broke out, and Caesar had to shortly before his death, and appointer to all the magis-
withdraw to Thessaly, where the two armies met in the tracies; in fact king in all but name, for he refused to take
summer at Pharsalus. Caesar decisively defeated the that title which was always so hated in Rome. In his last
superior numbers of Pompey, who fled to Egypt, where he year of life he carried out many excellent reforms in Rome,
was murdered as he stepped ashore by an Egyptian general Italy, and the provinces, including the appointment of new
and one of his own veterans. members to the Senate, the allotment of land to veteran
Caesar unwisely stayed in Alexandria with a small force soldiers, the grant of the citizenship to troops raised in the
to settle a quarrel between the young King Ptolemy and his provinces (e.g. the "Larks", a legion of Transalpine Gauls)
sister and co-ruler Cleopatra (a family of pure Macedonian and to the whole of Cisalpine Gaul, the foundation of
descent, not Egyptian at all except by nearly three centuries' overseas colonies, reduction of the numbers of unemployed
residence); she was now about twenty-two, and both who received free corn at Rome, and the start of many
clever and charming. He remained there for nine months, public works in Italy. One important reform that has
at first blockaded in the palace and later reluctant to leave lasted almost unchanged until to-day was his introduction
Cleopatra, whose lover he had become, although more than of the J u1ian Calendar, based on the calculations of an
thirty years older. In the summer of 47 B.C. he marched Alexandrian mathematician called S osigenes; this was
against Phamaces, King of Pontus in Asia Minor, and correct to within eleven minutes a year, an error that
defeated him in a stubborn battle at Zela, which he was put right in the Gregorian Calendar in 1582 by the
celebrated, somewhat unjustly, in his triumphal procession dropping of three Leap Year days in every four centuries.
at Rome with the words veni, vidi, vici. (These words
are often wrongly thought to refer to Caesar's account of VIII. THE MURDER OF CAESAR, 15 MARCH,
his invasions of Britain, probably because the authors of 44 B.C.
the brilliantly witty 1066 and All That tell us that Caesar's work was only just begun and his plans for the
Caesar reported the Britons to be "weeny, weedy, and future remain unknown. Although he was obviously an
Chapter 2 Chapter 2

enlightened and beneficent ruler and had shown remark- IX. CAESAR'S CHARACTER AND
able clemency to his former opponents, he allowed the APPEARANCE
Senate hardly even the appearance of authority. There
was therefore much hidden opposition, consisting of over Historians have expressed many different views of
sixty republicans led by the proud and disgruntled Cassius, Caesar's character, but none has ever questioned his great
who had changed sides after Pharsalus and had joined ability and achievements. In his younger years he was
Caesar, and the idealistic Marcus Brutus, who owed much wild and dissolute, and his own morals were never "above
to Caesar but had been persuaded to regard him as a suspicion", as he declared his wife Pompeia's must be
tyrant. Some of his most highly-trusted officers in the when he divorced her. He was unscrupulous in the methods •
wars were horrified by his neglect of constitutional govern- which he used to attain power as a democrat, and as
ment, and many former followers of Pompey still hated and a commander in Gaul he was often merciful but sometimes
feared the man who had spared their lives. A year earlier utterly ruthless, e.g. in butchering 430,000 Germans during
Caesar had said, "I have lived long enough either for a truce, in selling whole communities into slavery to
nature or for glory", and he dismissed the bodyguard that intimidate the other tribes and to increase his own wealth,
might have saved him from assassination. The conspira- and in cutting off the hands of the survivors of the siege of
tors determined to strike before he set out for Parthia on Uxellodunum. But he was always anxious to save
another campaign. On the evening before the Ides of bloodshed among his own men and among Roman citizens
March talk after dinner turned on the best form of death, in the opposing army in the Civil War, when he set free as
and Caesar said that he would prefer a sudden one. Next many as possible or allowed them to join his army. As a
morning, refusing to credit the rumours and warnings that soldier his chief characteristics were great caution in
had begun to spread and an ill-omened dream that his wife . preparing for battle, followed by lightning speed in striking
Calpurnia had just had, he went to a meeting of the Senate the decisive blow. As Commander-in-Chief he did not
held in a building that was part of the Theatre of Pompey himself often come to close quarters with the enemy, but
in the Campus Martius. The conspirators crowded round he records one instance, in the battle with the Nervii in this
him, men who had been his friends and had been promoted book, when he saved the situation by his own arrival in the
or spared by him, and "envious Casca" struck the first front line, and later historians mention his courage in battle
blow. Caesar at first defended himself with his iron stilus and endurance on the march. He won the affection and
(pen for writing on wax tablets) but was stabbed by twenty- loyalty of his men by these qualities and by allowing them a
three dagger-blows, of which only one would have been judicious freedom off duty combined with the strictest
immediately fatal. It is said that when he saw Brutus discipline on the field.
among the assailants he exclaimed in Greek, "You, too, Caesar used the great power that he finally obtained
my son?" and made no further resistance. almost entirely for the benefit of the state, though it was a
power that could never be reconciled with the republican
form of government, and he restored order and laid the
foundations for peace and prosperity that only his murder
Chapter 2

prevented from being realised in his own lifetime. One

quality that he lacked was the genius for compromise and for Chapter 3: The Roman Arn9'
advancing slowly that his heir and great-nephew Octavian,
afterwards the Emperor Augustus, possessed in so marked a I. THE OLD REPUBLICAN ARMY
degree. As a general Caesar was unrivalled, and as an Down to about 100 B.C. the Roman army consisted
administrator and in his later years a constructive politician . entirely of citizen soldiers who were enrolled for a par-
he was equal to the best of the emperors. Such versatility ticular campaigu without any formal training and who
in so many fields, war, politics, administration, literature, returned to civilian life when no longer required. The legion
history, and oratory makes him unique in history; he did was drawn up for battle in three lines, each line being
indeed "bestride this narrow world like a Colossus". divided into ten "maniples" of two centuries each. The
Suetonius tells us that Julius Caesar was tall, with a fair front line consisted of the younger men who were called
complexion, well proportioned limbs, a somewhat full hastati, the second of men in the prime of life, called
mouth, and keen black eyes. He was careful about his principes, and the third of veterans, called triarii. The
personal appearance and dandified in dress. To hide his maniples in the second and third lines covered the blank
premature baldness he used to comb his scanty hair spaces left by the maniples in front of them, in chequer
forwards and gladly accepted the privilege conferred on formation. Those of hastati and principes contained 120
him by the Senate of wearing a laurel wreath at all times. men each (the centuries therefore 60), and those of triar;;
There are many likenesses of Caesar on coins struck both 60 men each (the centuries only 30), making a total of
in his lifetime and afterwards, and there are several 3,000 men in the legion; with the addition of a section
busts; a photograph of one appears as plate I with repro- of 20 light-armed men called velites to each century, a total
ductions of coins; the well-known head in the British of 1,200 velites, so that the full strength of the legion was
Museum has now been declared an eighteenth century 4,200 men. 300 cavalry in 10 troops (turmae) of 30 each
forgery. The bust shown in this book was found at were attached to the legion, and the Italian allies had to
Tusculum and is now in the Castello di Aglie at Turin; supply the same number of infantry and three times as
it may have been made during his life, because the scanty many cavalry. A centurion commanded each century and
hair, the bump at the back of the head, the long, thin, the senior of the two centurions (centuria prior as opposed
wrinkled neck, and the perhaps cynical half-smile, charac- to centuria posterior) commanded the maniple. There were
teristics all found on coins struck before his death, make it six military tribunes who commanded the legion in turn
likely to be a genuine portrait and a true likeness. under the direction of the consul, who as Commander-in-
Chief was in charge of two legions and the allies.

About 100 B.C. Marius introduced a professional army
which owed allegiance to its commander, not directly to
Chapter 3 Chapter 3
the state, and the end of the Social War, ten years later, changed sides at the end of the Gallic wars, perhaps
sawall Italians receive full Roman citizenship and able to through jealousy or some real or fancied slight, and was
take an equal place in the legions with Romans. The killed in 45 B.C. at Munda fighting against his old com-
legion now consisted of ten cohorts, each divided into six mander. The other legati became competent generals and
centuries or three maniples, but the maniple was now only were put in command of legions when necessary and of
an administrative unit and the cohort took its place as the winter camps; the only real failure was Titurius Sabinus,
tactical unit. The nominal strength of the legion was whose folly and lack of courage caused the loss of fifteen
6,000, of the cohort 600, and of the century 100, but the cohorts and his own life in 54 B.C. Next in rank as
legion in the field was often down to 3,500-4,000 men, and "commissioned officers" were the military tribunes, six to
the century down to 60-70. The old division into hastati, a legion, members of the middle class Equestrian Order,
principes, and triarii disappeared except in the names of probably appointed by Caesar himself. They were often
the centuries, the velites were abolished, and the cavalry, young men at the start of a political career, not experienced
now entirely foreigners, were separated from the legions. in war but sometimes put in command of a cohort or a
The Commander-in-Chief, dux, was appointed by the warship under the direction of a legatus. Volusenus is the
Senate and was technically not imperator until so addressed only, tribune who is several times mentioned with approval
by his troops after a major victory. He wore a cloak of by 'Caesar. These officers attended councils of war
scarlet wool, embroidered with gold, called a paludametltum, together with the senior centurions.
to which Shakespeare makes Antony refer in his funeral The backbone of the Roman army was the centurions,
speech in Julius Caesar III, ii, 175: each in command of a century, six to a cohort and sixty to
You all do know this mantle: I remember a legion. They were professional soldiers, generally
The first time ever Caesar put it on; , experienced in war, like our warrant and non-commissioned
'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent,
That day he overcame the Nervii.
officers, and they both led the troops courageously in
battle and administered stern discipline off the field with
The battle with the Nervii is described in this book. But the aid of a vine staff (vitis) which they carried as a sign of
in 44 B.C. the cloak was thirteen years old, and Caesar, was rank and for use on an "idle" soldier; during the early
unlikely to wear military uniform at a meeting of the Senate Empire we read in Tacitus of one whose nickname was
when the toga was the official dress. The general's cedo alleram, "Give me another", because he used to break
deputies were legati (not to be confused with ambassadors, so many sticks on the shoulders of his men. Centurions
another meaning of the same word), members of the wore a special badge on their helmets and swords on the
Senatorial Order appointed by the Senate on the recom- left side because they did not generally carry a shield.
mendation of the commander; Caesar had four at first and There was regular system of promotion by seniority and
eventually ten, the same number as his legions, which also merit from the junior centurion of the tenth cohort to the
rose from four to ten. His Chief of Staff, Labienus, was first cohort, but a man could jump several steps in the
legatus pro praetore, legate with the rank of praetor, and ladder of promotion by exceptional services. The old
was a first class general, greatly trusted by Caesar, but he names hastati, principes, triarii were kept for this alone,
28 29
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

except that for trianus the new name of pi/ani was sub- of each cohort probably commanded that cohort as well as
stituted. his own century, and the first cohort contained the six
In every cohort the centurions were rated for seniority senior centurions, who were called primi ordines; the word
according to the position taken up by their centuries in the ordo was often used instead of centuria. There was no
battle-line, where they were drawn up in four ranks of up permanent commander of a legion at this time, but a
to twenty men each; the cohort had three centuries posted legatus was often put in command or the military tribunes
in front and three in rear, making a line eight deep with acted under the orders of a legatus or of the imperator.
up to sixty men in each rank. Junior non-commissioned officers were aquiliferi and
hastati principes pHani signiferi, whose duty it was to carry and guard the standards
5 3 I priores (aquilae and signa). The signa were of great importance to
the morale of a legion and were a rallying-point in a crisis;
hence signa inferre, "to advance", signa canferre, "to close
6 4 2 posteriores on the centre", and similar phrases. The legionary
standard was a silver eagle perched on a pole and was
attached to the first century of the first cohort, so that it
The three centuries posted in front were called priores, always led the way into battle or on the march; it was kept
those in the rear posteriores, and the right-hand maniple in camp in a chapel near the general's headquarters.
(two centuries) was called pilani, the centre maniple The manipular standards, three to a cohort, were poles
principes, and the left-hand maniple hastali. Thus in adorned with various metal badges, such as the images of
every cohort the order of seniority of centurions was: birds or beasts, crescent moons, and decorated discs.
I,pilus prior; 2,pilus posterior; 3,princeps prior; 4,princeps Standard-bearers wore the skin of a wolf over their helmets.
posterior; 5, hastatus prior; 6, hastatus posterior. The The highest award for bravery was the corona civica, a
centurions took their titles from their centuries according wreath of oak leaves, and there were various badges
to this list, except that the centurion of the pilani was (phalerae) and necklets (torques) given for distinguished
called pilus. The second centurion in the first cohort was service.
called pilus posterior primus, and so on down to the most
junior centurion in the tenth cohort, number sixty in the III. ORDER OF BATTLE AND THE MARCH
legion, who was called hastatus posterior decimus. We read
of a centurion in the Civil War (B.C. III, 53) who was The normal fighting array was in three lines (t,.iplex
promoted for his bravety ab octavis ordinibus ad primipilum, acies), in which the men were drawn up eight deep
"from the centurions of the eighth cohort to Senior in cohorts arranged as indicated on the following page.
Centurion". The Senior Centurion of the first cohort of the The numbers refer to cohorts and the dashes are centuries.
legion was called primus pilus (without prior), or primi pili The space between the lines was about a cohort's frontage,
centurio, or primipilus, and was a very important person, but the cohorts in line were probably quite close to one
like our Regimental Sergeant-Major. The senior centurion another. When the army attacked the front line advanced
30 31
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

4 3 2 I was a silver coin a little smaller than a shilling but with a

very much higher purchasing power; a day labourer in
Italy received about twice the soldier's pay, but the troops
7 6 5 had excellent chances of plunder during a successful
campaign and their pay was raised to 225 denarii in about
50 B.C. Their staple food was wheat, which they ground
10 9 8 to make bread or porridge in the portable hand mills that
each man carried in his pack. They also carried in their
packs the wheat ration for three or four days, or more,
as circumstances required, out of the monthly allow-
within javelin range (up to forty yards), threw their javelins, ance of a bushel each. They did not like meat, but
and charged with the sword; the second and third lines would eat it when wheat was not. available, and their drink
came into action or relieved the front line as required. was a sour wine called posca.
Other formations were a single, double, or quadruple line, The uniform of a legionary was a long belted tunic
a wedge (cuneus), and, to repel an attack from several reaching nearly to the knees like a kilt, a short cloak
directions, an orbis, which was a solid or hollow square (sagum), brown for soldiers, white for officers, and heavy
rounded at the angles, many ranks deep. On the march hob-nailed sandals (caligae). His defensive armour was a
the four cohorts of the front line fonned the first column, leather jerkin strengthened with strips of metal (lorica); an
the next three the second column, and the last three brought iron helmet (galea) with a detachable plume of feathers,
up the rear (novissimum agmen). To go into action, the which was carried on the march slung over the right
cohorts extended to right and left of the road and were at . shoulder and put on just before battle; a shield (scutum),
once in triple line of battle. The baggage (impedimenta) about four feet high and two and a half feet broad and
of each legion usually followed the legion, with cavalry and curved cylindrically to protect the body, made of wood and
light troops on the flanks, but in hostile country the baggage hide, rimmed and bossed with iron and protected from
was all placed in the middle of the column or towards the warping and rusting by a detachable leather cover; and
rear, carrying also the packs ofthe men, who now marched sometimes greaves (ocreae) of leather or metal. His
in light order (expediti), ready for action; or an agmen weapons were a two-edged sword (gladius), used for
quadratum might be formed, a square with troops in front, stabbing rather than slashing, about two feet long, worn on
rear, and at the sides, and with the baggage in the middle. the right side so that the shidd should not prevent it from
being drawn easily (officers and centurions who did not
IV. EQUIPMENT AND ARMS normally carry a shield wore the sword on the left side); and
two pila, javelins more than six feet long with wooden shafts
Legionaries were usually (but not always) Roman citizens and long heads of soft iron which bent when they struck an
who enlisted for twenty years' service and up to the end of enemy's shield SO that he could not pull them out and
the Gallic wars were paid 120 denarii a year. A denarius throw them back and was hampered in his movements.
32 33
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

Soldiers on the march in full kit were called impediti and served with the legions and were summoned when required
carried a total weight of about sixty-five pounds, which for special tasks like building bridges or working the siege-
is much the same as was carried by an infantryman in train, under the direction of an engineer officer called
the First World War of 1914-18, and the same as the praefectus fabrum. Scouts sent out singly were speculatores,
weight of plate armour worn by a knight in the fourteenth and when in reconnaissance parties exploratores. There
century (as is shown by weighing suits of armour in was now no Roman or Italian cavalry, but horsemen were
museums). Besides his armour and weapons, a Roman recruited from Spain and Transalpine Gaul and later in the
soldier carried a pack (sarcina) containing rations for Gallic War from Germany. They were divided into
several days, a hand-mill to grind the wheat, cooking squadrons (alae) of 300-400 men, subdivided into ten
utensils, a flask to hold wine or water, a blanket, and a troops (turmae), and were commanded by Roman officers
change of clothes, and an axe, saw, basket, mallet, spade of the Equestrian Order called praefeeti equitum or by their
(all for the entrenchment and defences of the camp); the own officers; they were used mainly to skirmish and scout
pack was slung on a pole or over two stakes (valli) used and to pursue a fleeing enemy, being hardly able to face
every day for the rampart of the camp and on the march resolute infantry. Other auxiliary troops were slingers
resting on the left shoulder, while he carried his two pila, (funditores) from the Balearic Islands and archers (sagil/arii)
with his helmet slung over them, on his right shoulder. from Crete and Numidia, and some light-armed infantry;
The spade was used more than the sword, for the Roman all auxiliary troops were foreigners enrolled in the Roman
soldiers did an enormous amount of digging, not only army. The baggage of an army (impedimenta) consisted
entrenching the camp every night when on the march but of the siege-train, tents, spare equipment and weapons,
also shovelling tons of earth in the course of sieges and officers' kit, and the commissariat, and was carried by
defensive operations. They marched the length and breadth ,horses or mules driven by calones, a term that also included
of Gaul several times during the eight Gallic campaigns, officers' servants and other camp-followers. Slave dealers
covering fifteen to eighteen miles a day on an ordinary day's (mangones) accompanied a campaign to buy the plunder and
march (iustum iter) and up to twenty-five or whatever was slaves, under the direction of the quaestor, to be marched to
required on a forced march (magnum iter). When about to Italy and sold at a profit in the slave-markets there.
go into action they left their packs and stakes with the
impedimenta, put on their helmets, stripped off their shield
coverings, and were expediti, ready for action in light march-
ing order. On the march troops always encamped for the night in a
specially fortified camp (castra), which long practice
V. OTHER TROOPS, AND THE BAGGAGE enabled them to prepare in a very short time. Officers
went ahead to choose a suitable site, and first marked out
Discharged veterans, called evocati, could rejoin the army the general's headquarters (praetorium) and the corners of
at the invitation of the general, with higher pay and the camp with coloured flags. The shape was generally
exemption from certain fatigne-duties. Engineers (fabri) square, with rounded corners and sides about 2,000-2,500
34 35
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

feet long for Caesar's army of eight legions (in 57 B.C.), each night, that was passed round the guards and sentries.
about 30,000 men with auxiliaries, perhaps 40,000 in all. In winter the campaigning season carne to an end and the
The camp was surrounded by a ditch (fossa) twelve feet troops went into winter-quarters (hibema) until the spring.
broad and nine feet deep, from which the earth was These were more strongly fortified permanent camps
thrown up to make a rampart (agger) four feet high, (castra stativa), in which the men lived in wooden huts
crowned with a palisade (valium) made from the stakes thatched with straw.
(valli) carried by the men, interlaced with branches to
make an almost impenetrable barrier. The men's tents were
always placed in the same position and order, so that each CAESAR'S CAMP ON THE AISNE
man knew exactly where to go and what to do. The camp
was divided laterally into two unequal sections by a road a porta~rp~r~a~.~to~r~t~a____________~
hundred foot wide called via principalis; the front section r----------~/:-n-:t-e-r----- v.lIll m
of the camp (one-third of the whole) contained tents for r---~~I70""-, I
two legions and auxiliaries and officers' quarters, and the
rear section (two-thirds) contained the praetorium and
tents for six legions, special troops like the evocati (veterans
who rejoined for further service), and the rest of the
auxiliaries. The rear section was divided laterally by a
road fifty feet wide called via quintana, and from the
praetorium ran a broad road, via praetoria, to the front gate
(nearest the enemy), the porta praetoria. In the rear was
the porta decumana, and the via principalis ran to two side
gates called porta principalis dextra (on the right) and sinistra
(on the left). The soldiers' tents were made of hides and
held ten men each in a space ten feet square. A space
200 feet wide was left inside the rampart, and auxiliaries
were quartered nearer the rampart to bear the brunt of an
attack. Cavalry outposts (stationes) were on duty outside
the camp, with guards (custodes) at the gates and sentries
(excubitores by day, vigiles by night) on the ramparts and
at headquarters. When camp was to be moved, the first
of three trumpet calls was the signal to take down the
tents and pack the baggage, the second to load the baggage
on the pack-animals, and the third for the troops to march
off. There was a written watchword (tessera), different for
36 37
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

VII. SIEGES continuous covered way up to the town. A longer but

narrower and lower form of mantlet was a musculus, and
The storming of a fortified town (oppugnatio) was an there was also a tesiudo, quite different from the" tortoise"
assault on the walls either without previous investment of shields used to defend a party of soldiers. The second
(ex itinere) or after a siege (obsidio). If a town was not type of testudo was a shed about twenty-five feet square,
strongly defended the commander chose what seemed to be mounted on wheels and having a sloping timber roof and
a weak spot in the walls, cleared away defenders by means sides under cover of which the men could fill in the ditch
of archers, slingers, and light artillery, and sent the troops or undermine the wall. A pluteus was a convex wicker
in to assault under cover of a testudo, a sloping roof of shield on three wheels or rollers, behind which two or three
shields locked tightly together over the heads of the men could advance to work on the agger. All these siege-
attackers, with more shields to protect the front and sides. engines were covered with hides soaked in water to make
Under cover of this the men advanced to the walls, filled them fire proof.
in the ditch with loose earth (another meaning of agger), Light wooden towers (turres) of several stages, up to
and climbed the wall by scaling ladders (scalae) or burst fifty feet high, could be pushed forward on wheels or
open the gate with a battering ram (aries). rollers so that the men on the upper stages were level with
A formal siege took much longer. It would begin with a the top of the wall, or they might be pushed up the ramp of
line of earthworks thrown up all round the town and the agger and hurl missiles from above. Hooks on long
strengthened by towers or redoubts, to prevent the poles were used to pull down the battlements, and mines
defenders from making a sally or escaping. The garrison (cuniculi) were driven under the defences. Heavy batter-
was then either starved into surrender or the town was ings rams, consisting of a large beam with a huge metal
taken by assault from a siege-mound (the third meaning of head which was slung inside a framework of timber, were
agger) after preparatory work by the siege train. An agger rocked backwards and forwards against gate or wall.
in this sense was an elaborately constructed siege-mound The defenders would retaliate by digging counter-mines
made of logs set in layers, each at right angles to the stage under the agger and drawing away the earth or setting the
below and filled up with earth or rubble. It was begun timbers on fire, or by catching and drawing up the heads
out of range of missiles from the wall and was gradually of the rams, or by dropping boiling pitch on the attackers.
built up on an inclined plane continually drawing nearer Arti11ery (tarmenta) generally depended on the principle
to the top of the wall so that eventually the attackers could of torsion, the force produced when tightly twisted ropes
throw bridges of hurdles or ladders across the intervening of horse-hair, gut, or cord are allowed to unwind
space and so enter the town. Engineers working on the suddenly. We do not know the difference between a
agger were protected by various mobile defence works, such ballista and a catapulta, but both worked in much the same
as mantlets (vineae), which were light huts with timber tops way. Each was like a very big cross-bow mounted on a
and wicker sides, each about sisteen feet long, eight feet tripod, with a groove running along the top of the wooden
high, and seven feet wide; the front and back were open stock. In front at right angles to the stock was a timber
so that several vineae could be placed in a line to make a framework at each end of which was a vertical skein of
38 39
Chapter 3 Chapter 3

ropes of horse-hair, tightly twisted by a windlass before into six centuries. Regular cavalry was attached to each
the engine was fired. Two wooden arms passed through legion. The legions permanently quartered in Britain
these skeins and took the place of the arms of a cross-bow. after the conquest, which started in A.D. 43, were the
A rope was attached to the ends of the arms and served as Second" Augusta" at Caerleon, the Sixth "Victrix Pia
the bow-string, being fastened to a projector-block that Fidelis" at York (taking the place of the Ninth" Hispan. "),
ran freely in the stock. To load the catapult the projector- and the Twentieth "Valeria Victrix" at Chester.
block and attached rope were forced back by a windlass
against the pull of the twisted skeins of horse-hair and made
fast by a trigger catch. A long javelin was placed in the
groove in front of the projector-block, and when the trigger
was released the unwinding of the skeins caused the arms to
fiy forward, taking the block and rope with them and thus
discharging the javelin. The engine could be raised or
lowered or moved sideways to get the required range and
aim and could fire up to 500 yards with some accuracy.
Another but less accurate engine called an onager could
hurl large stones from a sling or spoon which was forced
backwards and downwards against the torsion of horse-
hair ropes and was discharged by the unwinding of the


Although this is outside the scope of this book, a few
words about the later Roman army may be of interest.
The army was now more of a career than ever before, and
a man would spend his twenty years in a legion and then
retire to live with his family near its barracks, for the
twenty-five to thirty legions were usually permanently
stationed on or near the frontiers of the Empire, never in
Italy or Rome. A legatus was the permanent commander
of a legion, which numbered about 5,600 men, still in
ten cohorts, but the first cohort now contained 1,000 men
in centuries varying from 500 in the first to 100 in the fifth,
while the other uine cohorts had about 500 men divided
40 41
Chapter 4

the stress accent are simple. (i) In words of two syllables

Chapter 4: Pronunciation and Translation the accent always falls on the first syllable, e.g. virum,
6mnes, even though that syllable may be short. (ii) In
words of more than two syllables the accent falls on the
I. SYLLABLE DIVISION last syllable but one if that syllable is long, e.g. mon~re,
All Latin was intended to be read aloud. Yon have tremintem; and on the last syllable but two if the last but
already been taught how to pronounce the vowel sounds in one is short, e.g. capere, interea, ctirporum. Very long
Latin, and the vocabulary of this book will tell you the words have a secondary accent, which is found by working
"quantity", i.e. the length, of all the vowels contained in backwards from the main accent and applying the same
it. But it is also important to know how the Romans divided rule, e.g. c6nstituirunt. You must be careful not to accent
the syllables in their words, for each one should be pro- the words on the wrong syllable when reading aloud, as in
nounced clearly and distinctly, not slurred as some of our the old song "Am6, amas, I 16ve a lass", which gets the
English syllables are. Here are two simple rules. (i) When stress of both words and the quantity of the second wrong;
a vowel or diphthong (a diphthong consists of two vowels they should be pronounced amo, amas.
pronounced together, like the ae in mensae) is followed by
another vowel or diphthong or by a single consonant, the III. "DOG ENGLISH" OR
syllable division comes after the first vowel or diphthong, "GOBBLEDEGOOK"
e.g. de-i, e-ram, prae-mi-a. (ii) When there are two or more
consonants between two vowels or diphthongs, the syllable "Dog Latin" is the name given to the barbarous form
division usually comes after the first consonant, e.g. dig-nus, of Latin that was once used by semi-educated people in
bel-lum, con-sti-tu-it. An exception to this rule is that when Western Europe, like "pidgin English" in the east. I call
the two consonants can begin a Latin word the syllable "dog English" the strange jargon that has bedevilled our
division comes before these consonants, e.g. pa-trem, Latin classrooms and examinations for over a century,
a-grum (though the poets sometimes divide such words where pupils translate Latin into a kind of English that is
after the first consonant, to suit the metre, e.g. pat-rem, now almost meaningless, using certain stock words and
ag-rum). A word with a preposition prefix is divided phrases that are quite out of date. Americans call all
after the prefix, e.g. ab-rum-po, except when there is only kinds of jargon by the expressive name of" gobbledegook",
one consonant, e.g. a-be-o. and the Civil Service is addicted to a specially contorted
gobbledegook of its own; Sir Ernest Gowers, in his Plain
II. STRESS ACCENT Words, cites some fine specimens. Here are some examples
of classroom "Dog English".
In all languages, including of course English, one syllable To us nowadays a dart is used in a game played in pubs
in every word is usually stressed or accented more than the and clubs, or in an airgun, or in a South American blow-
other syllables, and foreigners have difficulty in pro- pipe, or is a paper missile that floats about classrooms; it is
nouncing some words correctly. In Latin the rules for certainly not applicable to a six-foot long heavy Roman
42 43
Chapter 4

pilum, which should be called a javelin. We seldom, if

ever use the words "seek" and "lest" in ordinary speech,
but unfortunately these are still stock translations of petere
and ne; petere is translated in e.g. silvas or hastes petierunt COMMENTARIORVM
to mean "they sought the woods" or "the enemy" instead
of "they made for" or "attacked"; and ne in an indirect DE BELLO GALLICO
command becomes "he advised me lest I might do it". LlBER SECVNDVS
Again we hard~y ever say" these things having been done",
or use a relattve pronoun to start a sentence, but in an
examination I have often seen quibus rebus gestis translated
into "which affairs having been carried on", or even Part I. The Abortive Risins l' the Belsae
"waged ". Such words and phrases are the relics of
Victorian classrooms and ought to have been swept away I Winter, 58-57 B.C. News reaches Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul
years ago with other Victorian rubbish. Latin would (northern Italy) that the Belgae are conspiring together to
become a language full of life again if you discarded these oppose the Romans. '" (
deadening and nowadays almost nonsensical words and , I CUM esset Caesar in citeriore GaIlia, ita ~ti supra
tried to translate what Caesar wrote into living English. demonstravinrus, crebri ad erim,~ adferebantur
litterisque item Lahleru certior'fi&;~T.nes Bclgas, quam
( tertiam ~ GaIliae partem dixeramuCf contra populum
"2 Romanum",coniurar7Iobsidesguynte~ se g~ret IConiurandi~
" has esse' causas: pnmum qUOd ~er~rentilr ne, ,::Frriru pacata
3 Galli~ ad eo~ exercitus noster adduceretur; ~ind~ qUQd I
ab\!lOn n~ Gallis soIlicitarentur, par1ft' qui,.Jit Gerlnanos
diutius in Gallia f~rsa"'rrnoluerant, populi Romani elf~r-("
" ~..i~ hie e a~,!uelnvet<;!:~sc~~ ~~a!m?les~~~ant,\\
" partlm q mob1litate~tlev1t~~~1",oV1S unperu§ stude.) .
ant; ",b n n nuIlis etiam ~\l:o(! in Gallia a potentioribus
atque\,s qui (ad conducendos homine~facultates habebant
vulgo regna occu).'abantur, qui minus facile eam rem inrperio
nostro con~qurpoterant.
\" '" 1[""
2 Early summer, 57 B.C. Caesar sends two newly-enrolled
legions into Transalpine Gaul (France). After hearing from
their Gallic neighbours about the activities of the Be/gae he
marches into their country.
44 45
I lHis nuntiis litterisqu!;j commoms Caesar duas legiones the chief tribe, and the combined force sent by all tribes
in citeriore Gallia l! conscripsit, et ~aestate in amounts to 296,000 men.
in~e?orem Galliam ~ui deduceret 'Q. Pedium I!=~mm
2 mlslt. Ipse, cum §~llIl!U?a opla esse inciJjeret, a;{l, I Cum ab his quaereret quae civitates quantaeque in armis
3 exerc~rum ~e% 1 at nego,pum Senonibus reliquisq;re~ essent et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat: plerosque
Galli~qui fiiii'timf Be g~s ~)uti(C*ua~ud ~~erantul:l Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis Rhenumque antiquitus
2 traductos propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse; Gallosque
, 4 cognoscant s.:\!ue Ae }tlS rebus certiorem faciant.) Hi con-
, stanter omnes nunti£verunt manus cogi, exercirum in unum qui ea loca incolerent expulisse; solosque esse qui, patrum
locum conduci. Ttlin-v~ro dubitand~ nRn existim\lVit nostrorum memoria omni Gallia vexata, Teutonos Cimbros-
,quin ad eos p~oficisceYe'~;:. ~e f~~e~tari~ compl;r~fu' 3 que intra fines suos ingredi prohibuerint: qua ex re fieri
\castra movet> diebusque(ClrClter qumdecim)ad »nes Bel- uti earum rerum memoria magnam sibi auctoritatem mag-
garum pervenit. 4 nosque spirims in re militari sumerent. De numero eorum
omnia se habere explorata Remidicebant, propterea quod,
propinquitatibus adfinitatibusque coniuncti, quantam quis-
3 On Caesar's unexpected arrival the Belgic tribe of the Remi que multimdinem in communi Belgarum concilio ad 'id
send ambassadors to place themselves entirely in his power. )"bellum pollicims sit cognoverint. Plurimum inter eos
They say that the Germans in Gaul and even their own Bellovacos et virtute et auctoritate et hominum numero
kinsfolk, the Suessiones, are joining in the rising. valere: hos posse conficere armata milia cenrum, pollicitos
I Eo cum de improviso celeriusque omni opinione venisset, ex eo numero electa sexaginta, totiusque belli imperium sibi
Remi, qui proximi Galliae ex Belgis sunt, ad eum legatos 6 postulare. Suessiones suos esse finitimos; latissimos fera-
2 I~cium et Andecomborium, primos civitatis, miserunt; qru , 7 cissimosque agros possidere. Apud eos fuisse regem nostra
dlcerent se suaque omnia in fidem atque in potestatem , etiam memoria Diviciacum, totius Galliae potentissimum,
populi Romani permittere, neque se cum Belgis reliquis qui cum magnae partis harum regionum tum etiam Britan-
consensisse, neque contra populum Romanum coniurasse; niae imperium obtinuerit: nunc esse regem Galbam: ad
3 paratosque esse et obsides dare et imperata facere et hunc, propter iustitiam prudentiamque suam, totius belli
4 oppidis recipere et frumento ceterisque rebus iuvare; reli- 8 summam omnium voluntate deferri; oppida habere numero
XII, polliceri milia armata quinquaginta. Totidem Nervios,
quos omnes Belgas in armis esse, Germanosque qui cis
5 Rhenum incolant sese cum his coniunxisse; tanrumque esse qui maxime feri inter ipsos habeanmr longissimeque absint;
eorum omnium furorem ut ne Suessiones quidem, fratres 9 quindecim milia Atrebates, Ambianos decem milia, Morinos
consanguineosque suos, qui eodem iure et isdem legibus xxv milia, Menapios VII milia, Caletos X milia, Veliocasses
utantur, unum imperium unumque magistrarum cum ipsis et Viromanduos totidem, Aduamcos decem et novem milia;
habeant, deterrere pomerint quin cum his consentirent. 10 Condrusos, Eburones, Caeroesos, Paemanos, qui uno nomine
Germani appellanmr, arbitrari ad XL milia.
4 The Remi say that the Belgae entered Gaul from Germany 5 Caesar re-assures the Remi and urges Diviciacus the Aeduan
long ago and are a very warlike people. The Bellovaci are to ravage the land of the Bellovaci. He encamps just north
46 47
of the River Axona (Aime) tofaee the full force of the Belgae, in murum lapides iaci coepti sunt murusque defensoribus
leaves a garrison for the bridge (at Berry-au-Bae), and sends nudatus est, testudine facta, portas succendunt murumque
Sabinus to make a fort south of (he river. ' ' 3 subruunt. Quod tum facile fiebat. Nam cum tanta
multitudo lapides ac tela coicerent, in muro consistendi
I Caesar Remos- c<llhortatus liberaliierque oratione prose-
4 potestas erat nulli. Cum finem oppugnandi nox fecisset,
cutus, omnem seii'lttum ad se convemre principumque Icclus R,emus, summa nobilitate et gratia inter suos, qui tum
liberos"' obsides ad se addud iussit. Quae omnia ab his
oppido praefuerat, unus ex eis qui legati de pace ad Caesarem
2 diligenter ad diem facta sunt. Ipse Dividacum Aeduum
venerant, nuntium ad eum mittit: nisi subsidium sibi
magnopere cohortatus doc~t quanta opere rei publicae
submittatur, sese diutius sustinere non posse.
communisque saiutis"'inte;Sit manus hostium distineri, ne
3 cum tanta multitudine uno tempore\g)nfligendum si!J Id 7 The arrival of archers and slingers sent by Caesar relieves
fieri posse, si suas copias Aedui in fines Bellovacorum intro-
the siege of Bibrax, and the Belgae approach the Romans and
duxerint et eorum agros populari coeperint. His mandatis
encamp two miles away from them to the north-west.
4 eum ab se dimittit. Postquam omnes Belgarum copias in
unum locum coactas ad se venire vidit, neque iam longe I Eo de media nocte Caesar, isdem ducibus usus qui
abesse ab eis quos miserat exploratoribus et ab Remis nuntii ab Iccio venerant, N umidas et Cretas sagittarios et
cognovIt, flumen Axonam, quod est in extremis Remorum 2 funditores Baleares subsidio oppidanis mittit: quorum ad-
finibus, exerdtum traducere maturavit atque ibi castra ventu et Remis cum spe defensionis studium propugnandi
5 posuit. Quae res et latus unum castrorum ripis fluminis accessit et hostibus eadem de causa spes potiendi oppidi
muniebat, et post eum quae essent tuta ab hostibus reddebat, 3 discessit. Itaque paulisper apud oppidum morati agrosque
et commeatus ab Remis reliquisque civitatibus ut sine Remorum depopulati, omnibus vids aedificiisque quos adire
6 periculo ad eum portari posset efficlebat. In eo flumine potuerant incensis, ad castra Caesaris omnibus copiis con-
pons erato Ibi praesidillm ponit et in a1tera parte fluminis tenderunt, et ab milibus passuum minus duobus castra
Q. Titurium Sabinum legatum cum sex cohortibus relinquit: posuerunt; quae castra, ut fumo atque ignibus significabatur,
castra in altitudinem pedum XII vallo fossaque duodeviginti amplius milibus passuum octo in latitudinem patebant.
pedum munire iubet.
8 Caesar wishes to avoid a pitched battle with the superior
6 The Belgae assault Bibrax (probably Vieux-Laon), a town of numbers of the Belgae, but learns from cavalry skirmishes that
the Remi eight miles away. Its commander sends word to his men are a match for them. He protects his flanks with
Caesar that he must surrender next day unless help arrives. trenches on each side of the camp, one running forward, the
other to the rear, with a fort at the end of each, and draws up
I Ab his castris oppidum Remorum, nomine Bibrax, aberat
a line of six legions in front of the camp. The Belgae also
milia passuum octo. Id ex itinere magno impetu Be1gae
2 oppugnare coeperunt. Aegre eo die sustentatum est. GaI- draw up their line.
lorum eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est haec. Ubi I Caesar primo et propter multitudinem hostium et propter
circumiecta multitudine hominum totis moenibus undique eximiam opinionem virtutis proelio supersedere statuit;
48 49
cotidie tamen equestribus proeliis quid hostis virtute posse!
2 et quid nostri auderent periclitabatur. Ubi nostros non
esse inferiores intellexit, loco pro castris ad aciem instruen-
dam natura opportuno atque idoneo, quod is collis ubi castra
posita erant paululum ex planitie editus tantum adversus
in latitudinem patebat quantum loci acies instructa occupare
poterat, atque ex utraque parte lateris deiectus habebat et in
3 frontem leuiter fastigatus paularim ad planitiem redibat, ab
utroque latere eius collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter
4 passuum quadringentorum, et ad extremas fossas castella
constituit ibique tormenta collocavit ne, cum aciem instruxis-
set, hostes, quod tantum multitudine poterant, ab lateribus
5 pugnantes suos circumvenire possent. Hoc facto, duabus
legionibus quas proxime conscripserat in castris relictis ut,
si quo opus esset, subsidio duci possent, reliquas sex legiones
pro castris in acie constituit. Hostes item suas copias ex
castris eductas instruxerant.

9 Neither side is willing to cross the marsh that lies between the
two armies, and after being worsted in a cavalry engagement
the Belgae begin to ford the river on their right to storm the
fort at the bridge commanded by Sabinus or else to cut the
Roman supply line.
I Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium
exercitum. Hanc si nostri transirent hostes exspectabant;
nostri autem, si ab illis initium transeundi lieret, ut im-
2 peditos aggrederentur parati in armis erant. Interim
proelio equestri inter duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri
transeundi initium faciunt, secundiore equitum proelio nos-
3 tris, Caesar suos in castra reduxit. Hostes protinus ex eo
loco ad flumen Axonam contenderunt, quod esse post nostra
4 castra demonstratum est. Ibi vadis repertis, partem suarum
copiarum traducere conati sunt, eo consilio ut, si possent,
castellum, cui praeerat Q. Titurius legatus, expugnarent
5 pontemque interscinderent; si minus p~,:;ent, agros I Ea re constituta, secunda vigilia magno cum strepitu ac
Remorum popularentur, qui magno nobis~ad bellum turnultu castris egressi, nullo certo ordine neque imperio,
gerendum erant, commeatuque nostros probiberent. cum sibi quisque primum itineris locum peteret et domum
pervenire properaret, fecerunt ut consimilis fugae profectio
10 Caesar sends his cavalry and auxiliaries back across the 2 videretur. Hac re statim Caesar per speculatores cognita
bridge to attack the enemy while fording the river, and they insidias veritus, quod qua de causa discederent nondum per-
kill a large number of them. Despairing of success here and 3 spexerat, exercitum equitaturnque castris continuit. Prima
because food is running short, the Belgae decide that the tribes luce, confirmata re ab exploratoribus, omnem equitatum qui
should return home and resist the Romans in their own country. novissimum agmen moraretur praemisit. His Q. Pedium
et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legatos praefecit; T. Labienum
I Caesar certior factus ab Titurio omnem equitaturn et levis 4 legaturn cum legionibus tribus subsequi iussit. Hi novissi-
armaturae Numidas, funditores sagittariosque pontem tra- mos adorti et multa milia passuum prosecuti magnam multi-
2 ducit atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco pugnaturn tudinem eOrum fugientium conciderunt, cum ab extremo
est. Hostis impeditos nostri in flumine aggressi magnum agmine, ad quos ventum erat, consisterent, fortiterque im-
3 eorum numerum occiderunt; per eorum corpora reliquos 5 peturn nostrorum militum sustinerent, priores, quod abesse
audacissime transire conantes multitudine telorum reppule- a periculo viderentur neque ulla necessitate neque imperio
runt; primos qui transierant equitatu circumventos inter- continerentur, exaudito clamore, perturbatis ordinibus,
4 fecerunt. Hostes, ubi et de expugnando oppido et de 6 omnes in fuga sibi praesidium ponerent. Ita sine ullo
flumine transeundo spem se fefellisse intellexerunt neque periculo· tantam eorum multitudineI!!. nostri interfecerunt
nostros in locum iniquiorem progredi pugnand:i causa quantum fl.lit diei spatium~b occasuOAque solis destiterunt
viderunt atque ipsos res frumentaria deficere coepit, con- seque in castra, ut erat imperatum, receperunt.
cilio convocato, constituerunt optimum esse domum suam
quemque reverti et quorum in fines primum Romani
exerciturn introduxissent ad eos defendendos undique con- 12 Next day Caesar prepares to assault NO'lliodunum of the
venire; ut potius in suis quam in alienis finibus decertarent Suessiones (Pommiers), but it is too well fortified to be taken
5 et domesticis copiis rei frumentariae uterentur. Ad earn by a sudden attack. The Suessiones return home from their
sententiam cum reliquis causis haec quoque ratio eos flight and on seeing the Roman siege-works in action surrender
deduxit, quod Diviciacum atque Aeduos finibus Bellova- the town on the following day.
corum appropinquare cognoverant. His persuaderi ut I Postridie eius diei Caesar, prius quam se hostes ex terrore
diutius morarentur neque suis auxilium ferrent non poterat. ac fuga reciperent, in fines Suessionum, qui proximi Remis
erant, exerciturn duxit et magno itinere confecto ad
II The Belgae set out in the night with great uproar.. Caesar 2 oppidum Noviodunum contendit. Id ex itinere oppugnare
first fears an ambush but at dawn sends the cavalry and three conatus, quod vacuum ab defensoribus esse audiebat, propter
legions to pursue the rear, which suffers heavy losses all day latitudinem fossae murique altitudinem, paucis defendenti-
while the rest of the memy make good their flight. 3 bus, expugnare non potuit. Castris munitis, vineas agere
52 53

quaeque ad oppugnandum usui erant comparare coepit. 3 intulisse. Qui eius consili principes fuissent, quod intclle-
4 Interim omnis ex-fuga Suessionum multitudo in oppidum gerent quantam calamitatem civitati intulissent, in Britan-
5 proxima nocte convenit. Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, 4 niam profugisse. Petere non solum Bellovacos sed etiam
aggere iacto turribusque constitutis, magnitudine operum, pro his Aeduos ut sua clementia ac mansuetudine in eos
quae neque viderant ante Galli neque audierant, et celeritate 5 utatur. Quod si fecerit, Aeduorum auctoritatem apud
Romanorum permoti legatos ad Caesarem de deditione omnes Belgas amplificaturum, quorum auxiliis atque opibus
mittunt et petentibus Remis ut conservarentur impetrant. si qua bella inciderint sustentare consuerint.

13 Caesar accepts the submission of the Suessiones and approaches IS Caesar takes six hundred Bel/ovacian hostages and spares their
Brantuspantium of the Bel/ovaci ( ?Breteuil), from which the state out of respect for Diviciacus. The Ambiani also submit
old men, women, and childrell come out to ask for peace. at once, but the warlike Nervii refuse to send legates or
accept terms from the Romans.
I Caesar, obsidibus acceptis primis civitatis atque ipsius
Galbae regis duobus filiis armisque omnibus ex oppido I Caesar, honoris Diviciaci atque Aeduorum causa sese eos
traditis, in deditionem Suessiones accepit exercitumque in in fidem recepturum et conservaturum dixit: quod erat
2 Bellovacos ducit. Qui cum se suaque omnia in oppidum civitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate atque hominum mul-
Bratuspantium contulissent atque ab eo oppido Caesar 2 titudine praestabat, sescentos obsides poposcit. His traditis
cum cxercitu circitcr milia passuum quinque abesset, omnes omnibusque armis ex oppido collatis, ab eo loco in fines
maiores natu ex oppido egressi manus ad Caesarem tenderc Ambianorum pervenit, qui se suaque omnia sine mora dedi-
et voce significare coeperunt sese in eius fidem ac potestatem 3 derunt. Eorum fines Nervii attingebant: quorum de natura
venire neque contra populum Romanum armis contendere_ 4 moribusque Caesar cum quaereret, sic reperiebat: nullum
3 Item, cum ad oppidum accessisset castraque ibi poneret, aditum esse ad eos mercatoribus; nihil pati vini reliquarum-
pueri mulieresque ex muro passis manibus suo more pacem que rerum ad luxuriam pertinentium inferri, quod eis rebus
ab Romanis petierunt. relanguescere animos eorum et remitti virtutem existima-
5 rent: esse homines feros magnaeque virtutis; increpitare
14 Diviciacus the Aeduan intercedes for the Bel/ovaci, who he atque incusare reliquos Belgas, qui se populo Romano de-
says have been incited by their leaders, now seeking refuge in didissent patriamque virtutem proiecissent; confirmare sese
Britain, to revolt against the Aedui, although they have been neque legatos missuros neque ullam condicionem pacis
their constant protectors, and to make war on the Romans. accepturos.
I Pro his Diviciacus (nam post discessum Belgarum, dimissis
2 Aeduorum copiis, ad eum reverterat) facit verba: Bellovacos
omni tempore in fide atque amicitia civitatis Aeduae ~e:
impulsos ab suis principibus, qui dicerent Aeduos a Caesare Part ll. The Dtjeat if the Nervii
in servitutem redactos omnes indignitates contumeliasque 16 Summer, 57 B.C. Three days later Caesar learns that the
perferre, et ab Aeduis defecisse et populo Romano bellum Nervii and their allies are waiting for him on the south side
54 55
of the river Sabis (Sambre), that the Aduatuci are expected equitatum, si praedandi causa ad eos venissent, impedirent,
to join them, and that all non-combatants have been sent to teneris arboribus incisis atque inflexis crebrisque in latitu-
a place of safety in the marshes. dinem ramis enatis et rubis sentibusque interiectis, effecerant
I Cum per eorum fines triduum iter fecisset, inveniebat ex ut instar muri hae saepes munimenta eis praeberent, quo non
captivis Sabim flumen ab castris suis non amplius milia pas- 5 modo non intrari sed ne perspici quidem posset. His rebus
2 suum x abesse: trans id flumen omnes Nervios consedisse cum iter agrninis nostri impediretur, non omitrendum con-
adventumque ibi Romanorum exspectare una cum Atrebatis silium Nervii existimaverunt.
et Viromanduis, finitimis suis (nam his utrisque persuaserant
3 uti eandem belli fortunam experirentur); exspectari etiam ab 18 The site of the Roman camp is on a hill sloping down to the
4 his Aduatucorum copias atque esse in itioere: mulieres Sabis, with a reverse slope on the other side of the river,
quique per aetatem ad pugnam inutiles viderentur in eum where the enemy are hiding in the woods that cover the upper
locum coiecisse quo propter paludes exercitui aditus non part of the hill.
esset. I Loci natura erat haec, quem locum nostri castris dele-
gerant. Collis ab summo aequaliter declivis ad flumen
[7 Some of the Belgae 7vho have surrendered leave Caesar on 2 Sabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo flumine
the march and advise the Nervii' to attack the first legion to pari acclivitate collis nascebatur, adversus huic et contrarius,
mahe camp while it is still separated from the other legions passus circiter ducentos infimus apertus, ab superiore parte
by its long baggage-train. The thick hedges that defend the 3 silvestris, ut non facile introrsus perspici posset. Intra eas
Nervian territory will hamper the Romans' march. silvas hostes in occulto sese continebant; in aperto loco
I His rebus cognitis, exploratores centurionesque praemittit secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum videbantul'.
2 qui locum idoneum castris deligant. Cum ex dediticiis Fluminis erat altitudo pedum circiter trium.
Belgis reliquisque Gallis complures Caesarem secuti una
iter facerent, quidam ex his, ut postea ex captivis cognitum 19 Caesar is now admncing in a different formation, with his six
est, eorum dierum consuetudine itineris nostri exercitus veteran legions ready for battle, followed by the baggage
perspecta, nocte ad Nervios pervenerunt atque eis demon- guarded by the two new legions. The Roman auxiliaries
strarunt inter singulas legiones impedimentorum magnum engage the Nervian cavalry on the other side of the river, and
numerum intercedere neque esse quicquam negoti, cum the six legions begin to fortify the camp. When the baggage-
prima legio in castra venisset reliquaeque legiones magnum train appears, the enemy dash out of the wood, rout the
3 spatium abessent, hanc sub sarcinis adoriri: qua pulsa im- Roman cavalry, cross the river, and attack the men who are
pedimentisque direptis, futurum ut reliquae contra consistere at work on the camp.
4 non auderent. Adiuvabat etiam eorum consilium qui rem I Caesar,equitatu praemisso, subsequebaturomnibus copiis:
deferebant quod Nervii antiquitus, cum equitatu nihil pos- sed ratio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat ac Belgae ad
sent (neque eDim ad hoc tempus ei rei student sed quicquid 2 Nervios detulerant. Nam quod ad hostes appropinquabat,
possunt pedestribus valent copiis), quo facilius finitimorum consuetudine sua Caesar sex legiones expeditas ducebat;
56 57

3 post eas totius exercitus impedimenta collocarat; inde duae

legiones quae proxime conscriptae erant totum agmen c1au-
4 debant praesidioque impedimentis erant. Equites nostri
cum funditoribus sagittariisque flumen transgressi cum hos-
5 tium equitatu proelium commiserunt. Cum se illi identidem
in silvas ad suos reciperent, ac rursus ex silva in nostros
impetum facerent, neque nostri longius quam quem ad
finem porrecta loca aperta pertinebant, cedentes insequi
auderent, interim legiones sex quae primae venerant, opere
6 dimenso, castra muuire coeperunt. Ubi prima impedi-
menta nostri exercitus ab eis qui in silvis abditi latebant
visa sunt, quod tempus inter eos committendi proeli
convenerat, ut intra silvas aciem ordinesque constituerant
atque ipsi sese confirmaverant, subito omnibus copus
provolaverunt impetumque in nostros equites fecerunt.
7 His facile pulsis ac proturbatis, incredibili celeritate ad
flumen decucurrerunt, ut paene uno tempore et ad silvas et
in flumine et iam in manibus nostris hostes viderentur.
8 Eadem autem celeritate adverso colle ad nostra castra atque
eos qui in opere occupati erant contenderunt.

20 Caesar has many things to do simultaneously in this crisis,

but the experience of the soldiers and the officers in command
of the legions saves the situation.
I Caesari omuia uno tempore erant agenda: vexillum pro-
ponendum, quod erat insigne cum ad arma concurri opor-
teret; signum tuba dandum; ab opere revocandi milites;
qui paulo longius aggeris petendi causa processerant
arcessendi; acies instruenda; milites cohortandi; signum
2 dandum. Quarum rerum magnam partem temporis brevitas
3 et successus hostium impediebat. His difficultatibus duae res
crant subsidio, scientia atque usus militum, quod superiori-
bus proellis exercitati quid fieri oporteret non minus com-
mode ipsi sibi praescribere quam ab allis doceri poterant, et
quod ab opere singulisque legionibus singulos legatos Caesar subsidia collocari neque quid in quaque parte opus esset
4 discedere nisi munitis castris vetuerat. Hi propter propin- provideri neque ab uno omnia imperia administrari poterant,
quitatem et celeritatem hostium nihil iam Caesaris imperium 2 Itaque in tanta rerum iniquitate fortunae quoque eventus
exspectabant, sed per se quae videbantur administrabant. varii sequebantur.
21 Caesar makes a bl'ief speech of encouragemenl 10 the Tenth
Legion (011 Ihe left) ami semis them against the enemy. On 23 The Ninth and Tenth Legions on the left drive the Atrebates
the other flank the troops are already fighting, although not across the river and up the slope, while the Eleventh and
quite ready for actioll, and the mm coming from working on the Eighth in the centre also advance to the river in pursuit of
camp rally round the first standards that they come upon. the Virimandui, but the Twelflh ami Seventh on the right
al'e now isolated ami exposed to a heavy attack by the Nervii.
I Caesar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandos milites
quam in partem fors obtulit decucurrit et ad legionem deci- I Legionis nonae et decimae milites, ut in sinistra parte ade
2 mam devenit. Milites non longiore oratione cohortatus constiterant, pilis emissis, cursu ac lassitudine exanimatos
quam uti suae pristinae virtutis memoriam retinerent neu vulneribusque confectos Atrebates (nam his ea pars ob-
perturbarentur animo hostiumque impetum fortiter sustine- venerat) celeriter ex loco superiore in fiumen compulerunt,
3 rent, quod non longius hostes aberant quam quo telum et transire conantes insecuti gladiis maguam partern eorum
4 adigi posset, proeli committendi siguum dedit. Atque in 2 impeditam interfecerunt, Ipsi transire fiumen non dubita-
alteram partem item cohortandi causa profectus pugnantibus verunt et in locum iniquum progressi rursus resistentes
5 occurrit. Temporis tanta fuit exiguitas hostiumque tam 3 hostes redintegrato proelio in fugam coiecerunt. Item
paratus ad dimicandum animus ut non modo ad insignia alia in parte diversae duae legiones, undecima et octava,
accommodanda sed etiam ad galeas induendas scutisque profligatis Viromanduis quibuscum erant congressi, ex loco
6 tegimenta detrahenda tempus defuerit. Quam quisque ab 4 superiore in ipsis fiuminis ripis proeliabantur. At totis fere
opere in partem casu devenit quaeque prima signa con- a fronte et ab sinistra parte nudatis castris, cum in dextro
spexit, ad haec constitit, ne in quaerendis suis pugnandi cornu legio duodecima et non magno ab ea intervallo sep-
tempus dimitteret. tima constitisset, omnes Nervii confertissimo agrnine, duce
Boduognato, qui summam imperi tenebat, ad eum locum
22 The legions are drawn up as circumstances allow, separated, 5 contenderunt; quorum pars aperto latere legiones circum-
ami fighting the enemy in different parts of the field, ami the venire, pars summum castrorum locum petere coepit,
thick hedges in front make it difjicult to see what orders
should be given, so that the situation is greatly confused.
24 The au:xiliaries retreating to the camp meet the enemy again
I Instructo exercitu magis ut loci natura deiectusque collis ami flee, and the non-combatants who have gone out to get
et necessitas temporis quam ut rei militaris ratio atque ordo plunder also take to flight. The drivers of the approaching
postuiabat, cum diversis legionibus aliae alia in parte hostibus baggage-train are panic-stricken, ami the cavalry of the
resisterent saepibusque densissimis, ut ante demonstra- Treveri in Caesar's army hasten home and report that the
vimus, interiectis prospectus impediretur, neque certa Romans have been defeated,
60 61

I Eodem tempore equites nostri levisque armaturae pedites neque a fronte ex inferiore loco subeuntes intermittere et ab
qui cum eis una fuerant, quos primo hostium impetu pulsos utroque latere ins tare, et rem esse in angusto vidit, neque
dixeram, cum se in castra reciperent, adversis hostibus oc- 2 ullum esse subsidium quod summitti posset, scuto ab novis-
2 currebant ac rursus aliam in partem fugam petebant; et simis uni militi detracto, quod ipse eo sine scuto venerat, in
calones, qui ab decumana porta ac summo iugo collis primam aciem processit centurionibusque nominatim appel-
nostros victores flumen transisse conspexerant, praedandi latis, reliquos cohortatus milites, signa inferre et manipulos
causa egressi, cum respexissent et hostes in nostris castris 3 laxare iussit, quo facilius gladiis uti possent. Cuius adventu
3 versari vidissent, praecipites fugae sese mandabant. Simul spe inlata militibus ac redintegrato animo, cum pro se quisque
eorum qui cum impedimentis veniebant clamor fremitusque in conspectu imperatoris etiam in extremis suis rebus operam
oriebatur, aliique aliam in partem perterriti ferebantur. navare cuperet, paulum hostium impetus tardatus est.
4 Quibus omnibus rebus permoti equites Treveri, quorum
inter Gallos virtutis opinio est singularis, qui auxili causa z6 Caesar orders the Seventh Legion, which is also hard pressed,
ab civitate ad Caesarem missi venerant, cum multitudine to close up on the Twelfth and the rear lines of each to turn
hostium castra compleri nostra, legiones premi et paene and face the enemy in their rear. The baggage-guard now
circumventas teneri, calones, equites, funditores, Numidas, arrives, and Labienus sends the Tenth Legion at full speed to
diversos dissipatosque in omnes partes fugere vidissent, de- the rescue from the captured enemy camp.
S speratis nostris rebus domum contenderunt; Romanos
pulsos superatosque, castris impedimentisque eorum hostes I Caesar cum septimam legionem, quae iuxta constiterat,
potitos civitati renuntiaverunt. item urgeri ab hoste vidisset, tribunos militum monuit ut
paulatim sese legiones coniungerent et conversa signa in
zs On the right flank Caesar finds the Twelfth Legion in a . 2 hostes inferrent. Quo facto cum alius alii subsidium ferret
critical position, with many centurions killed or wounded. neque timerent ne aversi ab hoste circumvenirentur, au-
He himself goes forward into the front /ine to encourage his 3 dacius resistere ac fortius pugnare coeperunt. Interim
men, who extend their ranks with renewed spirit and check milites legionum duarum quae in novissimo agmine prae-
the enemy attack. sidio impedimentis fuerant, proelio nuntiato, cursu incitato
I Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 4 in summo colle ab hostibus conspiciebantur; et T. Labienus,
cornu profectus, ubi suos urgeri signisque in unum locum castris hostium potitus et ex loco superiore quae res in
collatis duodecimae legionis confertos milites sibi ipsos ad nostris castris gererentur conspicatus, decimam legionem
pugnam esse impedimenta vidit, quartae cohortis omnibus 5 subsidio nostris misit. Qui cum ex equitum et calonum
centurionibus occisis signiferoque interfecto, signo amisso, fuga quo in loco res esset quantoque in periculo et castra
reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vul- et legiones et imperator versaretur cognovissent, nihil ad
neratis aut occisis, in his primipilo P. Sextio Baculo, fottis- celeritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt.
simo viro, multis gravibusque vulneribus confecto, ut iam se
sustinere non posset, reliquos esse tardiores, et non nullos 27 The arrival of the Tenth Legion changes the whole course of
ab novissimis deserto proelio excedere ac tela vitare, hostes the battle. Even the wounded legionaries renew the struggle,
62 63
the non-combatants fight ulJarmed, and the cavalry atone for uti iussit et finitimis imperavit ut ab iniuria et maleficio se
their flight by showing great courage. The Nervii hold out suosque prohiberent.
to the death with remarkable valour.
I Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio est facta ut
nostri, etiam qui vulneribus confecti procubuissent, scutis
innixi proelium redintegrarent; tum calones, perterritos
hostes conspicati, etiam inermes armatis occurrerunt; Part Ill. The Punishment cif the Aduatuci
1 equites vero, ut turpitudinem fugae virtute delerent, omni-
bus in locis pugnant quo se legionariis militibus praeferrent. 29 Summer, 57 B.C. On hearing of Ihe defeat of the Nervii, Ihe
3 At hostes, etiam in extrema spe salutis, tantam virtutem Adualuci lake refuge in a slrongly fortified position (probably
praestiterunt ut, cum primi eorum cecidissent, proximi Monl Falhize on the Meuse). They are descended from the
iacentibus insisterent atque ex eorum corporibus pugnarent; Cimbri and Teuloni who were lefl here to guard the property
4 his deiectis et coacervatis cadaveribus, qui superessent, ut which could not be taken with Ihem on Ihe invasion of Gaul
ex tumulo, tela in nostros coicerent et pila intercepta and Italy (fifty years before).
5 remitterent; ut non nequiquam tantae virtutis homines I Aduatuci, de quibus supra scripsimus, cum omnibus copiis
iudicari deberet ansos esse transire latissimum flumen, ascen- auxilio Nerviis venirent, hac pugna nuntiata ex itinere
dere altissimas ripas, subire iniquissimum locum; quae 2 domum reverterunt; cunctis oppidis castellisque desertis,
facilia ex diflicillimis animi magnitudo redegerat. sua omnia in unum oppidum egregie natura munitum con-
3 tulerunt. Quod cum ex omnibus in circuitu partibus altis-
28 The old men of the Nervii surrender themselves and their simas rupes despectusque haberet, una ex parte leniter
families to Caesar from their place of refuge and say that acclivis aditus in latitudinem non amplius ducentorum
only 500 fighting men remain out of 60,000. Caesar shows pedum relinquebatur; quem locum duplici altissimo muro
mercy to the survivors. munierant, tum magni ponderis saxa et praeacutas trabes in
I Hoc proelio facto et prope ad internecionem gente ac 4 muro colloFabant. Ipsi erant ex Cimbris Teutonisque pro-
nomine Nerviorum redacto, maiores natu, quos una cum gnati qui, cum iter in provinciam nostram atque Italiam
pueris mulieribusque in aestuaria ac paludes collectos dixe- facerent, eis impedimentis quae 'ecum agere ac portare
ramus, hac pugna nuntiata, cum victoribus nihil impeditum, non poterant citra flumen Rhenum depositi~custodiam ex
victis nihil tutum arbitrarentur, omnium qui supererant suis ac praesidium\ sex milia hominum una" reliquerunt.
2 consensu legatos ad Caesarem miserunt seque ei dediderunt, 5 Hi post eorum obitum multos annos a finitimis exagitati,
et in commemoranda civitatis calamitate ex sescentis ad cum alias bellum inferrent alias inlatum defenderent, COn-
tres senatores, ex hominum milibus LX vix ad quingentos, sensu eorum omnium pace facta, hunc sibi domicilio locum
3 qui arma ferre possent, sese redactos esse dixerunt. Quos delegerunt.
Caesar, ut in miseros ac supplices usus misericordia videre- 30 The Romans blockade the town with a rampart and forts and
tur, diligentissime conservavit suisque finibus atque oppidis begin 10 move forward siege-engines and build a lower. The
64 65
Aduatuci ridicule the smallness of the Romans compared with neighbours not to harm them. The Aduatuci throw a great
the size of the tower. number of weapons down into the town ditch, but still keep
I Ae primo adventu exerdtus nostri erebras ex oppido back a third of their arms. They then open the gates.
excursiones fadebant, parvulisque proellis cum nostris I Ad haec Caesar respondit: se magis consuetudine sua
2 contendebant; postea vallo pedum in drcuitu quindecim quam merito eorum dvitatem conservaturum, si prius quam
milium erebrisque eastellis drcummuniti oppido sese conti- murum aries attigisset se dedidissent; sed deditionis nuIlam
3 nebant. Ubi vincis actis, aggere exstructo, turrim procul con- 2 esse condidonem nisi armis traditis. Se id quod in Nerviis
stitui viderunt, primum irridere ex muro atque increpitare fedsset facturum finitimisque imperaturum ne quam dedi-
vodbus quod tanta machinatio ab tanto spatio instrueretur: 3 ticiis populi Romani iniuriam inferrent. Re nuntiata ad
4 quibusnam manibus aut quibus viribus praesertim homines 4 suos, quae imperarentur facere dixerunt. Armorum magna
tantulae staturae (nam pleriliiique hominibus Gallis prae multitudine de mu~ i~sam quae erat ante oppidum
magnitudine corporum suorum brevitas nostra contemptui . iacta, sic ut prope umrn muti-,~ a~~m
est) tanti oneris turrim in muro se posse collocare con-~ acervi armorum adae&uarent, es. tamen clrclter parte tertIa, i
fiderent? ~t postea persp.!cmm est,)ce1anl atque in oppido retenta,
portis patefactis eo die pace sunt usi. .
31 Seeing the tower moving forward the Aduatuci are terrified
and offer to submit to Caesar, but beg him to allow them to
33 Caesar withdraws his men, but during the night the Aduatuci
keep their weapons as a defence against their enemies.
collect arms and make a sally. The Romans kill 4,000 of
I Ubi vero moveri et appropinquare moenibus viderunt, them, enter the town next day unopposed, and sell into
nova atque inusitata spede commoti legatos ad Caesarem slavery all the inhabitants to the number of 53,000.
2 de pace miserunt, qui ad hunc modum locuti: non existi-
mare Romanos sine ope divina bellum gerere, qui tantae I Sub vesperum Caesar portas c1audi rnilitesque ex oppido
altitudinis machinationes tanta celeritate promovere possent: exire iussit, ne qUiiih noctu oppidani ab militibus iniuriam
2 acdperent. Illi ante inito, ut intellectum est, consilio,
3 se suaque omnia eorum potestati permittere c-n"
. (quod deditione facta nostros praesidia deducturos aut deni-
Unum petere ac depreeari: si forte pro sua c1emenua ac
mansuetudine, quam ipsi ab allis audirent, statuisse~dua- que indiligentius servaturos crediderant) partirn cum eis
4 tucos esse"conservandos, ne se armis despoliaret. Sibi quae retinuerant et celaverant arrnis, partirn scutis ex cor-
tlce factis aut viminibus intextis, quae subito, ut temporis
omnes fere finitimos esse inimicos ac suae virtuti invidere;
5 a quibus se defendere traditis armis non possent. Sibi exiguitas postulabat, pellibus induxerant, tertia vigilia, qua
~ praestare, si in eum casum dcducerentur, quamvis fortunam minime arduus ad nostras munitiones ascensus videbatur,
a populo Romano pati quam ab eis per crudarum interfid omnibus copiis repentin~ ex oppido eruptionem fecerunt.
inter quos dominari consuessent. 3 Celeriter, ut ante Caesar imperarat, ignibus significatione
4 facta, ex proxirnis castellis eo concursum est; pugnatumque
32 Caesar agrees to accept an immediate surrender, but the ab hostibus ita acriter est tit a viris fortibus in extrema spe
townsfolk must hand over their arms and he will order their salutis iniquo loco contra eos qui ex vallo turribusque tela
66 67

iacerent pugnari d~it, cum in una virtute omnis spes

5 salutis consisteret. Occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor,
6 reliqui in oppidum reiecti sunt. Postridie eius diei refractis NOTES
portis, cum iam defenderet nemo, atque intromissis mi\itibus
nostris, sectionem eius oppidi universam Caesar vendidit. References to other books of the .. Gallic War" are in roman
7 Ab eis qui emerant capitum numerus ad eum relatus est numerals, to chapters and sections of this and other books in
arabic nwnerals, and to sections in the same chapter in arabic
milium quinquaginta trium. numerals preceded by §.

34 Crassus reports the submission of the maritime states of north- I

west Gaul. I. citeriore Gallia: Cisalpine Gaul, or Nearer Gaul (i.e.

nearer to Rome), was northern Italy from the Alps 35 far south as
I Eodem tempore a P. Crasso, quem cum legione una miserat the River Rubicon (now Pisatello), just north of Ariminum
ad Venetos, Venellos, Osismos, Curiosolitas, Esubios, (Rimini). Caesar was governor of three provinces, Cisalpine
Aulercos, Redones, quae sunt maritimae civitates Oceanum- Gaul, Narhonese' (or Transalpine) Gaul (south-western France,
still called Provence), and Illyricum on the northern shores of the
que attingunt, certior factus est omnes eas civitates in Adriatic. He usually spent the summer campaigning in
deditionem potestatemque populi Romani esse redactas. Transalpine Gaul and the winter holding assizes and conducting
the affairs of his two peaceful provinces. ita uti (= ut): .. as",
35 Peace throughout Gaul follows these successes, and the h"ibes lit. Hin such a way as". supra, "previously", i.e. in the last words
of the previous book (I, 54, 3). Caesar as author uses the editorial
across the Rhine offer to send hostages. Caesar sets out for n we" (sometimes the first person singular, as in 24, I), but as
Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, leaving the legions in winter- general he always uses the third person singular when writing
quarters, and is given a fifteen days' thanksgiving at Rome. about himself. ad/erebantur and fiebat imply repeated action,
"were being brought". Labienus was Caesar's most trusted
I His rebus gestis, omni Gallia pacata, tanta huius belli ad officer in the Gallic wars and had now been left in command of
barbaros opinio perlata est, uti ab eis nationibus quae trans the troops in winter-quarters in the land of the Sequani (west of
Rhenum incolerent mitterentur legati ad Caesarem, qui se the Jura). After the Gallic wars he turned against his old com-
mander and was killed fighting against him at Munda in Spain
2 obsides daturas, imperata facturas pollicerentUI. Quas in 4S B.C. quam ••. dixeramus: "who we have (lit. 'had')
legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam Illyricumque properabat, said form a third part ... ", the pluperfect also appears in 24, I.
3 inita proxima aestate ad se reverti iussit. Ipse in Carnutes, quam refers to omnes Be/gas and should normally be quos, but it is
Andes, Turones, quaeque civitates propinquae eis locis erant "attracted" into the number and gender of partem, the comple-
ment of esse. The reference is to I, I, 1-6, where Caesar tells us
ubi bellum gesserat legionibus in hibernacula deductis, in that the Belgae lived in the area bounded by the Marne and the
4 Italiam profectus est. Ob easque res ex litteris Caesaris Seine, the lower Rhine, and the north-east coast of Gaul. To say
dierum quindecim supplicatio decreta est, quod ante id that a free and indepertdent people like the Belgae "were con-
tempus accidit nulli. spiring against the Roman people" when they were merely
preparing to defend themselves against aggression is a strange use
of words. inter Se dare is "were exchanging".
2. coniurandi .•. causas: II these were the reasons for
their conspiring". This is indirect statement still depending on
68 69
tertior Jiebat in the previous sentence. The dependent verbs Roman) rule", ablative of attendant circumstances, or ablative of
vererentur and sollicitarentur are in the subjunctive in oratio time when; "during our rule u.
ob/iqua (reported speech) because they are part of what Labienus
told Caesar; but the verbs that follow are in the indicative because
Caesar is now giving his own account of the reasons for the restless- 2
ness of the Gauls-or perhaps he simply made a slip and the verbs I. Duntiis: Umessages", not messengers, which would require
would nonnally all be in the subjunetive. omni pacata Gallia: a preposition. commotus is U influenced" or U prompted";
"when (or 'if') all Gaul was pacified", i.e. subdued; the ablative Caesar would not be "disturbed" at this news because he had
absolute refers to the future because the conquest was not yet probably already decided on the conquest of the Belgae. The
completed. The historian Tacitus, referring to the Roman "two new legions" raised from Italians living in Cisalpine Gaul
conquest of Britain a century later, makes a bitter remark about were the 13thand 14th. His troops in Transalpine Gaul consisted
his own people, ubi solitudinem jaciunt, pacem appellant, U when offour veteran legions (the 7th, 8th, 9th, and loth), two new legions
they have made a desert they call it peace", in a speech supposed (the 1 nh and 12th), which he raised in Cisalpine Gaul at the
to have been made by the British leader (Agricola, 30). Ga/lia beginning of his first campaign in 58 B.C. (I, 10, 3), and now these
here means U Celtic Gaul", the central portion of the country two just mentioned, making a total of about 30,000 men, together
excluding the Belgae and Aquitania in the south~east (I, I, I with Gallic auxiliaries, both infantry and cavalry, raised in the
and 7). We should expect to find ad se rather than ad eos Province, making up another 10,000 men. inita aestate: U at
(" against them "), referring to the Belgae, who are the subject of the beginning of the summer", lit. "summer having been begun"
vererentur. (from ineo). The campaigning season began in early summer
3. DOD nullis: often written as one word, nonnullis. This is after the troops had spent the winter in permanent winter-quarters.
divided into tWo classes, partim (eis) qui •. OJ partim (eis) qui . .. J interiorem Galliam is here used for the more common ulteriorem
lit. "by some Gauls, partly (those) who ... , partly (those) who ...", Galliam, "Further (i.e. Transalpine) Gaul", and must be taken
i.e. U by certain Gauls, some of whom .. others ...n. ut •••
oj with the qui-clause, which is a relative clause of purpose, "to lead
ita: "just as they had not wanted the Germans .. 0' so were now them into . . ."; or it may mean U into the interior (part of)
annoyed (lit. c were bearing it heavily') that the army . . . ". Gaul", i.e. northern Gaul. Q. Pedium was the son of Caesar's
The Germans had crossed the Rhine and sertled in eastern Gaul sister Julia; he was named as one of his heirs and was elected
about fourteen years before this time, until they were defeated by consul for the second time in 43 B.C, with Octavian (Augustus),
Caesar Bnd driven back into their own country in 58 B.C. (I, 3 I-54). but died in the same year. A legatus was an officer of high rank
mobilitate ••• animi: owing to the fickleness and unsteadiness
U in the army who often took command of a legion; Caesar had
of their character"; Caesar more than once refers to these eight legati at this time (the context will usually distinguish between
weaknesses in the Gallic nature. novis imperiis means II a change a general and an ambassador; the English "legate" can be used
of rule", which they wanted even if the change was for the worse. for either).
The Aedui and the Sequani are the tribes referred to here. 2. cum • • • inciperet: "when first there began to be
4- ab non Dullis: the verb is sollicitabantur, understood from plenty ... ". Caesar seldom gives an exact date or even a month.
sollicitaTentuT in § 3; "the Belgae were also being stirred up by The time must have been early June, and the fodder was needed
certain (other) people, because ... " a potentioribu5 Rtque eis for the pack animals that carried the baggage of the army Bnd for
qui: "by the more powerful chieftains and by those who . , ."; the cavalry horses. ad exercitum: in the land of the Sequani (see
the two classes mentioned here would often consist of the same the note on Labienus in I, I).
people. ad conducendos • _ • facultates: "means for hiring 3. dat negotium ••. uti (= ut) ... cognoscant: "he assigned'
men", i.e. to serve as mercenary soldiers. vulgo regna occupa- to the . . . the task of finding out . . .". dare negotium is almost
bantur: "royal power was generally seized"; Tegna is plural equivalent to imperare. Notice the "historic present" tense of
because this process occured in several states. eam rem: that U dar, which is frequently used by all Latin writers to make the
object", i.e. royal power. nostro imperio is "under our (i.e. narrative more vivid; it should be translated by a past tense, and
70 71
can be followed either by primary or historic tenses of the sub- 3. paratos esse: supply 5e again as the subject. The first et
junctive, or even by both in the same sentence. ea quae • • • that follows means U both", and the object of recipere and iuvare
gerantur: "what was happening", lit. "those things which", is tum, i.e. Caesarem, understood. oppidis is local ablative, "in
a relative clause (not an indirect question), whose verb is subjunc- their towns", .and jrwnento ceterisque rebus is ablative of means,
tive because it is a clause .depending on an indirect command "with corn ... ".
(oratio cbliqua). se refers to Caesar; "and to inform him .•. ". 4. cis Rhenum: i.e. on the Gallic side, which was nearer to
4. manus cogi: "that bands of men were being collected". Rome. The mood and tense of qui incolant has been explained in
conduci is "was being assembled". the note on § 2; tr." ~o lived". Caesar had defeated and driven
s. dubitandum (esse) ..• profisceretur: "he thought that he back across the ~..\ the Germans under Ariovistus in the
should not hesitate to set out against [hem",; non dubito quin previous year (I, 31-54}, but some of the Germans who had
normally means" I do doubt that ... " and non dubito with the previously settled in Gaul continued to live there. sese cum his
infinitive is "I do not hesitate to ... ", hut here the first construc- coniumdsse: we say "had joined them", but coniungere is tran-
tion is used with the meaning of the second. U He did not think sitive and requires a reflexive object when used intransitively.
that he should ... " is the same as "he thought that he should not". 5. eorum omnium: "of them all", i.e. of the Belgae and the
diebus quindecim: a'Jlative of time within which.. Caesar Germans. Suessiones is the object of deterrere pocuerint, of which
probably joined his army at Vesontio (Besam;on) and marched U the Belgae" understood is the subject, and ne . . . quidem is

by easy stages along the eastern bank of the Matrona (Marne) to "not even"; "so great that they had not been able to prevent
the land of the Remi (Reims), who we read in the next chapter even the Suessiones ... from combining with them (the Belgae
were U the people of Gaul nearest to the Belgae u. and Germans)". SUDS refers to the Remi, as also does ipsis,
though secum might have been used instead of cum his. et must
be supplied between utantur and unum, to connect the two
3 qui-dauses. The imperfect SUbjunctive consentirent is strange
I. eo: anadverbj "there", lit. "thither", i.e. adfines Belgarum. when the other verbs depending on qui dicerenl are all primary
eeleriu! omni opinione is U earlier than anyone expected ", lit. (present or perfect) subjunctive. iure ••• legibus: ius was the
H than all expectation", ablative of comparison, used after a constitution, or principles of justice, and leges the actual laws.
comparative adverb only in such phrases as this. For this imperium means "government" and magistratum "magistracy".
restricted meaning of Gallia as Central Gaul, see the note on
Gallia in I, 2. legatos: "as envoys". primos means U leading
2. qui dicerent: a purpose clause i "they were to say that ... IJ, 4
lit. U who should say". From here to the end of the chapter relates I. quid ••• pOlsent: U how powerful they were", lit. U to what
what they said, so that the main verbs are in the infinitive and all extent (adverbial accusative) they were able", indirect question,
dependent verbs in the subjunctive, of which the last, consentirent, like quae . .. essent. sic reperiebst: "he discovered the following
is in historic sequence, like miserunt qui dicerent, but the others are facts", lit. "thus". The imperfect suggests repeated enquiries.
in primary sequence, present or pedect, for the sake of vividness. We should probably insert "Caesar" as the subject, since Rem" is
se susque omnia: these words are the object of permittere, the subject of the preceding verbs. From here to sumerent is what
with another se understood as the subject because se appearing he discovered and is all in indirect statement. plerosql.1c Belgas:
twice would be awkward (so also in 3 I, 2); U they entrusted we say "most of the Belgae". esse ortos (from orior) ab GernJanis
themselves . . . to the protection (lit. 'faith ') and . . .... The means "were of German origin", lit. "had arisen from . . . ".
Remi were the first Gallic people outside the Province, with the The Belgae were in fact probably of Celtic, not German, origin,
exception of the Aedui (who became allies of Rome in about and had moved westwards from the upper valley of the Danube,
121 B.C.) to join Caesar of their own free will and the only one to first into Germany and then across the Rhine into Gaul. RhenunJ
serve him loyally all through the war. coniul'Qsse = coniuravisse. is governed by the tra- in the passive verb traductos; .. being taken
72 73
across (or C having· crossed') the Rhine". ibi, "there'" i.e. in their "the Remi said that the Suessiones were their neighbours".
present position in Gaul. The subject of possidere is eos understood, i.e. the Suessiones.
z. ezpulisse: the subject is eos, i.e. the Belgae, with Gallos as 7. nostra edam memoria: we should say II even within living
the object. locus is neuter in the plural; ea loca means "those memory"; for the phrase and for this use of nostra, see the note on
districts" or U that region". solosque ••• prohibuerint: II and patrum nostrorum memon'a in § 2. This Diviciacus must not be
they (eos understood) were the only people who, when the whole confused with the Aedu3ft'leader of the same name who appears
of Gaul was attacked in the time (lit. •within the memory ') of in the next chapter of/this book and was a loyal supporter of
our fathers, prevented the . . . from entering . . .". Caesar Caesar; nothing more is known about the Diviciacus mentioned
elsewhere uses noster in the sense of II Roman" even when report· here. totius Galliae potentissimum is "the most powerful (ruler)
ing the words of a Gaul, but nostrorum here, and nostra in § 7, in the whole of ... ". cum ••• tum: U not only ... but also".
refers to the Gauls as well as to the Romans. "The whole of imperium obtinuerit does not mean II had obtained" but I I had held
Gaul" refers especially to the two Roman provinces of Trans-
power over a large part of . . .". This is the first mention of
alpine (Narbonese) Gaul and Cisalpine Gaul, now north Italy,
Britain by a Roman writer. Iron Age Celtic invaders came to
which the German tribes of the Teuroni and Cimbri invaded
Britain from Gaul in about 700 B.C. and ag,ain in about 350 B.C.
during the closing years of the second century B.C.; they were
defeated by Marius at Aquae Sextiae (Aix) in the Proviace in and were followed in about 75 B.C. by the Germano-Celtic tribe
102 B.C. and at Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul in 101 B.C.; see
of the Belgae, who made a settlement in -Kent and .overran most
29, 4·5. jngr~dj is prolative infinite after prohibuerint. . of south-east Britain, as mentioned by Caesar in V,_ 12, 2. Nothing
3. qua ex re fieri uti ••• sumerent: "as a result of this (lit. is known about the rule of Diviciacus in Britain, but it is possible
• from which fact') it came about that they (the Germans) assumed that when he made himself master of much of Belgic Gaul (harum
(lit. (took for themselves '), because of their remembrance of those regionum) some of the Belgic settlers in Britain, who were at war
events, .•. great arrogance in warfare". with one another' (e.g. the Catuvellauni or the Trinobantes),
4. omnia , •• ezplorata, "that they had all the facts . . . appealed to him for help against their enemies and acknowledged
fully discovered"; ~xplorata habere is a little stronger than his supremacy, though he may not have himself even visited this
exploraviss~, IC had discovered". propinquitatibu8 island. Gatba: his two sons were taken as hostages by Caesar in
conluncti: "being united (to them) by ties of blood and 13, 10 A Roman of the same name was one of Caesar's generals
marriage". quantam ••• cognoverint: "they had discovered in III, 1·6, whose great·grandson, also Galba, was emperor for a
how large a body of men each (chieftain) had promised for that few months in A.D. 69. suam is here used where eius would
war in ... ". strictly be correct; suus generally refers to the property of the
S. From here to the end of the chapter is all in oratio obliqua subject of a sentence. summam ... de/em here means U the chief
depending on Remi dicebant, so that main verbs are in the infini- command ... was being conferred on him", not on the Bellovaci.
tive and dependent verbs in the SUbjunctive, all in the vivid 8. The subject of habere and pollieeri is eos understood, i.e.,
primary sequence instead of the normal historic sequence after the Suessiones. numero is ablative of respect, U twelve in number",
dieebant in § 4. plurimum ••• vatere: "were the most powerful but we should say simply II be possessed twelve towns", and armsta
amongst them tJ; plurimum is adverbial accusative, like quid in = armatorum tlirorum, as in § 5. Nervios: the subject of
quid possent (§ I). tn'rtute is ablative of cause; H both because of polliceri, understood; "the Nervii were promising the same
their valour and .•. ". has ••• centum: "these could muster number"; the same verb must be understood with all the names
(or "provide") a hundred thousand armed men"; armata milia in § 9. qui ••• habeantur: "who were considered the most
eentum = centum milia armatorum (virorum); so also eleeta warlike among the Belgae themselves"; maxime Jeri is used as the
sexaginta = sexaginta (milia) electorum (virorum). For pollicitos superlative. The Nervii "were the furthest away" from the
we should say co and had promised n. These numbers were Remi because they were the most northerly of the Belgae, except
probably greatly exaggerated by the Remi. for the Morini and Menapii, and so had perhaps been the least
6. suos: this refers to the Remi, the subject of dieebant in § 4; exposed to the relaxing influence of Roman civilisation.
74 75
,. decem et nevem: an unusual alternative to undeviginti or nostra, fJestro, sua, is used). ne conftigendum sit: supply
novendecim. sibij "that he should not have to fight a battle".
10. Condrulos • • • milia: this sentence in full would be 3. id fieri posse: this depends on docet in § 4; "that could be
Remi dicebant 5e arbitrari Condrusos • . . ad XL milia virorum done", i.e. the enemy forces could be kept apart. The perfect
polliceri, "the Remi said that they thought that the Condrusi. . . subjunctives introduxerint and coe-perint represent in oratio
were promising up to (ad) fony thousand men n. qui .•. appellantur obliqua (in primary sequence after the historic present docet) the
is "who are called generally (lit. 'by one name') Germans n; the future perfect indicatives of direct speech, when Caesar said
truth perhaps is that these four Celtic tribes were the latest immi- si introduxeritis, lit. "if you shall have led", i.e. "if you lead".
grants into Gaul from the German side of the Rhine; see the note his mandatis: "after giving these orders", which the Aedui
on plerosque Belgas in § I. The numbers given by the Remi carried out in 10, 5, when they advanced on the land of the
in this chapter amount to 296,000 men, which, like the Bellovaci.
60,000 out of 100,000 of the Bellovaci in § 5, are surely greatly 4- coactas ad se venire: U had Bssembled ... Bnd were coming
exaggerated. Caesar's eight legions, with auxiliaries and cavalry, against him". 'Didit is n realised" rather than actually U saw".
would not amount to more than 40,000 men. Notice that neque ___ cognovit: here, as often, neque means et . .. non; uand
appellantur is indicative because it is a note made for the reader by learnt from the scouts ... that they were not far away (from him)".
Caesar, not part of what the Remi said, which would be qui quos miserat must of course be taken after exploratoribus, and we
appellarcl~tur, as being a relative clause in indirect statement. should perhaps say U the" instead of IC those" scouts. traducere:
this governs both flumen Axonam and exercitum; "to take his
army across the river ... ". in extremis finibus means IC in the most
5 distant part of the borders of the Remi ", i.e. in the north, which
I. IlberaUter oratione prolecutus: "having addressed them was furthest away from the point where Caesar entered the
courteously", lit. U having honoured them courteously in a speech". country. For the gender of quod, which could be qui, see the
The senatum was the U tribal assembly" of local chieftains, and note onflumen Sabim, quod . .. in 18, 1. ibi: Caesar almost certainly
obsides means U as hostages", for the good behaviour of their crossed the Aisne at the modern Berry-au-Bac and pitched camp
fathers. quae omnia: the very conunon "connecting relative", near Mauchamp, about a mile and a half away, on the northern
in which qui at the beginning of a new sentence is translated by (right) bank of the river; see the plan, and the note on 8, 2-3.
the same case of hie, haec, hoe, or is, ea, id; "all these orders were s- quae res: "this manoeuvre". et ... et is "both ... and".
carried out punctually to the day", or .. by the appointed day". The <lone side" that was protected by the banks of the river,
2. Diviciacum Aeduum: the Aedui were a powerful tribe 500 yards away, was the south side. reddebat: this often means
living in central Gaul between the Arar and the Liger who had cc rendered" or H made" ; II made secure from the enemy (every-
made an alliance with Rome in 121 B.C. and remained 10¥fll to thing) that was in his rear", lit. II such things as were behind
Caesar until 52 B.C., when they joined the great rebellion of all him"; the subjunctive is "generic" or consecutive. In the next
the Gauls under Vercingetorix. Diviciacus was a Druid and sentence ut must be taken before com meatus ; "made it possible
one of the most influential leaders of the Aedui; he had visited (lit. 'brought it about') that supplies could be brought". For
Rome on an embassy in 61 B.C. and had stayed at the house of the ad eum we might expect ad se, and in eo flumine is of course U over"
orator Cicero, and did good service to Caesar in the Gallic or "across that river".
campaign of 58 B.C. (Book I). quanto opere: equivalent to 6. ibi: on the nonhern side he placed a bridge-head, praesidium,
quantum, just as magno opere or magnopere is the adverb of magnus; and on the other side (parte) of the river was Sabinus' fort, which
"he told him how important it was to the (Roman) state and the was intended to defend the road from Durocortorum (Reims).
common safety (of the Romans and the Aedui) that the forces In the following year (56 B.C.) this Titurius Sabinus defeated the
(manus) of the enemy should be kept apart". The impersonal Venelli and their allies (llI, 17-19) by feigning cowardice and
verb imerest is followed by the genitive (except with personal then sallying out from his camp to take them unawares, but in
pronouns, when the ablative of the possessive adjectives, mea, tua, 5S B.C. he was enticed out of his camp by the Eburones, against
76 77
the advice of his colleague Auruncu1eius Cotta (mentioned in ubi-clauses, two ablatives absolute, and two main verbs; it may
11,3), and was attacked while on the march; Sabinus lost his head be necessary to break it up into two short sentences in English.
in the crisis, went to parley unarmed with the enemy, and was iact coepd sunt: when the following infinitive is passive, coepi
killed with nearly all his force of fifteen cohorts, including Cotta, is also made passive. defensoribus is ablative of separation; "was
who fought bravely (V, 26-37). The six cohorts that he had here stripped of defenders". testudine facta: U having formed a
would amount to about 2,200 men. ~astra: this refers to Caesar's 'tortoise' ", which was a roof of overlapping shields locked
main camp on the nonh side of the Aisne, not to Sabinus' fort, together over the heads of a party of advancing soldiers, like the
which is caned a castel/um in 9, 4; .. he ordered (the soldiers) to shell of a tortoise, with more shields protecting them in front and
fortify the camp with a rampart twelve feet high (lit. • of twelve at the sides. The Roman method of assaulting a fortified town,
feet into height', which included a palisade of stakes) and a ditch with an agger (siege-mound), mantlets, bauering~rams, and
eighteen feet wide"; in latitudinem must be understood with the catapult, took a longer time but was much more scientific and
second pedum, both of which, with the numerals, Brc genitives of efficacious; see 12, S.
description or quality; for the U chiasmus" in the order of words 3. quod ••• fiebat: "this was easily being done on the present
see the note on 12, 2. This camp was made exceptionally strong occasion", though in fact the Belgae did not succeed in burning
because of the large numbers of the enemy; the usual dimensions down the gates or breaching the wall before nightfall. coicerent
of the ditch were twelve feet broad and nine feet deep, with sloping is plural because multitudo is a collective noun; the singular is
sides, the earth of which was used to build up the rampart td'a generally used. consistendi... Dulli: U no one was able to
height of about four feet, which with the palisade made the stand fast . . .", lit. "the possibility of standing fast was to no
defences nine feet high. one"; nemini, the dative of nemo, could he used instead of the
adjective nulli, which is placed last in the sentence for emphasis.
4. Remus: "one of the Remi u. summa •.• gratia, ablative of
6 quality or description, with which vir is generally used in a phrase
I. Bibru:: probably Vieux-Laon, about seven English miles of this kind; "(a man) of the highest rank and influence". For
north~west of Berry-au-Bac. The Roman passus was a double the pluperfect praefuerat we should say" who was at that time in
pace of nearly five feet, so that a Roman mile was about 140 yards command of . . . ". Jegati de pace: "as envoys to discuss
shorter than an English mile. milia passuum octo is accusative of peace", in 3, I. nisi ••• non posse: this is in oratio obliqua,
extent of space. ex itinere: "straight from the march", giving the message of Iccius taken by the nuntius; "unless help
without making the usual preparations for an assault, but merely was sent to him, he could not hold out ... ". submlttatur
magno imperu, I t with great violence". The position of aegre is represents the future simple of Iecius' own words (the future perfect
emphatic and can be reproduced in English: U with difficulty was would be more common in a future conditional).
the defence maintained n, impersonal passive, lit. n it was held
out". eum diem, the accusative of extent of time, could be used
instead of the ablative of point of time. 7
z. Gallorum ••• est haec: "the method of assault of the I. eo: an adverb, "to that. place", i.e. to Bihrax:. de media
Gauls (which is) the same as (that) .of the Beigae, is as follows". nocte means "at about midnight", and isdem •.. venerant is
arque -often follows idem to mean "the same as It; the relative "using the same men as guides who had come as messengers ...H.
pronoun can also be used. Notice that the Belgae are here Cretas: Greek accusative plural. Cretan archers and Balearic
distinguished from the other in\tabitants of Gaul, though they slingers were famous. subsidio is dative of purpose; "to help
are often included in the general name of Gauls. tods (lit. 'as a help to ') the townsfolk u. Bihrax was impregnable on the
moenibus: dative, indirect object of circumiecta, though the verb south and may not have been invested by the Belgae on that side,
is here passive; "after a large number ... has been placed round so that the light-armed relieving troops might have entered the
the whole of the fortifications". moenia are the defences generally, town there to drive off the assault on the other side; or if they
mUTUS the wall that crowned them. This sentence contains two did not actually enter the town, their presence on the outside,
78 79
small though their numbers were compared with the Belgic 8
hordes, may have been enough to dishearten the attackers with
I. opinionem virtutis: "reputation for valour"; the Belgae
the threat of Caesar's approach. Auxiliary troops in the Roman
army wefe always native levies, Spanish, Gallic, or German were regarded as the bravest of the Gauls. proelio is ablative
cavalry, Balearic or Numidian stingers, and Cretan archers; there of separation; "to refrain from a pitChed battle", but not from
was no Roman cavalry. cavalry skirmishes. quid ••• posset: quid is either another
2. quorum adventu: ablative of time or cause; II on their adverbial accusative, as in 4, I, "how powerful they were, because
arrival". et Remis ••• accessit: "both a desire to make a of their valour", or facere must be understood, "what they could
sally was inspired in (lit. 'was added to') the Remi, together with achieve by valour"; so also qu£d auderenr, "how bold our men
the hope of (continuing the) defence", hostlbus ••• discesslt: were"; both are indirect questions depending on periclitabatur,
"for the same reason the hope of capturing the town departed "he kept trying to find out".
from the enemy". hostibus is dative of disadvantage, often used 2. non inferiores: in valour, though greatly inferior in
with a verb of departing or taking away, like militi in 25, 2. For numbers; it was the foreign auxiliary cavalry whose valour he
the ablative of separation, used with a thing, not a person, see was testing, not the legionary soldiers, who remained in their
21, 5, scut;s tegimenta detrudenda. The deponent verb potior camp. This long sentence requires to be split up into shorter
governs an ablative and is therefore really an intransitive verb sentences, e.g. "Caesar realised that our men were not inferior
which has no gerundive, but this and similar deponent verbs (to the enemy in valour). (There was) a place (lit. C there being
governed an accusative in old Latin and retain the gerundive in a place', causal ablative absolute) in front of the camp (that was)
the U gerundive attraction n construction, as though they were naturally suitable and indeed favourable for drawing up a line
still transitive verbs, instead of being used as a gerund with the of battle; for the hill where the camp had been placed rose
ablative, spes potiendi oppido. (editus is from edo) only a little from the level plain and extended
3. spud oppidum: "near the town". The subject of the in breadth facing (the enemy, lit. 'opposite ') over as much
verbs in this sentence is Belgae understood. The relative pronoun ground (lit. 'as much of ground', partitive genitive, with loci
quos agrees in gender with its first antecedent, "icis, not with its transferred to depend on ta1'ltum) as a battle line when deployed
nearer noun, aedi./iciis. omnibus copiis is ablative of accompani- could cover; it had at each end (lit. I from each part') a steep lateral
ment without cum, often used with naval and military forces. descent (lit. 'steep slopes of the side '), and sloping gently in
ab milibus ••• minus duobus: "at a distance of less than ... ", front it gradually returned to the level of the plain. He therefore
like ab tanto spatio in 30, 3 ("at so great a distance"), and dug a trench 400 paces long (650 yards, genitive of quality or
minus is used as an adverb without quam and does not affect the description) at each side (i.e. the north and south sides) of the hill
case of the following numeral and noun; but in the next sentence at right angles (to it and to his battle line), and at the end of the
amplius governs the ablative of comparison, milibus passuum octo, two trenches he built redoubts and placed artillery in them;
and is itself accusative of extent of space; amplius (with or without (he did this) so that when he had drawn up his battle line the enemy
quam) milia passuum octo would mean just the same, "extended for should not be able, because they were so strong in numbers
more than eight miles in breadth", like in alt;tudinem in 5, 6; (adverbial accusative and ablative of respect), to surround his mcn
amplius, plus and· minus can be used in any of these three ways; who were fighting on the flank (lit. 'from the flanks')". The
see 16, I. quae castra: "this camp". ut is u as ". Pre- plan of the battle-field will make this description clear. quod ...
sumably the Belgae bivouacked instead of using tents, and pourat could be subjunctive in C virtual oratio obliqua' inside the
although seven English miles seems an enormous distance (we are purpose clause, like si ... esset in § 5.
not told how far it extended in depth), even for a force of nearly Colonel Stoffel, excavating for the Emperor Napoleon III (who
300,000 men, their army was made up of contingents from many was keenly interested in the topography of Caesar's campaigns in
different tribes which would bivouac separately and without much France), discovered in I862 remains of a Roman camp near the
discipline. Caesar's camp, with its 40,000 men, had sides each village of Mauchamp, a mile and a half north-east of Berry-au-
about 650 yards long. Bac on the Aisne, at the eastern extremity of a hill about two
80 81
and a half miles long. He found five gates instead of the us~al We have already explained that pro castris means that the battle
four, two being on the west side, all with claviculae., which line was placed to the left front, not directly in front, of the camp;
were incwving extensions of the ramparts that compelled a~yone the enemy were drawn up to the north-west of it. eductas instrux-
entering the camp to turn to the left and thus e~p?se hi~ u~­ erunt = eduxerunt et instruxerunt.
shielded (right) side to the defenders. The camp IS In a dIStrict
now highly cultivated and was much cut up by tre~ches dug
through it in the First World War and by bombs auned at a !I
German aerodrome nearby in 1944, so that there is little to see of I. palus: the marsh formed by the River Miette just before
it now. No other camp has been found in a position that agrees it flowed into· the Aisne. For 1lOn magna we might say "of nO
with Caesar's description, so it seems almost certain that this is it, great size". si ••• exspectabant: "the enemy were waiting
though its size, ahout 2,000 feet square, is small for an army of (to see) if our men would cross this"; verbs of expectation and
40,000 men, which would usually take up a spac~ about half ~ endeavour are often followed by a si-clause with the subjunctive
mile each way. This identification involves taking pro castrls which seems to have the sense of an indirect question, though
in § 3 to mean not directly in front of the camp (where no~e of the normally an indirect question is never used with -5i. The next
enemy wefe posted) but in front and well to the left of It, as the si-clause is in .. virtual U oralio obliqua (like sr" quo opus esset in 8, 5)
plan shows. The redoubt at the end of the trench dug southwards depending on the purpose clause; U our men were ready . . . to
from the camp is no longer in existence, and Napoleon assumed attack them when in difficulties (lit .• hindered', i.e. by the marsh),
that the river has changed its course in 2,000 years and washed if they began to cross it (lit" C if a beginning of crossing was made
away the end of the trench and the redoubt. The only other by them ') ". So also in § 2 neutri . . . faciunt means II neither
difficulty is the plural a lateribus in § 4, for the two trenches side began to cross".
defended only the right flank of the Roman position; I?erhaps 2. contendebatur: impersonal, lit. "it was being fought in a
Caesar used the plural instead of the singular by an overSIght, or cavalry battle", i.e. u a cavalry battle was being fought".
he may have meant that both flanks were now secure, the left secuntiiore " . . proelio, ablative absolute, H when _the cavalry
being defended by the marsh where the Miette runs into the engagement was more favourable to our men".
Aisne, the right by the two trenches. 3. quod: neuter, to agree with flumen as its antecedent.
5. quas proxime conscripserat: "which he had m?st demonstratum est, in 5, 5. Caesar has twice used pro casrris (8,
recently enrolled", in 2, 1. He raised these legions in the sprmg 2 and 5) to mean not directly in front of the camp but to the left
of 57. B.C. from Roman citizens and provincials living in Cisalpine front of it; the plan on page 50 shows that the river was" behind",
Gaul noW northern Italy; they would be volunteers probably i.e. south of the camp and of the battle line. The fords mentioned
attra~ted by the hope of plunder after hearing of Caesar's successes here were in fact about three miles south-west of the camp and one
in Gaul in the previous year (58 B.C.) and would of course have a mile south-west of the left wing of the Roman line; by crossing there
stiffening of veterans and be commanded and trained by the Belgae would avoid the marshes in front of their own right
experienced centurions; they were numbered the 13th and I4th flank.
in Caesar's army, which previously contained the 7th to the 12th 4. eo consilio ut: "with the intention of storming"J lit.
Legions' see the note on 2, I. si quo opus esset: "if it should "with that plan that they should ... si pOJsent represents the
be nece~sary (for them to be taken) anywhere u; this use of

future simple, and si potuissent in § 5 the future perfect, of direct

opus est, "there is need (of)", with the infi~itive (here under- speech; both arc again in «virtual" oratr"o obliqua. The Belgae's
stood), or a nominative as the predicate, as 10 22, I, ~r (more own words or thoughts were "we shall try . . . so that we may
commonly) with an ablative, must not be confus~d WIth ?P~s, storm ... , if we can (si poterimus); but if we cannot (si minus
"work", The subjunctive is used because the 51-clause !S •In potuerimus, lit. 'if we shall have been less able '), that we may
"virtual oratio obliqua" inside the purpose clause. subsldlo: ravage ... ", but English is much less precise in some moods and
"to bring help", dative of purpose, lit. "as a help". Caesar tenses. cui praeerat is indicative because it is a note by Caesar,
naturally kept the new legions in reserve until they were needed. not part of what [he Belgae said or thought. c8stellum:
this is implied in S, 6, hut not actually mentioned; the castra is mentioned in 9, I. res frumentaria: Galba's makeshift
described there is Caesar's main camp, but Titurius Sabinus had organisation could not possibly provide food for his enormous
built the small fort mentioned here with which his six cohorts army, consisting of contingents drawn from so many states which
could defend the south side of the bridge. lost all discipline, as we shall see in the next chapter, when the
5. si minus: often used for si non, either with or without a order to withdraw was given. For ipsos ... coepit we might say
verb. ut, from eo consilio tit, must be supplied with popuiarentuT. "they themselves began to run short of corn". constitue runt •••
qui ••• erant: "who were of great service (predicative dative, reverti: "decided that it was best that each man should return
akin to a dative of purpose) to us in fighting the war". The to his own home". The antecedent of quorum is eos in ad eos
Remi alone of the tribes of northern and central Gaul remained defendendos, "and that they (understood from quemque) should
loyal to the Romans all tm:ough the Gallic wars. commeatu is assemble ... to defend the people (eos) into whose land the Romans
"from getting supplies", ablative of separation. should first bring their army". introduxissem represents in oratio
obliqua the future perfect of what they actually said. Presumably
Caesar learne-d afterwards from prisoners what had been decided
10 at the council of war. ut ••• uterentur: these are purpose
I. certior factus: supply de his rebus, i.e. about the attempt clauses, and copiis here of course means II supplies".
of the Belgae to cross the river. levis armaturae Numidas: s. haec ratio: this is explained by the quod-clause; .. the
"light-armed Numidians", lit. "of light armour", genitive of following consideration also, that they had learned that Diviciacus
description or quality; see the note on 7, I, where these auxiliary ... , together with the other reasons, induced them to adopt that
troops are also mentioned. traducit governs two accusatives, as plan". For Diviciacus the Aeduan see 5, 2-3. his ••• non
in 5, 4. Caesar sent these men from the main camp across the poterat: "these people (i.e. the Bellovaci) could not be persuaded
bridge guarded by Titurius to oppose from the southern bank (impersonal passive of an intransitive verb, lit .• it could not be
the crossing made by the enemy two miles down stream. persuaded to these men ') to delay ... and to refrain from helping
2. acriter pugnatum est: impersonal passive; I f the fighting their own folk". neve instead of neque is generally used in indirect
was fierce". In the next three sentences the objects, hostes, command or a purpose clause.
reliquos, primos, come at or near the beginning. impeditos is U in
difficulties" or II at a disadvantage", as in 9, I. conantes:
agreeing with reliquos; Ie the remainder, as they tried to cross II
over their dead bodies". multitudine telorum is .. with a shower of I. ea re: i.e. the decision to return home. The night was
missiles", and equitatu is ablative of the instrument, as though divided into four "watches" of equal length; in the summer each
the cavalry were the means, not the agent. qui transierant: watch would be less than two hours long. nullo ••• imperio:
"who had already crossed", before the Roman auxiliaries arrived "without any definite arrangement or orders It, ablative of
to oppose them. circumventos interfecerunt = circumvenerunt et attendant circumstances. For castris egressi we could say either
interfecerunt. II leaving the camp " or "having left". cum.. • peteret:
4. This long sentence should be split into two parts by omitting "since each man desired (to obtain) the first place on the road for
ubi and putting a full stop at coepit. hostes: the main body of himself". fecerunt ut • • • videretur: II they made the
the Belgae, who were still north of the river; only a part of their depanure seem like ... ", lit. II they made that the departure
forces had been sent to try to cross at the fords (9, 4). et de seemed . . .... fugae is either genitive or dative after consimiUs.
expugnando ••• spem se fefellisse: H that their hope both of 2. The position of Caesar in the middle of the ablative absolute
(lit. 'concerning ') storming the town (Bibrax) and ... had deceived is unusual and perhaps emphatic. Some deponent verbs,
them". neque = et ... non, of which the et goes with viderunt especially vereor, reor, arbitror (and even egredior in a sentence
and the "on with progredi j "that our men were not advancing to like § r), often have a present meaning for their perfect participles,
more unfavourable ground to fight a battle" J lit. H for the sake of so that here veriws means" fearing" rather than" having feared".
fighting"; Caesar's refusal to cross the marshes of the Miette qua de causa: "for what reason", followed by a subjunctive in
84 85
an indirect question; quod is "because", exercitum means have corrected. sub is "towards" or "at", and -que is attached to
the legions, as the following equitatum shows, and casrris is local OCCa5um as though sub occasum were one word; it could be attached
ablative without in. to sub (see 35, 4, note). destiterunt is from desisto, and ut erat
3. ab exploratoribus: these were organised bodies of scouts imperatwn, with ds understood, is impersonal passive, "as they
"reconnaissance parties", while speculatores (§ 2) were men sent had been ordered", or we could say "according to orders u.
out singly to scout. qui... moraretur: a relative clause The troops sent on this mission had a long day's march (many
expressing purpose; "to delay the rearguard", or perhaps here miles in pursuit and the same distance back to camp) and some
simply "the rearmost" (novissimos in § 4), because the Belgic host fighting, which was followed on the next day by a forced march
was in such disorderly confusion. Pedius is mentioned in 2, I, and the preparations for an assault on N oviodunum.
Cotta in the note on S, 6; and Labienus in I, I, and the note
on it.
40 multa milia passuum: accusative of extent of space; "for 12
many miles", eorum fugientium is "of them as they fled"; I. postridie eius diei: ,ron the (next) day after that (day)";
/ugientium alone would mean "of those who were fleeing". the genitive, which is "redundant", i.e. unnecessary, depends on
cum: II since IJ; it has three verbs, COllst"sterent and sustinere1Jt, the adverb postridic; we should omit the two words in brackets.
which are connected by -que, and poneretlt in the clause beginning prius quam, often written as one word, priusquam, here has the
with prz'ores, which requires a conjunction like" but". cum ••• subjunctive because the clause means "before they could recover
cODsisterent: "since the men at the very rear of the army, from ... ", implying that Caesar acted quickly to prevent them
whom the Romans had now reached, stood their ground"; this from recovering j the perfect indicative would mean "before they
meaning of ab for II in" or U at" instead of in is common and recovered". magno itinere eonfecto: "by making a forced
occurs twice in 8, 2, ab utroque latere and a lateribus; eX often has march u, rather than "having completed ... ", because he hastened
the same meaning, e.g. ex utl"aque parte, also in 8, 2. The ante- (contendit) all through the day's march, not after completing it.
cedent of quos is ei or hostes understood, which is the subject of A normal day's march for the Roman soldiers, who carried
consisterent, and venwm erat is another impersonal passive, lit. sixty-five pounds weight of arms and equipment, was about
u to whom it had been come" i "who had been reached" keeps fifteen miles, and a magnum iter up to twenty-five miles or more,
the passive form in English. as circumstances demanded. The distance from Berry-au-Bac
s. priores ••• viderentur: "(but) those in front, because they to Noviodunum of the Suessiones, which was probably the
thought that they were ... ", lit. "seemed to be ...". necessitate modern Pommiers, two and a half miles north-west of Soissons,
. . . imperio is "compulsion . . . authority"; such conduct is is twenty-eight miles. There were other towns called Novio-
typical of half-trained irregular troops, who often fight with the dunum, one in the land of the Aedui (Nevers) and one in the land
greatest courage in the face of the enemy but lose all discipline in a of the Bituriges (perhaps Villate).
retreat. The two quod-clauses would normally be in the indica- 2. ex: itinere:. "straight from the march", as in 6, I, i.e.
tive but are II attracted IJ into the subjunctive by the cum • . . without making the scientific preparations described in § 5 of
ponerent clause, as in -35, I. exaudito elamore, perturbatis this chapter. vacuum ab defensoribus (" undefended") is the same
ordinibus: the first ablative absolute was the cause of the as vacuum defensoribus, ablative of separation. Caesar presumably
second; "having broken their ranks on hearing the shouting", 'heard about this from deserters. Notice the criss-cross order of
which came from the men who were fighting in the rear.' omnes words in latiwdinem fossae murique altitudinem (instead of alticudi-
••• ponerent: -'all put their hope of safety in flight", lit. "put nemque mun'); this figure of speech is called U chiasmus" from a
protection for themselves . . . "; the usual phrase is salutem in supposed resemblance to the shape of the Greek letter X, chi;
fuga ponere. an English example is <C he saved others, himself he cannot save";
6. tantsm ••• spatium: U as large a number of them as the see also 5, 6. pauels defendentibus: this ablative absolute is
length of daylight allowed", lit. Ie as the space of day was" J an equivalent to a concessive clause; II although there were few
inexact comparison that a final revision of the book would probably defending it".
3. c8stris munitis: the elaborate defences of a camp had to be (Breteuil). maiores natu arc "the older men", lit. "greater in
constructed at the end of every day's march; the Romans could birth", ablative of respect. tendere manus: Ie to stretch out
then begin preparations for the assault to be made on the next day. their hands", to show that they were surrendering. 'Voce
vimas agere is "to move forward mandets", i.e. sappers' huts significare, "to declare in a loud voice". sese ••• contendere:
(described on page 38), the parts of which were carried by mules "that they were submitting to (lit. 'were coming into') his
or horses among the impedimenta of the army. quaeque... protection . . . and were not taking up arms (lit. 'fighting with
comparare: U and to make ready the things which (quaeque arms ') against ... ".
= et ea quae) were useful for making an assault"; usui is predica- 3. pueri: "children n. passis is from pando; U stretching out
tive dative, as in 9, 5. their hands in their (usual) fashion", i.e. as they usually did when
4. omnis ..• multitudo: "all the host ... (who had escaped) asking for mercy.
from the rout ", i.e. when they fled from their camp at Berry-au-Bac
on the previous day. 14
S. aggere iacto: this means "when earth had been flung into I. pro his: "on their behalf". In 10, 5 Diviciacus was
the ditch", to fill it up so that the Romans could rush across it in coming to attack the territory of the Bellovaci with an Aeduan
the assault, rather than "when a siege-mound had been con- army, as requested by Caesar in 5", 2-3, but he was now asking
structed", as in 30, 3, for which see page 38, because a siege- Caesar to spare them, just as the Remi interceded for the Suessiones
mound would take several days to build up whereas the prepara- in 12, 5. ad ellm refers to Caesar, and notice that revertor is
tions described here were evidently quite quickly completed. intransitive deponent in the present, future, and imperfect tenses
The wooden towers, mounted on wheels or rollers, were to enable (e.g. reverti in 10,4 is present infinitive), but intransitive active in
missiles to be hurIed at the defenders on the wall. ante is an the perfect tenses, as here. facit verba: "spoke (as follows)";
adverb, and it is possible that Galli is in apposition to the subject; the rest of the chapter gives his words in oratio obliqlla, in which
"being disturbed by the vastness of the siege~works, which they, all main verbs are infinitive and all dependent verbs subjunctive j
being Gauls, had never seen or heard of before"; or it may the first two sentences are in historic sequence, the last two in
simply be the subject of mitwnt placed inside the relative clause. primary.
de deditione: "to propose that they should be allowed to 2. omni tempore: U always"; the ablative is here used
surrender", lit. "about a surrender". perentibus Remis is instead of the accusative to express duration of time, unless
ablative absolute, "at the request of the Remi", lit. "the Remi perhaps it means "at all times". in fide .. , jut'sse means" had
asking", followed by the indirect petition ut conservarentur, and enjoyed the protection ... of the Aeduan state", or possibly" had
the subject of impetrant is the Suessiones. Notice that this been loyal and friendly to . . ."; fides has either meaning.
sentence contains two pluperfect indicatives, two historic present impulsos: a participle, agreeing with eos (i.e. Bellovacos) under-
indicatives, and an imperfect subjunctive; a historic present tense stood, which is the subject of defecisse and inrulisse, whereas the
is regarded as being either primary or historic. clause Aedllos . . . perjerre depends on qui dicerenr, "who kept
saying that . . .". omnes is U all kinds of . . .", and et . . . et is
"both ... and u ,
13 3. qui ••• fuissent: the antecedent of qui is eos understood,
I. obsidibus: in appOSItIOn to prlmrs j U having received the which is the subject of projugisse; "those who had been the ring-
leading men of the state as hostages". armis ... traditis must be leaders in that plot, because they realised how much ... , had fled
taken as passive (" when all the weapons had been handed over "), to Britain". intulissent is indirect question, which would be
because it refers to the action of the Gauls, not of Caesar. For in subjunctive in oratio recta also. In 4, 7 we read that Galba's
dedt'tionem accepit we say" he received the surrender of ... ", and predecessor (another Diviciacus) had held authority over part of
for in Bellovacos .. into the land of the Bellovaci". Britain.
21. milia passuum quinque: accusative of extent of space, 4. The subject of petcre is Bellovacos and Aeduos; it is followed
showing how far Caesar was away from the town of Bratuspantium by the indirect petition ut . . . utatur, "requested that he should
88 89
show (lit. 'use ') his usual (sua) mercy . . . towards them". description, <I of great valour"; the ablative could be used with
Caesar was merciful towards those who submitted without the same meaning. qui ..• prolecissent: a causal relative
resistance but sometimes showed the most inhuman brutality clause, which would be subjunctive in oratio recta also; "they
towards those who rebelled after submitting; see page 25. accused . . . because they had surrendered . . . and had cast
s. quod 51 fecerit: n if he did so"; Jecer;t is perfect sub- aside their ancestral courage". (eos) confirmare sese: "they
junctive, representing the future perfect of direct speech (lit. declared that they ...". Supply esse with the two future par-
U if he shall have done this "), The subject of amplificaturum ticiples to make them future infinitives.
(esse) is eum, Le. Caesarem, understood, and the antecedent of
quorum is Aeduorum; to bring out the correct meaning we must
say U for it was by the help and resources of the Aedui that the 16
Belgae had been accustomed (consuerint = sonsueverint, from I. triduum: accusative of duration of time. We should
consuesco) to sustain the burden of any wars that broke out", insert Caesar as the subject of fecisset or inveniebat, because
lit. U to sustain (them) if any wars occurred" • Nervi; was the subject of the preceding verbs. The imperfect
inveniebat suggests that he made repeated enquiries, as in 4, I.
amplius is here used as an adverb without quam or an ablative of
15 comparison" like minus in 7, 4, and milia passuum is accusative
I. honoris ••• causa: "out of respect for ... ", lit. "for the of extent of space; U not more than ten miles away".
sake of the honour of ... JJ. Caesar wanted to increase the prestige 2. From here to the end of the chapter is in oralio obliqua,
of Diviciacus and the Aedui by apparently acceding to their continuing to describe what Caesar found out from prisoners,
request to spare the Bellovaci, but he demanded a larger nwnber of except the sentence in brackets, which is a note added by Caesar.
hostages than usual to make sure that they would not give any trans means U on the other side of", and una is an adverb used
further trouble; they remained quiet for five years and were with cum and means "together with". his utrisque: "both
finally crushed in 51 B.C., in Caesar's last Gallic campaign. For these peoples". uti = ut, in a clause of indirect command.
in fidem we should say II under his protection". magna 3. atque: a stronger conjunction than et; "were expected
auctoritate: ablative of quality or description; U was of great and in fact were on the march".
influence among· . . . ", i.e. "had great influence over . . . ". 4. The subject of coiecisse (" had sent "), is Nervios understood,
multitud,'ne is ablative of respect; "was outstanding in the number and the object mulieres quique (= et eos qui) . . • viderentur, "the
of its people". women and those who seemed useless for battle on account
3. quorum: this refers to the Nervii; "when Caesar made of ... "; aetatem means either old age or youth. quo is an adverb,
enquiries about their character . . ., he discovered the following "whither", but we should say U to a place which an army could
facts (sic)", which are expressed in orat!'o obliqua in the next two not approach". esset is subjunctive in oratio obliqua, but it may
sections. also be a consecutive or generic subjunctive, which is explained
4. Dnllum ••• mercatoribus: II merchants had no means of in the last note on 17, 4. The word aestuaria, "creeks of the
access to them", lit. "there was to merchants no . . . ". The sea ", in z8, I, suggests that the Nervii sent their non-combatants
subject of pati is eos (i.e. Nervios) understood; "they did not to the marshes in the estuary of the ScheIdt (Scaldis).
allow any wine or the other things that tend to self-indulgence to
be imported", lit. "they allowed nothing of wine and of the other
things ... ", partitive genitive. relanguescere ••. virtutem: 17
"that their spirit became enervated and their courage diminished". I. qui ..• deligant: a purpose clause; Uta choose". The
Caesar tells us the same thing about the Belgae generally in I, I, 3, centuriones were better able to find a suitable place for a camp
and about the Germans in IV, z, 6. eorum could be SliOS. than the scouts were.
S. Supply eos or Nervios as the subject of esse and of increpitare, z. cum •.. facerent: "since a considerable number of (ex)
incusare, confirmare. magnae virtutis is genitive of quality or the Belgae who had surrendered ... had followed Caesar and were
90 91
marching with him" (una, an adverb again); the tribes concerned passive and say, "the plan of those who brought this information
were the Suessiones, the Bellovaci, and the Ambiani; some of (rem) was supported by the fact that the Nervii . . . ". cum
them had perhaps volunteered to serve as auxiliaries in the equitatu nihil possent: "since they had no strength in
Roman army. ut is "as". eorum ••. perspecta: "having cavalry" ; equitatu is ablative of respect, and nihil is adverbial
noted the usual order (lit. • custom') of march employed by our accusative, as in 4, I, and in the parenthesis that now follows,
army during those days"; five out of the seven words in this where quidquid possunt . . . cop£is is lit. cc in whatever they are
phrase are in. the genitive case. demoDstrarunt: contracted strong, they are powerful in infantry forces ", i.e. "all the strength
form of demonstraverunt. inter singulas legiones: U between they have lies in their infantry", neque __ • student: ufor
each pair of legions". impedimemorum magnum numerum is indeed up to this day they pay no attention to that part of the
either Ie a great amount of baggage" or H a large number of army", i.e. to the cavalry; most other Gallic tribes, except the
baggage animals", which comes to the same thing because the Helvetii, were more powerful in cavalry than in infantry. quo
mules carried the baggage; for the impedimenta of an army, facilius •• _ impedirent: a purpose clause containing a com-
see page 35. In open or friendly country each legion's baggage parative adjective or adverb has quo instead of ut. si 'lJetlissent is
followed it, as the Gauls had noticed, and the men carried their subjunctive because it is a conditional clause in "virtual oratio
own packs, but in enemy territory such a long line would be a obliqua" depending on the purpose -clause quo . . . impedirent,
dangerous formation, so it was Caesar's custom to mass all the which contains an implied verb of thinking; the pluperfect
baggage together in about the centre of the column, including the represents the future perfect of direct speech; we say U if they
men's packs, with the result that the army was now U in light came" or .. if they should come against them to get plunder",
marching order", expediti, ready for action; we read in 19, 1-3, lit. "for the sake of plundering ". ad se might be expected
that Caesar had adopted such a formation on this occasion, but instead of ad eos. teneris ••• interiectis: we should translate
the Gallic deserters had not been able to warn the Nervii of the these ablatives absolute in two different ways; U by cutting into
change in the order of march. neque esse quicquam negoti: trees when they are young (teneris) and bending them (sideways),
"and that it was quite easy", lit. "nor was it anything of trouble", and, after the branches had grown out thickly (crebris is used
partitive genitive, followed by the infinitive 6ldoriri. 'Vem'ssent predicatively) in a lateral direction, by planting brambles and
represents the future perfect of direct speech and abessent the thorns among them". Hedgers can be seen to-day making
future simple; we say "when it had come (or perhaps 'should hawthorn field-hedges exactly like this, though on a smaller scale.
have come ') . . . and the rest . . . were a long distance away", eft'ecerunt ut ••• praeberent: the subject is Nervii; cc had caused
another accusative of extent of space. sub sarcinis: "in heavy these hedges to provide for them defences like a wall", lit. cc had
marching order", or "still wearing their packs", i.e. impediti brought it about that these hedges , . .n, instar is an indeclinable
instead of expediti. The contents and weight of the men's packs noun followed by a genitive, U the likeness of a wall", in apposition
is described on page 34. hanc is the object of adoriri and refers to munimenta. eis again might be sf'hi, like in eos a few lines earlier.
to the prima iegio just mentioned. quo: U into which'\ lit. "whither". inrrari and perspici are
3- qua pulsa: H and if this legion was driven off"; the two impersonal passives, lit. "it could be entered"; we should say
ablatives absolute are equivalent to conditional clauses. Supply "which could not only not be entered but could not eveD be
esse with futurum; "it would turn out (lit. 'would be') that the seen through n. posset is a consecutive subjunctive, sometimes
rest (of the legions) would not dare to stand against (them)"; called generic, meaning that it was the kind of place which could
this is another way of saying reliquas non ausuras esse, and must be not be entered, but we can hardly bring this out in English;
used when the future infinitive of verbs that have no supine quo . .. esset in 16, 4 may be another example, and quam quo . ..
is required. posset in 2.1, 3 is a slightly different kind of consecutive clause.
I 4. The object of adiuvabat is consil£um, and the subject is the s- cum: "since". non omittendum (esse) consilium means
long quod-clause that goes down to the end of the section, whose "that the plan (suggested by the Gauls in Caesar's army) should
main subject is Nervii and the verb effccerunt, to be translated as not be left untried".
"the fact that ... "; it will be easier to make the main sentence
92 93
18 carrying their tools for fortifying a camp, such as spades, saws,
I. loci ••• quem locum: we do not repeat the antecedent in baskets for carrying earth, mallets, and valli, wooden stakes for the
English; Ie the natural position of the place which Qllr men ... palisade. post is I< behind") and collocarat is the shortened form
was as follows (haec)". castris is dative of purpose. ab summo of collocaverat.
'" declivis: '-sloping evenly down from the top", without any 3- quae proxime conscriptae erant: "which had most recently
irregularities in the descent. quod agrees in gender with fiumen, been rsised"; these were the I 3th and 14th, raised in the spring
not with its nearer antecedent Sabim, like jlumen Axonam, of this year in Cisalpine Gaul (2, I). claudebant is "brought up
quod . .. in 5, 4; the masculine could have been used in both the rear of . . .". praesidio ••• erant: predicative dative'
sentences. supra, in 16, I. The hill on which the Roman camp "guarded the baggage ", lit. "were as a guard to ... ". '
was placed was a little to the north (on the left bank) of the Sambre, 5· neque nostri ••• auderent: "and our men did not dare to
opposite the modern Hantmant, about three miles south-west of pursue them as they retreated further than the limit to which the
Maubeuge, near the village of Neuf-Mensil. open ground stretched and extended". For the reading of the
2. pari acclivitate: ablative of description or quality; Oxford Text, see the Preface. quem ad finem = ad finem ad
I f (another) hill with the same slope rose up", from the southern quem, and porrecta (from porrigo) pertinebant is lit. "being
bank of the river. huic is the first'hill mentioned. passus ••• stretched out,- extended". cedente5 agrees with i/los, or hostes,
apertus: "open (i.e. unwooded) at its foot for about . . . "; understood. quae primae venerant: uwhich had been the
passus ducentos is accusative of extent of space, and infimus is first to arrive". dimenso is passive in meaning though it comes
equivalent to ab infima parte. Notice the meaning of ab in ab from a deponent verb dimetior; the troops ineasured out the
superiore parte, "on its upper part"; ab lateribus occurs in 8, 4, (lines of the) work, i.e. the site and extent of the camp, before
and ex utraque parte, also meaning "on", in 8, 2. perspici: starting to entrench it.
impersonal passive, as in 17, 4, but we should say "so that it 6. prima impedimenta: "the first part of the baggage
(i,e, the wood at the top) could not easily be seen through from train". visa sunt is the true passive again, II was seen", as in
the outside", though introrsus means "to the inside". 18, 3, and in § 7 of this chapter. quod tempus ••• convenerat:
3. secundum: a preposition governing flumen. 'Videbantur "the moment which had been agreed upon among them (as the
is II could be seen JJ, not "seemed". pedum. • • trium: ~ime) for joining battle"; tempus is the antecedent of quod but
genitive of description or quality; lit. "was of about three feet", IS placed inside the relative clause; it is in apposition to the
i.e. "the depth ... was about three feet". We are told in 27, 5 clause ubi . .. vt'sa sunt. Notice this special meaning of convenio.
that the river was very wide and had very high banks, The ut ... confirmaverant clause should be taken after subito ...
evolaverunt; U they suddenly rushed not . . . in the formation in
which (ut, lit. 'as ') they had drawn up ... and had encouraged
one another (to fight)". inter se is another way of expressing
I. omnibus copiis: ablative of accompaniment, often used of "one another".
troops and sWps without cum; it occurs again in § 6. ratio ••• ,. his: the Roman auxiliary cavahy, who had crossed the
detulerant: u the arrangement ... was different from that which river in § 4. ut = ita ut, "with the result that . . ."; hastes
the Belgae had reponed ... ", lit. "held itself otherwise and the should be taken from the ut~clause and made the subject of
Belgae had (otherwise) reported"; idem atque is uthe same as" and decucurrerunt. ad silvas: "at the edge of the woods'" the
alius atgue I t different from", with a word similarly omitted. habebat '
d Istance from the edge of the wood to the river was 'about
is singular because ratio ordoque expresses a single idea. The half a mile, and from the river to the Roman camp about three-
report of the Belgae is given in 17, 2 •. quarters of a mile. in manibus nostris is U at close quarters with us ".
2. For the reading of the Oxford Text, see the Preface. con- 8. adverso colle: "up the hill", ablative absolute, lit. "the
suetudine sua is II according to his usual custom", for which see hill (being) against (them)". contenderunt is U they rushed",
the note on inter singulas legt'ones in 17, 2. On this occasion the not "marched".
troops were expediti, U in light order" J but must still have been
94 95

4. hi are the legati, and nihil is adve1'bial accusative, lit. II in
I. Caesari: dative of the agent with 8 gerundive; "Caesar respect of nothing ", which here is stronger than non and with iam
had to do everything at the same time". erat or erant must be means U no longer indeed". per se: lion their own initiative".
supplied with the gerundives that follow, but as Caesar did not quae videbantur is "what seemed (necessary) ", with ea understood
himself do all the things mentioned here but gave orders for some as the antecedent and object of admim'strabant; videor often has
of them to be done we can keep the other verbs passive; "the this meaning.
flag had to be raised ... ". The vexillum was a red flag that was 21
hoisted outside the general's headquarters as a sign (insigne) for
the troops to prepare for action. Three separate signals are I. necessBriis rebus imperatis: II ~fter giving the necessary
mentioned here, the vexillum to show that action was imminent, orders", mentioned in 20, 1. impero is transitive when a thing is
the trumpet-call for the men to fall in, and the final trumpet ordered, but requires a dative when orders are given to a person.
signum, with proeli understood, for starting the battle. concurri:
ad cohortandos milites: II to encourage the troops"; a general's
exhortation to his men to fight bravely was given whenever
another impersonal passive; "when it was necessary for the men
possible, even in a crisis like this, when only· a few words could be
to assemble under arms", lit. "for it to be run together to arms IJ. spoken. quam in parter", = in eam partern in quam; I I to whatever
opere is the work of fortifying the camp. qui: the antecedent is quarter chance directed him ", lit. u to that part to which ... ".
ei understood j U those who had gone a little further away to The 10th Legion had been Caesar's favourite legion since he took
obtain material for the rampart of the camp had to be swnmoned over the command in Gaul in 58 B.C., and remained so to the end.
back". This agger is the earthwork defending the camp which 2. non longiore ••• quam uti: .. in a speech just long enough
was strengthened with timber and stones; agger has two different to urge them to remember ... ", lit. "in a speech no longer than
meanings in 12, 5, and 30, 3. paulo is ablative of measure of that they should ... ". neve is used for et ne in an indirect com-
difference, lit. "by a little IJ. mand; "and that they should not", and animo is ablative of
2. quarum rerum: H of these duties". The two subjects
respect. Another uti (= ut) must be understood with sustinerent;
have a singular verb, impedjebat, though they do not express a we should say .. but" instead of I I and" for -que; "but that they
single idea, like ratjo ordoque in 19, 1. should withstand ... ".
3. erant subsidio: U relieved these difficulties", lit ... were as 3. The causal clause quod . .. aberant is the reason for signum
a relief to . . . "; predicative dative. The "two things" were dedit and is not part of what Caesar said to his men, which would
(i) scienta atqlle usus mjlitum, which is explained by quod • .. poterant, require the subjunctive. non longius . . . posset is "no further
and (ii) the clause from quod to 'Vecuerat, which means" the fact away than (the distance that) a spear could be hurled", lit. "than
that Caesar had forbidden . . .". The U previous battles" were whither a spear ... "; the subjunctive is consecutive or generic,
the defeats of the Helvetii and of Ariovistus in Caesar's first implying" at such a distance that ... "; see the last note on 17, 4
campaign, described in Book I. quid fieri oporteret: indirect for a different kind of consecutive clause. A Roman pi/urn could
question depending on praescribere; "being trained . . . they be thrown up to about forty yards and the lighter Gallic spears
could dictate for themselves what ought to be done just as well proportionately further. proeli committendi signum: a
as (lit. •no less conveniently than') they could be instructed gerund or gerundive depending on a nOUn is always genitive in
by others". singulos legatos: the duties of Caesar's legati are Latin, though we say I< the signal for joining battle".
described on pages 28"-9. On this occasion, as he often did in a 4. in alteram partem: Clin the other direction", i.e. to the
crisis he had put each one in command of a legion and "had right of the Roman position, for we sec from 22, 1 that the 9th
orde:ed each one not to leave the work (of entrenching the camp) and loth Legions were on the left. pugnantibus occurrit is "he
and his own legion until (lit. 'except when ') the camp was found (lit. 'met ') his men already fighting".
fortified"; nisi is here used adverbially with an ablative absolute, s. tanta: must here be translated as "such" (" so great" would
as also in 32, I, nisi armis trad~·tis, II except when the arms had been be nonsense), and tam paratus ad dimjcandw-n is "so ready for
given up". fighting". ad insignia accommodanda: "for fitting their
badges (on to their helmets)", probably crests of coloured plumes, nor could it be foreseen what was needed in each part (of the
different for each legion, that were fitted on to the helmets just battle) nor could all the orders be given out by one man"; there
before battle; the heavy iron helmets were carried slung over one is a slightly different use of opus est in 8, S (note). Caesar's view
shoulder except in action. The men had no time even to put their was impeded by the various lines of hedges so that he could not
helmets on or "to remove the covers from their shields", which station reserves in strategic places or direct the battle in the
were made of wood bound with leather and strengthened with usual way.
metal, and kept in removable leather cases to prevent the wood 2. in tanta rerum difficultate = in rebus tam difficilibus,
from warping and the metal from rusting in bad weather. seuris "in such a difficult situation". fortunae; genitive; "various
is ablative of separation; when a person, not a thing or a place, is vicissitudes of fortune also ... ".
concerned, the dative of disadvantage is used with a verb of
taking away, as in 7, 2, hostibus, and in 25, 2, militi. tempus
defuerit: we might expect the imperfect deesset for a continuous '3
result instead of the perfect which usually expresses a momentary I. ut ..• constiterant: U in the order in which (lit. 'as ') they
action; but perhaps it means II there was no time at all" instead had taken up their position", i.e. they now advanced in the same
of "time was lacking". formation in which they -had been fighting; acie may be an old
6. quam quisque ••• constitit: U to whatever point each man form of the genitive aciei, or local ablative "in line of battle u.
chanced to come from the work (of fortifying the camp) and The Atrebates had charged straight up the hill and were now out
whatever standards he first saw, beside (ad) these he took his of breath and wearied by running (lit. by running and weari-

stand" ; quam in partenJ = ill eam partern in quam, and quaeque ness "). his refers to the 9th and loth Legions, and ea pars to the
= et quae. The standards of the maniples and especially of the Atrebates; "that section of the enemy". conantes agrees with
legions were the rallying-points of the army, and each man would eos understood, and impeditam means "while in difficulties"; the
normally fight beside his own manipular signum, so that signis river was only three feet deep (18, 3), but very wide and with very
must be understood with in quaerendis suis, II in looking for his high banks (27, 5).
own standard". The manipulus or double century was no longer 2. ipal are the Romans, and non dubitaveYUnt is "did not
a tactical unit but still had its own signum. tempus pug"andi is hesitate". in locum iniquum: "up the slope", or "on to
"time for fighting" . . unfavourable ground". resistentes hostes is accusative.
3. diversae: to detached",. as in 22, I. congressi is masculine

magis ut ••• postulabat: U more as ... than as military
to agree with milires understood, though legiones is the grammatical
subject. ex loco superiore goes with projUgatis; the Virimandui
tactics and order demanded"; deiectus is a noun with the genitive also were driven down the hill. it, ipst"s rip-is, II on the very banks",
collis depending on it. ratio atque ordo occurred in 19, 1 with a probably on both sides of the river.
different meaning and again with a singular verb. cum, is 4. totis ••• nudatis: II since almost the whole camp was open
U since" and diversis legionibus is a causal ablative absolute; we to attack in front and on the left", another instance of a (or ex)
might combine them into one clause and say, U since the legions meaning" on", as in 8, 2 and 18, 2. cum is "although", and non
were separated and some were resisting in one place, others in magno imervallo "at no great distance", ablative of measure of dif-
another (lit. 'others in another place '), and the line of sight was ference. The pursuit of the enemy by the 8th and I nh Legions,
interrupted by the very thick hedges that had been planted as a which were guarding the front of the camp, and by the 9th and loth,
barrier"; ante, in 17, 4. Since aUae refers to legionibus we might which were guarding the left, meant that only the right of the camp
expect to find diversae legiones in the nominative case, divided into was being defended, by the 7th and 12th Legions. conCerti.simo
U some . . . others". The main sentence starts at neque certa, agmine: "in mass formation", or "in close array", ablative of
with poterant as the verb for certa subsidia and omnia imperia, and manner. duce Boduognato is ablative absolute, "under the leader-
poterat (understood from porerant) as the verb for the quid . . . ship of Boduagnatus", lit. "Boduagnatus (being) leader". ad eum
opus esset indirect question; U no fixed reserves could be placed locum, i.e. the front and left side of the camp.
98 99

5- quorum pars: fC some of them". aperto latcre is local is probably "to serve as auxiliary troops" J known as aUX1'/ia, but
ablative without in, "on the exposed flank") the right flank, which lit. is " for the sake of help". Notice ab civitate, ablative of the
was unprotected by shields and in the case of the 7th and 12th agent (equivalent to a civjbus), but multitudine, ablative of the
Legions (called here simply legiones) had no troops on their right instrument. The verb for cum is vidissent. pre~i: U hard
to defend their open flank. summum ••• locum: "the high pressed". iegiones were the 7th and 12th (23, 4~5), and
ground where the camp was placed"; some of the Nervii attacked circumventas teneri is "surrounded and held fast". Numidas
the undefended front and left of the camp, others tried to outflank refers to the auxiliary archers (7, I; 10, I). diversos dissi..
the 7th and 12th Legions by going round the extreme right of the patosque: U scattered in different directions"; we omit the ~que
Roman line. The much higher ground -of Neuf-Mesnil was in English. desperatis nostris rebus: "despairing of our
a short distance to the north of the camp (26, 4). fortunes" .
s. pulsos superatosque: supply esse for indirect statement
depending on renumiaverunt; also with potitos, which governs the
24 two ablatives.
I. levis armBturBe pedites: "the light·armed infantry",
lit. U infantry of light armament" ; for these non-Roman auxiliaries, 25
see page 35. una is an adverb. dixeram, in 19, 4-7; we should I. Most of this chapter is taken up by a long and involved
say "who, as I have said, were driven back". Caesar the historian sentence in which the verb of ubi (" where ") is vidit (after impedi-
generally used the first person plural, as in 18, 2, rarely the first mento), repeated (without et) for the sake of clarity lower down, after
person singular, and always speaks of himself as the general in the angusto. The two main verbs are processit and iussit. The
third person singular; the first person plural perfect and pluperfect repeated vidit has nine verbs in the infinitive (indirect statement)
appear in the same sentence in I, I. Bdversis: "face to face", depending upon it, and there are six ablatives absolute, two
because some of the Nervii had already reached the Roman camp deponent past paniciples, a consecutive clause, a causal clause,
by outflanking the legions on the Roman right and now turned and a purpose clause. The sentence can be split up by omitting
to face the auxiliaries who were retreating into it after crossing the ubi and taking the two vid;t verbs as main verbs, and the ablatives
river again in their flight. jugam petebant is "tried to flee", or absolute either as main verbs or depending on the second vidit.
"took to flight". Caesar now returns to describe his own actions in the battle,
2. calones were officers' servants, grooms, and other non- after digressing to describe the course of events elsewhere, after
combatant camp-followers, probably all slaves. decumana porta occurrit in 21, 4. ab ••• cohortatione: we should say" after
was the rear gate of the camp, for which see page 36; we should encouraging the loth Legion". urgeri is "were being hard
omit the ac in translation, for it explains that the rear gate was pressed". signis ••• collatis, ablative absolute; "the soldiers ...
on the summit of the hill, the camp being placed on a slight packed together (con/ertos) with the standards collected in one
downward slope, with the rear gate at its highest point, nostros place". sibi ••• impedimento: predicative dative; "were
victores transisse: "that our men were victorious and had hindering one another in fighting", lit. "were themselves as a
crossed ... ", in 23, 2~3. praecipites ••• mandabant: "began hindrance to themselves to the fight", The legionary standard of
to flee headlong", lit. co headlong gave themselves to flight". this legion, and the thiny manipular standards, were massed
3. eorum qui ••• veniebant: i.e. the drivers of the baggage- together with the soldiers tightly packed around them, instead of
train, which was guarded by the 13th and 14th Legions (19, 3); being deployed at the usual intervals so that each man should
these men now" rushed (ferebantur) panic-stricken, some in one have room to fight properly. The signum of the first of the three
direction, others in another"; see the similar phrase in 22, I. maniples in a cohort was probably also the standard of the cohort
4. equites Treveri = equites Treverorum; Treveri is really itself. omnibus centurionibus: there were six centurions in
in apposition to eqw'tes, virtutis opinio: II reputation for each cohon and sixty to each legion; the loss of a standard was
valour", as in 8, I, where it refers to the Suessiones. The considered a terrible disgrace, as it was in all armies until the
antecedent of quorum is Treveri, not merely equites, au,.,/i causa colours were no longer carried into battle. In the British Army
100 101
the last campaign in which the colours were taken into action action himself at close quarters j officers and centurions also did
was in 1881 in the First Boer War. In this battle ,with the Nervii not carry shields as a rule, though they were in the thick of the
the standard was recovered when the Romans eventually won fighting. Dominatlm: Caesar evidently knew the names of
the day. The fourth cohort occupied the extreme left of the most, if not all, of the centurions in his army, which no doubt
front line of the 12th Legion, one of the two legions on the accounted in part for their loyalty to him. laxsre: because the
right flank, and was therefore exposed to the full weight of troops had become too closely packed together, as mentioned at
the enemy attack on the camp, since the 8th Legion on its left the beginning of this chapter. The object of iussit is eos, the
had charged down to the river in pursuit of the enemy who had standard-bearers and centurions. signa in/erre is a phrase often
attacked it shortly before this (23, 3). in his: U among them". used for "to advance", because wherever the standard~bearers
For the duties of a primipilus, the Senior Centurion who took the standards the soldiers were bound to follow. quo
commanded the first century in the first cohort and the first fscilius: quo is always used instead of ut when the purpose clause
cohort as well (on this occasion a legatus was in command of each contains a comparative adjective or adverb, as in 17,4.
legion; 20, 3), see page 30. Sextius Bacu1us recovered from his 3. cui us ••• animo: .. on his arrival hope was given to ... and
U many severe wounds" (the ~que is necessary in Latin but is their courage renewed". cum pro se quisque: "since each
omitted in English between two adjectives) and served with man individually", lit. "each for himself". etiam ••• rebus:
distinction at the defence of Octodurus when the 12th Legion "even in his own very great peril u. Beware of confusine: operam
was attacked by the Gauls in the winter of this same year (III, 5, 2), with opus.
and again with great gallantry at the defence of the camp at
Aduatuca in 53 B.C. (VI, 38), when he left his sick bed at a critical 26
moment to repel a German attack, receiving many wounds in I. iuxta constiterat: .. had taken up a posIUon close by",
this action also. ut = ita ut, "with the result that", and se to the right of the 12th Legion, on the extreme right of the line.
sustinere is U to stand up". The infinitives that follow all depend tribunos ••. inferrent: "commanded the military tribunes (to
on mdit. esse tardiores is "were becoming tired", lit. "were give orders) that the (two) legions should close up (lit. 'join
slower". nOD nullos is sometimes written as one word themselves together ') and should wheel round and face the
nonnullos, U some"; with a novissimis it means U some of those in enemy") lit. "should advance the turned round standards
the rear"; this meaning of novissimis and of ab both occur in against ... ". This means that the rear rank wheeled round to
II,4; so also a/ronte is "in front" and ab utroque latere lion each oppose the enemy who were attacking from the rear, and probably
flank". deserto proelio is ablative absolute, and excedere is "were that the flank cohorts turned right and left respectively to ward
retreating". hostes neque •.• et ••• : "and that the enemy did off attacks from each side; the same phrase is used in I, 25, 7, in
not stop advancing from ... and ... ". rem esse in angusto: the battle against the Helvetii in 58 B.C., but on that occasion only
U that the situation was critical", lit. II in a narrow (place)". the front and rear of the Roman line were involved, not the
quod • . • posset: subjunctive in a relative clause in oratio flanks. For the military tribunes, sec page 29; they would not be
obliqua, but it would be subjunctive also in direct speech because experienced enough in warfare to be able to handle troops on
it is a consecutive or generic clause, U such as could be sent up", their own initiative in such a crisis and were merely relaying
but we can say simply II which could be sent up". Caesar's orders to the centurions, but we may wonder where the
2. The main sentence starts here, after the ubi~clauses, the legati in charge of these two legions were at this moment.
ablative absolutes, and the indirect statements depending on the 2. quo facto: "whereupon", lit. "which having been,done".
repeated vidit. uni militi is dative of disadvantage used after a alius alii is II one man ... to another". aversi, " with their backs
verb of taking away (like hostibus in 7, 2), and ab novissimis is turned", i.e. in the rear.
like the same phrase a few lines higher up j "snatching up a 3. quae ••• fuerant: .. which had formed the baggage-guard
shield from one of the soldiers in the rear ranks". quod is (predicative dative) at the rear of the column)l, as mentioned in
U because", and eo is an adverb; the Commander-in-Chief would 19, 3; these were the newly~raised legions, the 13th and I4th.
not normally carry a shield, as he would not expect to go into proelio ••• incitato: .. having quickened their pace on hearing
102 103
news of the battle". in summo colle: i.e. the hill of Neuf- with the definite statement in 28, 2, omnium qui supererant,
Mesnil, a little to the north of, and behind, the Roman camp; Clof all those who (actually) survived"; we cannot distinguish
when they reached the crest of this hill they could be seen by the them in English. ut ex tumulo: U as though from a hill". pila
enemy. intercepta remitterent = interciperent et remitterent; the subjunc-
4. castris hostium: on the other side of the river, on the top tives still depend on the ut after praestiterunt. The Roman
of the rising ground behind the wood in which the Nervii first pi/um had a head of soft iron that bent when it struck a hard object
concealed themselves (18, 2-3). We now learn that Labienus like a shield so that it could not be pulled out and liung back; but
was in command of the loth Legion, which together with the the Nervii apparently caught the pi/a in Bight and hurled them
9th had crossed the river and pursued the Atrehates up the hill back at the Romans.
(23,2). quae res gererentur, "what was happening", is an indirect S. ut = ita ut in a consecutive clause; "so that it ought not
question, and subsidio nostris, "to help Qur men", dative of purpose. to be thought (iudicari) that men of such great courage (genitive
s. qui are "the men of the loth Legion", with an antecedent of quality or description) had without good ,eason (nequiquam,
taken from decimam legionem. The flight of the cavalry and the i.e. without good hopes of success) dared to cross . . . and to
camp-followers is described in 24, 1-2. quo ••• esset: "the advance over very unfavourable ground", i.e. up the steep slope
state of the battle", lit. "in what a position the matter was". to the Roman camp. quae ••• redegerat: "(all) these (tasks)
'Utrsaretur is singular with imperalOr, but refers also to castra and their great courage (lit. 'greatness of spirit ') had made easy
iegiones; "were placed". nihil • 0 • fecerunt: U made all instead of being (ex) very difficult", Caesar more than once
possible speed", lit. "made nothing left undone (partitive praises the courage of the Gauls, but never in such generous terms
genitive) for themselves with regard to speed". as these. In the words of Wellington about Waterloo, this battle
was H a damned nice thing, the closest run thing that ever you
saw in your life", which might easily have ended Caesar's career
Z7 and his life too.
Io horum adventu: "on the arrival of these men", temporal
and instrumental ablative. rerum, "in the situation", For
nostri, etiam qui we should say" even those of our men who had z8
fallen . . ."; procubuissent is a consecutive or generic relative I. (acto: "fought". prope .. , redacto, "when the nation and
clause (like quo . .. posset in 17, 4), meaning "such men as had name (i.e. perhaps 'the power') .. , had been reduced to almost
fallen". etiam... occurrerunt: "even though unarmed, utter destruction"; this was obviously an exaggeration, perhaps
went to meet the armed foe". made intentionally by the Nervian envoys to rouse Caesar's pity,
2. quo • 0 • praeferrent: U in order that they might show because in S4 B.C, they had recovered enough strength to make a
themselves superior to the soldiers of the legions"; quo is used dangerous attack on Cicero's winter camp, which was eventually,
in this purpose clause instead of ut because there is a comparative repelled with great losses (y, 38-51); they rebelled and surrendered
adjective implied in se praeferrent (see the last note on 2S, 2). again in S3 B.C. (VI, 2-3), and they sent a contingent of 5,000 men
3. etiam ••• salutis! "even when all hope of safety was lost", to help Vercingetorix in the final revolt of 52 B.C. (VII, 75, 3).
lit. U in the last hope . . .". primi eorum is U their front ranks". maiores natu ••• puecis: U the older men . . . the children JJ,
proximi •• insisterent: '~those who were next to them took
0 as in 13, 2-3. una is an adverb again. collectos (esse) dixeramus,
their stand upon them as they lay dead". For ex corporibus we in 16, 4; the pluperfect is also used in I, I, and 24, I. aestuaria
might say "while standing on their bodies", rather than "from" suggests that the non-combatants were sent away for safety
or "on", (collectos) to the creeks and matshes of the estuaty of the Scaldis
4. his refers to the proximi; "when these had been ,struck (Scheidt). victoribus nihil impeditum: "that nothing (was)
down and the corpses piled up in heaps". qui superessent is too hard for the victors". For the indicative omnium qui supererant
another consecutive or generic clause, as in § I; "such as (on which consensu depends), see the note on qui superessent in
survived", i.e. .. the survivors" J an indefinite statement, compared 27,4·
104 105
2. ex sescentis • . • redactol esse: II that they had been 4. The invasions of the Cimbri and Teutoni are mentioned in
reduced from 600 senators to three. . .... flix goes with quingencos, the note on 4, 2. provincia nostra means Transalpine or Narbonese
and qui ..• possent is another consecutive or generic subjunctive, Gaul, still called Provence, which was made into a province in
II such as could .. ,", as well as being in oralio obligua. lIB B.C. Italiam means northern Italy, at that time Caesar's
3. ut ••• usus (esse) •.• videretur: "so that he should be province of Cisalpine Gaul, as in 35, 2. eis ••• depositis:
seen to have shown mercy towards pitiful suppliants"; we omit "leaving behind the (cattle and) baggage"; the verbs agere ac
the et in translation. Caesar often behaved with the most portare (U drive and carry") show that part of their impedimenta
callous brutality towards a conquered foe (especially after a consisted of cattle. We do not translate eis in a relative clause
rebellion; see page 25), and perhaps he later regretted his like this. citra is the western or Gallic bank, which was nearer
clemency on this occasion when the Nervii thrice took up arms to Rome, as in 3, 4. ex suis depends on sex milia homi1zum, and
against him, as mentioned in the note on § I. conservavit: custodiam ac praesidium are in apposition, U as a guard and a
"protected them from harm tJ • uti is II to keep", or II to go on garrison"; the guard was perhaps for the cattle and the garrison
using". ut ••• prohiberent: "to restrain themselves and their to defend the baggage and the place itself. una is an adverb,
dependents from (doing) outrage and injury (to the surviving "with it", i.e. with the baggage.
Nervii) ". s. hi: the 6,000 who were left behind, and post eorum obitum,
U after the destruction of the others J1, refers to the annihilation of
29 the main body of Cimbri and Teutoni by Marius' at Aquae
I. supra: in 16, 3, when they were said to be on the march to Sextiae and Vercellae in 102 and 101 B.C. multos annos:
help the Nervii; they had promised 19,000 men in 4, 9. cum, accusative of duration of time. alias . . . alias are adverbs, and
Ie although". auxilio is dative of purpose, and ex itinere "while still inlatum agrees with bellum understood; U sometimes made war,
on the march" or II without halting", a different meaning from sometimes defended themselves against war made (on them by
that in 6, I and 12, 2. others)". eorum omnium: i.e. of all their Gallic neighbours.
z. sua omnia: "all their possessions". natura is "by its domicilio, dative of purpose; II as a home".
natural position". The site of this town was probably Mont
Falhize, on the north bank of the Meuse, opposite Huy and
nineteen miles west of Namur; the river flowed round it in a 3"
horse-shoe curve that allowed the town to be approached only I. adventu: ablative of point of time; "on_ the arrival",
from the north-east, where it was strongly fortified. depending on the genitive exercitus nostri. parvulis proeliis,
3. quod cum ••• haberet: "although this town was built on U in skirmishes J1, local ablative without t·n, like oppido in the next

very steep rocks and commanded views on every side round about", section. vallo ••• circummuniti: "being hemmed in by a
lit. II in a circle". Notice again this common use of ex or ab to rampart 15,000 feet in length", lit. "circumference", i.e. just
mean "on" or "in", for which see the note on II,4; so also under three English miles. The rampart did not blockade the
una ex parte is "on one side", the north-east. The subject of town entirely but only on the north-east, where it shut in the horse-
relinquebatur is aditus, "a gently sloping approach of not more shoe bend of the Meuse from one part of the river to the other.
than 200 feet in breadth"; see the note on amplius without quam quindecim milium is genitive of description or quality, with pedum
in 7, 3; it is here used as an adverb, and ductntorum pedum is depending on it; Caesar generally expresses long distances in
genitive of description depending on aditus. duplici ••• muro: passus, not pedes. sese continebant: "they remained".
"with a double wall of great height"; the et or -que that usually 3. For vineae, agger, and turris, see page 39. This agger was
connects two adjectives (as in 25, 2, multis gravibusque vulneribus) the "siege-mound" used for-blockading a town, not the "loose
can be omitted if one of them is an adjective of place, size, or earth" of 12, 5; a siege-mound was a very elaborate structure of
number. tum is co (and) at that time"; they were still engaged timber and earth that was gradually built nearer and nearer to
in placing stones of great weight (genitive of description or the walls until the attackers could make the final assault from it.
quality) and pointed beams upon the wall to repel an attack. cO'nstitui is present infinitive passive, U was being erected".
106 107
The turris was at first a long way off, but it would gradually be CI to surrender "), for which another se must be understood as the
pushed forward on rollers to protect the men working on the subject; it is omitted, as in 3, 2, perhaps to avoid the repetition
agger as it too drew near the walls; the defenders did not know of the same word. From here to the end of the chapter is all in oratio
this, and at first laughed at the Roman's efforts. irridere and obliqua depending on dixerunt, with se again understood as the sub-
increpitare: these arc historic infinites used in repeated or vivid ject of perere ac deprecari; "(they said that) they requested and
descriptions; "began to laugh at our men . . .". fJocibus, in begged (him not to do) one thing only", which is explained by the
Celtic, but the Gallic auxiliaries in the Roman army would indirect petition ne ... despoIiaret, U that he should not deprive them
translate the taunts to the Roman soldiers. quod ... instrueretur of their arms" (ablative of separation). sua refers to Caesar, ips;
is subjunctive because it gives the reason in the minds of the and se to the Aduatuci. Their own words were si forte pro
Aduatuci; "at the idea of such a great engine being raised at so C'in accordance with") tua ..• , quam nos ipsi ... audimus, statueris
great a distance IJ; ab is used in 7,3 in this sense of" at a distance of" .. (fumre perfect, lit. uif you shall have decided", i.e. "if you
4- quibusnam ••• confiderent: a question in oratio obliqua, decide") . . . , ne nos armis despoliaf)eris (or noli despoliare). si
depending on rogaverunt understood; It with what hands indeed statuisset is translated CI if he decided", or "if he should decide
(the suffix nam is here sarcastic) . . . did men, especially of 60 that the Aduatuci should be spared".
small stature ... believe that they could ... ? n; tantulae staturae 4. sibi ••• inimicos: "were hostile to them"; see 29, 4~5.
and tanti oneris are genitive of description or quality. The se non posse could have been used instead of 1I0n possent, because the
Aduatuci perhaps thought that the Romans hoped to lift up and relative clause is really a new sentence after a semi-colon; "they
place the tower on the wall. est in the parenthesis shows that could not defend themselves against those people if they gave
this is a note added for the reader by Caesar as historian. In up . . .", the ablative absolute being equivalent to a conditional
I, 39, I we read that the Germans, from whom the Aduatuci were clause.
descended, were reported to be men of such great stature that 6. praestare: impersonal; "it was better for them", or
there was a panic in the Roman army. bretJitas nostra = brevitas perhaps" it would be better", because Latin often uses the present
nostrorum, and Gallis, which is a noun, is really in apposition to indicative in such impersonal phrases (e.g. longum est, "it would
hominibus, but we say simply II to the Gauls". It seems from this be tedious") instead of a present subjunctive, which would become
statement that the, Gauls generally, not only the Germans, were future infinitive in oratio obliqua. si ••• deducerentur: "if
very tall, unlike our modern idea of small dark Celts. contemptui they were to be brought to such an extremity", i.e. that they had
est: predicative dative; Ie as an object of scorn to the Gauls". to choose between punishment inflicted by the Romans and
For the reading of the Oxford Text, which omits posse, see the vengeance inflicted by their neighbours. quamvis is an adjective,
Preface. " ll::''j", from quivis, an d for a populo Romano after pati we should
say "at the hands of . . .". quam, U than", can be used because
31 praestare implies a comparative adjective. consuessent: shortened
I. The subject of moveri (passive with intransitive meaning) is form of consuetJissent, from consuesco.
turrim understood. locuti is either locuti sunt, followed by the
indirect statement down to possent, in which case dixerunt governs
se ... permittere; or it is a participle, with dixerunt governing both 32
indirect statements; "who, speaking as follows (ad hunc modum), I. respondit: Caesar's reply, in oratio obliqua, goes down to
said that ... ". injerrent in § 2. magis ••• eorum: "more according to his
2. non existimare: supply se as the s1:lbject, and note the usual custom (i.e. of sparing enemies who surrendered) than
emphatic position of non, which is to be taken with sine ope because of their own deserts"; in Caesar's eyes they deserved
divina i U they thought that it was not without divine aid that the little mercy, because they had intended to help the Nervil.
Romans ... ". qui ••• possent: <'because they were able to ...", attigisset and dedidistent: represent the future perfect of direct
3 causal relative clause, which would be subjunctive in direct speech, like statuisset in 31, 3; I I if they surrendered (or I should
speech also. The se in se suaque omnia is the object of permitter, surrender ') before the battering-ram touched . . .", his own
108 109
words were civitatem conservabo (which becomes se consttrvaturum of equal length, varying with the time of year. qua • . •
esse), si 'liDS dederitis prius quam aries tetigerit. deditionis ••• videbatur: "at a place where the ascent, .. seemed least steep" ;
traditis: II no terms ... were (possible) except after their arms this clause should be taken after the main verb fecerunt. nostras
had been given up"-; nisi is used as an adverb with an ablative munitiones were the three-mile-long fJallum of 30, 2 that enclosed
absolute, as in 20, 3. the town within a loop of the river and was evidently built on
z. id quod ••• fecisset: U what he had done in the case of rising ground, as his sentence shows, and also iniquo loco in § 4.
the Nervii IJ J in 28, 3. ne _••• inferrent: "not to do any (quam) omnibus copiis: ablative of accompaniment, as in 7, 3.
harm to those who had surrendered to the ... ") or II to the sur- 3. imperarat: imperaverat, and ut is again" as IJ. ignibus ...
rendered subjects of ... ". quis and qui are ,regularly used after facta, "when the signal was given by means of flares") probably
ne (and si) to mean" anyone" and II any". from the crebra castella on the vallttm. eo concursum est:
3. The subject of dixerunt is legati, and ofJacere is se understood; impersonal passive; <I a rush was made to that place JI, lit. "it was
the present infinitive means U that they were already doing", or run together thither". pugnatum est -and pugnari are also impersonal
perhaps" that they were ready to do". quae = ea quae, lit. U those passive; we should say .. the enemy fought as fiercely as brave
things which", i.e. "what", with the verb subjunctive in orat~'o men were bound to fight . . .". in extrema spe: U in the
obliqua. desperate (lit. 4last ') hope"; not quite the same as in 27, 3,
4. sic ut: "with the result that". summam altt'tudt'nem is "the where the phrase meant that the Nervii had no hope of safety at all.
very top". aggeris: Caesar's siege-mound (30, 3), which by iniquo loco: "on unfavourable ground" (local ablative without
now must have been brought up to the edge of or perhaps even in), because they were fighting uphill (ascensus in § 2, even though
into the 200 foot wide ditch that defended the town in front of the it was minime arduus). qui ••• iacerent: a consecutive or generic
double wall (29, 3). parte. . . retenta is an ablative absolute relative clause, as in 27, 1 and 4; lit." such men as were throwing",
parallel to magna multt'tudinc . . . iaeta, but portis pate/aetis but we must say" men who were throwing". The turribus were
describes what happened a little later. ut is "as". pace usi not the castella built on the'Vallum but additional defences. cum
sunt: "they kept quiet", or "remained at peace". is "since J1, and in una 'Virtute, "on courage alone".
5. ad is here an adverb meaning II about" J like circiter j with
an accusative numeral it means" up to II or again I I about".
33 6. postridie eius diei: see the note on 12, I. cum is Hsince",
I. lub vesperum: "towards evening". For ne quam and the position of nemo is emphatic; H by this time defenders
iniuriam see the note on 32, 2. This sentence shows that even there were none". sectionem ••• vendidit: U put up for sale
Roman discipline could not keep troops under strict control in a the entire plunder of that town"; seetio meant the dividing up
surrendered town at night. Uti... quod: "the townsfolk, for auction of property confiscated to the state, hence the plunder
having previously formed a plan, as was (later) realised, because itself which here included all the inhabitants .
. . . ", praesidia . . . servaturos (esse) is "would withdraw their 7. ab eis qui emerant: these were the slave-dealers (mangones)
outposts (i.e. from the wall and the 'Val/um mentioned in 30, 2) who accompanied a Roman army among the camp-followers;
or at least would guard them less carefully". It may be better they bought lit auction the prisoners who were to be enslaved,
to make ;nito consilio into a main verb and to start another sentence marched them to Italy, and sold them there at a good profit.
at partim. Notice the position of armis after the relative clause. Very few of such slaves would ever see their homes again, and
We might translate cum C'with") as "taking up the weapons all were entirely at the mercy of their owners, so that often death
which ... ". cum must be taken again with scutis; "others taking in defence of their country would have been preferable. In
up shields made from bark or plaited osiers, which they had The Conquered Naomi Mitchison tells the story (imaginary) of a
hurriedly ... , as the shortness ... "; ex governs t)iminibus intextis young Gallic prince who was enslaved after the rebellion of the
as well as eoru'ce, and the antecedent of quae is scutis. tertia Veneti (Book III of the Gallic War) and taken to Rome; both this
vigilia: "at the third watch" (ablative of point of time), i.e. book and her short stories, When the Bough Breaks, also mainly
soon after midnight, for the night was divided into four" watches n about Gauls, are well worth reading. capitum... trium:
IIthe number of persons (capitum) was reported to him to be as though the subject of poLHcerentur were nationes, not the /egau"
53,000", lit. U(to be the number) of 53,000"; milium quinquaginta who spoke for the nationes.
trium also depends on numerus. This figure is probably accurate, 2. quas: we say "these", not "which", at the beginning of a
because Caesar would have a detailed account from the slave- sentence. Italiam II/yricumque were the two provinces under
dealers when they paid him the purchase-money, which was one Caesar's command beside Transalpine Gaul, "Italy" being used
of the chief sources of wealth for a victorious general; the soldiers for Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy south of the Alps), and
would no doubt get a share of the proceeds, or sometimes a slave Illyricum being the country on the northern shores of the Adriatic.
each as personal servants or to sell. Some of the Aduatuci As they were peaceful, Caesar visited them only in the winter
escaped enslavement and revolted again in 54 B.C. (V, 38-9) months to hold the assizes and transact other business; a provincial
and also in 53 B.C. (VI, 2). governor was not allowed to enter Italy proper during his term
of office (normally a year, but in Caesar's case two consecutive
periods of five years). inita proxima aestate: "at the begin-
34 ning of the following summer", as in 2, I (note), i.e. 56 B.C.
legione una: the 7th, as we read in III, 7, 2. Publius
I. 3. in Carnutes ••• Turones: "into the territory of . . . ",
Crassus was the younger son of the rich Marcus Crassus, who to be taken with legiom'bus ... deductis, but after in hibernacula we
was a member of the Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in say U into whiter-quarters in the territory of . . .". quaeque...
60 B.C. Publius was one of Caesar's most trusted officers; he erant = et in eas civitates quae propinquae . . . erant.
commanded the cavalry in the battle against Ariovistus in 58 B.C., 4. ob: -que can be attached to a monosyllabic preposition
where he saved the day by attacking at a critical moment (I, 52, 7). (obque eas res), or to the next word, as here, and in II, 6. ex
quae: the antecedent is the masculines tribes just named, but litteris is "on receipt of Caesar's dispatches". dierum quin..
the relative pronoun is "attracted JJ into the gender of civitates; dec:im supplicatio: for the reading of the Oxford Text, see the
"which are maritime tribes" of Brittany. maritimae would Preface; "a public thanksgiving lasting fifteen days OJ, lit. "of
suggest the Mediterranean to Roman readers, so Oceanum fifteen days", genitive of description. The Senate could order
attingunt is perhaps added for clarity, in deditionem • • • such a thanksgiving for a victory, usually for three or four days,
redactas: "had been forced to surrender and to accept the power though Pompey had been granted one of twelve days after his
of . . ."; their submission was brief, for in the next year victories in Asia Minor in 63 B.C. Caesar received a supplicatio
(56 B.C.) they revolted, and the Veneti, the ring-leaders, were of twenty days after his first invasion of Britain in 55 B.C. (IV, 38, 5)
punished with terrible severity (III, 7-16). and again after his great victory over Vercingetoris in 52 B.C.
(VII, 90, 8). quod ••• Rulli: U an honour that had fallen to
no one ... "; the position of "I'lulli is emphatic, like that of nemo
3S in 33, 6. The antecedent of quod is the whole sentence dierum
omni Gallia: i.e. all parts that had so far resisted Caesar's
I. ... decreta est.
advancf;:; the conquest was short-lived, for revolts broke out
again almost at once. tanta opinio: U so impressive a report";
the barbari were presumably the Gauls who had not yet been
approached by Caesar, and neighbouring peoples like the Germans
and perhaps even the Britons, though only the German tribes
sent envoys to Caesar. uti = ut. quae ••• incolerent: the
subjunctive is apparently due to "attraction", i.e. a verb depend-
ing on a SUbjunctive clause (here consecutive) is sometimes drawn
into the same mood; see the note on viderentur in II, 5. qui •••
pollic:erentur: a relative clause of purpose, "to promise".
daturas and jacturas (esse) are feminine in agreement with se,
Diphthongs are always long, and a11long vowels are marked. A adfinitas, Matis, t., relation-
All other vowels can be assumed to be short, except that the ii, ab, prep. with abl., by, ship by marriage.
fTom~' ab Jateribus, on theflanks~' adigo, 3, -egJ, -actum, tr.,
quantity of some Gallic names is uncertain. Second declen- ab utroque latere, on bothfianks throw, hurl.
sion nouns ending in -ius and -ium have the contracted genitive (8); ii fronte, in front (23); ab aditus, -us, m., access, ap-
mllibus duobus, at a distance of proach.
singular in Caesar, e.g. fili, imperi. two miles (7). adiuvo, I, -invl, -Hitum, tr.,
abdo, 3, -didl, -ditum, tr., help.
ABBREVIATIONS hide, conceal. administro, I, tr., execute,
. absum, abesse, afut, z'ntr., be perform, give (orders).
act. active interrog. interrogative d,stam. adorior, 4, -ortus, dep. tr.,
abl. ablative intr. intransitive Be, conj., and, and indeed,' attack.
aUus ae, different from, aliter ae, Aduatuci, -erum, m. pl., the
ace. accusative m. masculine otherwise than. Aduatuci, a Belgic tribe of
adj. adjective n. neuter . Bccedo, 3, -cessi, -cessum, German origin, living on the
adv. adverb part. participle mtr" approach, draw neaT; be north bank of the Sabi.
added, be inspired in (7). (Sambre).
c. common pass. passive accido, 3, -cidl, intT., hap- ~dveDtus, -fis, m., approach,
comp. comparative pl. plural pen; be given to (35). amval.
con). conjunction prep. preposition . accipi~, 3, -cepi, -eeptum, adversus, -a, -urn, facing,
mtr., recelve, accept. opposite, face to jace, in front;
dat. dative pres. present acclivis, -e, steep, sloping up- adverso coile, uphill (19).
defect. defective p.p.p. past participle passive wards. aedificium, -I, n., building.
pron. acclivitas, -atis, j., ascent, Aeduus, -8, -urn, Aeduan;
dep. deponent pronoun slope. Aedul, -arum, m. pl., the Aedui,
f· feminine reflex. reflexive accommodo, I, tr., fit on, a powerful tribe of central Gaul
gen. genitive rei. relative put on. living between the Arar (SaOne)
acervus, -i, m., heap, pile. and the Liger (Loire), allied
impers. impersonal semi-dep. semi-deponent aCies, aciel, j., gen. also acie with Rome.
inded. indeclinable sing. singular (23), line of ballic. aegre, adv., with difficulty.
indef. indefinite superl. superlative acriter, acrius, acerrime, aequiliter, adv., evenly, um'-
adv. of acer, fiercely, fo,.mly.
infin. infinitive tr. transitive ad, prep. with ace., to, to- aestis, MatiS, f., summer.
wards, against, up to, for, near, aestuarium, i, m., creek, in~
I, 2, 3, or 4 after a verb means that it is a regular verb like beside, with regard to, at; as let, estuary.
amo, moneo, rego, 'or audio, unless the perfect and supine are adverb with numerals, about aetas, -atis, j., age.
(33)· a~er, agrl, m., land, country,
given. adaequo, I, tr., reach, equal. cerr'tory.
addiico, 3, tr., lead, bring to. agger, aggeris, m., loose earth,
adeo, Rire, Ril, -itum, tr., go rubble (12, 20); siege-mound
to, approach. (30).
adfero, -ferre, -tull, -latum, aggredior, 3, -gressus, dep.
cr., bring (to). tr., actack.
Iq lIS
agmen, agmlnlS, n., column apertul, -a, -UIn, open, ex- Auruoculeiua, -I, m., Lucius C
0/ march, body of troops, army. posed, bare, treeless; (p.p.p. of Aurunculeius Cotta, one of Cae-
aperiO, open). cadaver, -eris, n., corpse,
ago, 3, egl, iictum, fr., do; sar's legat; (II), killedinS4B.c. dead body.
bring up (Il); drive (29). appello, I, tr., call, call upon. aut, coni., or; aut . . . aut,
appropinquo, I, intT., with either . .. or.
cada, 3, cecidl, casum, intr.,
alias, ad'fJ., at another time~' fall, die.
alias ... aWi5, at one time . .. at dat. or adv, approach. autem, conj., moreOfJer, but.
apud, prep. with ace., at, auxilium, Ri, n.,help, aid, Caerosi, -arum, m. pl., the
another. Caerosi, a Belgic tribe living
alienus, ·8, -urn, belonging to among, near. reinforcemems; pl., auxiliary
arbitror, I, dep. fr., think. forces. between the Rhine and the
another. arbor, arboris, ,., tTee. Mosa (Meuse).
alius, alia, aliud, other, an- averto, 3, 3verti, aversum,
other; alius alia in parte, some in arcesso, 3, -lvi, -Itum, tr., tr., turn" turn away; p.p.p. Caesar, -aris, m.,Julius Cae-
send for, summon. 3versus, in the rear. sar, the author of this book.
one place, others in another (22); arduus, -a, -urn, steep, diffi- calamitis, -atis,f., disaster.
alius, alii, to one another (26); Axooa, ~ae, f., the Axona,
cult. the river Aisne. Caleti, -orum, m. pl., the
adf), aliter, otherwise, differently aries, arietis, m., battering- Caleti, a Gallic tribe living on
alter, -era, -erum, one of two, ram. the coast of Normandy north of
the other of two,' another. arma, -orum, n. pl., arms, the Sequana (Seine).
altitudi), -tudinis, j., height, weapons. B calo, calonis, m., camp-fol-
depth. armatura, -ae,f., equipment; Baculus, -I, m., Publius Sex- lower" officer's servant.
altus, -a, -urn, high, deep. levis armatlirae Numidae, light- tius Baculus, Senior Centurion captivus, -1, m., prisoner.
Ambiini, -arum, m. pl., the armed Numidians. the 12th Legion (2S). caput, capitis, n., head; pl.,
Ambiani, a Gallic tribe living on armo, I, tr., arm; p.p.p. Baleiris, -e, Balearic, from people, persons.
both sides of the Samara armatus, armed. the Balearic Isles, which pro- Carnutes, -urn, m. pl., the
(Somme) in Normandy. asceodo, 3, ascendl, -cen- duced famous slingers. Carnutes, a Gallic tribe living
Bblicitia, -ae, j., friendship. sum, tr., climb up. barbarus, -I, m., barbarian, near Cenabum (Orleans).
amitto, 3, amIsl, amissum ascensus, -us, m., ascent, native. castellum, -I, n., jort, re-
IT., lose. climb. Belgae, -arum, m. pl., the doubt.
amplifieD, I, tr., increase, at, conj., but. Belgae, a group of tribes living castra, -arum, n. pl., a camp.
enlarge. atque, conj., and, and in- in Belgic Gaul, between the casus, -us, m., chance, jate,
amplius, compo adv., more, deed,' Idem atque, the same as; Sequana (Seine) and the Rhine. exu·emity.
more than. aliter atque, otherwise than. Bellovaci, -orum, m. pl., the causa, -ae, f., reason, cause;
Andecumborius, -I, m., Atrebites, -urn, and Atre- BeUovaci, the most warlike of de eadem causa, for the same
Andecumborius, a leader of the bati, -orum,, the Atrebates, the Belgic tribes, living between reason; in abl., preceded by a
Remi. a Belgic tribe living north of the the Samara (Somme) and the gen., for the sake of.
Andes, -iurn, m. pl., the Samara (Sonune). Sequana (Seine). ceda, 3, cessl, cessum, intr.,
Andes, a Gallic tribe living attingo, 3, -tigl, -tactum, fr., bellum, -I, n., war. give ground, retreat.
north of the Liger (Loire) in touch, border on. Bibrax, Bibractis, n., Bibrax, celeritis, -atis, f., speed,
Brittany. auctoritis, -ads, f., influ- a town of the Remi, probablY SWIftness.
aogustus, -a, -urn, narrow, ence, authority. Vieux-Laon. celeriter, celerius, celerrime,
difficult; n. as noun, angustum, audacter, audacius, audacis- Boduognitus, -i, m., Bodu- ad'll. of celer, quickly.
a critical position (25). sime, adv. of audax, boldly. ognatus, leader of the Nervii. cela, I, tr., hide, conceal.
animus, -I, m., mind, pur- audeo, 2, ausus, semi-dep. Bratuspantium, -i, n., Bra- centum, indec/., pl., a hun-
pose, courage, spirit; pl., spirits. intr., dare, be bold. tuspantium, a town of the Bello- dred.
aonus, -1, m., year. audio, 4, tr., hear. vaci, now Breteuil. centurio, -onis, m., centu-
ante, prep. with ace., before, Aulerci, ~orum, m. pl., the brevitis, -atis, j., shortness; "ion, commander of a century
in/ront 0/; as adv., before. Aulerci, a Gallic tribe living on small stature. (100 men).
aotiquitus, adv., long ago, in the Sequana (Seine) in Nor- Britannia, -ae, j., Britain certus, -a, -urn, sure, cer-
ancient time~. mandy. (4 and 14). tain, fixed, regular; certiarem
u6 117
facio, itiform; certior fio, be c;:ohortitio, ~onis, t., $peech condiico, 3, tr., collect; re- i~tr", halt, stand, .take up a posi-
informed. of exhortation, encouragement. crw"t, hire. tW1'l; rest, depend on (33).
ceteri, -Be, -3, pl., the rest, the col1ltus, p.p.p. of confero. confectus, -3, -urn, worn out, cOnspectus, -Us, m., sight.
other. coieio, 3, -iecl, -iectum, tr., exhausted, disabled (p.p.p. of conspicio, 3, -spexI, -spec-
Cimbri, -arum, m. pl., the hurl,rhrow,place(r6); infugam conficio). ' tum, tr., see, observe.
Cimbri, a German tribe defeated coicio, put to flight. confero, -ferre, -tuli, colla- conspicor, I, dep. tr., see,
by Marius at Vercellae in 101. colligo, 3, -legl, -lectum, tr., tum, tr., bn"ng together, convey; observe.
circiter, adv., about (with coliect, send away together. se conferre, betake oneself, go. constanter, adv., unani-
numerals). collis, -is, m.,hill. confertus, -3, -urn, closely
packed, dense. mously.
circultus, -us, m., way l'ound, col1oco, I, tr., place, station. constiti,.perj.. of consisto.
circumference; in circuitG, in commeatus, .us, m., sup- conficio, 3, -feci, -fectum,
tr., finish, accomplish; supply, constituo, 3, -ui, -fitum,
extent (30). plies,/ood. tr., determine, decide; draw up,.
circumicio,3,-iecI,-iectum, commemoro, I, tr., men- muster, raise; disable.
confido, 3, -fisus, semi-dep. build, construct.
lr., surround, place round. (ion, relate.
circumiinio, 4, tr., surround, committo, 3, -misl, -mis- jntT., trust, believe. cODsuesco, 3, -suev!, -sue-
hem in. sum, fT., entrust; proelium confirmo, I, (T., confirm, en- tum, intr., become accustomed;
circumvenio, 4, -veni, -ven- committo, join battle. courage; declare. £1'1 perf., be accustomed.
tum, tr., surround. commode, adv., convenient- confiigo, 3, -fiixi, -ftlctum, consuetiido, -tfidinis, j.,
cis, prep. with ace., hon Rthis Iy, weII• hItr., fight. hablt, custom.
. " congredior, 3, -gressus, dep. contemptus, -fis, m., scorn,
side of (t.e. nearer to t e 0- commoveo, 2, -movl, -mo-
mans),' cis Rhenum, west of the tum, tr., rouse, aIarm, d'utUT.
b mtr., meet, fight. contempt; contemptui esse, be
Rhine. commiinis, -c, common,gen- coniungo, 3, -iiinxl, -iUnc- an object of scorn.
citerior, -ius, compo adj., eral. tum, tr., join; me coniungo contendo, 3, -tendl, -ten-
nearer, hither,' citerior Gallia, commiititio, -(mis, f., cum, unite with. tum, t"ntr., hasten,fight, march.
Gaul south of the Alps, north change. coniiiro, I, tr., conspire,jorm continen,2, -tinui, -tentum,
Italy(oneofCaesar'sprovinees). comparo, I, tr., prepare, a conspiracy. tr., keep, restrain,' me contineo,
citra, prep. with ace., on this conor, I, dep. intr., try. remat"n.
side 0/ (like cis).
civitas, -atis,j., tribe, commu-
compello, 3, -puli, -pulsum,
consanguineus, -a, -urn, re- contra, prep. with ace.,
lated by blood; m. pl., relations, against.; as adv., on the opposite
nity, state. tr., drive,/orce back. kins/olk. side.
clamor, -arts, m., shout, compleo, 3, -plevi, -pletum, conscribo, 3, -scripsi, contrarius, -a, -urn, oppo-
shouting, din. tr., fill. scriptum, tr., levy, enrol, raise. sile,facing.
claudo, 3, clausI, clausum, compliires, -pIUra, gen. consensus, -fis, m., agree- contumelia, -ae, f", insult,
tr. shut, close; tatum agmen -pliirium, pl., several. ment, consent. . abuse, ill-treatment.
daudere, fotm a rearguard jor concido, 3, -cldl, -clsum, tr., consentio, 4, -scnsI, -sen- cODveniO, 4, -venl, -ventum,
the whole army. cut down, destroy. sum, intr., agree, combine. intI'., come together, assemble; be
clementia, -ae, j., mercy, concilium, -I, n., assembly, consequor, 3, -secfitus, dep. agreed upon.
forbearance. council. intr., pursue, obtat"n, achieve. converto, 3, -verti, -versum,
coacervo, I, tr., heap up, pile concurro, 3, -cucurrl or conservo, I, tr' J keep, spare, tr., turn,' conversa signa Infero,
up. -curd, -cursum, inrr., run to- protect. wheel round and attack.
coepi, eoepisse, defective tr., gether, rush; concursum est, a considli, 3, -sedI, -sessum, convoco, I, tr., summon,
began. rush was made (33)· intr., encamp, settle, take up a assemble.
cognosco, 3, -novi, -nitum., condicio, -onis, f·, terms, position. copia, -ae, f., plenty; pl.,
tr., learn, discover, find out. couditions. cODsilium, -I, n., advice, forces, troops; supplies (10).
cogo, 3, coegI, coactum, tr., Condriisi, -orum, m. pl., the plan; eo consilio ut, with the cornu, -us, n., horn; wing
collect, compel. Condrusi, a Belgic tribe living intention of. (of an army).
cobors, cohortis, f.} cohort, between the Mosa (Meuse) and consimili!, -e, very like. corpus, corporis, n., body,
one sixth of a legion, 600 men. the Ardennes. cODsisto, 3, -stitf, -stitum, corpse.
lI8 II9
cortex, -ticis, m., bark (of a decimus, -a, -urn, tenth. dcsero, 3, -sernI, -sertum, Diviciicus, -I, m., Diviciacus,
tree). declivis, -e, sloping dOtvn- tr., abandon, desert. (i) a leader of the Suessiones (4);
cotidie, adv., every day, wards. desisto, 3, -stitl, -stitum, (ii) a Druid and leader of the
daily. decumina,j. adj. withpona, intr., stop, cease. Aedui (5).
Cotta, -ae, m., Lucius Aurun- the decuman gate of a Roman despero, I, intr., despair, divinus, -a, -urn, divine.
culeius Cotta, one of Caesar's camp, furthest away from the lose heart; tr., despair of. do, I, dedi, datum, tr., give.
legat!, killed in 54. enemy. despolio, I, cr., deprive 0/, doceo, 2, docui, doctum, tr.,
Crassus, -i, m., Publius Li- decurro, 3, -cucurrl or -cur- with ace. and abl. inform, tell, £nstruct.
cinius Crassus, son of the Trium- ri, -cursum, incr., run down. desum, deesse, dSfui, intr., domesticus, -a, -urn, home
vir and one of Caesar's staff dSditicius, -3, -urn, having be wanting, be lacking. (as adj.), private.
officers. surrendered,' m. pl., surrendered deterreo, 2, tr., hinder, pre- domicilium, -I, n., home,
creber, -bra, -brum, fre- subjects. vent from, with quln and subj. dwelling.
quent, numerous; thick (17); at dSdo, 3, -did!, -ditum, fr., in a negative sentence. dominor, I, dep. intr., rule,
short intervals (30). surrender; intr" se dedere. detraho, -traxl, -tractum, hold sway.
credo, 3, -didi, -ditum, intr. dedfico, 3, tr., lead down, tr., removet snatch up from, with domus, -Us, /., house, home;
with dat., trust, believe~' tr. bring, withdraw,' induce to ad- ace. and dat. of person. locative, domI, at home.
with acc. and inf., believe, think. opt (10); reduce. devenio, 3, -venI, -ventum, dubito, I, intr., hesitate.
Cres, Cretis, acc. pl. -as, a defendo, 3, -fendi, -fensum, intr., arrive, reach. diicenti, -ae, -a, pl., two
Cretan, famous with the bow. tr., de/end; defend oneself dexter, dextra, dextrum, hundred.
cruciitus, -us, m., torture. against, ward off. right, .right hand. diico, 3, tr., lead.
cum, prep. with abl., with, defensio, -onis, I., defence. dico, 3, tr., say, declare. duo, duae, duo, pl., two.
together with. defensor, -oris, ,., defender. dies, diSi, m. (f. for an ap- duodecim, indecl., twelve.
cum, conj., when, whenever, dSfero, -ferre, -tuli, .latum, pointed day), day, time. duodecimus, -a, -urn,
since, although; cum ... turn, tr., confer, hand over (4); report difficilis, -e, difficult. twelfth.
not only . .. but also. (17, 19)· diligenter, adv., carefully, duodeviginti, r°1tdecl., eight-
cunctus, -a, -urn, all. diSficio, 3, -feci, -rectum, punctually; superi., diligentis- eetl.
cupiii, 3, cupivi, cupitum, intr.,jail; with ab, revolt (14). simS, with the greatest care. duplex, duplicis, double.
tr., des~ore. dildo, 3, -iecl, -iectum, tr 0' dimetior, 4, -mensus, dep. dux, ducis, m., leader,general,.
Curiosolites, -urn (pl. -as), throw down, dislodge. .tr'J measure out; p.p. used as guide (7).
m. pl., the Curiosolites, a Gallic deiectus, -us, m., slope. passive in abI. abs. (19).
tribe Iivi~g on the coast of deinde, adv., then, next. dimico, I, intr., fight.
deleo, 2, delevi, -etum, tr., dimitto, 3, -mIst, -missum, E
cursus, -us, m., running, destroy, wipe out (27). tr., send away, dismiss; lose e or ex, prep. with abl.,from,
speed; cursu ihcitiitfi, quickening deligo, 3, -legl, -lectum, tr., (time) (21). out 0/, as a result 0/; ex utraque
their pace (26). choose. diripiO, 3, -ripui, -reptum, parte, on each s£de (8); ex
custodia, Mae, f., guard. demonstro, I, tr., show, in- tr., plunder. itinere, straight from the march
dicate, mention. discedo, 3, -cessi, -cessum, (12); ex corporibus, on top of
denique, adv.,jinally, at last; intr., depart, go away, leave. the bodies.
at least (33). discessus, -us, m., departure. Eburones, -urn, m. pl., the
D densus, -3, -urn, thick. dissipo, I, tr., scatter, dis- Eburones, a Belgic tribe living
de, prep. with abl., from; depiino, A, -posul, positum, perse. between the Mosa (Meuse) and
about, concerning~' eadem de tr., set dOWh; put down, leave. distineo, 2, -tinw, -tentum, the Rhine.
causa, for the same reason (7). depopulor, I, dep. tr., rau- tr., keep apart, separate. editus, -a, -urn, rising (p.p.p.
debeo, 2, tr., owe, ought. age, lay waste. diu, adv., for a long time, of eda, give out).
decem, indecl. pl., ten. deprecor, I, dep. tr., pray compar., diiitius, any longer, too ediico, 3, tr., lead out.
decerno, 3, -crevl, -cretum, that something should not hap- long. efticio, 3, -feci, -fectum, tr.,
tr., decree. pen, request someone not to do diversus, -a, -urn, different; cause, bring it about that (with
decerto, I, intr., fight it out. 3 thing. detached (22,23); scattered (24). ut).
120 121
egredior, 3, egressus, dep. eximius, -a, -urn, remarkable, CertlIltiis, -atis, f., fertility. galea, -ae, f., helmet.
intT., go out, come out. extraordinary. Cerul, -a, -urn, wild, savage, Gallia, -ae, j., the country of
egregie, adv., excellently, existimo, I, tr., think, con- fierce; superl., maxime ferus. Gaul (see pages 4-S).
admirably, sider. fides, fidei, f., trust, loyalty, Galli, -orum, m. pl., the
electus, -a, -urn, picked expeditus, -a, -uol, ready for faith,. protection (3, 13, 14, IS). Gauls.
(p.p.p. of oligo, choose). acu'on, in light marching order filius, fill, m., son. gens, gentis, f., tribe, people.
emitto, 3, emisi, emissum, (p.p.p. of expedio, set free). finis, -is, m., end, limit; pl., Germani, -orwn, m. pl., the
tr., throw, hurl. expella, 3, -pull, -pulsurn, frontiers, territory. Germans, some of whom lived
emo, 3, emi, emptum, tr., tr., drive out. finitimus, -a, -urn, neigh- west of the Rhine.
buy. experior, 4, -pertus, dep. tr., bouring,- m. pl., neighbours. gera, 3, gessi, gestum, tr.,
eniscor, 3, enatus, dep. int7., try, test, n·sk. fio, fieri, factus, intr. (used as bear, wear, do, fight (a war); in
grow out. exploritor, -oris, m., scout. pass. of facio), be made, become, pass., happen.
enim, conj., for; neque exploro, I, tr., ascertain; be done,- happen)' certior fio, be gladitis, -i, m., sword.
enirn, for indeed . .. not . ... omnia habere explOrata, have informed. gratia, -ae, j., i,ifluence,
eo, adv., thither, to that place. complete information (4). Rumen, fifuninis, n., river. authorr·ty.
eques, equitis, m., horseman,' expugno, I, tr., take by storm. fors, fortis, t., chance)' abl., gravis, -e, heavy, serious.
pl., cavalry. exspeeto, I, tr., wait, wait used as adv., by chance.
equester, -tris, -tre, cavalry for. fortis, -e, brave, strong)' adv.,
(as adj.). • exstruo, 3, -stru.xI, -struc- fortiter; comp., fortius. H
equititus, -ils, m., cavalry. tum, tr., raise, build up. fortuna, -ae, f., fortune, habeo, 2, tr., have, hold; con-
eruptio, -onis, t., sally, extremus, -a, -um (superl. chance. sider; aliter se habere, be
sortie. of exterus), last, furthest, most fossa, -ae, f., trench, ditch. different.
Esubii, -arum, m. pl., the distantj ad extremas fossas, at frater, fratris, m., brother,· hIberna, -orum, n. pl., win-
Esubii, a Gallic tribe living on the ends of the trenches (8); ab kinsman (3). ter-quarters.
the coast of Normandy. extrema agmine, at the rear of fremitus, -us, m., uproar, hibernaeula, -orum, n. pl.,
et, conj., and, even, a/so, too; the army; in extremis suls din. huts for winter-quarters, winter-
ct ... et, both . .. and. rebus, in his most desperate frons, frontis, j., front)· a quarters.
etiam, adv., even, also. situation (25). fronte, in front (23, 25); in hie, haec, hoc, this, such, as
eventus, -Us, m., result, Jrontem, to the front, in front follows; as pronoun, he, she, it.
occurrence; pl., vidssitudes. (8). hiemo, I, intr., spend the
ex, see e. F Criimentirius, -a, -urn, corn wz·nter.
exagito, I, tr., harass. Caeilis, -e, easy,- adv., facile; (as adj.); res frftmentaria, corn homo, hominis, m., man.
exanimaitus, -8, -urn, out of comp., facilius. supply. honos, honoris, m., honourj
breath (p.p.p. of exanimo, facio, 3, feci, factum, tr., do, friimentum, -I, n., corn. honoris causa, as a mark of
exhaust). make, accomplish; carry out fuga, -ae, f., /light. respect.
exaudio, 4, tr., hear at a (orders); facio verba, speak fugio, 3, fiigl, fugitum, intr., hostis, -is, m., enemy.
distance. (14); certiorem facio, inform. /lee,- tr.,jleefrom.
excedo, 3, -cessi, -cessurn, facnltas, -atis,f., opportunity. Ciimus, -I, m., smoke.
intr., withdraw, retire. falla, 3, fefelli, falsum, 3, tr., funditor, -oris, m., slinger. I
excursio, -finis,f.} sally. deceive, cheat, disappoint, fail. Curor, -oris, m., rage, mad-
exeo, -Ire, -ii, -iturn, intr., fasngatus, -3, -urn, sloping ness. iaceo, 2, intr., lie, lie down,.
go out, leave. downwards. pres. part.} iacentes, those who
futiirns, -3, -urn, future part had fallen.
exercititus, -a, -urn, trained, ferax, -ads, fruitful, fertile. and infin. (with esse) of sum.
practised (p.p.p. of exercit6, fere, adv., nearly, almost, iacifi, 3, ieci, iacturn, tr.}
train). generally. throw, hurl.
exereitus, -us, m., army. fero, ferre, tuli, latum, tr., G iam, adv., now, already; non
exiguitis, -atis, f., shortness bring, bear, carryj pass., rush iam, no longer.
Galba, -ae, m., Galba, king
(of time). (24); moleste fero, resent (I), of the Suessiones (4, '3). ibl, adv., there.
122 12 3
ledus, -I, m., Iecius, a leader ineendo, 3, -eendl, -censllm, inimicuI, -a, -urn, hostile, interior Gallia there may mean
of the Remi. tr' J set on fire, burn. unfriendly. ulterior Gallia, Further Gaul).
idem, eadem, idem, the same; incido, 3, -cieli, intr., happen, iniquitis, -atis, j., difficulty, intermitto, 3, -mlsl, -mis-
Idem atque, the same as. occur; of wars, break out (14). unfavourable state. sum, t'ncr., cease, stop, with pre-
identidem, adv., repeatedly, incido, 3, ~cldl, -elsurn, tr., iniquus, -a, -urn, uneven, un- sent part.
again and again. cut into (17). favourable. internecio, -onis, f., annihz·-
idoneus, -a, -urn, suitable, incipio, 3, -cepl, -ceptum, .ii:Utium, -1, n., beginnt'ng. lation; ad internecionem redigl,
convenient. intr., begin. iniiiriB, ~ae, t., wrong, in- be completely destroyed (28).
ignis, -is, m., fire, camp fire, ioeito, I, tr., hasten, quicken,· justice, harm. interscindo, 3, ·scidl, scis-
beacon fire. eursu incitato, increasing their inliitus, p.p.p. of lnfero. sum, tr., break down (a bridge).
ille, illa, illud, that,. as pro- speed (26). innitor, 3, -nlxus, dep. ;ntr., intervallum, -I, n., space,
noun, he, she, it,' m. pl., illi, often ineolo, 3, -colnl, -cultum, tr. lean on, with abl. (27). interval.
the enemy. and intr., live in, live, dwell. insequor, 3, -secutus, dep. intexo, 3, -texuJ, -textum,
illyricum, -1, n., Illyricum, incredibilis, -e, incredible, tr., follow up, pursue. tr., interweave, plait together.
Illyria, on the northern shores unbelievable. insidiae, -arum, f. pl., trap, intra, prep. with ace., within,
of the Adriatic, one of the ambush. inside, into.
three provinces governed by increpito, I, tr., jeer at, insigne, -is, n., signal (20); intru, I, tr. and in!T., enter.
Caesar. taunt, upbraid. pl., badges, crests (n. of adj. iotroduco, 3, tr., lead into.
impedimco,tum, -i, n., hin- inciiso, I, tr., accuse, blame. insignis). intromitto, 3, ~misl, -mis-
drance; pl., baggage, baggage inde, adfJ., then, next, from insisto, 3, -stili, z·ntr., stand sum, tr., lead in, send in.
animals. that place. on, with dat. introrsus, adv., ins~'de, to the
impedio,4, rr., hiuder, ham- indignitis, Matis, f., indig- instar, ;ndecl. n., used as inside.
per, obstruct; p.p.p.,impedltus, nity, humiliation. prep. with gen., l£ke; iostar iniisitatus, ~a, ~um, unusual,
in heavy marching order, in diffi- indiligenter, adv., care- murl, like a wall (17). uncommon.
culties; n., too difficult (28). lessly; comp., indlligentius, less insto, I, ~stitf, intr., press in"iitilis, -e, useless.
impeUo, 3, -pull, -pulsum, carefully. forward. invenio, 4, -veni, -ventum,
(r., urge, drive on. indiico, 3, tr., cover over with. instruu, 3, -striixi, -struc- tr., find, learn.
imperator, -oris, m.,general, induo, 3, -dul, -dutum, tr., tum, tr., draw up (a battle line); inveterasco, 3, -veteravl,
commander. put on. build (a structure). intr., become established.
imperatum, -I, n., command, ioeo, -Ire, -ii, -itum, tr., go intellego, 3, -lexl, Rlectum, invideo, 2, -vldi, -visum,
order. into; form (a plan); inita aes- tr., understand, perceive, realise. intr., with dat., envy.
imperium, -i, n., rule, su- tate, at the beginning of summer. inter, prep. with ace., be- ipse, ipsa, ipsum, emphatic
preme command, authority, order, inermis, -e, unarmed. tween, among, with; inter se, adj. and pronoun, himself, her-
discipline. inferinr, -ius (comp. of 10- with one another, mutually. self, itself.
impero, I, intr., order, give ferus), lower; inferior (in cou- intercedo, 3, -cessl, ~cessum~ irrideo, 2, ~rJsI, -risWll, tr.
orders to, with dat.; tr., give rage). intr., come between, intervene. and intr., laugh, laugh at, mock,
orders jor, demand, command. infero, -ferre, -tull, -latum, intercipio, 3, -cepl, -eep- jeer.
impetro, I, tr .., obtain a tr., bring in, carry forward, im- tum, tr., intercept, catch. is, ea, id, that; pronoun, he,
request. port,- inspire (hope); cause interest, -esse, -fnit, z"mpers. she, it; eius, his,' eorum, their.
impetus, ~iis,. m., attQc.k; (harm); make (war). intr., it is important to, with ita, adv., thus, so; ita uti,
magna impetu, wlth great Vto- infimus, -a, -urn (superl. of gen. just as.
lenee (6). Inferus), lowest, at the lowest interficio, 3, -feci, -fectum, Italia, -ae, t., Italy; also
improvisus, -a, Mum, un- part (18). tr., kz"ll. Caesar's province of Cisalpine
expected; de improvlsa, un- inftecto, 3, -flexl, -flexum, intericio, 3, -ieci, -iectum, Gaul, now north Italy.
expectedly. tr., bend, bend over; p.p.p.,ln- cr., plant as a barrier. itaque, adv., and so, accor-
in, prep. with ace., to, imo, flexus, bem (17). interim, adv., meanwhile. dingly.
against, towards; with abl., in, ingredior, 3, -gressus, dep. interior, -ius, comp. adj., item, adv., likewise, also.
on, over (a river). tr., enter. t'nner, the interior of (2, but iter, itioeris, n., journey,
124 I25
march; iter facio, march; ex levis, -is, light. miinsuetiido, -to,dinis, j., moenia, -ium, n. pl., walls,
itinere, straight from the march,' levitis, -atis, I., fickleness. clemency., kindness. fortifications.
magnum iter, jorced march. lex, legis, f., law. manus, -us, I., haudj band,' moleste, adv., with fera,
lubeo, 2, iussl, iussurn, tr., liberiiliter, adv., courteously, pl., jorcesj in manibus nostrIs, ferre, be indignant at, resent.
order, command. kindly. at close quarters with us (19). monea, 2, tr., warn, advise;
iiidico, I, tr., judge, consider, liberi, -orurn,, children. maritimus, -a, -urn, on the command (26).
decide. litterae, -arum, j. pl., des- sea-coast. mora, Rae, f.) delay.
iugum, -i, n., ridge, height, patches. matiiro, I, tr. and incr., Morini, orurn, m. pl., the
hill. locus,. -i, m.; pl. loca, n., hurry, hasten. Morim', a Belgic tribe living
iiis, iuris, n., right, law; code place, ground, district, region. maxime, superl., adv. of between the ScaIdis (ScheIdt)
of laws. longe, adv., by far; comp., magnus, uery greatly, most. and the sea in N.E. France and
iiistitia, ~ae, j., justice. longius, fartherj too far (20); medius, -3, -urn, middle (of). Belgium.
iuvo, I, idvl, iUtum, tr., help, superl.,longissime,jarthest. memoria, -ae, I., remem- moror, I, dep. tr., hinder,
assist. longus, -3., -urn, long. brance, memory; memoriam re- delay; intr., delay.
iuxti, adv., nearby; prep. loquor, loquf, lociltus, dep. tinee, with gen., remember. mos, moris, m., custom, man-
with ace., near. tr., speak. Menapii, -erum, m. pl., the ner; suo more, in their usual
liix, lucis, t., light; prima Menapii, a Belgic tribe living custom (13); pl., mores, charac-
liice, at dawn. between the ScaIdis (ScheIdt) ter ('5).
L liixuria, -ae, I., luxury, soft and the Mosa (Meuse) in Bel- moveo, 2, movi, metum, tr.,
L., Lucius, a Roman prae- living. gium. move,' castra moveo, strike
nomen (first name, II), LX, quadrliginta, indecl. pl., mercator, -oris, m., mer- camp.
Labienus, -I, m., Titus Atius forty. challt, trader. mulier, mulieris,f., woman.
Labienus, Caesar's Chief of meritum, -I, n., servt'ces, multitiido, -tiidinis,j., mul-
Staff (see page 28). M deserts. titude, great number, amount.
lapis, lapidis, m., stmze. miles, militis, m., soldier. multus, -a, -urn, much; adv. t
lassitiido, -tudinis,j., weari- michiniitio, -onis,f., mach- militaris, -e, military; res multumj pl., many.
ness, exhaustion. ine, contrivance, engiue. mllitaris, warfare. miinimentum, i, 11., fortifi-
lateo, 2, latul, intr" lie hid, magis, compo adv., more, mille, indecl. adj., a thou- cation, defence.
be concealed. rather. sand; pl., mIlia, with gen. j miinio, 4, tr.,!ortz!y, defend.
lititiido, -tUdinis,!., breadth, magistratus, -Us, m., magis- mIlle passils, a mile (1620 munitia, -onis, j., fortifica-
width; in latitiidinem, in trate; magistracy. yards); mIlia passuum, mUes. tioll.
breadth, sideways, laterally. magnitiido, -tudinis, J., minus, compar. adv., less, miirus, ~i, m., tvall.
latus, -3, -urn, broad, wide. greatness; arumi magnitiido, less than,' si minus, if not;
latus, lateris, n., side, flank; great courage (27). superl., minime, least.
ab utroque latere, on each side magnus, -8, -urn, great, miser, misera, mise rum,
(8). large; adv. magnopere, greatly. wretched. N
laxo, I, tr., open out, extend, maior, maius, compo of misericordia, -ae, f., pity, Dam, conj.,for.
deploy. magnus, greater; maiores natu, mercy. nascor, 3, natus, dep. incr.,
legiitio, -onis,f., embassy. 'he older people. mitto, 3, mlsi, missum, tr., be born; rise (of a hill).
legatus, -I, m., legate, (i) am- maleficium, -I, n., harm, in- send. natio, -onis} t., tribe, people.
bassador, envoYj (ii) staff officer, jury. mobilitis, -tatis, j., t'nstab- natii, used only in abl.~ by
lieutenant-general. mando, I, tr., give orders, jlity, inconstancy. birch; maiores natu, the older
legio, -onis, j., legion (6,000 order (5); entrust .. . to; fugae modo, adv., only,· non modo people.
menj see page 28). me mando, take to flight. . . . sed etiam, not only . . . but natiira, -ae, f., nacure, natu-
legionariu5, -a, -urn, legion- manipulus, -1, m., maniple, also. ral position; abl. as adv., natu-
ary, of the legiol1s. a double century in a Roman modus, -i, m., 'lvay, manner; rally.
leniter, ad'll., gently, gradu- legion; manipulos taxo, open ad hunc modum, in this way, as niivo, I, tr., do vigorously;
ally. out, deploy, the ranks. follows. operam navo, do one's best.
12.6 12.7
ne, conj. with 8ubj., that • .. non, adv., not. obtuli, from offero. optimus, -8, -urn, superl. of
not, in a purpose clause; not to, nondum, adv., not yet. obvenio, 4, -veni, -ventum, bonus, best.
in an indirect command; that, non nulU, -ae, -a, pl., some, intr. with dat., face, encounter, opus, operis, n., work,jortifi-
after a verb of fearing; adfJ., ne several. oppose. cation; pl., siege-works; quanto
. . . quidem, not even, with nonus, -a, -urn, ninth. occasus, -fis, m., setting (of opere, how greatly (5); opus est,
indie. nos, nostrl or nostrum, pl. of the sun). there is med, with infin.; quid
necessiriu8, -a, -urn, neces- ego, we, i.e. the Romans (9). occido, 3, -cldl, elsurn, tr., opus esset, what was needed (22).
sary. noster, -tra, -trUm, OUT; pl., kill. oriitio, -onis, j., speech.
necessitis, -atis, J., compul- nostrl, our men, i.e. the Romans. occultus, -a, -um, secret, ordo, ordinis, m., order, Tank;
sion; temporis necessitas, the novem, indecl. pl., nine. hidden; in occulto, in hiding method (22).
urgency of the occasion (22). Novlodiinum, -I, n., NOfJio- (p.p.p. of occuio, hide). orior, 4, ortus, dep. intr.,
negotium, -J, n., task; dunem, the chief town of the occupo, I, tr., seize, hold, arise; be descended from (4).
trouble (X7); negotium do, give Suessiones, probably Pom- COfJer~' p.p.p., occupatus, em- Osismi, -orum, m. pl., the
instructions., assign the task (of). miers. ployed, engaged. Osismi, a Gallic tribe living in
nemo, nullius, dat. nemint, novus, -a, -um, mw, strange; oc:curro, 3, -curri, -cursum, north-west Brittany.
no one, nobody. nova imperia, a change 0/ gOfJ- incr. with dat., meet, encounter,
neque, conj., and . • . not, ernment (I); novissimum ag- jace, go to meet.
neither, nor; neque ... neque, men, the rear-guard, reaT of an Oceanus, -I, m., the Atlantic p
neither . .. nor. army (n); novissimI, the rear- Ocean. P., Publius, a Roman prae-
nequiquam, adv., in vain; most (25). octavus, -a, -urn, eighth. nomen (first name, 25, 34).
without good reason (27). BOX, noetis, j., night. octo, indecl. pl., eight. piibulum, -I, n.,/odder (food
Nervii, -orum, m. pl., the nuda, I, tr., strip, cleaT ... 0/, oifero, offerre, obtuli, obHi- for horses and mules).
N eroji, a Belgic tribe living expose to attack. tum, tT., bring forwaTd, bring, paco, I, tr., subdue.
between the Scaldis (Scheidt) nullus, .. a, .. um, adj., fW,' as carry. Paemsni, -orum, m. pl., the
and the Sabis (Sambre), noted noun, nobody; non nulU, pl., omitto, 3, omlsi, omissum, Paemani, a Belgie tribe of Ger-
for their courage. some. tr., neglect, ignore, leave untried. man origin, living between the
nen or neve, conj. with subj., numerus, -I, m., number, omnis, -e, ali, every, the Rhine and the.Mosa (Meuse).
used in the second part of a ne numbers, quantity. whole 0/. paene, adv., almost, nearly.
clause, and • .. not. Numidae, -arum, m. pl., onus, oneris, n., weight, bur- palus, palndis, f., marsh,.
neuter, -trB, -trum, neither Numidians, from north Africa, den. swamp.
of two; pl., neither side. serving as light infantry and opem, no nom., opis,j., help; pando, 3, pandl, passum, tr.~
nihil, indecl. n., nothing; fol- archers in Caesar's army. pl., opes, resources. stretch out; p.p.p., passus, out-
lowed by partitive gen., nihil nunc, adv., now. opera, -ae, I. J caTe, pains, stretched (13).
vini, no wine (IS); used ad- nuntia, I, tr., TepoTt, an- service; operam navo, do one's par, paris, the same, similar.
verbially, in no way (20). nounce. best (25). paratus, -a, -urn, ready, pTe-
nisi, conj., if ... not, unless; niintius, -1, m., messenger. opinio, -orus, I., expectation pared (p.p.p. of para, prepare).
used adverbially with abi. abs., (3); reputation (8, 24); report. pars, partis, f., part, direc-
except (20, 32). oportet, 2, oportuit, impers. tion; side (of a river, 5), sectiol'r
nobilitiis, -atis,j., noble birth, o tr., it behoves, i.e., it is necessary. (of an army, 23); tertia pars,.
rank. ob, prep. with ace., on ac- oppidiini, -Drum, m. pl., one third (32).
noctu, adv., by night. count of. townsfolk, citizens. partim, adv., partly.
nolO, nolle, nOlui, intr., be obduco, 3, tr., dig (a trench, oppidum, -I, n., town. parvulus, -a, -urn, veTY
unwilling. 8). opportiinus, -a, -urn, con- small,' parvula proelia, skir-
Domen, nominis, n., name obitus, -us, m., destruction, 'Denient. mishes (30).
(perhaps power in 28). death. oppugnatio, -onis,f., method passus, -us, m., pace, a
nominatim, adv., by name. obses, -sidis, c., hostage. 0/ attack. double pace of five feet; mille
nomino, I, tr., name, men- obtineo, 2, -tinul, -tentum, oppugno, I, tr., attack (by passus, a mile (1620 yards);
tion. tr., hold, possess. storm). milia passuum, miles.
128 129
passus, p.p.p. of pando. perterreo, 2, tr., frighten; postquam,conj.,flJhen,ajter. man, chief; pl. with gen., ring-
patefacio, 3, -feci, -factum, p.p.p., panic-stricken. postridie, adv., t)n the 1I8Xt leaders in.
tr., open. pertineo, 2, -tinw, -tentum, I day; with Sius diel, on the day prior, prius, compo adj.,/or-
pateo, 2, -ui, intr., lie open, intr., stretch; be conducive to, I after that. mer; pl., those in front.
extend. tend to (with ad). postulo, J, tr., demand. pristinus, -a, -wn, former.
pater, patris, m.,/ather. perturbo, I, tr., throw into potena, potentis, powerful. prius quam, conj., be/ore.
p.atior, 3, passus, dep. tT., al- confusion, disturb. potestia, -atis, I., power; pro, prep. with abl., before, in
low, suffer. pervenio, 4, -venl, -ventum, possibility; opportunity. front oj; on behalf of; in aceor-
patrius, -3, -urn, of one's imr., arrive; with ad or in, potior, 4, dep. intr. with abl., dance with (31).
fathers, hereditary, ancestral, reach. get possession of, capture. procedii, 3, -cessl, -cessum,
pauci, -ae, -3, pl., few. pes, pedis, m.,foot. potlus, compo adfJ~J rather. intr., advance, go forward.
pauUitim, adv., gradually. peto, 3, -ivi, -ltum, tr., ask prae, prep. with abl., in com- procul, adv., at a distance,
paulisper, adv., for a short for, make for, try to obtain, parison with. far off.
time. request,. attack. praeacutus, -a, -urn, shar- procumbo, 3, -cubuI, -cubi-
paululum, adv., a little, only pilum, -I, n. _. javelin. pened,poinred. tum, intr.,/all,/all down.
a little. planities, -ici,f., plain, level praebeo, 2, tr' J provide. proelior, I, dep. intr.,fight.
paulum, adv., a little,' paulO, ground. praeceps, -cipitis, headlong. ·proelium, -I, n., battle,fight,
used with comparatives, (by) a plerique, -aeque, -aque, pl., praedor, I, dep. intr.,pillage, engagement.
liule. very many, most; ad'll., plerum- get plunder. profectio, -onis, f., setting
pax, pacis,j., peace. que, generally, for the most part. praefero, -ferre, -tuU, -Hi- out, departure.
pedes, peditis, m., foot-sol- pliirimus, -a, -urn, superl. of tum, !T. with reflexive pronoun proficiscor, 3" -fectus, dep.
dier; pl., infantry, multus, most, very much,' pl., and dat., show oneself superior to, intr., set out, start.
pedester, -tris, -tre,/oot, in- very many,- ad'll., pliirimurn, outdo. profligo, I, tr., rout, put to
fantry (as adj.). very much, most. praeficio, 3, -fed, -fecrum, flight.
Pedius, -I, m., QUilltliS Ped- polliceor, 2, dep. tr.,promise. tr. with ace. and dat.,put ... in prorugio, 3, -fugl, intr.,jlee.
ius, nephew of Caesar and one pondus, -eris, n., weight. command of. prognitus, -8, -urn, sprung
of his legati (2, I I). pono, 3, posul, posirum, tr., praemitto, 3, -mist, -mis- from, descended from.
pellis, -is, j., skin, hide. place, put, station, set; pitch sum, tr., send forward. progredior, 3, -gressus, dep.
pella, 3, pepulI, pulsum, tr.) (camp). praescribo, 3, -scrlpsl, intr., advance.
repulse, rout. pons, pontis, m., bridge. -scriptum, £T. with acc. and dat., prohibeo, 2, tr., prevent
per, prep. with ace., through, populor, I, dep. tr., ravage, order, dictate. (with infin.); cut . .. off from
over, along,'by means of. lay waste. praesertim, ad'll., especially. (9); restrain (28).
perfero, ~ferre, -tulf, latum, populus, -I, m., people. praelidium, -i, n., protec- proicio, 3, -iecJ, -iectum, tr.,
tr., suffer, endure; convey, porrigo, 3, -rexi, -rectum, tion, garrison, guard, outpost; cast aside.
spread. tr., stretch out,. p. p. p. porrectus, hope of-safety. promoveo, 2, -movi, -mo-
periclitor, I, dep. tr., rest, stretching (19). praesto, I, -stitl, -stitum, tr., tum, tr., move forward.
try. porta, -ae, f., gate. show, reveal; illlr., be superior,· prope, prep. with acc., near,'
periculum, -i, n., danger. porto, I, tr., carry, bring. impers., it is better. adv., nearly, almost.
permitto, 3, -mIsl, -missum, posco, 3, poposci, tr., de- praesum, -esse, -ful, intr. propero, I, intT., hurry,
tr., entrust, hand over, surrender. mand. with dat., be in command of. hasten.
permoveo, 2, -movl, -mo- possideo, 2, -sedi, -sessum, premo, 3, pressl, pressum, propinquitis, -atis,!., near-
tum, tr., disturb, alarm. tr., occupy, possess, hold. tr., press hard upon, harass. ·ness; pl., ties of relatiomhip.
perspiclo, 3, -spexl, -spec- possum, posse, potul, intr., primipilus, -i, m., Senior propinquus, -8, -urn, neigh-
tum, tr., see through,· realise, be able, be powerful. Centurion (see page 30). bouring.
find out; note (17). post, prep. with ace., after, primus, -a, -um,first; front; propono, 3, -posui, -posi-
persuadeo, 2, -suasi, -sua- behind; adv., afterwards, after. pl., leaders,' ad'll., primo and tum, tr., display.
sum, intr. with dat., persuade, postea, ad'll., afterwards, prlmum, atfirst,/irstly. propter, prep. with ace., on
induce. after. princeps, -cipis, m., leading account 0/.
13 0 c. G. W., II 131 10*
propterei, adv:;used with
quod, on account of the/act that;
quaero, 3, quaesIvl, -sltum, gen., quicquam negoti, aro' reicio, 3, -ied, -iectum, tr.,
tr., ask, look for. trouble (17). drive back.
because. quam, adv., than; with quisque, quaeque, quidque, relangunco,3,-languI,;ntr.,
propugno, I, intr., make a superl., as ... as possible. each, each man. become enervated, gr<YW feebl•.
sally. quantus, -a, -um, how great, quisquis, quicquid, w/we'fJer, relinquo, 3, -lIqul, -lictum,
prosequor, 3, -serutus, dep. how powerful; as much as; as whatever. !T., leave, leave behind, abandon.
tr., pursue; honour (5). great' as; quanta opere, how quivis, quaevls, quidvls reliquul, -a, -um, other, tM
prospectus, -fis, m., 'View, much, how greatly (5) j tantum (quodvl.), anyone, allY (31). other, remaining; nihil reliqul
line of sight. ... quantum, as far as. quo, ado., whither, where to,' facio, leave nothing undone.
prodnu5, ad'll., immediately. quirtus, -a, -urn, fourth. indef., 51 quo, if ... to any place remBDeO, 2, -mansi, -miin~
proturbo, I, tr., throw into quattuor, indecl. pl., four. (8). sum, intr., remain.
confusion. -que, enclitic particle, a"d, quo, conj., in purpose clauses Rimi,-orum,,theRenn·,
provideo, 2, -vldi, -visum, attached to a word but to be containing a compo adj. or adv., a Belgic tribe living between the
tr., foresee. in order that. Axona ( and the Matrona
provincia, -ae, f., province; taken before that word. quod, conj., b(!cause. (Marne), always friendly to
especially " the Province" of qui, quae, quod, rei. pron., quoque, adv., also., Caesar; sing., Remus, a Reman
Transalpine (Narbonese) Gaul, who, which; at beginning of a (6).
still called Provence, of which sentence, this,' he. remitta, 3, -mIsl, -missum,
Caesar was governor. qui, quae, quod, interrog. tr., throw back,· diminish (cou-
provolo, I, intr., rush for- adj., which, what. R rage, IS).
ward. qui, quae, quod, indel. adj. rimus, -i, m., branch. reniindo, I, tr., bring back
proximus, -a, -urn, superl. with si, ne, any. ratio, -onis,I., reason, cause; news, report.
adj. from prope, nearest, 1lext; quidam, quaedam, quod- plan, method, arrangement, con- repello, 3, reppulJ, repul-
adv., proxime, most recemly (8, dam, a certain, some, o,~e. struction, tactics. sum, tr., drive back.
19). quidem, adv., indeed,' ne ... recipio, 3, -cepi, -ceptum, repentin~, adv., suddenly.
priidentia, -ae, f., prudence, quidem, nat even. rr., take back, receive, admitjwith reperio, 4, repperl, reper-
wisdom. quin, clmj. with sub;. after reflex. pron., reCOfJer (12); with- tum, tr., jind out.
piiblicus, -a, -urn, pubh'c, negative verbs of doubting (2) draw (19). res, rei, f., thing" matter,
national. and preventing (3), but that; redda, 3, -didt, -ditum, tr. J affair; object (1); information
Piiblius, -I, m., Publius, a from. give back; make (5). (17); position, situation (25, 27);
Roman praenomen (first name, quinam, quaenam, quod- redeo, -Ire, -ii, -itum, intr., res friimentaria, corn supply;
25, 34). nam, emphatic interrog. adj., go back, return. res pilblica, the state; res mili-
puer, pueri, m., boy; pl., what indeed. redigo, 3, -egI, -actum, tr., tans, warfare, war.
children. quindecim, indecl. pl., fif- reduce; make (27). resisto, 3, -stitl, -stitum,
pugna, -se, f., .battle, fight. teen. redintegro, I, tr., renew. intr. with dat., resist, withstand.
pugno, I, intr.,jight; impers. quingenti, -ae, -a, jive hun- RedoDes, -urn, m. pl., the respicio, 3, -spexI, -spectum,
pass., pugnatum est, a battle was dred. Redones, a Gallic tribe living in inrr., look back.
fought. quinquagintB, indecl. pl., Brittany near Rennes. respondeD, 2, -spondl,
fifty. rediico, 3, tr., lead back, -sponsurn, tr., answer.
quinque, indecl. pl., jive. withdraw. retineo, 2, -tinw, -tentum,
Q Quintus, -I, m., Quintus, a refero, -ferre, rettulI, re- tr., hold back, keep, retain,.
.Q., Quintus, a Roman prae- Roman praenomen (first name, Hitum, tr., bring back; report . memoriam retineo, with gen.,
nomen (first name, 3). 3)· refringo, 3, -fregi, -fractum, remember.
qui, adv., where. quis, quid, interrog. pron., tr., break down. revertor, 3, dep. intr., with
quadriginti, indecl. pl., who, what. regio, -onis, f., distn'ct, act. perf., revertl, go back,
fOTIY. quisquam, quaequam, quic- region. return.
quadringenti, ae, -a, pl., quam, indel. pron. used with a regnum, -i, n., royal power, revoco, I, tr., recall, call
four hundred. negative, anyone, anything,' with kingship (al.o pl.). back.
132 133
rex, regis, m., king. sententia, -ae, t., opinion; spatium, -I, n., space, dis- summus, -8, -urn, superl. of
Rhinus, -i, m., the Rhi,ze. decision. tance, interval, length. superus, highest, very high,great-
rips, ~ae,f., bank (of a river). sentis, -is, m., thorn, briar. species, -icl,J., sight, appear- est; n., top, summit.
Romonoa, -3, -urn, Roman,' septem, indecl. pl., seven. ance, spectacle. sumo, 3, stlmpsl, sQmptum,
m. pl., the Romans. septimus, -3, -urn, seventh. speculAtor, -oris, m., scout, tr., take; with sibi, assume (4).
rubus, -I, bramble, thorn- sequor, ), seciitus, dep. tr., spy. superior, -ius, compo of
bush. follow; in[r,"follow, result. spes, spel, /., h9pe; spem superus, higher; preceding, ear-
rumor, -oris, m., report, servitus~"-iitis, f., slavery. infero, inspire hope. lier, former.
TUmour. servo, I, tr., keep, save, spiritus, -us, m., breath; pl., supero, I, tr., ooercome.
riipes, -is, j., rock, cliff, guard. arrogance. supersedeo, 2, -scdl, -ses-
riirsus, adv., again. sescenti, -ae, -a, pl., six hun- statim, adv., immediately, at sum, with abl., refrainjrom.
dred. once. supersum, ...esse, -ful, intr.,
sese, another form of se. statio, -onis, f., post, outpost, survive.
S sex, indecl. pl., six. picket. supplex, -plicis, m., sup-
Sabinus, -I, m., Quintus sexaginti, indecl. pl., sixty. atatuo, 3, -ul, -utum, tr., pliant.
Titurius Sabinus, one of Caesar's Sextius, -I, m., Publius Sex- resolve, determine. supplicatio, -onis, /., pub-
legati, killed in 54 B.C. (5, 9, ro). tius Baculus, a senior centurion, statura, -ae, f., height, stat- lic· thanksgiving to the gods for a
Sabis, -is, m., the Sabis, the seriously wounded in the battle ure. successful campaign.
river Sambre. against the Nervii (25). strepitus, -its, m., noise, din. supra, ad"., above, previ-
saepes, -is, j., hedge, fence. si, conj., if,' sl minus, if not. studeo, 2, -ul, with dat., pay ously.
sagittarius, -I, m., archer. sic, adv., thus, so, as follows,' attention to. sU8tento, I, tr., endure, sus-
salus, salutis, j .., safety, sic ut, in such a way that (32). atudium, -i, n., eagerness for, tain,' impers. pass., the defence
sarcina, -ae,/., soldr'u's pack signifer, -iferi, m., standard- with gen. was maintained.
(see page 34). bearer. sub, prep. with ace., towards 8ustineo, 2, -tinui, -tentum,
saxum, -i, n., rock, stone. significado, -onis, f., sign, (of time); with abl., under. tr.J' withstand, endure; with re-
scientia, -ae, j., knowledge, s~gnal, alarm-SIgnal. subito, adv., suddenly,' hur- flex. pron., stand up (25); intr.,
skill. significo, I, tr., show, iRdi- riedly (33). hold out (6).
scribo, 3, scrIpsl, scriptum, cate. submitto, 3, -misi, -missum, 8UUS, sua, suum, his, their;
tr., write. signum, -I, n., Signal,' stan- lr., senti, send up. m. pl., his men.
sciitum, -I, n., shield. dard (usually pl.); signa inferre, 8ubruo, 3, -rul, rutum, tr.,
se or sese, sui, reflex. pron., advance, attack; signa conver- undermine.
hr'msel/, themselves. tere, wheel round; signa con- subsequor, 3, -secfitus, dep. T
sectio, -onis,j., plunder to be ferre, mass together. tr.,follow closely. T., Titus, a Roman prae-
sold at auction. silva, -ae,f., wood. subsidium, -I, n., help, sup- nomen (first name, II).
secundum, prep. with acc., silvestri!, -e, ,wooded. port; pl., reinforcements; sub- tam, ad'll., so.
along. simul, adv., at the same time; sidiO (dat.), as a help to, to help. tamen, adv., however, never-
secundus, -a, -um, second; conj., simul ae or atque, as soon succendo, 3, -cendi, -censum, theless.
successful; favourable (9). as. lr., setflre to, sec on fire. tantulus, -a, -urn, so small.
sed, conj., but. sine, prep. with abl., without. successus, -us, m., advance, tantus, -a, -urn, so great, as
senator, -oris, m., senator, singularis, -e, remarkable. approach. much, such; adv., tantum, so
councillor. singuli, -ae, -a, pl., one each; Suessiones, -urn, m. pl., the much, so greatly.
senatus, -Us, m., senate, individual. Suessiones, a Gallic tribe living tardo, I, tr., check, delay.
council of elders. sinister, -tra, -trum, left, on between the Matrona (Marne) tardus, -a, -urn, slow, tired.
Senones, -urn, m. pl., the the left. and the Axona (Aisne). tegimentum, -i, n., covering
Senones, a Gallic tribe, whose sol, solis, m., sun. sum, esse, fui, intT., be. (for a shield).
capital was Agedincurn (Sens), sollicito, I, cr., stir up, rouse. summa, -ae,f., supreme com- telum, -I, n., missile, weapon,
living south of the Sequana solus, -a, -urn, alone, only; mand (with and without imperl, spear.
(Seine). adv. smurn, alQne, only. 4, 23)· tempus;temporis, n., time.
134 135