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where: αe = effective negative post-yield slope ratio

m = seismic mass as defined in Section which shall be computed from:
3104F.2.3 αe = αP-Δ + λ(α2 - αP-Δ) (4-7)
ke = effective elastic lateral stiffness from where:
idealized pushover
αP-Δ, and the maximum negative post-elastic stiff-
C1 = modification factor to relate maximum ness ratio, α2, are estimated from the idealized
inelastic displacement to displacement force-deformation curve, and λ is a near-field
calculated for linear elastic response. For effect factor equal to 0.8 for sites with 1 second
period less than 0.2 s, C1 need not be taken spectral value, S1 greater than or equal to 0.6g
greater than the value at Te = 0.2 s. For and equal to 0.2 for sites with 1 second spectral
period greater than 1.0 s, C1 = 1.0. For all
value, S1 less than 0.6g. >
other periods:
μ strength – 1
3104F. Substitute Structure Method. The
C 1 = 1 + ------------------------
- (4-3) Substitute Structure Method is based on the proce-
αT e
dure presented in Priestley et al. [4.4] and is briefly
where: summarized below.
α = Site class factor 1. Idealize the pushover curve from nonlinear
= 130 for Site Class A or B, pushover analysis, as described in Section
3104F., and estimate the yield force,
= 90 for Site Class C, and
Fy, and yield displacement, Δy.
= 60 for Site Class D, E, or F.
2. Compute the effective elastic lateral stiffness,
μstrength = ratio of elastic strength demand to yield ke, as the yield force, Fy, divided by the yield
strength coefficient calculated in displacement, Δy.
accordance with Equation (4-5). The
3. Compute the structural period in the direction
Coefficient Method is not applicable
under consideration from:
where μstrength exceeds μmax computed
from Equation (4-6). m-
T e = 2π --- (4-8)
C2 = modification factor to represent the effects ke
of pinched hysteresis shape, cyclic stiffness where:
degradation, and strength deterioration on
the maximum displacement response. For m = seismic mass as defined in Section
periods greater than 0.7s, C2 = 1.0. For all 3104F.2.3
other periods: ke = effective elastic lateral stiffness in
direction under consideration
1 μ strength – 1
C 2 = 1 + ---------  ------------------------
- (4-4)
800  Te  4. Determine target displacement Δd, from:
The strength ratio μstrength shall be computed from: Δ d = S A -------
-2 (4-9)

μ strength = ---------A (4-5) SA = spectral displacement corresponding to
structural period, Te >
where: 5. The ductility level, μΔ, is found from Δd /Δy. Use
Fy = yield strength of the structure in the the appropriate relationship between ductility
direction under consideration from the and damping, for the component undergoing
idealized pushover curve. inelastic deformation, to estimate the effective
structural damping, ξeff. In lieu of more
For structures with negative post-yield stiffness, the detailed analysis, the relationship shown in
maximum strength ratio μmax shall be computed Figure 31F-4-5 or Equation (4-10) may be
from: used for concrete and steel piles connected to
Δ α –h the deck through dowels embedded in the con-
μ max = -----d + -------e- (4-6)
Δy 4 crete.
1 1–r
where: ξ eff = 0.05 + ---  1 – ----------- – r μ Δ (4-10)
Δd = larger of target displacement or π μΔ
displacement corresponding to the where:
maximum pushover force,
r = ratio of second slope over elastic slope
Δy = displacement at effective yield strength (see Figure 31F-4-7)
h = 1 + 0.15lnTe, and


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