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Drainage

Definition
Drainage is the term applied to systems for dealing with excess water.
The three primary drainage tasks are:
a) Urban storm drainage
b) Land drainage
c) Highway drainage
Drainage is separate from flood mitigation

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 1 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Drainage
Urban storm drainage
In cities, stormwater is collected in the street and conveyed through inlets to buried
conduits that carry it to a point where it can be discharged into a body of water.
The accumulated water should be discharged as close to its source as possible.
Detention
ponds with
development.
Detailed
topographic
map for design.
Intersection
breaks in grade
to the nearest
(0.03m)
Map of above-
& under-ground
facilities.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 2 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Drainage
Urban storm drainage
In cities, stormwater is collected in the street and conveyed through inlets to buried
conduits that carry it to a point where it can be discharged into a body of water.
The accumulated water should be discharged as close to its source as possible.
Detention
ponds with
development.
Detailed
topographic
map for design.
Intersection
breaks in grade
to the nearest
(0.03m)
Map of above-
& under-ground
facilities.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 3 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Estimates of Flow
Usually peak flows of particular return periods
are only required except where storage of
pumping of water is proposed.
The selection of the return period is often
dependent on the designer’s judgment. And
willingness of residents to finance the design.
Lack of discharge measurement design flows
synthesized from rainfall data.
For urban drainage, the most widely used
method has been the rational formula.
Use of the rational formula results in over design.
The most satisfactory method for estimating urban runoff
is by hydrologic simulation using a computer.
Output is simulated flow at all key points.
Frequency analysis is done after for design flows.
Layout of the drainage is required for comparison.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 4 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Gutters
The discharge capacity of gutters depends on
their shape, slope and roughness.
Manning’s equation can be utilized with
constraints.
For well-finished gutters, n has a value of about
0.016.
Transverse slope is usually 1:20 with a 15 cm
curb height.
The energy gradient is flatter than the slope
of the gutter.
On very flat slopes the gutter capacity is
much less than that computed using gutter
slope in Manning’s equation.
If flow in the gutter ponds around the inlet,
the depth is controlled by inlet characteristics
rather than by gutter hydraulics.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 5 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Inlets
Gutter flow is intercepted and directed to an
underground storm-drain pipe system by drop
inlets. Two main types:
Grated inlets are openings in the gutter bottom
protected by grates. A curb-opening inlet is an
opening in the face of the curb.
A maximum width of gutter flow of 6 ft. (1.8
m) is a criterion for important highways.
In residential areas, the criterion in inlet
spacing provides four inlets per
intersection.
For economy and residential/commercial, inlet
spacing of several blocks.
Catch basins at inlets were a thing of the
past for debris and sediment trapping.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 6 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Inlets
Some possible arrangement of storm-drain inlets

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 7 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Grated Inlets
The most efficient grated inlets have bars
parallel to the curb and a sufficient
clear length.
V 1/2
x y x  0.94Vy1/2
2
On steep slopes, very little water will
cross the longitudinal edge of the grate.
Space between grate bars should be less
than 1 in (2.5 cm) and parallel to curb.
Grates with ponded water, i.e., negligible
approach velocity, and heads under
about 12 cm function as weirs.
Coefficient is 3.0.
If the head exceeds 40 cm, the grate
functions as an orifice with a coefficient
of about 0.6.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 8 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Curb Opening Inlets
Curb opening inlets, function best with
relatively steep transverse slopes.
The capacity of curb opening inlets as a
function of flow per unit length has been
derived empirically.
The inlet length La required for full
interception is equal to the gutter discharge
Qa divided by the inlet capacity per unit
length.
If the length of the inlet is insufficient to
intercept the entire flow, the portion Q which
it will intercept is indicated by a relationship
with the ratio of a/d and L/La, where L is the
actual length of the inlet.
If flow is ponded, flow can be either a weir (d <
curb opening, C=3.1) or orifice (d > curb
opening, C=0.7).
Q  5.62 Lbh0.5 Q  3.1Lbh0.5
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 9 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Curb Opening Inlets
Curves for computing the capacity of curve opening inlets

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 10 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Flow in gutters
A pavement gutter conveys water during a storm event by collecting overland flow
along its length and concentrating the flow as channel flow.

 dy  2/3
dQ  Vdx  y   V  1.49  y  dy  S 1/2
 2  n  2 
1.49 5/3 dy 1/2 0.56 S 1/2 8/3
dQ  y S Q d
n Sx n Sx
 1/2 2/3 2/3  1/2 5/3 8/3
V S S x Tw Q S S x Tw
n n
  1.12 (US),0.75 (SI)   0.56 (US),0.375 (SI)

V  K2Tw2/3   T 8/3 
1.5

Q  K1Tw8/3 1   1  
 0.65   2  2 
Tw T
3 T28/3  T18/3 T2   T1  
V  K2  1   
4 T22  T12    T2  

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 11 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Grate Inlets on Grade
Sample Problem. Derive the equation for the total discharge in a composite gutter
section (with compound slopes). The distance a is referred to as the gutter
depression.
 Depth of flow at the break in cross
section d2:
d 2  Tw  W  S x
 Depth of flow at the curb d1:
d1  Tw S x  a
 The discharge for the outside section of the gutter:
 S 1/2 8/3
Qs  d2
n Sx
 The discharge for the inside section of the gutter:

 S 1/2 8/3  S 1/2 8/3  S 1/2 8/3


Qw 
n Sw
d1 
n Sw
d2 Qw 
n Sw
 d1  d 28/3 

 The total gutter flow:


Q  Qw  Qs
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 12 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Interception Capacity And Efficiency of Inlets on Grade
The interception capacity of Qi of an inlet is the flow intercepted by an inlet under a
given set of conditions.
The efficiency of an inlet is the percent of total flow that the
E  Qi / Q
inlet will intercept under a given set of conditions.
The flow that is not intercepted is the carryover or bypass flow. Qb  Q  Qi
Interception capacity increases with increasing flow rate and, in general, inlet
efficiency decreases with increasing flow rates.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 13 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Grate Inlets on Grade
Frontal flow is the portion of flow that passes
over the upstream side of a grate.
Splash-over is the portion of frontal flow at a
grate that splashes over the grate and is not
intercepted.

Side flow is the portion of gutter flow that goes around the grate when the spread Tw
is larger than the grate width W. The capture efficiency of side flow depends on the
cross-slope Sx, the grate length L, and the gutter flow velocity V.
Frontal flow ratio Side flow ratio Frontal flow interception efficiency
8/3
Q  W Qs Q R f  1  0.09 V  Vo 
Eo  w  11   1   Es   1  w  1  Eo
Q  Tw  Q Q
Vo is the threshold gutter-flow velocity at which frontal flow skips over the grate
without being captured.
Side-flow interception efficiency Inlet Interception Efficiency Interception Capacity
1
Rs  E  R f Eo  Rs Es
 0.15V 1.8  Qi  EQ  Q  R f Eo  Rs 1  Eo  
1  S L2.3  E  R f Eo  Rs 1  Eo 
 x 
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 14 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

Grate inlet frontal flow-interception efficiency (Johnson and Chang, 1984)


ME33 : Fluid Flow 15 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes
Urban Storm Drainage
Curb Opening Inlets on Grade
Curb opening inlets do not function well on steep
slopes because of the difficulty of directing flow
into the inlet.
The full-interception curb-opening inlet length Lt is
the length to intercept 100% of the gutter flow:
LT  Q 0.42 S 0.3  nS x 
0.6
  0.6 (U.S.) or 0.82 (S.I.)
1.8
The efficiency of curb-opening inlet  L
E  1  1  
length L that are shorter than Lt is:  LT 
For depressed curb-opening inlets or curb openings in depressed gutter
sections, the length of inlet required for total interception can be determined
using the equivalent cross-slope Se: S’w is the slope of the gutter measured from
the cross-slope of the pavement Sx, so that S’w=a/(12W) where a is the gutter
depression in inches and Eo is the ratio of the flow in the depressed section to
the total gutter flow Qw/Q. S  S S' E
e x w o

The full-interception curb-opening inlet length Lt can be modified to incorporate


the equivalent cross-slope:
 nSe 
0.6
LT  Q
0.42 0.3
S

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 16 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Grate Inlets in a Sag Location
Inlets placed in sag locations
operate as weirs under low
heads and as orifices for higher
heads. Combination inlets and
curb-opening inlets are
recommended for sag locations.

The capacity of grate inlets Qi


under weir control is:

Qi  Cw Pd 1.5 Cw  3.0 (US), 1.66 (SI)

The capacity of grate inlets Qi


under orifice control is:

Qi  Co A  2 gd  Co  0.67
0.5

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 17 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Curb Opening Inlets in a Sag Location
Curb-opening inlets in a sag curve operate
as weirs to depths equal to the curb opening
height and as orifices at depths greater than
1.4 times the opening height h.
The weir control equation for interception
capacity of a depressed curb opening inlet:
Qi  Cw  L  1.8W  d 1.5
(for d  h+a/12, or d  h+a for S.I.)
Cw  2.3 (US), 1.25 (SI)
For curb-opening inlets without any
depression (W=0):
Qi  Cw Ld 1.5 (for d  h)
The interception capacity for orifice control
for both depressed and un-depressed inlets:
Q  CohL  2 gdo 
0.5 0.5
  h 
Q  Co A  2 g  d i   
Co  0.67   2 
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 18 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Curb Opening Inlets in a Sag Location

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 19 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Manholes

Manholes permit easy access to pipes for cleanout and to serve as junction
boxes. Installed at intervals of not more than 150 m.
Tributary conduits intersecting above the grade of the main drain may be
brought directly into the manhole and flow allowed to drop inside or a drop may
be constructed outside the manhole (drop>0.5 m).
Manhole covers and cover frames are cast iron weighing 90-270 kg.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 20 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Outlet works

Pumping stations
Tide gates
Storage basins
Combination of pumps
and storage

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 21 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains
The design of storm drains conforms to the principles of flow in open channels,
and Manning’s equation is used to calculate the required pipe sizes.
1. Pipe flow is full under steady uniform flow
2. Minimum pipe diameter is 30 cm.
3. Minimum velocity flowing full >= 0.75 m/s
4. Pipe sizes should not decrease in the D/S direction
5. Pipe slope should conform to ground slope
6. Pipe grades are described in terms of elevation of the invert.
7. Where pipes of different size join, the tops of the pipes are placed at the
same elevation.
Use defined design flow frequency at key
points
Consider alternative layouts to find least
cost solution
When pumping plants are probable,
balance tradeoff between excavation and
pump spacing.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 22 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 23 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

 Inlets also provide access to the pipes for


maintenance as well as a point for the
pipes to change direction.
 Pipes are manufactured in a variety of
materials
 Pipes are generally laid in trenches
 Pipe sections are designed to fit together
 The most fundamental element of a storm
sewer design is choosing a pipe with
sufficient size and grade
 If the capacity is greater than the flow, the
pipe is adequate for use in the storm
sewer system.
 Velocity in the pipe should not be allowed
to be too low nor too high.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 24 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 25 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains
 If existing roads are involved
and if the proposed storm sewer
must connect to existing pipes,
then more precise topography is
needed.
 The type of ground cover should
be validated to help choosing
runoff coefficients.
 On the site topographic map,
find the best location for the
system to discharge.
 Locate the positions of the inlets
which are placed at low points.
 Connect the inlets with pipes.
 Size the sewer lines

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 26 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Simple Guidelines

 Grading
 Spacing
 Change of
direction
 Change of
pipe slope
or size

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 27 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 28 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

 The principal goal of hydraulic design is to determine the pipe size, segment
by segment, throughout the system.
 To accomplish this, peak discharge, Qp, must be computed for each pipe
segment using Rational Method.
 Drainage areas must be delineated using topographic and site reconnaissance
information.
 Hydraulic paths must be traced for each area in order to compute times of
concentration.
 When Qp is known, a size and slope is chosen for the pipe segment and its
corresponding capacity is determined.
 If the capacity is greater than Qp, the pipe segment is considered adequate and
is accepted in the design.
 In addition to checking pipe capacity, inlet grate must also be checked.
 Whichever path yields the higher value of time of concentration will be
chosen and that tc will be used in calculating Qp.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 29 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 30 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

ME33 : Fluid Flow 31 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 32 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 33 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Design of Storm Drains

 After computing peak discharge flowing in each pipe segment, the next
step in storm sewer design is to choose an appropriate size for the pipe.
 The slope of the pipe is chosen at this time as well since both size and
slope are needed to determine capacity.
 Pipe’s material is selected since this decision is based primarily upon cost
and other factors. Roughness will be based on pipe material.
 Pipe slope is dictated to a great extent by surface grades although some
variation is available to the designer.
 Plotting a profile reveals the slope as well as the pipe depth and any
potential conflicts with other utilities.
 Design is a trial and error process in which a 12-inch pipe is chosen first
and its capacity is compared to Qp for that segment.
 If necessary, a larger size is then chosen.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 34 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
ASCE & WPCF Design Criteria

1. Free-surface flow exists for the design discharges. Gravity flow governs.
2. The sewers are commercially available circular pipes.
3. The design diameter is the smallest commercially available pipe that has
flow => the design discharge.
4. Storm sewers must be placed so that they will not drain basements and
will provide cushioning to prevent breakage.
5. The sewers are joined at junctions with equal crown elevation.
6. Specify a minimum permissible flow velocity at design discharge.
7. Specify a maximum permissible flow velocity at design discharge.
8. At any junction or manhole, the downstream sewer cannot be smaller
than any of the upstream sewer at that junction.
9. The sewer system is a dendritic network converging downstream without
closed loops.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 35 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method

Q  KCiA K = 1.0 (US), 0.28 (SI) Td is equal to Tc for the drainage area
m
Li under consideration.
Q  Ki  C j Aj tc  to  t f tf   Tc is the time associated with the peak
j 1
Vj
runoff from the watershed to the point
of interest.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 36 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method: Summary of Tc Formulas

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 37 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method: Runoff Coefficients

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 38 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method: Manning’s Equation
In the rational method each sewer is designed individually and
independently (except for the computation of the sewer flow time) and the
corresponding rainfall intensity i is computed repeatedly for the area drained by
the sewer.
For a given sewer, all the different areas drained by this sewer have the same i.
Increasing tc gives a decreasing i that should be applied to the area drained by
the sewer.
Manning’s equation is used for computing the pipe diameters, assuming pipe is
flowing full under gravity and discharges using the rational formula.
Manning’s
m 1/2 2/3  0.311  1/2 8/3
Q  So1/2  D 2 / 4   D / 4   m 
Q S f AR m 2/3
 So D
n n  n 
3/8
 mDQn 
D where m D  2.16 (US), 3.21(SI)
 S 
 o 
Darcy-Weisbach
1/2 1/5
 8g   0.811 fQ 2 
Q  A RS f  D 
 f   gSo 
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 39 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method: Sample Problem
Mays 15.2.1: Given the physical
characteristics of the drainage basin, design
the sewers in the layout to drain a 20-ac area.
The catchments are identified by the
manholes they drain directly. The sewer pipes
are identified by the number of the upstream
manhole of each pipe. The Manning’s
roughness factor n is 0.014 for all the sewers.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 40 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method: Manning’s Equation
Variation of rainfall intensity with duration.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 41 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Rational Method: Manning’s Equation

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 42 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Gradient Calculations
If the HGL>pipe crown at the next US manhole, pressure flow governs. If
HGL<pipe crown, open channel flow calculations should be used.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 43 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Gradient Calculations
If the HGL>pipe crown at the next US manhole, pressure flow governs. If
HGL<pipe crown, open channel flow calculations should be used.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 44 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs
To analyze the hydraulic effectiveness of storm sewer design, it is necessary to
analyze the hydraulic gradient.
 V2 2 V12   V12 V2 2 
 Form Losses (open channel) H c  0.1   for V2 >V1 H e  0.2    for V1 >V2
 2g 2g   2g 2g 
 Transition Losses (pressurized flow)
2
 V2 2   A2  where K=0.5 for sudden contraction
Hc  K   1  
 2 g  A1  where K=0.1 for a well-designed transition
 V1  V2 2  where K=1.0 for sudden expansion
He  K  
 2 g  where K=0.2 for a well-designed transition
 
 For more detailed analysis (use tables):
V2 
H  K 
 2g 

V2 
H ext  Ke  
 2 g 

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 45 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 46 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 47 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 48 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs
Manhole losses can comprise a significant percentage of the overall losses in a
storm sewer system.
V2
 Manhole Losses (straight-through with no pipe size change): H m  0.05
2g
V2
 Manhole Losses (terminal manholes): Hm 
2g
V2 
 Manhole Losses (junction manholes): Hm  K  
 2g 
 Values of K for various types of manhole configurations can be found in the
succeeding figures.

 Bend Losses: V2  


H b  Kb   Kb  0.25
 2g  90
for curved sewer segments where the angle of deflection <40o
 For greater angle of deflection and for bends in manholes, the loss
coefficient can be obtained from the following figure.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 49 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Sewer bend loss
Urban Storm Drainage
coefficient (Sangster et
Hydraulic
al., 1958) Analysis of Designs

ME33 : Fluid Flow 50 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Manhole junction type
Urban Storm Drainage
and nomenclature.
Hydraulic et
(Sangster Analysis of Designs
al., 1958)

ME33 : Fluid Flow 51 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Rectangular manhole
Urban Storm Drainage
with in-line opposed
Hydraulic
lateral Analysis
pipes eachofatDesigns
900 to outfall (with or
without grate flow)
(Sangster et al., 1958)

ME33 : Fluid Flow 52 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Rectangular manhole
with offset opposed
lateral pipes each at
900 to outfall (with or
without grate flow)
(Sangster
ME33 et al., 1958)
: Fluid Flow 53 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes
Manhole at 90o deflection or on
Urban Storm Drainage
through pipeline at junction of
Hydraulic
90 o Analysis
lateral of Designs
pipeline (lateral
coefficient) (Sangster et al.,
1958)

ME33 : Fluid Flow 54 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Manhole on through pipeline at
Urban Storm Drainage
junction of a 90o lateral pipeline (in-
Hydraulic
line Analysis of(Sangster
pipe coefficient) Designs et al.,
1958)

ME33 : Fluid Flow 55 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Manhole on through
Urban Storm Drainage
pipeline at junction of a
Hydraulic
90 o lateral Analysis
pipeline of Designs
(for
conditions outside the
range of prior figures)
(Sangster et al., 1958)

ME33 : Fluid Flow 56 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs
Mays 15.2.4: The hypothetical storm sewer
layout shown includes an existing portion
and an extension of the existing system. The
objective of this example is to analyze the
hydraulics of manhole number 4 (MH-4).
• Top of manhole elevation: 476 ft
• Bottom of manhole elev.: 470.15 ft
• Manhole diameter: 48.0 ft
• Lateral flow, QL: 25 cfs
• Upstream in-line flow, QU: 46 cfs
• Outfall flow, QO: 71 cfs
• Diameter of lateral line, DL: 30.0 in
• Diameter of US in-line, DU: 42 in
• Diameter of outfall line, DO: 48 in
• Elevation of outfall pipe pressure line
at MH-4: 475.08 ft

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 57 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs
Solution:
1. The outfall pressure line elevation at the manhole is given at 475.08 ft.
2. The velocity head at the outfall is:
2 2
Vo 2 1 Q 1  71 
       0.50 ft (Note:D=48 in = 4 ft)
2g 2g  A  2 g   42 / 4 
3. Compute the ratios:
Qu 46 D 42 D 30
  0.65, u   0.88, L   0.63
Qo 71 Do 48 Do 48
4. Compute B/Do = 48/48 = 1.0 (where B is the manhole diameter)
5. Consider the lateral pipe:  Qu   Do  1
  x    0.65 x  0.74
 o  u
Q D 0.88
6. Using the figure, KL* = 0.95 for DL/Do = 0.63 and B/Do = 1.0. For a round-
edged manhole KL* = KL*-0.2 = 0.95-0.20 = 0.75, where 0.2 is obtained
from the table of reductions for KL* for manholes with a rounded entrance.
When Vo2/2g <1.0 it is usually not economical to use a rounded entrance
from the manhole to the outlet pipe; therefore keep KL* = 0.95 for a
square-edged entrance.
7. Determine ML using (Qu/Qo) x (Du/Do) = 0.74; ML = 0.61 from the figure.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 58 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Analysis of Designs
Solution:
8. KL = ML x KL* = 0.61 x 0.95 = 0.58 (for square-edged entrance)
9. Lateral pipe pressure change = KL(Vo2/2g) = 0.58 x 0.50 = 0.29 ft
10. Lateral pipe pressure = 475. 08 + 0.29 = 475.37 ft

11. From the figure, Ku* = 1.86.


12. Because the velocity head is less than 1.0 ft/s, a rounded entrance to the
outfall pipe will not be appropriate and a square-edged entrance will be
used.
13. From the figure, Mu= 0.45.
14. Ku = Mu x Ku* = 0.45 x 1.86 = 0.84.
15. Hu = Ku x Vo2/2g = 0.84 x 0.50 = 0.42 ft.
16. The in-line upstream pressure elevation is 475.08 + 0.42 = 475.50, which
is also the water surface elevation.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 59 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Hydraulic Routing for Design
The combined hydrographs for all upstream connecting pipes plus the hydrograph
for the surface runoff represents the design inflow hydrograph to the next
(adjacent) downstream sewer pipe.
Hydrograph time lag method. The inflow hydrograph of a sewer is shifted without
distortion by the sewer flow time tf to produce the sewer outflow hydrograph.
The outflow hydrographs of the upstream sewers at a manhole are added, at the
corresponding times, to the direct manhole inflow hydrograph to produce the inflow
hydrograph for the downstream sewer in accordance with the continuity
relationship.
ds 4Q p
 ij j o dt
Q  Q  Q  t f 
L
V
V 
 D2
The routing of the sewer flow is done by shifting the inflow hydrograph by tf and no
consideration is given to the unsteady and non-uniform nature of the sewer flow.
Shifting of hydrographs approximately accounts for the sewer flow translation time
but offers no wave attenuation.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 60 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

 Storm sewer outfall is the point where collected storm water is discharged
from the system to the receiving body of water. It is where the most soil
erosion damage can occur.
 One of the first considerations in outfall design is the outfall structure.
 A storm sewer pipe can simply emerge from the ground and terminate with
no structure, or a headwall can be constructed at the discharge point.
 The purpose of a headwall or other outfall structure is to protect the soil
around the discharge pipe from erosion and to keep the slope in place.
 The outfall structure actually acts as a small retaining wall.
 Storm sewer outfalls are configured in one of three ways:

1. Outfall at stream bank.


2. Channel connecting outfall with stream.
3. Outfall discharging onto stream overbank.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 61 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 62 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 63 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls
 Discharge exiting from the outfall is in concentrated form and therefore
potentially damaging to unprotected ground.
 Excessive velocity can damage the ground by dislodging soil particles and
washing them away.
 Several methods are available for the control of erosion at a storm sewer
outfall including reduction of discharge velocity and covering the ground
with an erosion resistant lining
1. Reduce discharge velocity. Accomplished simply by reducing the slope
of the last pipe segment before outfall.
2. Energy dissipator. For very high velocity, specially designed obstruction
blocks can be placed at the outlet to create a head loss and therefore
reduction of velocity.
3. Stilling basin. A depression in the ground surface can be provided at
the outlet to absorb excessive energy of the discharge.
4. Riprap. This is a lining of heavy rocks covering the vulnerable ground
to protect the ground surface and slow the discharging velocity at the
same time.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 64 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

5. Erosion control mats. Mesh netting which is placed on the ground to


protect the surface and to anchor a vegetative cover as it grows.
6. Sod. Application of sod strips to the vulnerable ground to provide a
grass lining without the disadvantage of growing grass from seed.
7. Gabions. Rectangular wire mesh baskets filled with rocks and placed
on the ground as a protective lining similar to riprap.

 Riprap is a common erosion control lining used at storm sewer outfalls as


well as culvert outlets, especially in areas where suitable rock materials are
readily available.
 A lining of the ground at a pipe outlet is generally referred to as apron.
 Design of riprap outfall protection includes many factors in which the most
basic (1) type of stone, (2) size of stone, (3) thickness of stone lining, (4)
length of apron, and (5) width of apron.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 65 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 66 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 67 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls
1. Type of stone. The stones used for riprap should be hard, durable and
angular. Angularity, which is a feature of crushed stone from quarry,
helps keep stones locked together when subjected to the force of
moving water.
2. Size of stone. The stones should be well-graded in a range of sizes
referred to as gradation.
Size is defined as the median diameter, d50, which is the diameter of
stones of which 50% are finer by weight.
43
0.02  Q 
d 50    (English Units)
TW  Do 
where d50 = median stone size, ft
Q= design discharge, cfs
Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft
TW = tailwater depth, ft.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 68 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls
43 (SI Units)
0.044  Q 
d 50   
TW  Do 
where d50 = median stone size, m
Q= design discharge, m3/s
Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, m
TW = tailwater depth, m

Note: Tailwater is the flow depth in the pipe at outlet.

3. Thickness of stone lining. The blanket of stones should be three times


the median stone size if no filter fabric liner between the stones and the
ground is used.
If a filter fabric liner is used, the thickness should be twice the median
stone size.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 69 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls
4. Length of apron. The length, La of the apron is computed using one of
the following formulas:
i) If the design tailwater depth, TW is greater than or equal to 0.5Do,
then:
3Q
La  3 2 (English Units)
Do
where La = apron length, ft
Q= design discharge, cfs
Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft

5.4Q
La  3 2 (SI Units)
Do
where La = apron length, m
Q= design discharge, m3/s
Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, m
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 70 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls
ii) If design TW is less than or equal to 0.5Do, then:

1.8Q
La  3 2  7 Do (English Units)
Do

where La = apron length, ft


Q= design discharge, cfs
Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft

3.26Q
La  32
 7 Do (SI Units)
Do
where La = apron length, m
Q= design discharge, m3/s
Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, m
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 71 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

5. Width of apron. If a channel exists downstream of the outlet, the riprap


width is dictated by the width of the channel.
Riprap should line the bottom of the channel and part of the side slopes.
The lining should extend 1 ft (0.3m) above the design tailwater depth.
The extra 1 ft height is called freeboard and is employed as a safety
measure.
i) If the design tailwater depth, TW is greater than or equal
to 0.5Do, then:
where W = apron width, ft (m)
W  3Do  0.4La Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft (m)
La = apron length, ft (m)
ii) If the design TW is less than 0.5Do, then:
where W = apron width, ft (m)
W  3Do  La Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft (m)
La = apron length, ft (m)
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 72 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 73 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 74 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes


Urban Storm Drainage
Sewer Construction and Maintenance
Maintenance of Line and Grade
The line and grade of each sewer should be
carefully established and maintained so that
self-cleansing velocities will be obtained.

a) Establish an offset line.


b) Measure from the offset line to lay out
the trench on the ground
c) When the trench has been brought close
to its final grade, batter boards are
placed across at intervals of 10 to 15 m
d) The centerline of the sewer is
established on the batter boards
e) Nail an upright fastener so that one edge
is on the centerline

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 75 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Sewer Construction and Maintenance
The elevation of each cleat is
established and a mark is made.
Nail is driven into each fastener at
the grade mark and a string is run
from nail to nail

Line is established by dropping a


plumb bob from the string and grade
is checked.
Modern technique uses a laser
mounted at one manhole and
directed toward the next.
A target is placed over the end of each section and the line and grade are
adjusted until the beam is in the center of the target.

Accuracy of line and grade can be held to within 0.01 percent over a distance up
to 300 m.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 76 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Excavation Techniques
Specialized equipment for excavating trenches
is available which employs continuous chain
drives.
Trenches can also be excavated with
standard construction equipment.

Hardpan can be excavated by


hand or machinery with minor
difficulty.
Solid rock which includes solid
rock in its original bed is
Hand excavation is removable by blasting.
also required in the
The trench should be excavated a
vicinity of other
minimum of 200 mm below the
subsurface utilities.
final grade.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 77 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Sheeting and bracing
Trenches more than 1.5 m deep and
2.5 m in width should be held by
shoring or bracing or sloped to the
angle of repose of the soil.
Sheeting includes the support
materials in contact with the walls of
the excavation.
Bracing refers to the crosspieces
extending from one side to the other.
Rangers are structural members
which transfer the load from sheeting
to braces.
Stay Bracing consists of vertical boards placed against opposite walls of trench
and supported by two braces..

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 78 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Sheeting and bracing
Box Sheeting employs horizontal Vertical Sheeting is the strongest
sheeting and vertical rangers and is and most elaborate method
best suited to unconsolidated soils. employed in trench construction and
is used in soft soils and in those
where groundwater may be
encountered.

If the trench is expected to extend


below the groundwater table, sheet
piling may be used instead of planks.
Skeleton or Open Sheeting consists
of sheeting planks placed only at the
ends and midpoints of the rangers.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 79 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Dewatering of Excavations
Quick conditions in the
trench can be prevented
by lowering the
groundwater table with
well points.

When water is
encountered
unexpectedly, the trench
bottom may be stabilized
temporarily with gravel,
rock, or rubble.

If the flow is not so great as to cause


fluidization, it may be removed by letting
it run along the trench bottom to a sump,
from which it is pumped.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 80 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Pipe Laying and Jointing
Before the pipe is lowered into the
trench, the grade of the bedding
material should be checked with
levels.
The pipe sections are placed on line
and grade in the bottom of the
dewatered trench and are pressed
together.

The gasketing material should be


lubricated according to
manufacturer’s instructions before
the sections are joined.
Wye or tee sections which have been provided in the sewer for future
household connections should be plugged and mortared shut.
The trench should be filled as soon as the pipe has been placed and the
installation has been inspected.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 81 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Maintenance of Sewers
Maintenance of sewer systems
depends not only on proper design
and construction but with the
availability of a competent workforce.

Sewer maintenance requires certain


specialized equipment for clearing
plugged or partially plugged lines.

Sanitary sewers may be stopped by


roots which enter through small
leaks or by deposits of grease.

Roots are removed in sewers up to 380 mm in diameter by flexible auger like


cutter.
Grease is the most common cause of blockage in household sewers. Sand
and grit may be removed by buckets or scoops pulled through by a cable and
winch
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 82 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Urban Storm Drainage
Sewer repairs and Connections

Damage to sewer sections should be located as closely


as possible by inspection and rodding from manholes.

A broken section of clay or concrete pipe can be chipped


out of the line while the flow is diverted by pumping from
manhole to manhole.

Sections of sanitary sewer which have deteriorated badly


and which are permitting excessive infiltration may be
repaired in place by slip lining from manhole to manhole
with plastic pipe made specifically for this purpose.

Slip lining cuts off the household connections, which


must be remade, but avoids excavation of the entire
length of the sewer.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 83 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Highway Drainage
General
Longitudinal drainage design flows are
best calculated using Izzard’s method for
the transverse flow across the pavement.
w  r 2  1
1/2
iL
q L
3.6 x106 r
Numerical simulation for calculation of
design flows for cross-drainage structures.
Slope protection necessary for cuts and
shoulders.
Slopes of cuts may be protected by an
intercepting dike or ditch.
Roadside ditches are with a V shape.
Bare earth withstand velocities <1.2 m/s.
Lining, drop structures and drop inlets for
excessive velocity prevention.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 84 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Highway Drainage
Cross Drainage: Culverts
Culverts are hydraulically short
closed conduits that convey
streamflow through a road
embankment or some other type
of flow obstruction.
Distinction between culverts and
bridges is mainly on the basis of
size and hydraulic viewpoint.
Complicated flow characteristics.
Numerous cross-sectional
shapes and material type.
Essential features are, the
barrel, the headwalls and
wingwalls, and endwalls.
Various types of inlets.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 85 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Highway Drainage
Cross Drainage: Culverts
Culvert barrel should follow
line and grade of natural
channel.
Outlet can be raised
above natural channel
bottom.
Inlet elevation can be
raised by use of sidehill
location.
Economic practice to
place culvert axis normal to
highway centerline.
But hydraulically best that
culvert alignment conform
to the natural stream
alignment.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 86 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Highway Drainage
Culvert inlets and outlets
Primarily for erosion control
and improvement of culvert
hydraulic characteristics.
(a) axis of stream coincides with
culvert axis
(b) abrupt change in flow
direction is necessary.
(c) (d) where flows are large
Warping of wingwall into smooth
transition is uneconomical.
Flaring of outlet wingwalls is
helpful. For supercritical flows:
1
tan  
2NF
For high flows, stilling basins,
debris barriers need be
provided.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 87 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet Control
Culverts are designed to: (1) limit
excessive headwater elevation; (2)
yc y  yc yn
prevent scour at the outlet.
Culverts with inlet control have
high-velocity shallow flow that is
supercritical. y  yc
hj
Normal depth in the culvert is less
than the barrel height.
The entrance will not admit water
typical for design
fast enough to fill the barrel.
yc y  yc yn
The inlet functions like an orifice.
Q  Cd A  2 gh 
1/2

Cd  0.62 (square edge), 1.0 (rounded)

Hydraulic model tests are


hj
necessary for determining the
contraction coefficient.
Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water
Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 88 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet Control
Flaring the culvert entrance will
increase capacity.
Experiments have shown best
results for flaring the entrance of
a box culvert to about double the
barrel area.
The entrance of circular culverts
should be rounded on a radius of
about 0.15D.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 89 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet Control
Headwater cannot submerge
the inlet: (1) critical depth in
the barrel controls the
headwater elevation; (2)
tailwater elevation is the
control.
Headwater elevation can be
computed from the energy
equation with an allowance for
entrance loss.
he  K  hv 2  hv1 
K  (0.1) smooth, (0.5) abrupt
The water surface will impinge
on the headwall when the
headwater depth is 1.2D if yc
is 0.8D or more.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 90 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Outlet Control
Culverts with outlet control have lower-
velocity, deeper flow that is subcritical.
Tailwater depths are either critical or higher.
The headwater elevation required to
discharge the design flow is determined by
the head loss H in the culvert.
The normal depth for the design flow is
greater than the culvert height D and the
inlet is submerged.
The total headloss is the sum of an
entrance loss he, friction loss in the barrel hf,
and the velocity head hv.
y  yc yc

V 2 n 2V 2 L V 2
hl  Ke  
2 g R 4/3
2g
Ke  0.5 (square edge), 0.05 (rounded) y  yc

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 91 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Drop Inlet Culverts
Drop inlet culvert for: (1) little
headroom at the fill; (2) ponding is
permissible to reduce peak flow.
Barrel is on a flat slope and flowing full
at design Q.
The barrel size may be computed using
the equation for headloss, assuming Ke
= 0 and including a bend loss KbV2/2g. Kb
ranges from 1.5 to 0.45.
Weir flow condition at the inlet is most
desirable.
Special case of outlet control.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 92 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet-Control Design Equations
A culvert under inlet-control conditions performs as an orifice when the inlet is
submerged and as a weir when it is unsubmerged.
Submerged:
Z  0.5So general
2
 HW   Q   Q 
 C  AD 0.5   Y  Z for   4.0
 D   AD  Z  0.7 So mitered inlets
0.5

Unsubmerged: Form 1
M
 HW   H c   Q   Q 

 D   D   K  AD 0.5   Z for   3.5
 AD 
0.5

Unsubmerged: Form 2
M
 HW   Q 
 D   K  AD 0.5   Z

The equations are implemented by assuming a culvert diameter D and solving


the right-hand side of these equations.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 93 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet-Control Design Equations

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 94 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet-Control Design Equations

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 95 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Headwater depth
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
for concrete pipe
Inlet-Control
culverts withDesign
inlet Equations
control (Normann
et al., 1985).

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 96 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Headwater depth
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
for CM pipe
Inlet-Control
culverts withDesign
inlet Equations
control (Normann
et al., 1985).

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 97 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Outlet-Control Design Equations
A culvert under outlet-control conditions has either subcritical flow or full-culvert
flow, so that outlet-control flow conditions can be calculated using an energy
balance.
  29n 2 L   V 2   20n 2 L   V 2
Full culvert flow: H  Ho  H e  H f H  1  Ke   1.33   H  1  Ke   1.33  
  R  2 g   R  2 g

Vu 2 Vd 2
HWo   TW   H f  He  Ho
2g 2g
HWo  TW  H f  H e  Ho For full flow TW  D

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 98 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet-Control Design Equations

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow 99 Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet-Control Design Equations

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
100
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Outlet-Control Design Equations
For partly full flow, the headloss should be computed from backwater analysis.
H  HWo  ho ho  max TW ,  D  d c  / 2

The outlet-controlled headwater depth is computed by determining the tailwater


depth from backwater computations. Then H for full-flow conditions is obtained.
HW  H  ho  LSo

Making use of the value of H from nomographs, Hwo can be computed for any
given Manning’s n value.
2
n 
L1  L  1 
n
The larger of the headwater elevation, obtained from the inlet- and outlet-control
calculation, is adopted as the design headwater elevation.
Under outlet-control conditions a larger barrel is necessary.
In the case of very large culverts, the use of multiple culverts may be required.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
101
Head for concrete
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
pipe culverts
Inlet-Control
flowing full, Design
n = Equations
0.012 (Normann
et al., 1985).

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
102
Head for standard
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
CM pipe culverts
Inlet-Control
flowing full, Design
n = Equations
0.024 (Normann
et al., 1985).

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
103
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Inlet-Control Design Equations

Outlet velocity for


(a) inlet and (b)
outlet control
(Normann et al.,
1985).

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
104
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Sample Problem
Analyze a 6 ft x 5 ft square-edged reinforced concrete box culvert for a roadway
crossing to pass a 50-year discharge of 300 ft3/s with the following site
conditions:
Shoulder elevation: 113.5 ft
Stream bed elevation at culvert face: 100 ft
Natural stream slope: 2 %
Tailwater depth: 4.0 ft
Approximate culvert length: 250 ft
Maximum allowable upstream water surface (head) elevation: 110 ft

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
105
Hydraulic Design of Culverts
Sample Problem

1) The tailwater depth is specified as 4.0 ft, which is obtained from backwater
computation or from normal depth calculations.
2) The critical depth is computed
3)  D  d c  / 2 is computed
4) ho  max TW ,  D  d c  / 2
5) Use table to obtain entrance loss coefficient.   29n 2 L   V 2
6) Determine headlosses through the culvert barrel H  1  Ke   1.33  
 R  2 g
Because TW<DD there is only partly full flow at the exit 
7) Determine the required outlet control head water elevation (ELho),ELho  ELo  Ho  ho
ELo is the invert elevation at the outlet. ELo  ELi  So L
8) Consider inlet control and determine headwater elevation. The design
headwater elevation is now computed as ELhi  HWi  ELi
9) Compare between inlet and outlet control headwater elevations. Select the
larger value.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water


Flow incontrol
Pipes
ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess
Water Resources Engineering II
106