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Definition

Drainage is the term applied to systems for dealing with excess water.

The three primary drainage tasks are:

a) Urban storm drainage

b) Land drainage

c) Highway drainage

Drainage is separate from flood mitigation

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 1 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Drainage

Urban storm drainage

In cities, stormwater is collected in the street and conveyed through inlets to buried

conduits that carry it to a point where it can be discharged into a body of water.

The accumulated water should be discharged as close to its source as possible.

Detention

ponds with

development.

Detailed

topographic

map for design.

Intersection

breaks in grade

to the nearest

(0.03m)

Map of above-

& under-ground

facilities.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 2 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Drainage

Urban storm drainage

In cities, stormwater is collected in the street and conveyed through inlets to buried

conduits that carry it to a point where it can be discharged into a body of water.

The accumulated water should be discharged as close to its source as possible.

Detention

ponds with

development.

Detailed

topographic

map for design.

Intersection

breaks in grade

to the nearest

(0.03m)

Map of above-

& under-ground

facilities.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 3 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Estimates of Flow

Usually peak flows of particular return periods

are only required except where storage of

pumping of water is proposed.

The selection of the return period is often

dependent on the designer’s judgment. And

willingness of residents to finance the design.

Lack of discharge measurement design flows

synthesized from rainfall data.

For urban drainage, the most widely used

method has been the rational formula.

Use of the rational formula results in over design.

The most satisfactory method for estimating urban runoff

is by hydrologic simulation using a computer.

Output is simulated flow at all key points.

Frequency analysis is done after for design flows.

Layout of the drainage is required for comparison.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 4 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Gutters

The discharge capacity of gutters depends on

their shape, slope and roughness.

Manning’s equation can be utilized with

constraints.

For well-finished gutters, n has a value of about

0.016.

Transverse slope is usually 1:20 with a 15 cm

curb height.

The energy gradient is flatter than the slope

of the gutter.

On very flat slopes the gutter capacity is

much less than that computed using gutter

slope in Manning’s equation.

If flow in the gutter ponds around the inlet,

the depth is controlled by inlet characteristics

rather than by gutter hydraulics.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 5 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Inlets

Gutter flow is intercepted and directed to an

underground storm-drain pipe system by drop

inlets. Two main types:

Grated inlets are openings in the gutter bottom

protected by grates. A curb-opening inlet is an

opening in the face of the curb.

A maximum width of gutter flow of 6 ft. (1.8

m) is a criterion for important highways.

In residential areas, the criterion in inlet

spacing provides four inlets per

intersection.

For economy and residential/commercial, inlet

spacing of several blocks.

Catch basins at inlets were a thing of the

past for debris and sediment trapping.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 6 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Inlets

Some possible arrangement of storm-drain inlets

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 7 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Grated Inlets

The most efficient grated inlets have bars

parallel to the curb and a sufficient

clear length.

V 1/2

x y x 0.94Vy1/2

2

On steep slopes, very little water will

cross the longitudinal edge of the grate.

Space between grate bars should be less

than 1 in (2.5 cm) and parallel to curb.

Grates with ponded water, i.e., negligible

approach velocity, and heads under

about 12 cm function as weirs.

Coefficient is 3.0.

If the head exceeds 40 cm, the grate

functions as an orifice with a coefficient

of about 0.6.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 8 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Curb Opening Inlets

Curb opening inlets, function best with

relatively steep transverse slopes.

The capacity of curb opening inlets as a

function of flow per unit length has been

derived empirically.

The inlet length La required for full

interception is equal to the gutter discharge

Qa divided by the inlet capacity per unit

length.

If the length of the inlet is insufficient to

intercept the entire flow, the portion Q which

it will intercept is indicated by a relationship

with the ratio of a/d and L/La, where L is the

actual length of the inlet.

If flow is ponded, flow can be either a weir (d <

curb opening, C=3.1) or orifice (d > curb

opening, C=0.7).

Q 5.62 Lbh0.5 Q 3.1Lbh0.5

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 9 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Curb Opening Inlets

Curves for computing the capacity of curve opening inlets

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 10 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Flow in gutters

A pavement gutter conveys water during a storm event by collecting overland flow

along its length and concentrating the flow as channel flow.

dy 2/3

dQ Vdx y V 1.49 y dy S 1/2

2 n 2

1.49 5/3 dy 1/2 0.56 S 1/2 8/3

dQ y S Q d

n Sx n Sx

1/2 2/3 2/3 1/2 5/3 8/3

V S S x Tw Q S S x Tw

n n

1.12 (US),0.75 (SI) 0.56 (US),0.375 (SI)

V K2Tw2/3 T 8/3

1.5

Q K1Tw8/3 1 1

0.65 2 2

Tw T

3 T28/3 T18/3 T2 T1

V K2 1

4 T22 T12 T2

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 11 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Grate Inlets on Grade

Sample Problem. Derive the equation for the total discharge in a composite gutter

section (with compound slopes). The distance a is referred to as the gutter

depression.

Depth of flow at the break in cross

section d2:

d 2 Tw W S x

Depth of flow at the curb d1:

d1 Tw S x a

The discharge for the outside section of the gutter:

S 1/2 8/3

Qs d2

n Sx

The discharge for the inside section of the gutter:

Qw

n Sw

d1

n Sw

d2 Qw

n Sw

d1 d 28/3

Q Qw Qs

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 12 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Interception Capacity And Efficiency of Inlets on Grade

The interception capacity of Qi of an inlet is the flow intercepted by an inlet under a

given set of conditions.

The efficiency of an inlet is the percent of total flow that the

E Qi / Q

inlet will intercept under a given set of conditions.

The flow that is not intercepted is the carryover or bypass flow. Qb Q Qi

Interception capacity increases with increasing flow rate and, in general, inlet

efficiency decreases with increasing flow rates.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 13 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Grate Inlets on Grade

Frontal flow is the portion of flow that passes

over the upstream side of a grate.

Splash-over is the portion of frontal flow at a

grate that splashes over the grate and is not

intercepted.

Side flow is the portion of gutter flow that goes around the grate when the spread Tw

is larger than the grate width W. The capture efficiency of side flow depends on the

cross-slope Sx, the grate length L, and the gutter flow velocity V.

Frontal flow ratio Side flow ratio Frontal flow interception efficiency

8/3

Q W Qs Q R f 1 0.09 V Vo

Eo w 11 1 Es 1 w 1 Eo

Q Tw Q Q

Vo is the threshold gutter-flow velocity at which frontal flow skips over the grate

without being captured.

Side-flow interception efficiency Inlet Interception Efficiency Interception Capacity

1

Rs E R f Eo Rs Es

0.15V 1.8 Qi EQ Q R f Eo Rs 1 Eo

1 S L2.3 E R f Eo Rs 1 Eo

x

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 14 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

ME33 : Fluid Flow 15 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Urban Storm Drainage

Curb Opening Inlets on Grade

Curb opening inlets do not function well on steep

slopes because of the difficulty of directing flow

into the inlet.

The full-interception curb-opening inlet length Lt is

the length to intercept 100% of the gutter flow:

LT Q 0.42 S 0.3 nS x

0.6

0.6 (U.S.) or 0.82 (S.I.)

1.8

The efficiency of curb-opening inlet L

E 1 1

length L that are shorter than Lt is: LT

For depressed curb-opening inlets or curb openings in depressed gutter

sections, the length of inlet required for total interception can be determined

using the equivalent cross-slope Se: S’w is the slope of the gutter measured from

the cross-slope of the pavement Sx, so that S’w=a/(12W) where a is the gutter

depression in inches and Eo is the ratio of the flow in the depressed section to

the total gutter flow Qw/Q. S S S' E

e x w o

the equivalent cross-slope:

nSe

0.6

LT Q

0.42 0.3

S

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 16 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Grate Inlets in a Sag Location

Inlets placed in sag locations

operate as weirs under low

heads and as orifices for higher

heads. Combination inlets and

curb-opening inlets are

recommended for sag locations.

under weir control is:

under orifice control is:

Qi Co A 2 gd Co 0.67

0.5

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 17 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Curb Opening Inlets in a Sag Location

Curb-opening inlets in a sag curve operate

as weirs to depths equal to the curb opening

height and as orifices at depths greater than

1.4 times the opening height h.

The weir control equation for interception

capacity of a depressed curb opening inlet:

Qi Cw L 1.8W d 1.5

(for d h+a/12, or d h+a for S.I.)

Cw 2.3 (US), 1.25 (SI)

For curb-opening inlets without any

depression (W=0):

Qi Cw Ld 1.5 (for d h)

The interception capacity for orifice control

for both depressed and un-depressed inlets:

Q CohL 2 gdo

0.5 0.5

h

Q Co A 2 g d i

Co 0.67 2

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 18 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Curb Opening Inlets in a Sag Location

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 19 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Manholes

Manholes permit easy access to pipes for cleanout and to serve as junction

boxes. Installed at intervals of not more than 150 m.

Tributary conduits intersecting above the grade of the main drain may be

brought directly into the manhole and flow allowed to drop inside or a drop may

be constructed outside the manhole (drop>0.5 m).

Manhole covers and cover frames are cast iron weighing 90-270 kg.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 20 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Outlet works

Pumping stations

Tide gates

Storage basins

Combination of pumps

and storage

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 21 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

The design of storm drains conforms to the principles of flow in open channels,

and Manning’s equation is used to calculate the required pipe sizes.

1. Pipe flow is full under steady uniform flow

2. Minimum pipe diameter is 30 cm.

3. Minimum velocity flowing full >= 0.75 m/s

4. Pipe sizes should not decrease in the D/S direction

5. Pipe slope should conform to ground slope

6. Pipe grades are described in terms of elevation of the invert.

7. Where pipes of different size join, the tops of the pipes are placed at the

same elevation.

Use defined design flow frequency at key

points

Consider alternative layouts to find least

cost solution

When pumping plants are probable,

balance tradeoff between excavation and

pump spacing.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 22 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 23 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

maintenance as well as a point for the

pipes to change direction.

Pipes are manufactured in a variety of

materials

Pipes are generally laid in trenches

Pipe sections are designed to fit together

The most fundamental element of a storm

sewer design is choosing a pipe with

sufficient size and grade

If the capacity is greater than the flow, the

pipe is adequate for use in the storm

sewer system.

Velocity in the pipe should not be allowed

to be too low nor too high.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 24 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 25 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

If existing roads are involved

and if the proposed storm sewer

must connect to existing pipes,

then more precise topography is

needed.

The type of ground cover should

be validated to help choosing

runoff coefficients.

On the site topographic map,

find the best location for the

system to discharge.

Locate the positions of the inlets

which are placed at low points.

Connect the inlets with pipes.

Size the sewer lines

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 26 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Simple Guidelines

Grading

Spacing

Change of

direction

Change of

pipe slope

or size

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 27 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 28 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

The principal goal of hydraulic design is to determine the pipe size, segment

by segment, throughout the system.

To accomplish this, peak discharge, Qp, must be computed for each pipe

segment using Rational Method.

Drainage areas must be delineated using topographic and site reconnaissance

information.

Hydraulic paths must be traced for each area in order to compute times of

concentration.

When Qp is known, a size and slope is chosen for the pipe segment and its

corresponding capacity is determined.

If the capacity is greater than Qp, the pipe segment is considered adequate and

is accepted in the design.

In addition to checking pipe capacity, inlet grate must also be checked.

Whichever path yields the higher value of time of concentration will be

chosen and that tc will be used in calculating Qp.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 29 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 30 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 32 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 33 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Design of Storm Drains

After computing peak discharge flowing in each pipe segment, the next

step in storm sewer design is to choose an appropriate size for the pipe.

The slope of the pipe is chosen at this time as well since both size and

slope are needed to determine capacity.

Pipe’s material is selected since this decision is based primarily upon cost

and other factors. Roughness will be based on pipe material.

Pipe slope is dictated to a great extent by surface grades although some

variation is available to the designer.

Plotting a profile reveals the slope as well as the pipe depth and any

potential conflicts with other utilities.

Design is a trial and error process in which a 12-inch pipe is chosen first

and its capacity is compared to Qp for that segment.

If necessary, a larger size is then chosen.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 34 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

ASCE & WPCF Design Criteria

1. Free-surface flow exists for the design discharges. Gravity flow governs.

2. The sewers are commercially available circular pipes.

3. The design diameter is the smallest commercially available pipe that has

flow => the design discharge.

4. Storm sewers must be placed so that they will not drain basements and

will provide cushioning to prevent breakage.

5. The sewers are joined at junctions with equal crown elevation.

6. Specify a minimum permissible flow velocity at design discharge.

7. Specify a maximum permissible flow velocity at design discharge.

8. At any junction or manhole, the downstream sewer cannot be smaller

than any of the upstream sewer at that junction.

9. The sewer system is a dendritic network converging downstream without

closed loops.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 35 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method

Q KCiA K = 1.0 (US), 0.28 (SI) Td is equal to Tc for the drainage area

m

Li under consideration.

Q Ki C j Aj tc to t f tf Tc is the time associated with the peak

j 1

Vj

runoff from the watershed to the point

of interest.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 36 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method: Summary of Tc Formulas

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 37 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method: Runoff Coefficients

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 38 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method: Manning’s Equation

In the rational method each sewer is designed individually and

independently (except for the computation of the sewer flow time) and the

corresponding rainfall intensity i is computed repeatedly for the area drained by

the sewer.

For a given sewer, all the different areas drained by this sewer have the same i.

Increasing tc gives a decreasing i that should be applied to the area drained by

the sewer.

Manning’s equation is used for computing the pipe diameters, assuming pipe is

flowing full under gravity and discharges using the rational formula.

Manning’s

m 1/2 2/3 0.311 1/2 8/3

Q So1/2 D 2 / 4 D / 4 m

Q S f AR m 2/3

So D

n n n

3/8

mDQn

D where m D 2.16 (US), 3.21(SI)

S

o

Darcy-Weisbach

1/2 1/5

8g 0.811 fQ 2

Q A RS f D

f gSo

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 39 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method: Sample Problem

Mays 15.2.1: Given the physical

characteristics of the drainage basin, design

the sewers in the layout to drain a 20-ac area.

The catchments are identified by the

manholes they drain directly. The sewer pipes

are identified by the number of the upstream

manhole of each pipe. The Manning’s

roughness factor n is 0.014 for all the sewers.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 40 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method: Manning’s Equation

Variation of rainfall intensity with duration.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 41 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Rational Method: Manning’s Equation

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 42 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Gradient Calculations

If the HGL>pipe crown at the next US manhole, pressure flow governs. If

HGL<pipe crown, open channel flow calculations should be used.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 43 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Gradient Calculations

If the HGL>pipe crown at the next US manhole, pressure flow governs. If

HGL<pipe crown, open channel flow calculations should be used.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 44 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

To analyze the hydraulic effectiveness of storm sewer design, it is necessary to

analyze the hydraulic gradient.

V2 2 V12 V12 V2 2

Form Losses (open channel) H c 0.1 for V2 >V1 H e 0.2 for V1 >V2

2g 2g 2g 2g

Transition Losses (pressurized flow)

2

V2 2 A2 where K=0.5 for sudden contraction

Hc K 1

2 g A1 where K=0.1 for a well-designed transition

V1 V2 2 where K=1.0 for sudden expansion

He K

2 g where K=0.2 for a well-designed transition

For more detailed analysis (use tables):

V2

H K

2g

V2

H ext Ke

2 g

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 45 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 46 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 47 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 48 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Manhole losses can comprise a significant percentage of the overall losses in a

storm sewer system.

V2

Manhole Losses (straight-through with no pipe size change): H m 0.05

2g

V2

Manhole Losses (terminal manholes): Hm

2g

V2

Manhole Losses (junction manholes): Hm K

2g

Values of K for various types of manhole configurations can be found in the

succeeding figures.

H b Kb Kb 0.25

2g 90

for curved sewer segments where the angle of deflection <40o

For greater angle of deflection and for bends in manholes, the loss

coefficient can be obtained from the following figure.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 49 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Sewer bend loss

Urban Storm Drainage

coefficient (Sangster et

Hydraulic

al., 1958) Analysis of Designs

Manhole junction type

Urban Storm Drainage

and nomenclature.

Hydraulic et

(Sangster Analysis of Designs

al., 1958)

Rectangular manhole

Urban Storm Drainage

with in-line opposed

Hydraulic

lateral Analysis

pipes eachofatDesigns

900 to outfall (with or

without grate flow)

(Sangster et al., 1958)

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Rectangular manhole

with offset opposed

lateral pipes each at

900 to outfall (with or

without grate flow)

(Sangster

ME33 et al., 1958)

: Fluid Flow 53 Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Manhole at 90o deflection or on

Urban Storm Drainage

through pipeline at junction of

Hydraulic

90 o Analysis

lateral of Designs

pipeline (lateral

coefficient) (Sangster et al.,

1958)

Manhole on through pipeline at

Urban Storm Drainage

junction of a 90o lateral pipeline (in-

Hydraulic

line Analysis of(Sangster

pipe coefficient) Designs et al.,

1958)

Manhole on through

Urban Storm Drainage

pipeline at junction of a

Hydraulic

90 o lateral Analysis

pipeline of Designs

(for

conditions outside the

range of prior figures)

(Sangster et al., 1958)

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Mays 15.2.4: The hypothetical storm sewer

layout shown includes an existing portion

and an extension of the existing system. The

objective of this example is to analyze the

hydraulics of manhole number 4 (MH-4).

• Top of manhole elevation: 476 ft

• Bottom of manhole elev.: 470.15 ft

• Manhole diameter: 48.0 ft

• Lateral flow, QL: 25 cfs

• Upstream in-line flow, QU: 46 cfs

• Outfall flow, QO: 71 cfs

• Diameter of lateral line, DL: 30.0 in

• Diameter of US in-line, DU: 42 in

• Diameter of outfall line, DO: 48 in

• Elevation of outfall pipe pressure line

at MH-4: 475.08 ft

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 57 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Solution:

1. The outfall pressure line elevation at the manhole is given at 475.08 ft.

2. The velocity head at the outfall is:

2 2

Vo 2 1 Q 1 71

0.50 ft (Note:D=48 in = 4 ft)

2g 2g A 2 g 42 / 4

3. Compute the ratios:

Qu 46 D 42 D 30

0.65, u 0.88, L 0.63

Qo 71 Do 48 Do 48

4. Compute B/Do = 48/48 = 1.0 (where B is the manhole diameter)

5. Consider the lateral pipe: Qu Do 1

x 0.65 x 0.74

o u

Q D 0.88

6. Using the figure, KL* = 0.95 for DL/Do = 0.63 and B/Do = 1.0. For a round-

edged manhole KL* = KL*-0.2 = 0.95-0.20 = 0.75, where 0.2 is obtained

from the table of reductions for KL* for manholes with a rounded entrance.

When Vo2/2g <1.0 it is usually not economical to use a rounded entrance

from the manhole to the outlet pipe; therefore keep KL* = 0.95 for a

square-edged entrance.

7. Determine ML using (Qu/Qo) x (Du/Do) = 0.74; ML = 0.61 from the figure.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 58 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Analysis of Designs

Solution:

8. KL = ML x KL* = 0.61 x 0.95 = 0.58 (for square-edged entrance)

9. Lateral pipe pressure change = KL(Vo2/2g) = 0.58 x 0.50 = 0.29 ft

10. Lateral pipe pressure = 475. 08 + 0.29 = 475.37 ft

12. Because the velocity head is less than 1.0 ft/s, a rounded entrance to the

outfall pipe will not be appropriate and a square-edged entrance will be

used.

13. From the figure, Mu= 0.45.

14. Ku = Mu x Ku* = 0.45 x 1.86 = 0.84.

15. Hu = Ku x Vo2/2g = 0.84 x 0.50 = 0.42 ft.

16. The in-line upstream pressure elevation is 475.08 + 0.42 = 475.50, which

is also the water surface elevation.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 59 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Hydraulic Routing for Design

The combined hydrographs for all upstream connecting pipes plus the hydrograph

for the surface runoff represents the design inflow hydrograph to the next

(adjacent) downstream sewer pipe.

Hydrograph time lag method. The inflow hydrograph of a sewer is shifted without

distortion by the sewer flow time tf to produce the sewer outflow hydrograph.

The outflow hydrographs of the upstream sewers at a manhole are added, at the

corresponding times, to the direct manhole inflow hydrograph to produce the inflow

hydrograph for the downstream sewer in accordance with the continuity

relationship.

ds 4Q p

ij j o dt

Q Q Q t f

L

V

V

D2

The routing of the sewer flow is done by shifting the inflow hydrograph by tf and no

consideration is given to the unsteady and non-uniform nature of the sewer flow.

Shifting of hydrographs approximately accounts for the sewer flow translation time

but offers no wave attenuation.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 60 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Storm sewer outfall is the point where collected storm water is discharged

from the system to the receiving body of water. It is where the most soil

erosion damage can occur.

One of the first considerations in outfall design is the outfall structure.

A storm sewer pipe can simply emerge from the ground and terminate with

no structure, or a headwall can be constructed at the discharge point.

The purpose of a headwall or other outfall structure is to protect the soil

around the discharge pipe from erosion and to keep the slope in place.

The outfall structure actually acts as a small retaining wall.

Storm sewer outfalls are configured in one of three ways:

2. Channel connecting outfall with stream.

3. Outfall discharging onto stream overbank.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 61 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Discharge exiting from the outfall is in concentrated form and therefore

potentially damaging to unprotected ground.

Excessive velocity can damage the ground by dislodging soil particles and

washing them away.

Several methods are available for the control of erosion at a storm sewer

outfall including reduction of discharge velocity and covering the ground

with an erosion resistant lining

1. Reduce discharge velocity. Accomplished simply by reducing the slope

of the last pipe segment before outfall.

2. Energy dissipator. For very high velocity, specially designed obstruction

blocks can be placed at the outlet to create a head loss and therefore

reduction of velocity.

3. Stilling basin. A depression in the ground surface can be provided at

the outlet to absorb excessive energy of the discharge.

4. Riprap. This is a lining of heavy rocks covering the vulnerable ground

to protect the ground surface and slow the discharging velocity at the

same time.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 64 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

protect the surface and to anchor a vegetative cover as it grows.

6. Sod. Application of sod strips to the vulnerable ground to provide a

grass lining without the disadvantage of growing grass from seed.

7. Gabions. Rectangular wire mesh baskets filled with rocks and placed

on the ground as a protective lining similar to riprap.

well as culvert outlets, especially in areas where suitable rock materials are

readily available.

A lining of the ground at a pipe outlet is generally referred to as apron.

Design of riprap outfall protection includes many factors in which the most

basic (1) type of stone, (2) size of stone, (3) thickness of stone lining, (4)

length of apron, and (5) width of apron.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 65 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

1. Type of stone. The stones used for riprap should be hard, durable and

angular. Angularity, which is a feature of crushed stone from quarry,

helps keep stones locked together when subjected to the force of

moving water.

2. Size of stone. The stones should be well-graded in a range of sizes

referred to as gradation.

Size is defined as the median diameter, d50, which is the diameter of

stones of which 50% are finer by weight.

43

0.02 Q

d 50 (English Units)

TW Do

where d50 = median stone size, ft

Q= design discharge, cfs

Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft

TW = tailwater depth, ft.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 68 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

43 (SI Units)

0.044 Q

d 50

TW Do

where d50 = median stone size, m

Q= design discharge, m3/s

Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, m

TW = tailwater depth, m

the median stone size if no filter fabric liner between the stones and the

ground is used.

If a filter fabric liner is used, the thickness should be twice the median

stone size.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 69 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

4. Length of apron. The length, La of the apron is computed using one of

the following formulas:

i) If the design tailwater depth, TW is greater than or equal to 0.5Do,

then:

3Q

La 3 2 (English Units)

Do

where La = apron length, ft

Q= design discharge, cfs

Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft

5.4Q

La 3 2 (SI Units)

Do

where La = apron length, m

Q= design discharge, m3/s

Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, m

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 70 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

ii) If design TW is less than or equal to 0.5Do, then:

1.8Q

La 3 2 7 Do (English Units)

Do

Q= design discharge, cfs

Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft

3.26Q

La 32

7 Do (SI Units)

Do

where La = apron length, m

Q= design discharge, m3/s

Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, m

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 71 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

width is dictated by the width of the channel.

Riprap should line the bottom of the channel and part of the side slopes.

The lining should extend 1 ft (0.3m) above the design tailwater depth.

The extra 1 ft height is called freeboard and is employed as a safety

measure.

i) If the design tailwater depth, TW is greater than or equal

to 0.5Do, then:

where W = apron width, ft (m)

W 3Do 0.4La Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft (m)

La = apron length, ft (m)

ii) If the design TW is less than 0.5Do, then:

where W = apron width, ft (m)

W 3Do La Do = maximum pipe or culvert width, ft (m)

La = apron length, ft (m)

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 72 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Urban Storm Drainage

Storm Sewer Outfalls

Urban Storm Drainage

Sewer Construction and Maintenance

Maintenance of Line and Grade

The line and grade of each sewer should be

carefully established and maintained so that

self-cleansing velocities will be obtained.

b) Measure from the offset line to lay out

the trench on the ground

c) When the trench has been brought close

to its final grade, batter boards are

placed across at intervals of 10 to 15 m

d) The centerline of the sewer is

established on the batter boards

e) Nail an upright fastener so that one edge

is on the centerline

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 75 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Sewer Construction and Maintenance

The elevation of each cleat is

established and a mark is made.

Nail is driven into each fastener at

the grade mark and a string is run

from nail to nail

plumb bob from the string and grade

is checked.

Modern technique uses a laser

mounted at one manhole and

directed toward the next.

A target is placed over the end of each section and the line and grade are

adjusted until the beam is in the center of the target.

Accuracy of line and grade can be held to within 0.01 percent over a distance up

to 300 m.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 76 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Excavation Techniques

Specialized equipment for excavating trenches

is available which employs continuous chain

drives.

Trenches can also be excavated with

standard construction equipment.

hand or machinery with minor

difficulty.

Solid rock which includes solid

rock in its original bed is

Hand excavation is removable by blasting.

also required in the

The trench should be excavated a

vicinity of other

minimum of 200 mm below the

subsurface utilities.

final grade.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 77 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Sheeting and bracing

Trenches more than 1.5 m deep and

2.5 m in width should be held by

shoring or bracing or sloped to the

angle of repose of the soil.

Sheeting includes the support

materials in contact with the walls of

the excavation.

Bracing refers to the crosspieces

extending from one side to the other.

Rangers are structural members

which transfer the load from sheeting

to braces.

Stay Bracing consists of vertical boards placed against opposite walls of trench

and supported by two braces..

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 78 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Sheeting and bracing

Box Sheeting employs horizontal Vertical Sheeting is the strongest

sheeting and vertical rangers and is and most elaborate method

best suited to unconsolidated soils. employed in trench construction and

is used in soft soils and in those

where groundwater may be

encountered.

below the groundwater table, sheet

piling may be used instead of planks.

Skeleton or Open Sheeting consists

of sheeting planks placed only at the

ends and midpoints of the rangers.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 79 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Dewatering of Excavations

Quick conditions in the

trench can be prevented

by lowering the

groundwater table with

well points.

When water is

encountered

unexpectedly, the trench

bottom may be stabilized

temporarily with gravel,

rock, or rubble.

fluidization, it may be removed by letting

it run along the trench bottom to a sump,

from which it is pumped.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 80 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Pipe Laying and Jointing

Before the pipe is lowered into the

trench, the grade of the bedding

material should be checked with

levels.

The pipe sections are placed on line

and grade in the bottom of the

dewatered trench and are pressed

together.

lubricated according to

manufacturer’s instructions before

the sections are joined.

Wye or tee sections which have been provided in the sewer for future

household connections should be plugged and mortared shut.

The trench should be filled as soon as the pipe has been placed and the

installation has been inspected.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 81 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Maintenance of Sewers

Maintenance of sewer systems

depends not only on proper design

and construction but with the

availability of a competent workforce.

specialized equipment for clearing

plugged or partially plugged lines.

roots which enter through small

leaks or by deposits of grease.

cutter.

Grease is the most common cause of blockage in household sewers. Sand

and grit may be removed by buckets or scoops pulled through by a cable and

winch

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 82 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Urban Storm Drainage

Sewer repairs and Connections

as possible by inspection and rodding from manholes.

out of the line while the flow is diverted by pumping from

manhole to manhole.

and which are permitting excessive infiltration may be

repaired in place by slip lining from manhole to manhole

with plastic pipe made specifically for this purpose.

must be remade, but avoids excavation of the entire

length of the sewer.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 83 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Highway Drainage

General

Longitudinal drainage design flows are

best calculated using Izzard’s method for

the transverse flow across the pavement.

w r 2 1

1/2

iL

q L

3.6 x106 r

Numerical simulation for calculation of

design flows for cross-drainage structures.

Slope protection necessary for cuts and

shoulders.

Slopes of cuts may be protected by an

intercepting dike or ditch.

Roadside ditches are with a V shape.

Bare earth withstand velocities <1.2 m/s.

Lining, drop structures and drop inlets for

excessive velocity prevention.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 84 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Highway Drainage

Cross Drainage: Culverts

Culverts are hydraulically short

closed conduits that convey

streamflow through a road

embankment or some other type

of flow obstruction.

Distinction between culverts and

bridges is mainly on the basis of

size and hydraulic viewpoint.

Complicated flow characteristics.

Numerous cross-sectional

shapes and material type.

Essential features are, the

barrel, the headwalls and

wingwalls, and endwalls.

Various types of inlets.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 85 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Highway Drainage

Cross Drainage: Culverts

Culvert barrel should follow

line and grade of natural

channel.

Outlet can be raised

above natural channel

bottom.

Inlet elevation can be

raised by use of sidehill

location.

Economic practice to

place culvert axis normal to

highway centerline.

But hydraulically best that

culvert alignment conform

to the natural stream

alignment.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 86 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Highway Drainage

Culvert inlets and outlets

Primarily for erosion control

and improvement of culvert

hydraulic characteristics.

(a) axis of stream coincides with

culvert axis

(b) abrupt change in flow

direction is necessary.

(c) (d) where flows are large

Warping of wingwall into smooth

transition is uneconomical.

Flaring of outlet wingwalls is

helpful. For supercritical flows:

1

tan

2NF

For high flows, stilling basins,

debris barriers need be

provided.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 87 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet Control

Culverts are designed to: (1) limit

excessive headwater elevation; (2)

yc y yc yn

prevent scour at the outlet.

Culverts with inlet control have

high-velocity shallow flow that is

supercritical. y yc

hj

Normal depth in the culvert is less

than the barrel height.

The entrance will not admit water

typical for design

fast enough to fill the barrel.

yc y yc yn

The inlet functions like an orifice.

Q Cd A 2 gh

1/2

hj

necessary for determining the

contraction coefficient.

Herrera, Eugene C. Chapter 8:water

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 88 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet Control

Flaring the culvert entrance will

increase capacity.

Experiments have shown best

results for flaring the entrance of

a box culvert to about double the

barrel area.

The entrance of circular culverts

should be rounded on a radius of

about 0.15D.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 89 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet Control

Headwater cannot submerge

the inlet: (1) critical depth in

the barrel controls the

headwater elevation; (2)

tailwater elevation is the

control.

Headwater elevation can be

computed from the energy

equation with an allowance for

entrance loss.

he K hv 2 hv1

K (0.1) smooth, (0.5) abrupt

The water surface will impinge

on the headwall when the

headwater depth is 1.2D if yc

is 0.8D or more.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 90 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Outlet Control

Culverts with outlet control have lower-

velocity, deeper flow that is subcritical.

Tailwater depths are either critical or higher.

The headwater elevation required to

discharge the design flow is determined by

the head loss H in the culvert.

The normal depth for the design flow is

greater than the culvert height D and the

inlet is submerged.

The total headloss is the sum of an

entrance loss he, friction loss in the barrel hf,

and the velocity head hv.

y yc yc

V 2 n 2V 2 L V 2

hl Ke

2 g R 4/3

2g

Ke 0.5 (square edge), 0.05 (rounded) y yc

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 91 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Drop Inlet Culverts

Drop inlet culvert for: (1) little

headroom at the fill; (2) ponding is

permissible to reduce peak flow.

Barrel is on a flat slope and flowing full

at design Q.

The barrel size may be computed using

the equation for headloss, assuming Ke

= 0 and including a bend loss KbV2/2g. Kb

ranges from 1.5 to 0.45.

Weir flow condition at the inlet is most

desirable.

Special case of outlet control.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 92 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet-Control Design Equations

A culvert under inlet-control conditions performs as an orifice when the inlet is

submerged and as a weir when it is unsubmerged.

Submerged:

Z 0.5So general

2

HW Q Q

C AD 0.5 Y Z for 4.0

D AD Z 0.7 So mitered inlets

0.5

Unsubmerged: Form 1

M

HW H c Q Q

D D K AD 0.5 Z for 3.5

AD

0.5

Unsubmerged: Form 2

M

HW Q

D K AD 0.5 Z

the right-hand side of these equations.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 93 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet-Control Design Equations

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 94 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet-Control Design Equations

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 95 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Headwater depth

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

for concrete pipe

Inlet-Control

culverts withDesign

inlet Equations

control (Normann

et al., 1985).

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 96 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Headwater depth

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

for CM pipe

Inlet-Control

culverts withDesign

inlet Equations

control (Normann

et al., 1985).

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 97 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Outlet-Control Design Equations

A culvert under outlet-control conditions has either subcritical flow or full-culvert

flow, so that outlet-control flow conditions can be calculated using an energy

balance.

29n 2 L V 2 20n 2 L V 2

Full culvert flow: H Ho H e H f H 1 Ke 1.33 H 1 Ke 1.33

R 2 g R 2 g

Vu 2 Vd 2

HWo TW H f He Ho

2g 2g

HWo TW H f H e Ho For full flow TW D

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 98 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet-Control Design Equations

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow 99 Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet-Control Design Equations

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

100

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Outlet-Control Design Equations

For partly full flow, the headloss should be computed from backwater analysis.

H HWo ho ho max TW , D d c / 2

depth from backwater computations. Then H for full-flow conditions is obtained.

HW H ho LSo

Making use of the value of H from nomographs, Hwo can be computed for any

given Manning’s n value.

2

n

L1 L 1

n

The larger of the headwater elevation, obtained from the inlet- and outlet-control

calculation, is adopted as the design headwater elevation.

Under outlet-control conditions a larger barrel is necessary.

In the case of very large culverts, the use of multiple culverts may be required.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

101

Head for concrete

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

pipe culverts

Inlet-Control

flowing full, Design

n = Equations

0.012 (Normann

et al., 1985).

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

102

Head for standard

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

CM pipe culverts

Inlet-Control

flowing full, Design

n = Equations

0.024 (Normann

et al., 1985).

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

103

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Inlet-Control Design Equations

(a) inlet and (b)

outlet control

(Normann et al.,

1985).

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

104

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Sample Problem

Analyze a 6 ft x 5 ft square-edged reinforced concrete box culvert for a roadway

crossing to pass a 50-year discharge of 300 ft3/s with the following site

conditions:

Shoulder elevation: 113.5 ft

Stream bed elevation at culvert face: 100 ft

Natural stream slope: 2 %

Tailwater depth: 4.0 ft

Approximate culvert length: 250 ft

Maximum allowable upstream water surface (head) elevation: 110 ft

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

105

Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Sample Problem

1) The tailwater depth is specified as 4.0 ft, which is obtained from backwater

computation or from normal depth calculations.

2) The critical depth is computed

3) D d c / 2 is computed

4) ho max TW , D d c / 2

5) Use table to obtain entrance loss coefficient. 29n 2 L V 2

6) Determine headlosses through the culvert barrel H 1 Ke 1.33

R 2 g

Because TW<DD there is only partly full flow at the exit

7) Determine the required outlet control head water elevation (ELho),ELho ELo Ho ho

ELo is the invert elevation at the outlet. ELo ELi So L

8) Consider inlet control and determine headwater elevation. The design

headwater elevation is now computed as ELhi HWi ELi

9) Compare between inlet and outlet control headwater elevations. Select the

larger value.

Flow incontrol

Pipes

ME33 : Fluid Flow Excess

Water Resources Engineering II

106

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