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# CL 253 Tutorial Set 2, Sept 2009

1. Express the volume expansivity and the isothermal compressibility as functions of density ρ and
its partial derivatives. For water at 323K (50oC) and 1 bar, κ = 44.18x10-6 bar-1. To what
pressure must water be compressed at 323 K (50oC) to change its density by 1%? Assume that κ
is independent of P. [226.2 bar]
c
2. For liquid water the isothermal compressibility is given by: κ =
V ( P + b)
where c, b are functions of temperature only. If 1 kg of water is compressed isothermally and
reversibly from 1 to 500 bars at 333K, how much work is required? At 333K, b = 2700 bar and
c = 0.125 cm-3 g-1. [0.516 J/gm]
3. Calculate the reversible work done in compressing 0.0283 m3 of mercury at a constant
temperature of 0oC from 1 atm to 3000 atm. The isothermal compressibility of mercury at 0oC
is: κ = 3.9 x 10-6 -0.1 x 10-9 P; where P is in atm and κ is in atm-1. [0.52J]
4. A substance for which κ is a constant undergoes an isothermal, mechanically reversible process
from initial state (P1, V1) to final state (P2, V2), where V is molar volume. (a) Starting with the
definition of κ, show that the path of the process is described by: V = A(T) exp(-κP); (b)
Determine an exact expression which gives the isothermal work done on 1 mol of this constant -
κ substance. [Ans: PV 1 1 − PV2 2 + (V1 − V2 ) / κ ]
5. A rigid, nonconducting tank with a volume of 4 m3 is divided into two unequal parts by a thin
membrane. One side of the membrane, representing 1/3 of the tank, contains nitrogen gas at 6
bar and 100oC, and the other side, representing 2/3 of the tank, is evacuated. The membrane
ruptures and the gas fills the tank. (a) What is the final, temperature of the gas? (b) How much
work is done? Is the process reversible? [100oC; 878.9 kJ, No]
6. An ideal gas flows through a horizontal tube at steady state. No heat is added and no shaft work
is done. The cross-sectional area of the tube changes with length, and this causes the velocity to
change. Derive an equation relating the temperature to the velocity of the gas. If nitrogen at
150oC flows past one section of the tube at a velocity of 2.5 m s-1, what is its temperature at
another section where its velocity is 50 m s-1? Let CP = (7/2)R.[148.80C]
7. For methyl chloride at 373.15 K (100oC) the second and third virial coefficient s are: B = -242.5
cm3 mol-1; C = 25 200 cm6 mol-2. Calculate the work of mechanically reversible, isothermal
compression of 1 mol of methyl chloride 1 bar to 55 bars at 100oC. Base calculations on the
B C
following forms of the virial equation: (a) Z = 1 + + (b) Z = 1+B/ P + C/ P2; Why don’t
V V2
both equations give exactly the same result? [12.62 kJ/mol, 12.596 kJ/mol]
8. Calculate V for sulfur hexafluoride at 75oC and 15 bar by the following equations: (a) The
truncated virial equation with the following experimental values of virial coefficients: B = -194
cn3 mol-1; C = 15300 cm6 mol-2 (b) The truncated virial equation, with a value of B from the
generalized Pitzer correlation. (c) The Redlich/Kwong equation (d) The Soave/Redlich/Kwong
equation (e) The Peng/Robinson equation. [1722, 1734, 1714, 1727, 1701cm3/mol]; For sulfur
hexafluoride, Tc = 318.7 K, Pc = 37.6 bar, Vc = 198 cm3 mol-1, and ω = 0.286.
9. Use the Soave/Redlich/Kwong equation to calculate the molar volumes of saturated liquid and
saturated vapor for propane at 40C for which the vapour pressure is 13.71 bar. [104.7, 1480.7
cm3/mol]
10. A 30-m3 tank contains 14 m3 of liquid n-butane in equilibrium with its vapor at 298.15 K (25oC).
Estimate the mass of n-butane vapor in the tank. The vapor pressure of n-butane at the given
temperature is 2.43 bar. [98.2 kg]
11. A 0.35-m3 vessel at 25oC and 2200kpa holds ethane; what pressure develops if it is heated to
220oC? [42.7 bar]
12. To what pressure does one fill a 0.15-m3 vessel at 25oC for storing 40 kg of ethylene in it? [79.7
bar]
13. Liquid water at 25oC and 1 bar fills a rigid vessel. If heat is added to the water until its
temperature reaches 50oC, what pressure is developed? The average value of β between 25 and
50oC is 36.2 x 10-5 K-1. The value of κ at 1 bar and 50oC is 4.42 x 10-5 bar-1, and may be
assumed independent of P. The specific volume of liquid water at 25oC is 1.0030 cm3 g-1. (206
bar)
1
14. A two-phase system of liquid water and water vapor in equilibrium at 8000 kPa consists of equal
volumes of liquid and vapor. If the total volume is 0.15 m3, what is the total enthalpy Ht and
what is the total entropy St? [80173.5kJ, 192.15 kJ/K]
15. Steam at 2100 kPa and 260oC expands at constant enthalpy (as in a throttling process) to 125
kPa. What is the temperature of the steam in its final state and what is its entropy change? What
would be the final temperature and entropy change for an ideal gas? [225oC 1.268J/gmK,
1.302J/gmK]
16. Superheated steam at 500 kPa and 300oC expands isentropically to 50 kPa. What is its final
enthalpy? [2599.6J/gm]
17. A rigid vessel contains 0.014 m3 of saturated-vapor steam in equilibrium with 0.021 m3 of
saturated-liquid water at 100oC. Heat is transferred to the vessel until one phase just disappears,
and a single phase remains. Which phase (liquid or vapor) remains, and what are its temperature
and pressure? How much heat is transferred in the process? [Satd. Liq at 350oC, 16500.1kPa,
1221.8J/gm]
18. Steam undergoes a change from an initial state of 450oC and 3000 kPa to a final state of 140oC
and 235 kPa. Determine ∆H and ∆S:
(a) From steam-table data. [– 600.1 J/gm, 0.115J/gmK]
(b) By equations for an ideal gas [– 620.6 J/gm, 0.0605J/gmK
(c) By appropriate generalized correlations. [– 594 J/gm, 0.078J/gmK]
19. A steam turbine, operating reversibly and adiabatically, takes in superheated steam at 2000 kPa
and discharges at 50 kPa. (a) What is the minimum superheat required so that the exhaust
contains no moisture? (b) What is the power output of the turbine if it operates under these
conditions and the steam rate is 5 kg s-1? [347K, 4760W]
20. Propane gas at 1 bar and 35oC is compressed to a final state of 135 bar and 195oC. Estimate the
molar volume of the propane in the final state and the enthalpy and entropy changes for the
process. In its initial state, propane may be assumed an ideal gas. [184.2cm3/mol, 6734.9J/mol,
– 15.9J/molK]
21. Propane gas at 22 bar and 423 K is throttled in a steady-state flow process to 1 bar. Estimate the
entropy change of the propane caused by this process. In its final state, propane may be assumed
to be an ideal gas. [24.7 J/molK]
22. Estimate the final temperature and the work required when 1 mol of n-butane is compressed
isentropically in a steady-flow process from 1 bar and 50oC to 7.8 bar. [5678J/mol]
23. A 2-m3 tank initially contains a mixture of saturated vapor steam and saturated liquid water at
3000 kPa. Of the total mass, 10% is vapor. Saturated-liquid water is bled from the tank through
a valve until the total mass in the tank is 40% of the initial total mass. If during the process the
temperature of the contents of the tank is kept constant, how much heat is transferred? [784 kJ]
24. What is the temperature of CO2 at 22.17 MPa and specific volume of 3.11 x 10-3 m3/kg? [456K]
25. Derive an expression for enthalpy change of a gas during an isothermal process assuming that:
(i) P(v-b) = RT; [b(P2 – P1)]
⎛ a ⎞
(ii) ⎜P+ ⎟ (V − b) = RT; [ (3a)( 1 − 1 ) + RTb( 1 − 1 ) ]
⎝ TV 2 ⎠ V1 V2 V2 − b V1 − b
(iii) Z = 1+APr / Tr; [ ∆H ig + ARTC ( Pr 2 − Pr1 ) ]
26. A pressure cooker (volume = 0.004 m3) regulate internal pressure to 199 kPa. A medium heat
setting is used until the internal pressure reaches 199 kPa; the heat transfer rate is then reduced
to limit the loss of water through the pressure regulator. Suppose that when the operating
pressure is reached the cooker contains 0.25 kg of water, determine the maximum allowable
heat-transfer rate to the cooker, if the final mass of liquid in the cooker after 20 min is half the
original mass of liquid. [222W]