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2 Aufrufe5 SeitenSaturation and cross-saturation in synchronous reluctance machines

Feb 08, 2019

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Saturation and cross-saturation in synchronous reluctance machines

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2 Aufrufe

Saturation and cross-saturation in synchronous reluctance machines

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in synchronous reluctance machines

Ioana Nasui-Zah, Andreea-Mdlina Nicorici, Claudia Maris

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca

Cluj-Napoca, Romania

ioana.nasui@mae.utcluj.ro

Abstract—The present paper gives an overview on the is not a comparison of the performances of the machines under

influence of the saturation and cross-saturation on the machine study.

parameters and on the evaluation of SynRM drives performances.

A SynRM with optimized flux-barriers shapes and a Permanent Section II presents several approaches in the modeling of SM

Magnet (PM) assisted SynRM will be considered for analysis. A for describing and analyzing the two phenomena, while Section

comprehensive analysis of the variation of d- and q-axis fluxes, as III is focused on the specific analysis of the two phenomena in

well as several modeling approaches are presented in order to the above mentioned machines.

evaluate the influence of saturation and cross-saturation on the

behavior of the two machines. II. MACHINE MODELLING

Considering d-q frame, saturation describes a phenomenon

Keywords—SynRM; PM assisted SynRM; saturation; cross- that is linked to the material propriety, and is very well described

saturation; cross-coupling; d- and q-axis inductances; by the B-H curve in the figure bellow. The direct (d-axis) current

Nomenclature influences the saturation along the d-axis flux path and as a

result, the d-axis synchronous inductance Ld is changed. The

d, q – d and q-axis components of the stator linkage flux torque same principle applies for the quadrature (q-axis) inductance Lq

id, iq - d and q-axis components of armature current [3].

Ld, Lq - d and q-axis inductance

Ldq, Lqd – mutual inductances While the concept of saturation is very clear, the subject of

SM – synchronous machine

cross-saturation, based on the papers published, was defined in

two different ways. As a hypothesis, all the papers agree that

IPMSM – interior permanent magnet synchronous machine

cross-saturation is a phenomenon derived from saturation. The

SynRM – synchronous reluctance machine problem appears when trying to mathematically define the two

PMSynRM - permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance phenomena.

machine

IPMSM – interior permanent magnet synchronous machine

MEC – magnetic equivalent circuit

FEA – finite element analysis

I. INTRODUCTION

It is well known that both torque and power factor, as well

as the dynamic response of salient Synchronous Machines (SM)

drives are directly related to the d- and q-axis inductances.

Moreover, the nonlinear behavior of the machine, including iron

losses, saturation and cross-saturation, increases the complexity

of its control and requests special attention in developing off-

and on-line models for SM performances evaluation.

Inductances (Ld and Lq) are one of the most important Fig. 1. Magnetization loop - BH curve [4].

parameters that decide the characteristics of a designed SM [1]. On one hand, there are papers that state the fact that cross-

They are very much dependent on axes saturation and cross- saturation is a mutual inductance and it is caused by the

saturation; this leads to the fact that flux versus current saturation of portions of magnetic circuit associated to one axis

characteristics of SM are not linear and saturation and cross caused by the current of the other axis [5],[6].

saturation phenomenon heavily affects the motor anisotropy [2].

ܮௗ ൌ ݂ሺ݅ௗ ሻ (1)

The present paper analyzes the impact of saturation and

cross-saturation on two different types of SM: a Synchronous ܮ ൌ ݂൫݅ ൯ (2)

Reluctance Machine (SynRM) and a Permanent Magnet assisted

Synchronous Reluctance Machine (PMSynRM). However, this ܮௗ ൌ ܮௗ ൌ ݂൫݅ௗ ǡ ݅ ൯ (3)

0347

On the other hand, other papers describe the phenomena There are two methods used to describe and analyze the

differently. The d axis can saturate the q axis and vice versa, so saturation and cross-saturation effects in an electrical machine.

each current has an action on the other axis inductance [7]. In In this paper two methods will be described: Finite Element

[7-9], the cross-saturation phenomena is considered to be Analysis (FEA) and Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC)

included in d axis and q axis fluxes/inductances: Method.

ߖௗ ൌ ݂൫݅ௗ ǡ ݅ ൯Ǣ ܮௗ ൌ ݂൫݅ௗ ǡ ݅ ൯ (4) A. Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC)

This method to calculate the machine’s inductances is using

ߖ ൌ ݂൫݅ௗ ǡ ݅ ൯Ǣ ܮ ൌ ݂൫݅ௗ ǡ ݅ ൯ (5) a model based on the modified equivalent circuit (MEC) and

space vector theory [17]. The results of this method were

Thus, the d and q axes fluxes/inductances depend on both id

compared to results from FEM and experiment and they are

and iq at the same time and they also share the same magnetic

comparable.

circuit [9].

This approach was introduced after 1950s by several

The importance of including the saturation and cross-

scientists like Slemon, Fiennes and Ostovic. In the beginning, it

saturation effect is emphasized and even demonstrated in many

was only used as the analysis of an electrical machine in

scientific papers [1],[3],[10],[11]. This has a direct impact on the

saturated state [18]. Ostovic used MEC in the study of electrical

results of the performance analysis and parameter’s

machines transient and steady state regimes. Basically, it is used

identification and for the development of the advanced control

to characterize an electrical machine as lumped magnetic

models of any machine [1],[12], especially in sensorless control

parameters (a resistive electrical network) and not as

[3].

complicated magnetic circuit.

In [13] are highlighted the errors that are present if the cross-

The computation of the electromagnetic torque of an

saturation is not taken into consideration. It was also showed that

IPMSM based on the equivalent magnetic circuit with the

in standard control schemes, the problem of saturation and cross-

consideration of the d- and q- axes cross-saturation effect on the

saturation can get to tenths of degrees of error in conventional

machine’s characteristics is studied in [19]. The method is useful

sensorless position. The same problem of the accuracy of rotor

to estimate the electromagnetic torque of a motor with an

position estimation it is detailed in [14].

important reluctance component and it is applied to evaluate the

Further on, having enunciated the saturation and cross- variation of the electromagnetic torque versus the changed

saturation as a phenomenon and the importance of taking it into slanted air-gap shape. A new computation method of the

account, the second section addresses the methods, models and inductances is developed, based on the variation of the magnetic

techniques fit to describe the saturation and cross-saturation saturation at different load conditions in order to improve the

effect and to compute the parameters (i.e. the d- and q-axis estimation of the IPMSM performances. The flux linkage look-

inductances). In the third section, two study cases, one for each up tables are used to compute the cross-coupled inductances for

machine under study, are performed. Finite Element (FE) both direct and quadrature axes.

multiphysics analysis based software package (JMAG Designer)

Considering the fact that MEC has fewer elements (30-100)

and Matlab/Simulink are used for parameters computation and

than FEA (2000-10,000), it is obvious that the computation time

the evaluation of saturation and cross-saturation influence on the

is lower, but also with a lower accuracy, so it can be said that

drives performances. The paper will present, in the final section

MEC it is a “reduced order of FEA” [20]. In this decade, when

the conclusions and future work.

computational speed grows day by day it is uncertain if this

On a design stage, the magnetic model can be derived from method is worth used.

analytical calculations and finite element simulations [8].

B. Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

The classical d-q model of the machine that does not take Due to simplicity and good accuracy, many papers use the

into account saturation and cross-saturation, is useful in cases FEA, using dedicated software packages, like Maxwell, JMAG

where the inductance variation is not that significant, for Designer, Flux 2D/3D, etc. The magnetostatic analysis is done

example in cases when the machine’s operation is below the at different rotor positions and for different id and iq currents

point where saturation becomes noticeable [7]. Equations (6) [21], [22].

and (7) define the flux in an electrical machine where saturation

and cross-saturation is not taken into account. ݀Ȳௗ ȟȲௗ

ܮௗ ൌ ห݅ ൌ ܿ ݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊؆ ห݅ ൌ ܿݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊ (8)

݀݅ௗ ȟ݅ௗ

Ȳௗ ൌ ܮௗ ݅ௗ , where ܮௗ ൌ ܿݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊ (6)

ܮ ൌ ȁ݅ௗ ൌ ܿ ݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊؆ ȁ݅ ൌ ܿݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊ (9)

݀݅ ȟ݅ ௗ

However, in traction applications, saturation has a huge

impact on the torque ripple at low speeds or in the field The fluxes variation Ȳௗ ൌ ݂ሺ݅ௗ ሻ for different rotor

weakening region using control schemes [7][15][16]. Advanced positions and different q-axis current values and Ȳ ൌ ݂ሺ݅ ሻ for

d-q models are presented for both machines, and the

performances will be evaluated in a comparative manner for the different rotor positions and different d-axis current values, of

machines with and without taking into account the two both machines are determined from the FEA. Later on, direct

phenomena. and quadrature inductances, Ld and Lq respectively, were

0348

computed as derivative of flux linkage with respect to current id Fig. 3b presents q axis flux linkage which increases almost

and iq. The expected results will undoubtedly demonstrate the linearly with ୯ current. This is caused by the presence of flux

influence of the saturation and cross-saturation effects on flux barriers in the rotor which are penetrated by magnetic field. The

and inductances values and will also highlight the errors that are

presence of the air in the path of magnetic flux significantly

present if the cross-saturation is not taken into consideration.

increases the reluctance of q axis magnetic circuit. In this case,

III. RESULTS when ୢ component of phase current is present, the q axis flux

Both of the studied machines are the synchronous type. linkage decreases similarly as in case of d axis flux linkage.

Considering the design, the studied SynRM has 4 flux barriers

and 5 ribs, while the PM assisted SynRM has only 3 flux barriers

and 3 ribs and each flux barrier is filled in with ferrite permanent

magnets.

Fig. 2. The topologies of the studied machines and the representation of D and

Q axis. (a)

Value

Parameter

SynRM PM - SynRM

Stator slots 27 36

Number of poles 4 6

Stator outer diameter [mm] 205 170

Rotor outer diameter [mm] 130 114

Stack length [mm] 145 110

Airgap [mm] 0.4 0.5

Rated voltage [V] 400 120

Nominal current [A] 155 57.4

Nominal speed [rpm] 4500 2000

Maximum speed [rpm] 12000 9000

Remanent flux density of ferrite

- 0.4

PM [T]

Number of phases 3 3

Winding resistance [] 0.017 0.0402

(b)

If the cross-saturation phenomenon is taken into account, the Fig. 3. d- and q-axis flux linkage as function of d- and q-axis currents.

d- and q-axis flux linkages can be written as:

Ψd = Ld id + Lqd iq Fig. 4a shows the impact of cross saturation on d axis flux

(10) linkage. If there was no cross saturation, the flux linkage in d

Ψq = Lq iq + Ldq id axis would depend on d axis current only and it would remain

with Ld, Lq, Lqd and Ldq dependent on both id and iq. In order to constant regardless the variations of q axis current. However,

calculate the inductances of the machines 2D FEA was increasing q axis current causes the flux linkage in d axis to

performed. drop. This phenomenon is stronger for low d axis current and

As it can be noticed in Fig. 3a, d axis flux linkage for SynRM lowers when the current in d axis increases. Similarly q axis

rises very quickly with ୢ current and eventually saturates. This flux drops when the current in d axis grows. Variations of q axis

is because the flux path in d axis of the rotor mostly consists of flux linkage are greater than those of d axis flux. This situation

iron flux paths. The magnetic field in d axis almost completely is presented in Fig. 4b.

avoids air flux barriers in the rotor. The presence of ୯

component generates a decrease of the flux linkage in d axis.

0349

If there was no cross saturation, the flux linkage in d axis these “flux barriers” are filled with permanent magnets. So, due

would depend on d axis current only and it would remain to the permanent magnet’s polarization and nonlinear magnetic

constant regardless the variations of q axis current. However, behavior, the symmetry with respect to the q-axis is lost and it

increasing q axis current causes the flux linkage in d axis to produces a negative flux linkage, just like in Fig. 5b. In this

drop. This phenomenon is stronger for low d axis current and case, when ୢ component of phase current is present, the q axis

lowers when the current in d axis increases. Similarly q axis flux linkage shows a slight decrease.

flux drops when the current in d axis grows. Variations of q axis

flux linkage are greater than those of d axis flux.

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

Iq= 90A

Iq=135A

Iq=180A

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Id [A]

(a)

(a)

0.05

0

Quadrature Flux linkage [Wb]

-0.05

-0.1

Id= 90A

Id=135A

Id=180A

-0.2

-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

(b) Iq [A]

Fig. 4. d- and q-axis flux linkage as function of q- and d-axis currents (b)

respectively. Fig. 5. d- and q-axis flux linkage as function of d- and q-axis currents.

machine can be observed in Figures 5 and 6. In Fig. 5a the Fig.6a shows the impact of cross saturation on d axis flux

PMSynRM’s flux linkage rises very quickly with the ୢ current linkage. This impact is similar to the one in the case of not

and eventually saturates, the reason being similar to the SynRM, having permanent magnets in the rotor. If there was no cross

because it mostly consists of iron flux paths. Unlike the SynRM, saturation, the flux linkage in d axis would depend on d axis

the presence of ୯ component doesn’t affect much the flux current only and it would remain constant regardless the

linkage in d axis and it can be said that the flux has almost the variations of q axis current.

same values and does not depend on ୯ .

However, increasing q axis current causes the flux linkage in

Fig. 5b presents q axis flux linkage with respect to ୯ current, d axis to drop. This phenomenon is stronger for low d axis

which varies differently than in the case of SynRM. While the current and lowers when the current in d axis increases.

SynRM is designed with flux barriers, in the case of PMSynRM

0350

Magn., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2014.

0.25

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0

[11] L. Chedot, and G. Friedrich, “A cross saturation model for interior

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Iq= 90A

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-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200

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motors and related impact on sensorless control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol.

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Fig. 6. d- and q-axis flux linkage as function of q- and d-axis currents

[14] Z. Q. Zhu, Y. Li, D. Howe, C. M. Bingham, and D. Stone, “Influence of

machine topology and cross-coupling magnetic saturation on rotor position

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phenomenon of nonlinear magnetic behavior can be observed.

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Synchronous Machines”, The 9th International Modelica Conference, Munich,

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The paper presented the effects of the saturation and cross- [16] J. Nerg, M. Rilla, V. Ruuskanen, J. Pyrhönen, and S. Ruotsalainen, “Direct-

saturation on the direct and quadrature fluxes in two SM: Driven Interior Magnet Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for a Full

SynRM and PMSynRM. Next step is to implement the Electric Sports car”, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electronics, vol. 61, pp. 4286-4294,

saturation and cross-saturation in the dynamic model of the two Aug. 2014.

machines and analyze the impact on the performances of the [17] G. Dajaku and D. Gerling, “A New Electromagnetic Model for PM

machines working under different control strategies. Synchronous Machines”, EPE 2007, Aalborg, pp. 1–7.

[18] H. W. Derbas, J. M. Williams, A. C. Koenig, and S. D. Pekarek, “A

ACKNOWLEDGMENT comparison of nodal- and mesh-based magnetic equivalent circuit models A

Comparison of Nodal- and Mesh-Based Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Models,”

This work was supported by the European Union in the IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 388–396, 2009.

project Horizon 2020 Twinning ESPESA grant number

[19] S. Lee, “Development and Analysis of Interior Permanent Magnet

692224/2015 and by the UEFISCDI in the project 10PTE/2016 Synchronous Motor with Field Excitation”, Structure Thesis, Dr. Diss., 2009.

SMC4SERVO.

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