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Ulrike Puderbach

Michael Giesa

Technical English
Mechanical Engineering

VERLAG EUROPA-LEHRMITTEL Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG


Düsselberger Straße 23 · 42781 Haan-Gruiten

Europa-Nr. 79756

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Autoren

Ulrike Puderbach Dipl. Sprachpäd.


Frau Puderbach liest Technisches Englisch an den Hochschulen FH Aachen
und FH Koblenz in den Fachbereichen Maschinenbau, Elektrotechnik und
Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik / Kraftfahrzeugsantriebstechnik.

Michael Giesa Metallbaumeister / Freier Konstrukteur / Geschäftsführer


Herr Giesa arbeitet als Geschäftsführer in einer Maschinenbaufirma.

1. Auflage 2012
Druck 5 4 3 2 1

Alle Drucke derselben Auflage sind parallel einsetzbar, da bis auf die Behebung von Druckfehlern untereinander
unverändert.

ISBN 978-3-8085-7975-6

Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Das Werk ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung außerhalb der gesetzlich
geregelten Fälle muss vom Verlag schriftlich genehmigt werden.

© 2012 by Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG, 42781 Haan-Gruiten
http://www.europa-lehrmittel.de
Umschlaggestaltung: Michael Maria Kappenstein, 60594 Frankfurt a. M.
Satz und Layout: tiff.any GmbH, 10999 Berlin
Druck: M. P. Media-Print Informationstechnologie GmbH, 33100 Paderborn

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Vorwort

„Technical English – Mechanical Engineering“ wendet sich an alle Lehrenden und Studierenden
des Fachbereiches Maschinenbau an den Universitäten und Fachhochschulen. Es eignet sich
sowohl für die Fremdsprachenausbildung im Rahmen der Module Technisches Englisch 1 und
Technisches Englisch 2, aber auch zum Selbststudium und für Schulungen in Unternehmen, in
denen technisches Fachvokabular vermittelt wird.
Der erste Teil des Buches befasst sich aufbauend auf dem in den allgemeinbildenden Schulen
vermittelten Englisch mit den Grundlagen aus dem Bereich Material, Materialeigenschaften und
Fertigungsverfahren, während im zweiten Teil aus einer Vielzahl von Themen diejenigen gewählt
werden können, die dem jeweiligen Schwerpunkt der Hochschule oder Universität, bzw. dem
beruflichen Umfeld entsprechen.
Durch die Vielzahl an Themen aus dem Bereich Maschinenbau ist das Buch auch für den Einsatz an
berufsbildenden Schulen, in der Techniker- und Meisterausbildung geeignet.
Fachbezogene Sachtexte schulen das Leseverständnis und mit den Aufgaben im Anschluss kann das
neu eingeführte Vokabular angewendet und vertieft werden. Gleichzeitig wird durch die Vielzahl an
verschiedenen Aufgaben jeder Lerntyp angesprochen, sodass der Lernerfolg zu einer weiteren
Motivation führt.
Die Lösungen, sowie Mustertexte zu den Schreibaufgaben ermöglichen auch ein eigenständiges
Nach- und Weiterarbeiten und die Vokabellisten am Ende jedes Moduls und die umfangreichen
Gesamtvokabellisten im Anhang (Englisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Englisch) dienen auch im Alltag als
nützliches Nachschlagewerk.
Nach einer Grammatikwiederholung im ersten Teil werden die einzelnen, für den Bereich des
technischen Englisch relevanten, Themen in den Modulen wieder aufgegriffen und vertieft.
Das farblich abgehobene Register an der Seite des Buches ermöglicht ein schnelles und problem-
loses Auffinden der einzelnen Module.
Wir wünschen den Lernenden und Lehrenden viel Freude und Erfolg bei der Aktivierung und
Erweiterung ihrer fachlichen Englischkenntnisse mit dem Buch und freuen uns über konstruktive
Kritik und Anregungen für weitere Auflagen, um die Qualität unseres Buches weiter zu verbessern.

Autoren und Verlag


Herbst 2012

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Module 1: Basic Technical Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


1.1 Tools in the Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 Common Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Exercises 1. The Content of a Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2. Working in a Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Common Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Module 2: Grammar Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1 Active vs. Passive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Adjective vs. Adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3 Subject / Object Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Reported Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Exercises 1. Active vs. Passive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2. Adjective vs. Adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3. Subject / Object Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4. Reported Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Module 3: Material Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1 Metals and their Molecular Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.2 Mechanisms of Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.3 Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.4 Thermoplastics, Thermosetting Plastics and Composite Materials . . . . 22
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2. Technical Terms and Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3. The Stress-Strain Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4. Grammar (Present Tenses). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.5 Hardness Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Module 4: Physical Forces and Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.1 Physical Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2 Mathematical Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2. Mathematical Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3. Work and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4. Past Tenses (Simple Past and Present Perfect) . . . . . . . . . 37
4.3 Albert Einstein – a Different Scientist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Module 5: Chipping Machining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.1 The Cutting Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.2 Sawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.3 Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.4 Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.5 Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.6 Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2. Parts of a Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3. Chipping Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4. Grammar (Active vs. Passive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.7 The Cooling in Chipping Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

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Module 6: Forming Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.1 Basic Principles of Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.2 Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.3 Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.4 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2. Forces in the Bending Process and Technical Terms . . . . . . 55
3. The Production of different Work Pieces . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4. Grammar (Adjective vs. Adverb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.5 Cutting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Module 7: The Turbofan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.1 The Airbus A380 Turbofan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.2 The Forces working on the Turbofan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2. Technical Terms, Parts of the Fan and Safety Tests . . . . . . . 63
3. The Working Principle of the Turbofan. . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4. Grammar (Mixed Tenses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.3 Further Uses of the Turbofan Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Module 8: Ship Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.1 Ship Propulsion Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.2 The Azimuth Thruster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.3 The Rudderpropeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8.4 The SCHOTTEL Pump-Jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.5 The Voith-Schneider-Propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.6 The Outboard Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.7 Alternative Propulsion Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2. Word building, Parts of the Rudderpropeller . . . . . . . . . 74
3. The Function of the Voith-Schneider-Propeller
and the Outboard Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4. Grammar (Active vs. Passive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.8 The History of the MEYER WERFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Module 9: Alternative Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
9.1 Hydroelectric Power Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
9.2 The Heat Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
9.3 Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9.4 Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2. Technical Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3. The Chemical Reactions in a Solar Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4. Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9.5 History and Different Types of Waterwheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Module 10: Car Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.1 The Combustion Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
10.2 The Hybrid Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
10.3 The Electric Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2. Parts of a Four-Stroke Engine and a Full Hybrid . . . . . . . . 99
3. The Internal Combustion and the Hybrid Engine . . . . . . . 100
4. Present and Past – Simple and Continuous . . . . . . . . . . 102
10.4 The Turbo Charger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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Module 11: Gearboxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
11.1 Gearboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
11.2 Dual Clutch Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
11.3 Continuously Variable Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
2. Defining Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3. The Functional Principle of the Dual Clutch Gear and
Continuously Variable Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4. If-Clauses (Type I, II and III) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
11.4 NuVinci Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
11.5 Vehicles using Hydraulic Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Module 12: Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
12.1 Electric Arc Welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
12.2 MAG / MIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
12.3 TIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
12.4 Submerged Arc Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2. Parts of a Welding Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3. Safety Precautions in a Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4. Adjective vs. Adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
12.5 Laser Beam Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Module 13: Helicopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
13.1 Why the Helicopter is so Special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
13.2 The Steering Mechanisms of a Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2. Parts of the Swash-Plate and a Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . 128
3. The Function of the Steering Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4. Grammar (Reported Speech) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
13.3 The History of the Helicopter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Module 14: Laser Hybrid Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
14.1 The Laser Hybrid Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
14.2 The Laser Hybrid Welding Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Exercises 1. Text Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2. Technical Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
3. Advantages of the Laser Hybrid Process . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4. Writing an Operating Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
14.3 Laser Hybrid Welding with CO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Wordlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

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module
Module 1
1
Basic Technical Vocabulary
At the beginning of the technical English course it is necessary to introduce some basic vocabulary
and grammar. Technical English is different from the English taught at secondary schools. For this
reason, the following module provides the basic tools for every student of mechanical engineering
to enlarge their knowledge and to work in an international surrounding.

1.1 Tools in the Workshop


The first and important thing to know is what all the tools and
machines in the workshop are called. This enables an engineer to
give precise instructions to the trained workers about what to do
and how. Therefore, the exercises will provide an overview of the
content of a toolbox, useful verbs, measurement tools and the
most common units that are needed in during daily working
processes.

1.2 Measuring
When it comes to measuring work pieces, there are various
methods and many tools available for this task. The first differen-
tiation has to be made between gauges and measurement
equipment.
The first represent either a measurement or a form that refers
to limit dimensions of tolerances. These have to be fulfilled in fits
and usually just provide information about whether a fit is within
the limit of tolerances or not. This group includes gauging tools,
e. g. slip gauges and accidences, straightedge, square and limit
gauges, cylindrical plug gauges, gauging rings and calliper gauges.
The latter can be used for acquiring information on the
measurements of a work piece and provide information on the
length, width and depth of the outer or inner edges of a work
piece, hole or slot. The most common instruments in mechanical
engineering are vernier callipers or calliper rules which can
be used universally in the workshop. They provide information
on lengths and are precise to 0.1 mm. If it comes to smaller
tolerances, micrometers are usually used. They measure
accurately to within 0.001 mm.

1.3 Common Units


For a very long time every country has used its own measurement
system and units which led to a lot of problems, as the measure-
ments of a work piece were not comparable to each other. In an
internationally operating industry, a standardized measurement
system is absolutely essential and for this reason the International
System of Units (SI-units) has been developed from the metric
system. Engineers in the United Kingdom still often use the
imperial system instead of the metric one, which is now the
international standard system. Therefore, every engineer should
at least have basic knowledge of the units of the imperial system
and how the conversion between the two systems works.
7

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Basic Technical Vocabulary
module

1. The Content of a Toolbox


1 a) Look at the picture with the tools that belong to the basic equipment of a toolbox. Use the words
from the box to label the tools.

ring spanner | open-ended spanner | file | chisel | ratchet | sockets | side cutter | screw-
driver | Allen keys | pliers | socket wrench | electric drill | metal saw | torque wrench | strap
wrench (oil filter wrench) | grip vice pliers | centre punch | combination pliers | hammer |
rim wrench | soldering iron | vernier callipers

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22.

8 Picture 1/1: Contents of a toolbox

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Basic Technical Vocabulary

b) Choose one of the tools and describe it in terms of its material, its appearance and what it is used

module
for. Your text should be between 60 and 80 words long.
1

2. Working in a Workshop

Have a look at the sentences and match the correct verb from the box with its definition and then
find an appropriate tool from exercise 1a) for each task.

draw | drill | saw | grind | mill | screw | loosen | tighten | solder | measure | shape | sharpen

Verb Definition Tool


give a certain form to
1 something, e.g. with a
hammer
fix the look and the exact
2 measurement of a work
piece on paper
to become or make s.th.
3
loose
to join two materials to
4 each other by melting their
surface
to fasten s.th. or make it
5 tight with the help of
screws
to polish a work piece or
6 sharpen s.th. by rubbing it
on a rough, hard surface
remove a certain amount of
7 material from a work piece
with the help of machinery
find out the dimensions of
8
a work piece

9 the opposite of ’to loosen‘

to make s.th. sharp, e.g. by


10
grinding it

to make a hole in a piece of


11
metal or other material

separate a piece of material


12
from a whole block

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Basic Technical Vocabulary
module

3. Quality Assurance
1 a) Have a look at the pictures of the various measuring tools and label them with the words from
the box.

accidence | straightedge | cylindrical plug gauge | gauging tool | calliper gauge | gauging ring

R1 – 7 mm 0 45H7 + 25

1. 2. 3.

60h6
–19
0

4. 5. 6.

Picture 1/2: Measuring tools

b) Use the expressions from the box and label the parts of the vernier calliper with the appropriate
words.

fixed jaw | movable jaw | depth bar | vernier scale | slider | inside jaws | main beam (bar) |
scale | clamp screw | outside jaws

2 10 3 1

0 4 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

0 2 4 6 8 10

5 6 4 7 8 9

Picture 1/3: Parts of a vernier calliper


10

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Basic Technical Vocabulary

c) Fill in the gaps in the following text about the vernier calliper with the words from exercise b).

module
When it comes to using a vernier calliper, the first thing a worker has to do is to decide where to 1
measure – he/she can either use the (1) for the outer edges of the work piece or
the (2) for the inner diameter of a hole, etc. For both kinds of measuring he/she
has to press the (3) against one side of the work piece and then move the
(4) along the (5) until it reaches the opposite corner. Afterwards,
he/she can either read the measurement directly or use the (6) to ensure that the
vernier calliper can be taken away from the work piece without moving the jaws and thus changing
the result. The worker can subsequently read the precise measurement from the (7) .
In order to take measurements which need to be more accurate than 1 mm, the
(8) can be used. The (9) also contains a (10) which
enables the worker to measure, e.g., the depth of a hole.

4. Common Units

a) The following table provides an overview about the basic units and their symbols. Fill in the right
units and the symbols.

Basic quantity Symbol Unit Abbreviation

1 current I A

2 voltage U V

3 thermodynamic temperature T K

4 length l m

5 mass m kg

6 time t s

7 luminous intensity Iv cd

8 molecular weight M kg/mol

9 electric resistance R Ω

10 temperature T °C

11 force F N

12 speed v m/s

13 electric capacity C F

14 pressure p Pa

15 frequency f Hz

11

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Basic Technical Vocabulary

b) Find the right numbers for the definitions given in order to convert measurements from the
module

imperial to the metric system and from °C to °F and vice versa.


1
30.5 | 0.57 | (°F – 32) · 5/9 | 25.4 | 32 + °C · 9/5

Imperial
system Metric system

1 1 inch mm one inch equals twenty-five point four millimetres

2 1 foot cm one foot equals thirty point five centimetres

3 1 pint L one pint equals zero point five seven litres

degrees Celsius equals open bracket degrees Fahren-


4 1 °C
heit minus thirty-two close bracket times five ninths
degrees Fahrenheit equals thirty-two plus degrees
5 1 °F
Celsius times nine fifth

Vocabulary
accidence Formenlehre milling tool Fräser
Allen keys Innensechskantschlüssel movable jaw verstellbarer Schenkel
calliper gauge Grenzrachenlehre open-ended spanner Maulschlüssel
centre punch Körner outside jaws Außenmessschenkel
chisel Meißel ratchet Ratsche
clamp screw Feststellschraube rim wrench Radkreuz
combination pliers Kombizange ring spanner Ringschlüssel
cylindrical plug gauge Grenzlehrdorn to saw sägen
depth bar Tiefenmaß to screw schrauben
to draw zeichnen screwdriver Schraubenzieher
to drill bohren secondary school weiterführende Schule
electric drill elektrische Bohrmaschine to shape formen
to enlarge erweitern to sharpen schärfen
essential wichtig, entscheidend sidecutter Seitenschneider
file Feile slider Schieber, Gleitstück
fixed jaw fester Schenkel socket wrench Steckschlüssel
gauge block, slip gauge Parallelendmaß to solder löten
gauging ring Lehrring soldering iron Lötkolben
gauging tool Maßlehre square Haarwinkel
to grind schleifen straightedge Haarlineal
grip vice pliers Gripzange strap wrench Bandschlüssel
hammer Hammer to tighten befestigen, festziehen
inside jaws Innenmessschenkel tool Werkzeug
to loosen lockern toolbox Werkzeugkiste
to measure messen torque wrench Drehmomentschlüssel
metal saw Metallsäge vernier calliper,
micrometer Bügelmessschraube calliper rule Mess-Schieber
to mill fräsen vernier scale Skala

12

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Module 2
Grammar Revision

module
2.1 Active vs. Passive
2
In technical English it is not important who does the work but that it is done. For this reason most
technical instructions are given in the passive voice as the reader of a technical instruction or the
person to be instructed needs exact information on the kind of work that has to be done and on
how the work has to be performed. In this case, it is of no interest, who the responsible person is.
The basic rules for active and passive voice are as follows:
The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. The former
subject can be added to the passive sentence if necessary, but this is not obligatory.
The following examples show how active sentences (a) are transformed into passive ones (p).

a The woman cleans the office every day.


Simple Present
p The office is cleaned (by the woman) every day.

a They are repairing the machine at the moment.


Present
Continuous
p The machine is being repaired (by them) at the moment.

a He tidied up his desk yesterday.


Simple Past
p His desk was tidied up (by him) yesterday.

a They have completed a thorough training before the project started.


Present
Perfect
p A thorough training has been completed (by them) before the project started.

It works in exactly the same manner for other tenses which is shown in the following table.

Tense Active Passive

Simple Present Infinitive, he/she/it-s am/is/are + 3rd form/-ed

Present Continuous am/is/are + verb-ing V am/is/are + being + 3rd form/-ed

Simple Past 2nd form (irregular verbs) or -ed was/were + 3rd form/-ed

Past Continuous was/were + verb-ing was/were + being + 3rd form/-ed

Present Perfect has/have + 3rd form/-ed has/have + been + 3rd form/-ed

Present Perfect Cont. has/have been + verb-ing has/have + being + 3rd form/-ed

Past Perfect had + 3rd form/-ed had + been + 3rd form/-ed

Past Perfect Cont. had been + verb-ing had + being + 3rd form/-ed

Will-Future will/won’t + infinitive will/won’t + be + 3rd form/-ed

Going to-Future going to + infinitive going to + be + 3rd form/-ed

Modal verbs may/can/might/should + infinitive may/can/might/should + be + 3rd form/-ed 13

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Grammar Revision

2.2 Adjective vs. Adverb


Adjectives are used to describe what something is like (the state of something), while adverbs are
module

used to describe how something is done. Adjectives are, therefore, used after forms of to be and
other stative verbs. If one adjective is followed by another, the first usually becomes an adverb, as
2 the second word is classified by the first one.
Adverbs are usually formed by adding an -ly to the adjective form of the verb. The table shows a
couple of exceptions concerning the spelling of adverbs.

Adjective Adverb Example

consonant + y + ly consonant + ly easy – easily

ending le + ly le is replaced by ly possible – possibly

ending ic + ly ically automatic – automatically

Exceptions are the words hard, fast, early and late because they are adjective and adverb at the
same time. Although the words hardly and lately exist they have a completely different meaning
(hardly = kaum; lately = kürzlich).
As already said in the name, an adverb refers to a verb while an adjective refers to a noun. The
following examples show the use of adverbs and adjectives.

The new employee is a quick worker.


He understands easily.
They are an extraordinarily reliable team.

2.3 Subject / Object Questions


In English there is a difference between subject and object questions. If it is asked for the object of
a sentence, the question has to be formed with an auxiliary verb, such as do in the Simple Present
and did in the Simple Past. With all other tenses, the auxiliary verb used in the sentence is also used
for the question.

Have a look at the example sentences.


He bought a new fork lift for the factory.
What did he buy?

I want to buy another car next summer.


What do you want to buy next summer?
Who wants to buy a new car next summer?

We are visiting my aunt on Thursday.


Who is visiting my aunt?

They are assembling the new machine at the moment.


What are they assembling at the moment?
Who is assembling the new machine at the moment?

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Grammar Revision

2.4 Reported Speech


Whenever information has to be passed on from one person to another, people use reported speech

module
to do this. However, some grammatical rules have to be paid attention to.
If the introductory verb is in a present form, nothing happens to the verb tenses, but personal
pronouns, time words and determiners need to be changed. 2
If the introductory verb is in a past form in addition to the words mentioned above, the tense
has to be shifted backwards.
An overview of the most important changes is given in the following tables.

Tense shift

Direct Speech Example (to do) Reported Speech Example (to do)

Simple Present do; (am/is/are) Simple Past did; (was/were)

Present Continuous am/is/are doing Past Continuous was/were doing

Simple Past did Past Perfect had done

Past Perfect
Past Continuous was/were doing had been doing
Continuous

Present Perfect has/have done Past Perfect had done

Present Perfect Past Perfect


has/have been doing had been doing
Continuous Continuous

Past Perfect had done Past Perfect had done

Past Perfect Past Perfect


had been doing had been doing
Continuous Continuous

Future I will do Future II would do

Going to – Future am/is/are going to do Going to – Future II was/were going to do

Modal Verbs may, can, shall Modal verbs (2nd form) might, could, should

Other words

Direct Speech Reported Speech Direct Speech Reported Speech

this that here there

these those now then

yesterday the day before today that day

last week the week before tomorrow the next day

last year the year before last month the month before

15

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Grammar Revision

1. Active vs. Passive

Transform the following sentences from active into passive.


module

1. The maintenance department regularly services the machine.


2
2. We checked the production unit last week.

3. The apprentice is cleaning the tools at the moment.

4. We will make the plans ready by the end of next week.

5. Before the test we had already worked with the new material.

6. We are going to schedule the meeting for next week.

7. The factory has been producing the new tissues for a couple of months.

8. The accident happened while we were cleaning the machine.

9. The service had been working on the new system for a whole week before they found the
failure.

10. You should wear protective clothing in the workshop.

2. Adjective vs. Adverb

Read the following text and decide whether the adjective or adverb form is the correct one.
Working in a construction department is an (1) extreme/extremely (2) interesting/interestingly job.
The engineers have a lot of (3) interesting/interestingly tasks to fulfil. Neverthelessn they have a very
(4) challenging/challengingly job because the decisions they have to make often have a
(5) great/greatly influence on production.
Lots of small steps are involved in the development of a (6) new/newly machine. First of all the
drawings have to be made (7) exact/exactly and the single parts have to be produced. This is a task
that requires (8) accurate/accurately work, as every inaccuracy can have an influence on the parts
and the machine. If a machine has already been sold to a company (9) quick/quickly, production is
necessary as the machine is often (10) urgent/urgently awaited by the company.

16

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Grammar Revision

3. Subject / Object Questions

Read the following sentences and ask for the underlined part – you need either a subject or an
object question or both.

module
1. The machine is being serviced at the moment.
2
2. The mechanic wrote a report concerning the failure.

3. The apprentices are taught the safety rules that are important in the workshop.

4. The vernier calliper is a very useful instrument for measuring.

5. The research and development department has had a problem with a special configuration
lately?

4. Reported Speech

Transform the sentences from direct into reported speech.


1. I called you three times last week.
He told me that
2. Can Peter come to the meeting tomorrow?
I was asked
3. The machine has to be checked because there was a problem yesterday.
The mechanic informed the superior that

4. I haven’t been in the office for three days because I was on a business trip.
I informed the customer that

5. The production unit has to be exchanged as it is not working properly.


The machine operator said that

Vocabulary
apprentice, trainee Auszubildende(r) maintenance Wartung
comparable vergleichbar molecular weight Molmasse
current elektrischer Strom to schedule terminieren
luminous intensity Lichtintensität to service betreuen, warten

17

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Module 3
Material Technology
This module is going to introduce certain material classes and their properties as material
technology has a great influence on the properties of machine parts.
module

3
3.1 Metals and their
Molecular Structure
Basically, material can be divided into two main classes – metal
and non-metal. In the table below there is a more differentiated
overview of the material classes and their subclasses. The ones
highlighted in red will be examined more closely in the following
text.

materials

metal non-metal

ferrous non-ferrous organic anorganic


metal metal

steel iron cast light alloys heavy metals natural synthetic natural synthetic
material specific specific
weight weight
<5 kg/dm³ >5 kg/dm³

con- cast iron magnesium nickel wood thermo- graphite ceramics


struction aluminum chrome cotton plastics talc
steel white cast titanium manganese leather glass
tungsten thermoset-
tool steel grey iron ting plastics

elastomers

composite
materials

Picture 3/1: Materials

Metals have the property to conduct heat as well as electrical


current and they have an aureate surface. Most metals can
withstand high mechanical stress, but they do not have a high
resistance to chemical stress and oxidation. Ductility varies with
the different materials, but in general it is possible to deform
them. Metals can easily cope with high temperatures, they have a
high strength and UV-light consistency.
For a better understanding of the factors that influence the
mechanical properties of metals, it is necessary to gain some
basic knowledge about the molecular structure of metals. Metals
consist of crystals; each crystal is called an elementary cell and
the structure is defined by the position of the involved atoms.
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Material Technology

The following table provides an overview of the general structures:

module
3

Picture 3/2: face-centred cubic 3/3: hexagonally closed packing 3/4: body-centred cubic

Type of structure Element Symbol

Examples

Aluminium Al

faces-centred cubic Nickel Ni

Copper Cu

Magnesium Mg
hexagonally closed
packing
Zinc Zn

Iron Fe

body-centred cubic Chrome Cr

Molybdenum Mo

The ones mentioned above are ideal models and can, therefore,
be used to explain the structure of metals. However, in reality the
structure is nearly always imperfect. These failures have a basic
influence on the properties of the materials and they are rated by
their dimension. An overview of them is given in picture 3/5.

a) blank position b) interstitial atom

A A
B B
C C
A A
B
B
c) additional atom d) substitutional atom C
A A
B B
C C
A A
B B

stacking failure

Picture 3/5: Material failures

19

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Material Technology

3.2 Mechanisms of Deformation


For some technical tasks, materials need to be
1 2
formed. The two possibilities of forming a
material are either elastic or plastic. In case of
elastic deformation, the structure returns to its
original structure once the force has been
module

original crystal elastically deformed


removed and in case of permanent deforma-
3 3
lattice
4
crystal lattice tion, the structure changes, which is irreversible
(picture 3/6).
Depending on the basic structure (fcc, bcc or
hcp) the atoms move on a level called glide
glide
step glide plane. Every form of the elementary cell moves
step
in a different direction, and this has the greatest
crystal lattice during crystal lattice after influence on the ductility of the material.
plastic deformation plastic deformation
and relief of the strain Picture 3/7 a) shows that the glide plane
always goes through the face-centred cubic
diagonally. This means there are four glide
Picture 3/6: Plastic deformation of a metal
planes and three directions possible. As one
system consists of one level and one direction, the face centred
cubic has 3 x 4 = 12 gliding systems. This is the structure that
provides a good ductility, since the atoms are nearer to each
other than in any other structure.
Picture 3/7 b) shows a body-centred cubic structure. There are
also 6 x 2 = 12 gliding systems available, but the atoms are not as
close to each other as in the fcc-structure. In reality, there are
48 systems available; but as the packing is not as high as in the
12 systems, they are negligible in this context.
Picture 3/7 c) shows the major gliding plane of the
hexagonally closed packing structure. Here the number of layers
depends on the quotient of height and distance between the
atoms of the elementary cell. With a low height there are more
possibilities of movement than with a large height, but the
strength of the material increases under the condition that the
glide plane dissents from the major planes. In the hcp-structure,
only 1 x 3 = 3 gliding systems are possible. This, in combination
with the fact that changes in the major level have a positive effect
on the strength of the material, is the reason why materials with
an hcp-structure do not provide high ductility.

GD GD GD

GP
GP
GP

a) b) c)

GP = glide plane GD = glide direction

Picture 3/7: Examples of the gliding planes of cubic and hexagonal crystal lattices

20

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