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# Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering

## College of Engineering 4th Stage

Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

Chapter 5
Earthworks

## One of the major objectives in selecting a particular location for highway

is to minimize the amount of earthwork required for the project.
To determine the amount of earthwork for given grade line, cross-
sections are taken at regular intervals along the grade line. The cross-sections
are usually spaced 100 m apart; in certain locations, this distance is sometimes
reduced. Figure below shows three types of cross-sections.

Ch5-1
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

## The volume of earthwork is then computed from the cross-sectional areas

and the distances between the cross-sections.
A common method of determining the volume is that of average end areas.

𝑳
𝑽= (𝑨𝟏 + 𝑨𝟐 )
𝟐

Where:
V = volume, (m3)
A1 and A2 = end areas, (m2)
L = distance between cross-sections, (m)
Or
𝑳
𝑽= (𝑨𝟏 + 𝑨𝟐 )
𝟓𝟒

Where:
V = volume, (yd3)
A1 and A2 = end areas, (ft2)
L = distance between cross-sections, (ft)

## Balancing earthworks quantities

Ideally, the selection of the optimum horizontal and vertical alignment should
result in the volume of material excavated within the limits of the road scheme
being equal to the amount of fill required in embankment, so that there is no
need to waste good on-site excavation soil or to import expensive borrow
material from elsewhere.
In addition, issues associated with the swelling, bulking, and shrinkage of soil
materials used in earthworks have to be addressed.

Ch5-2
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

a. Swelling
When a given volume of soil or rock is excavated, it will bulk-up so that 1m3 of
material before excavation becomes more than 1m3 when carried ‘loose’ in a
hauling vehicle (see Fig. above). The swelling factor must be taken into
account, when assessing the amount of transport required, for costing and
construction purposes.

b. Shrinkage
A situation in which a unit volume of excavation soil will occupy less space
when placed in a compacted embankment, whilst shrinkage factor is the term
used to describe the relationship between the two volumes.

Ch5-3
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

## Mass Haul Diagram (MHD)

It is a s a simple graphical representation of the earthworks involved in a
roadway. It provides a suitable means for studying haul and overhaul to
compute the total cost. The x-axis of the diagram represents the distance in
stations, while the y-axis represents the cumulative volumes (the algebraic sum
of cuts and fills between any selected points) after correction due to soil
conditions.

## 1. A rising curve indicates an excess of excavation over embankment (fill)

materials, whilst a falling curve indicates the reverse.
2. The maximum ordinate (+) indicates a change from cut to fill, whilst the
minimum ordinate (−) represents a change from fill to cut.
3. Steep slopes reflect heavy cuts and fills, while flat slopes indicate areas
for small amount of earthwork.
4. The shape of the mass-haul diagram indicates the directions of haul.
Thus, a convex loop shows that the haul from cut to fill is from left to
right, whilst a concave loop indicates that the haul is from right to left.
5. The difference in mass diagram ordinates between any two stations
represents the net accumulation between the two stations (cut or fill).
6. Any horizontal line drawn to intersect two points within the same curve
indicates a balance of excavation (cut) and embankment (fill) quantities
between the two points.
7. Points of zero slopes represent points where roadway goes from cut to fill
or from fill to cut.
8. The highest or the lowest points of the mass haul diagram represent the
level.

Ch5-4
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

## Free Haul Distance (F.H.D):

Distance within which there is a fixed price for excavating and hauling the
materials regardless of the distance moved. (0.2- 5) Km.
𝑰𝑫
Free haul charge =
𝒎𝟑

## Over Haul Distance (O.H.D):

The distance beyond free haul distance for which there is an additional price for
each (m3. Station).

Ch5-5
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

𝑰𝑫
Over haul charge =
𝒎𝟑 . 𝑺𝒕𝒂.
𝑰𝑫
𝑩𝒐𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒘 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆 𝒎𝟑
Max. O.H.D = = 𝑰𝑫 = station
𝑶.𝑯 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆
𝒎𝟑 . 𝑺𝒕𝒂.

## Limit of Economical Haul Distance (L.E.H.D):

The distance beyond which it is more economical to use borrow rather than to
pay for the cost of over hauling.
L.E.H.D = F.H.D + max. O.H.D

Borrow: It is the location away from the right of way and the engineer chooses
it. The borrow pits soil should be obey with the followed specification. There is
a problem in urban areas because of borrow cost.
Waste: It is the unwanted excavation material, which should be disposed out of
right of way.
Volume (m3)

Distance (station)

Ch5-6
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

Where:

A-B = F. H. D.
C-D = F. H. V.
E-F = L. E. H. D.
G-H = O. H. V.
E-K = Waste volume
F-P = Borrow volume

## 3. Cost of waste = cost of waste per (m3) × volume of waste

4. Cost of overhaul =

𝑭.𝑯.𝑫+𝑳.𝑬.𝑯.𝑫
cost of overhaul per (m3. Sta.) × volume of overhaul ×
𝟐

Ch5-7
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

Example 1:
Given the following end areas for cut & fill, complete the earthwork calculation
using shrinkage of 10%. Then draw the MHD and the longitudinal profile of the
earthworks & find the following:
a) Limit of Economic Haul (L.E.H.D).
b) Free haul volume (F.H.V.).
c) Overhaul volume (O.H.V.).
d) Waste volume.
e) Borrow volume.
f) Total cost of the earthworks.

Given that:
𝑰𝑫
- Cost of overhaul = 30
𝒎𝟑 . 𝑺𝒕𝒂.
𝑰𝑫
- Cost of borrow = 120
𝒎𝟑
𝑰𝑫
- Cost of free haul = 70
𝒎𝟑
- Free Haul Distance (F.H.D.) = 200 m = 2 stations.

Ch5-8
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

Solution:

Areas
2
Volumes (m3) Balance Accumulated
(m )
Station volumes volumes
Corrected
Cut Fill Cut (+) Fill (-) (m3) (m3)
fill (-)
1 10 - 0
1100 - - +1100
2 12 - +1100
1300 - - +1300
3 14 - +2400
1500 - - +1500
4 16 - +3900
1500 - - +1500
5 14 - +5400
350 250 275 +75
6 - 10 +5475
- 1300 1430 -1430
7 - 16 +4045
- 1500 1650 -1650
8 - 14 +2395
- 1300 1430 -1430
9 - 12 +965
- 1000 1100 -1100
10 - 8 -135
150 200 220 -70
11 6 - -205

Ch5-9
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

6000
5750
5500
5250
5000
4750
4500
4250
4000
3750
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
-250 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
-500
-750

𝑩𝒐𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒘 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆
= F.H.D +
𝑶.𝑯 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆

𝟏𝟐𝟎
=2+ = 6 stations
𝟑𝟎

From MHD

F.H.V = 725 m3

O.H.V = 3050 m3

## Cost of borrow = 120 × 1905 = 228,600 ID

Ch5-10
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

## Cost of waste = 120 × 1700 = 204,000 ID

2+6
Cost of overhaul =30 × 3050 × ( ) = 366,000 ID
2

## ∴ Total cost of the earthworks = 849,350 ID

Example 2:
Given the following end areas for cut & fill, complete the earthwork calculation
using shrinkage of 10%. Then draw the MHD and the longitudinal profile of the
earthworks & find the following:
a) Limit of Economic Haul (L.E.H.D).
b) Free haul volume (F.H.V.).
c) Overhaul volume (O.H.V.).
d) Waste volume.
e) Borrow volume.
f) Total cost of the earthworks.
Given that:
𝐼𝐷
- Cost of overhaul = 15
𝑦𝑑 3 . 100 𝑓𝑡.
𝐼𝐷
- Cost of borrow = 30
𝑦𝑑 3
𝐼𝐷
- Cost of free haul = 10
𝑦𝑑 3

## - Free Haul Distance (F.H.D.) = 500 ft

Ch5-11
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

Solution:
Areas (ft2) Volumes (yd3) Balance Accumulated
Station Corrected volumes volumes
Cut Fill Cut (+) Fill (-)
fill (-) (yd3) (yd3)
0 3 18 0
9 126 139 - 130
1 2 50 - 130
7 272 299 - 292
2 2 97 - 422
11 420 462 - 451
3 4 130 - 873
22 335 369 - 347
4 8 51 - 1220
89 178 196 - 107
5 40 45 - 1327
157 120 132 + 25
6 45 20 - 1302
231 46 51 + 180
7 80 5 - 1122
374 13 14 + 360
8 122 2 - 762
467 4 4 + 463
9 130 0 - 299
500 0 0 + 500
10 140 0 + 201
444 6 7 + 437
11 100 3 + 638
333 61 67 + 266
12 80 30 + 904
287 93 102 + 185
13 75 20 + 1089
231 130 143 + 88

Ch5-12
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

14 50 50 + 1177
130 241 265 - 135
15 20 80 + 1042
56 333 366 - 310
16 10 100 + 732
19 407 448 - 429
17 0 120 + 303
6 444 488 - 482
18 3 120 - 179
80 315 346 - 266
19 40 50 - 445
130 148 163 - 33
20 30 30 - 478

## L.E.H.D = F.H.D + Max. O.H.D

𝑩𝒐𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒘 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆
= F.H.D +
𝑶.𝑯 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒆
𝟑𝟎
= 500 + 𝟏𝟓 = 700 ft
𝟏𝟎𝟎

From MHD:
F.H.V1 = 550 yd3
F.H.V2 = 502 yd3
O.H.V1 = 450 yd3
O.H.V2 = 425 yd3
Borrow volume 1 = 350 yd3
Borrow volume 2 = 728 yd3
Waste volume = 600 yd3
Cost of free haul = 10 × (550 +502) = 10520 ID
Cost of borrow = 30 × (350 +728) = 32340 ID
Cost of waste = 30 × 600 = 18000 ID
500 +700
Cost of overhaul =15 × (450 +425) × ( ) = 7,875,000 ID
2
Ch5-13
Wasit University Highway and Transportation Engineering
College of Engineering 4th Stage
Civil Department Dr. Nabeel Saleem

Ch5-14