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SECTION 9.

11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 615

Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions

Problem 9.11-1 through 9.11-12 A beam and its loading are shown in y
the figure. Using discontinuity functions, write the expression for the P
intensity q(x) of the equivalent distributed load acting on the beam A D B
(include the reactions in the expression for the equivalent load). x

a b
L

Solution 9.11-1 Cantilever beam

y
FROM EQUILIBRIUM:
P
RA  P MA  Pa
A D B
x
MA USE TABLE 9-2.
a b q(x)  RA x1  MA x2  P x  a1
L
RA  P x1  Pa x2  Px  a1

Problem 9.11-2 y
q
A D B
x

a b

Solution 9.11-2 Cantilever beam


qb
FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  qb MA  (2a  b) y
2
q
USE TABLE 9-2.
A D B
1 2 x
q(x)  RA x  MA x  q x  a  q x  L
0 0

qb MA
 qb x1  (2a  b) x2 a b
2
RA L
 q x  a0  q x  L0

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616 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.11-3 y
q = 2 k/ft P=4k

A D B x

6 ft 3 ft

Solution 9.11-3 Cantilever beam

y FROM EQUILIBRIUM:
q = 2 k/ft P=4k RA  16 k MA  864 k-in.

MA A D B x
USE TABLE 9-2. Units: kips, inches
a  6 ft b  3 ft
q(x)  RA x  MA x2  q x0  q x  a0
1
RA
 P x  L1
1 1
 16 x1  864 x2  x0  x  720
1 6 6
q  2 kft  k in.
6  4 x  1081
a  6 ft  72 in.
b  3 ft  36 in.
L  9 ft  108 in. (Units: x  in., q  kin.)

Problem 9.11-4 y P
A D B
x

a b
L

Solution 9.11-4 Simple beam


pb Pa
FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  RB 
L L y P
A D B
USE TABLE 9-2. x
q(x)  RA x1  P x  a1  RB x  L1
Pb 1 a b
 x  P x  a1
L RA L RB
Pa
 x  L1
L

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SECTION 9.11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 617

Problem 9.11-5
y M0
A D B
x

a b
L

Solution 9.11-5 Simple beam


M0 M0
FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  RB  (downward)
y M0 L L
A D B USE TABLE 9-2.
x
q(x)  RA x1  M0 x  a2  RB x  L1
a b M0 1
 x  M0 x  a2
L L
RA RB
M0
 x  L1
L

Problem 9.11-6 y P P
A D E B
x

a a
L

Solution 9.11-6 Simple beam


FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  RB  P
y P P
USE TABLE 9-2. A D E B
1 1 1 x
q(x)  RA x  P x  a  P x  L  a
RB x  L1
a a
 P x1  P x  a1  P x  L  a1 L
RA RB
 P x  L1

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618 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.11-7 y

M0 = 20 k-ft P = 18 k
A D B
x

16 ft 10 ft

Solution 9.11-7 Simple beam

M0  20 k-ft  240 k-in. P  18 k


a  16 ft  192 in. b  10 ft  120 in.
y L  26 ft  312 in.

M0 = 20 k-ft FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  7.692 k RB  10.308 k


P = 18 k
A D B USE TABLE 9-2. Units: kips, inches
x q(x)  RA x  M0 x2  P x  a1
1

 RB x  L1
a = 16 ft b = 10 ft
RA RB  7.692 x1  240 x2  18 x  1921
 10.308 x  312 1
(Units: x  in., q  kin.)

Problem 9.11-8
y
q
A D B
x

a
L

Solution 9.11-8 Simple beam

qa qa2 y
FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  (2L  a) RB  q
2L 2L
USE TABLE 9-2. A D B
x
q(x)  RA x1  q x0  q x  a0  RB x  L1
 (qa2L)(2L  a) x1  q x0 a
 q x  a0  (qa22L) x  L1 RA L RB

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SECTION 9.11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 619

Problem 9.11-9 q0
y

A D E B
x

L/3 L/3 L/3

Solution 9.11-9 Simple beam


2q0 L 5q0 L
FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  RB 
27 54
q0 USE TABLE 9-2.
y
3q0 L 3q0 2L
q(x)  RA x1  x  1  x  1
A D E B L 3 L 3
x 2L 0
q0 x    RB x  L1
3
RA
L/3 L/3 L/3
RB
 (2q0 L 27) x1  (3q0 L) x  L 31
 (3q0 L) x  2L 31  q0 x  2L 30
 (5q0 L 54) x  L1

Problem 9.11-10 y
P = 120 kN
q = 20 kN/m
A C D B
x

10 m 5m 5m

Solution 9.11-10 Simple beam

FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  180 kN RB  140 kN


y
USE TABLE 9-2. Units: kilonewtons, meters P = 120 kN
q = 20 kN/m
1
q(x)  RA x  q x0  q x  L 20 C D B
A
 P x  3L 41  RB x  L1 x

 180 x1  20 x0  20 x  100 L


— = 10 m
L
— =5m
L
—=5m
1 1 2 4 4
 120 x  15  140 x  20
RA RB
(Units: x  meters, q  kNm)

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620 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.11-11
y
M0 = 12 k-ft P=8k

A B D
x
C

6 ft 6 ft 6 ft

Solution 9.11-11 Beam with an overhang


FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  3 k (downward)
y RB  11 k (upward)
M0 = 12 k-ft P=8k

A B D USE TABLE 9-2. Units: kips, inches


x q(x)  RA x1  M0 x  L 22  RB x  L1
C
L L L
— = 6 ft — = 6 ft — = 6 ft  P x  3L 21
2 2 2
RA RB  3 x1  144 x  722  11 x  144 1
 8 x  216 1
M0  12 k-ft  144 k-in. (Units: x  in., q  kNin.)
L
 6 ft  72 in.
2
L  12 ft  144 in.

Problem 9.11-12 y
q = 12 kN/m
A C D
x
B

1.2 m 1.2 m 1.2 m

Solution 9.11-12 Beam with an overhang


y USE TABLE 9-2. Units: kilonewtons, meters
q = 12 kN/m
q q
A C D q(x)  RA x1  x  L 21  x  L1
x
L 2 L 2
B q x  L 0  RB x  L1  q x  L0
L = 1.2 m —
— L = 1.2 m L = 1.2 m

2 2 2  q x  3L 20
RA RB
 2.4 x1  10 x  1.21  10 x  2.41
q  12 kNm  12 x  2.40  24 x  2.41
L  12 x  2.40  12 x  3.60
 1.2 m
2  2.4 x1  10 x  1.21  10 x  2.41
L  2.4 m  24 x  2.41  12 x  3.60
(Units: x  meters, q  kNm)
FROM EQUILIBRIUM: RA  2.4 kN (downward)
RB  24.0 kN (upward)

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SECTION 9.12 Beam Deflections Using Discontinuity Functions 621

Beam Deflections Using Discontinuity Functions

The problems for Section 9.12 are to be solved by using discontinuity


functions. All beams have constant flexural rigidity EI. (Obtain the
equations for the equivalent distributed loads from the corresponding
problems in Section 9.11.)

Problem 9.12-1, 9.12-2, and 9.12-3 Determine the equation of the


deflection curve for the cantilever beam ADB shown in the figure. Also,
obtain the angle of rotation B and deflection B at the free end. (For the
beam of Problem 9.12-3, assume E  10  103 ksi and I  450 in.4)

Solution 9.12-1 Cantilever beam


y B.C.v(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  C2
P  C2  0
A D B
x FINAL EQUATIONS
EIv¿  (Px2)(x  2a)  (P2) x  a2
a b
EIv  (Px 26)(x  3a)  (P6) x  a3
L
RA
B  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT END B (x  L)
FROM PROB: 9.11-1:
EIv¿(L)  (PL2)(L  2a)  (P2) L  a2
EIv––  q(x)  P x1  Pa x2  P x  a1
 (PL2) (L  2a)  (P2) (L  a)2
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION  Pa 22
Pa2
EIv‡  V  P x0  Pa x1  P x  a0 uB  v¿(L)  (clockwise)
2EI
EIv–  M  P x1  Pa x0  P x  a1
B  DOWNLOAD DEFLECTION AT END B (x  L)
Note: x1  x and x0  1
EIv(L)  (PL26)(L  3a)  (P6) L  a3
EIv¿  Px 22  Pax  (P2) x  a2  C1
 (PL 26) (L  3a)  (P6) (L  a)3
B.C. v¿(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  C1  (Pa 26)(3L  a)
 C1  0
Pa2
EIv  Px36  Pa x22  (P6) x  a3  C2 B  v(L)  (3L  a) (downward)
6 EI

Solution 9.12-2 Cantilever beam


y INTEGRATE THE EQUATION
q
EIv‡  V  qb x0  (qb2)(2a  b) x1  q x  a1
A D B
x EIv–  M  qb x1  (qb2)(2a  b) x0  q x  a22
Note: x  x and x  1
1 0

a b EIv¿  qbx22  (qb2)(2a  b)x  (q6) x  a3  C1


L B.C. v¿(0)  0 EI (0)  0  0  0  C1
FROM PROB: 9.11-2:  C1  0
1 2
EIv––  q(x)  qb x  (qb2)(2a  b) x EIv  qbx36  (qb2)(2a  b)(x22)  (q24) x  a4  C2
 q x  a  q x  L
0 0
B.C.v(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  C2
Note: x  L0  0 and may be dropped from the  C2  0
equation.

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622 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

FINAL EQUATIONS B  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT END B (x  L)


EIv¿  (qbx2)(x  L  a)  (q6) x  a3 EIv(L)  (qbL212)(3a  L)  (q24) L  a4
EIv  (qbx212)(2x  3a  3L)  (qbL212)(3a  L)  (q24)(L  a)4
 (q24)(3L 4  4a3L  a4)
 (q24) x  a4
(After some lengthy algebra)
B  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT END B (x  L) q
B  v(L)  (3L4  4a3L  a4 ) (downward)
24 EI
EIv¿(L)  (qbL2)(a)  (q6) L  a3
 qabL2  (q6)(L a)3
 (q6)(L 3  a3)
q
uB  v¿(L)  (L3  a3 )(clockwise)
6 EI

Solution 9.12-3 Cantilever beam


FINAL EQUATIONS
y
q = 2 k/ft P=4k EIv¿  (x36)(x2  288x  31,104)  (136) x  723
EIv  (x2144)(x2  384x  62,208)
A D B x  (1144) x  724
6 ft 3 ft Units: E  ksi, I  in.4, v¿  radians,
1 v  in., x  in.
q  2 kft  kin.
6
a  72 in. b  36 in. B  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT END B (x  L  108 in.)
L  108 in. uB  v¿(L)  v¿(108)
E  10  103 ksi. I  450 in.4
108
uB   [(108)(108)  288(108)  31,104]
FROM PROB: 9.11-3 Units: kips, inches 36 EI
1
EIv––  q(x)  16 x1  864 x2  (16) x0 ¢ ≤ (108  72) 3
36 EI
 (16) x  720  4 x  1081 108 1 1
 (11,664)  (46,656)  (33,696)
Note: x  1081  0 and may be dropped from the 36 EI 36 EI EI
equation. EI  (10  103 ksi)(450 in.4)  4.5  106 k-in.2
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION 33,696
uB 
EIv‡  V  16 x  864 x
0 1
 (16) x 1 4.5  106
 0.007488 radians (clockwise)
 (16) x  72 1

B  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT END


Note: x  1 and x  x
0 1

EIv–  M  16x  864 x0  x2 12  (112) x  722 B (x  L  108 in.)


EIv¿  8x2  864 x1  x3 36 B  v(L)  v(108)

 (136) x  723  C1 (108) 2


B   [(108)(108)  384(108)  62,208]
144EI
Note: x  x
1

1
B.C.v¿(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  0  C1  (108  72) 4
144 EI
 C1  0 (108) 2 1
 (32,400)  (1,679,616)
EIv  8x33  432 x2  x4144 144 EI 144 EI
 (1 144) x  724  C2 2,612,736 2,612,736
 
EI 4.5  106
B.C.v(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  0  C2
 C2  0  0.5806 in. (downward)

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SECTION 9.11 Beam Deflections Using Discontinuity Functions 623

Problem 9.12-4, 9.12-5, and 9.12-6 Determine the equation of the deflection
curve for the simple beam AB shown in the figure. Also, obtain the angle
of rotation A at the left-hand support and the deflection D at point D.

Solution 9.12-4 Simple beam


y P FROM FINAL EQUATIONS
A D B PROB: Pb 2
x 9.11- EIv¿  Pbx22L  (P2) x  a2  (L  b2 )
6L
4:
 (Pb6L)(3x2  b2  L2 )  (P2) x  a2
a b
EIv  (Pb6L)(x) 3  (P6) x  a3
L
 (Pbx6L)(L2  b2 )
1 1
EIv––  q(x)  (PbL)x  P x  a  (Pbx6L)(x2  b2  L2 )
3
 (PaL)x  L
 (P6) x  a3
1
Note: x  L  0 and may be dropped from the
equation. A  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT A (x  0)
EIv¿(0)  (Pb6L)(b2  L2 )  (P2)(0)
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION
uA  v¿(0)  (Pb6L)(L2  b2 )(1EI)
EIv‡  V  (PbL)x  P x  a
0 0
Pb Pb
EIv–  M  (PbL)x1  P x  a1 uA  (L2  b2 )  (L  b)(L  b)
6 LEI 6 LEI
EIv¿  (Pb2L) x2  (P2) x  a2  C1 Pab
 (L  b)
EIv  (Pb6L) x3  (P6) x  a3  C1x  C2 6 LEI
Note: x2  x2 and x3  x3
D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  a)
B.C. v(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  C2  C2  0 EIv(a)  (Pba6L)(a2  b2  L2)  (P/6)(0)
B.C. v(L)  0
EI(0)  PbL26  (P6) L  a3  C1L  (Pab6L)(L2  b2  a2)

 PbL26  (P6)(b3)  C1L Pab 2 Pa2b2


D  v(a)  (L  b2  a2 ) 
PbL Pb3 Pb 2 6 LEI 3 LEI
∴ C1     (L  b2 )
6 6L 6L

Solution 9.12-5 Simple beam


y M0
FROM PROB: 9.11-5:
A D B
EIv––  q(x)  (M0 L)x1  M0 x  a2 x
1
 (M0 L)x  L
a b
Note: x  L1  0 and may be dropped from the equation. L
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION B.C.v(0)  0 EI(0)  0  0  0  C2
EIv‡  V  (M0 L)x0  M0 x  a1  C2  0
EIv–  M  (M0 L)x1  M0 x  a0 B.C.v(L)  0
EIv¿  (M0 2L) x2  M0 x  a1  C1 EI(0)  M0 L26  (M0 2) L  a2  C1L
EIv  (M0 6L) x3  (M0 2) x  a2  C1x  C2  M0 L26  (M0 2)(L  a)2  C1L
Note: x2  x2 and x3  x3 M0
∴ C1    (2 L2  6 aL  3 a2 )
6L

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624 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

FINAL EQUATIONS D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  a)


EIv¿  (M0 2L)x2  M0 x  a1 EIv(a)  (M0 6L)(a3)  (M0 2)(0)
 (M0 6L)(2L2  6aL  3a2 )  (M0 a6L)(2L2  6 aL  3a2)
 (M0 6L)(3x2  6aL  3a2  2L2 )  M0 x  a1 M0 a 2
 (a  2L2  6 aL  3a2 )
EIv  (M0 6L)(x)  (M0 2) x  a
3 2 6L

 (M0 x 6L)(2L2  6aL  3a2 ) M0 a


 (L  a)(2)(L  2a)
6L
 (M0 x 6L)(x2  6 aL  3a2  2L2 )
M0 ab
 (M0 2) x  a2  (L  2a)
3L
A  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT A (x  0) M0 ab
D  v(a)  (2a  L)(downward)
EIv¿(0)  (M0 6L)(6 aL  3a2  2L2 )  (M0 2)(0) 3 LEI
M0
uA  v¿(0)  (6 aL  3a2  2L2)
6 LEI
(clockwise)

Solution 9.12-6 Simple beam


y P P B.C.EIv(0)  0 0  0  0  0  0  C2
A D E B  C2  0
x Note: x2  x2 and x3  x3

a a FINAL EQUATIONS
L EIv¿  Px2 2  (P2) x  a2
 (P2) x  L  a2  (Pa2) (L  a)
FROM PROB: 9.11-6:
 (P2)(x2  aL  a2 )  (P2) x  a2
EIv––  q(x)  P x1  P x  a1  (P2) x  L  a2
1 1
 P x  L  a  P x  L
EIv  Px 3 6  (P 6) x  a3
1
Note: x  L  0 and may be dropped from the  (P 6) x  L  a3  (3 Pax6)(L  a)
equation.
 (Px 6)(x2  3 aL  3 a2 )  (P 6) x  a3
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION  (P 6) x  L  a3
EIv‡  V  P x0  P x  a0  P x  L  a0
A  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT A (x  0)
EIv–  M  P x1  P x  a1  P x  L  a1
EIv¿(0)  (Pa 2)(L  a)  (P 2)(0)  (P 2)(0)
EIv¿  (P 2) x2  (P 2) x  a2
 (Pa 2)(L  a )
 (P 2) x  L  a2  C1
Pa
uA  v¿(0)  (L  a)(clockwise)
B.C.(symmetry) EIv¿(L 2)  0 2EI
0  (P2)(L 2)2  (P2)(L 2  a)2  (P2)(0)  C1 D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  a)
Pa
∴ C1   (L  a) EIv(a)  (Pa 6)(4a2  3aL)  (P6)(0)
2
EIv¿  (P 2) x2  (P 2) x  a2  (P 6) L  2a3
 (P 2) x  L  a2  (Pa 2)(L  a)  (Pa 6)(4a2  3aL)  (P6)(0)
 (Pa 26)(4a  3L)
EIv  (P 6) x3  (P 6) x  a3 Pa2
 (P 6)x  L  a3  (Pa 2)(L  a) x  C2 D  v(a)  (3L  4a) (downward)
6 EI

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SECTION 9.11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 625

Problem 9.12-7 Determine the equation of the deflection curve for


the simple beam ADB shown in the figure. Also, obtain the angle of
rotation A at the left-hand support and the deflection D at point D.
Assume E  30  106 psi and I  720 in.4

Solution 9.12-7 Simple beam


B.C. EIv (312)  0
y
0  1.282(312) 3  120(312) 2  31203  C1 (312)
M0 = 20 k-ft P = 18 k Note: 1203  (120) 3
D B 0  22,071  103  C1(312)  C1  70,740
A
x
FINAL EQUATIONS
16 ft 10 ft
(Note: x  in., E  ksi, I  in.4, v¿  rad,
v  in.)
EIv¿  3.846x2  240x  9x  1922  70,740
M0  20 k-ft  240 k-in. EIv  1.282x3  120x2  3x  1923
P  18 k  70,740x
a  16 ft  192 in.
b  10 ft  120 in.
A  CLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT A (x  0)
L  a  b  312 in.
E  30  103 ksi EIv¿(0)  91922  70,740  70,740
I  720 in.4
70,740 70,740
uA  v¿(0)  
EI (30  103 )(720)
FROM PROB. 9.11-7: Units: kips, inches  0.00327 rad (clockwise)
EIv––  q(x)  7.692 x1  240 x2
 18 x  1921  10.308 x  3121 D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  192)
Note: x  3121  0 and may be dropped from the EIv(192)  1.282(192)3  120(192)2  70,740(192)
equation.  8.932  106
8.932  106 8.932  106
D  v(192)  
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION EI (30  103 )(720)
EIv‡  V  7.692 x0  240 x1  18 x  1920  0.414 in. (downward)

EIv–  M  7.692 x1  240 x0  18 x  1921


EIv¿  (7.6922) x2  240 x1  (182) x  1922
 C1
Note: x2  x2 and x1  x
EIv¿  3.846 x2  240 x  9x  1922  C1
EIv  1.282 x3  120 x2  3x  1923  C1x  C2

B.C. EIv (0)  0 0  0  0  0  C1(0)  C2


 C2  0

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626 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.12-8, 9.12-9, and 9.12-10 Obtain the equation of the


deflection curve for the simple beam AB (see figure). Also, determine
the angle of rotation B at the right-hand support and the deflection D
at point D. (For the beam of Problem 9.12-10, assume E  200 GPa
and I  2.60  109 mm4.)

Solution 9.12-8 Simple beam


FINAL EQUATIONS
y
q EIv¿  (qax24L)(2L  a)  qx36  (q6)x  a3
A D B  (qa224L)(2L  a)2
x EIv  (qax312L)(2L  a)  qx424  (q24)x  a4
 (qa2x24L)(2 L  a)2
a
 qx[a2 (2L  a) 2  2a(2L  a)x2  L x3 ]24L
L
 qx  a424

FROM PROB. 9.11-8: B  COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT B


(x  L)
EIv––  q(x)  (qa2L)(2L  a)x1  qx0
 qx  a0  (qa22L)x  L1 EIv¿(L)  (qaL4)(2L  a)  qL36
 (q6)(L  a)3  (qa224L)(2 L  a)2
Note: x  L1  0 and may be dropped from the
equation After lengthy algebra,
EIv¿(L)  (qa224L)(2L2  a2 )
qa2
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION uB  v¿(L)  (2L2  a2 ) (counterclockwise)
24 LEI
EIv‡  V  (qa2L)(2L  a)x  qx  qx  a
0 1 1
D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  a)
EIv–  M  (qa2L)(2L  a)x1  (q2)x2
 (q2)x  a2 EIv(a)  qa[a2(2L  a)2  2a3(2L  a)
EIv¿  (qa4L)(2L  a)x2  (q6)x3  a3L]24L  q(0)
 (qa324L)[(2L  a)2  2a(2L  a)  aL]
 (q6)x  a3  C1
 (qa324L)(4L2  7aL  3a2)
EIv  (qa12L)(2L  a)x3  (q24)x4
 (q24)x  a4  C1x  C2 qa3
D  v(a)  (4L2  7 aL  3a2 ) (downward)
24 LEI
Note: x2  x2, x3  x3, and x4  x4

B.C. EIv(0)  0 0  0  0  (q24)(0)


 C1(0)  C2
 C2  0

B.C. EIv(L)  0
0  (qaL212)(2L  a)  qL424  (q/24)(L  a)4
 C1L
After lengthy algebra,
qa2
C1   (2L  a) 2
24 L

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SECTION 9.11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 627

Solution 9.12-9 Simple beam

q0 FINAL EQUATIONS
y
EIv¿  (q0 L 27)x2  (q0 8L)x  L34
D E B
A  (q0 8L)x  2L34  (q0 6)x  2L33
x
47q0 L3/4860

L/3 L/3 L/3 EIv  (q0 L81)x3  (q0 40 L)x  L35
 (q0 40 L)x  2L35  (q0 24)x  2L34
47q0 L3x/4860
FROM PROB. 9.11-9:
EIv––  q(x)  (2q0 L27)x1 B  COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT B
 (3q0 L)x  L31  (3q0 L) x  2L31 (x  L)

 q0x  2L30 EIv¿(L)  q0 L327  (q0 8L)(2L3) 4


 (5q0 L54)x  L1  (q0 8L)(L3)4  (q0 6)(L3)3
Note: x  L1  0 and may be dropped from the  47q0 L34860
equation  101q0 L39720
101q0 L3
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION uB  v¿(L)  (counterclockwise)
9720 EI
EIv‡  V  (2q0 L27)x0  (3q0 2L)x  L32
 (3q0 2L)x  2L32  q0 x  2L31 D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  L/3)
Note: x0  1
EIv(L/3)  (q0 L81)(L/3)3  (q0 40L)(0)
EIv–  M  (2 q0 L27)x  (q0 2L)x  L33
 (q0 40L)(0)  (q0 24)(0)
 (q0 2L)x  2L33
 47q0 L3(L/3)/4860
 (q0 2)x  2L32
 121q0 L443,740
EIv¿  (q0 L27)x2  (q0 8L)x  L34
L 121q0 L4
 (q0 8L)x  2L34 D  v ¢ ≤ (downward)
3 43,740 EI
 (q0 6)x  2L33  C1
EIv  (q0 L81)x3  (q0 40 L)x  L35
 (q0 40L)x  2L35  (q0 24)x  2L34
 C1x  C2

B.C. EIv (0)  0 0  0  0  0  0  C1(0) C2


 C2  0

B.C. EIv(L)  0
0  q0 L4 81  (q0 40L)(2L 3) 5  (q0 40L)(L 3) 5
 (q0 24)(L 3) 4  C1L
47q0 L4 47q0 L3
0  C1L ∴ C1  
4860 4860

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628 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Solution 9.12-10 Simple beam

y
FINAL EQUATIONS
P = 120 kN
q = 20 kN/m EIv¿  90 x2  (103)x3  (103)x  103
A C D B  60 x  152  5625
x
EIv  30x3  (56)x4  (56)x  104  20x  153
5625x
10 m 5m 5m (x  meters, v  meters, v¿  radians,
E  kilopascals, I  meters4)

q  20 kN/m
B  COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATION AT SUPPORT B
P  120 kN
(x  20)
L
 10 m Eiv¿(20)  90(20) 2  (103)(20) 3  (103)(10) 3
2
L  20 m  60(5)2  5625
E  200 GPa  5541.67
I  2.60  103 m4 5541.67
uB  v¿(20) 
EI
FROM PROB. 9.11-10: Units: kilonewtons, meters 5541.67

EIv––  g(x)  180 x1  20 x0  20 x  100 (200  10 kPa)(2.60  103 m)
6

 120 x  151  140 x  201  0.01066 rad (counterclockwise)


Note: x  201  0 and may be dropped from the
equation D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  15)
EIv(15)  30(15)3  (56)(15)4  (56)(5)4
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION  20(0)  5625(15)
 24,791.7
EIv‡  V  180 x0  20 x1  20 x  101
 120 x  150 24,791.7
D  v(15) 
Note: x  1 and x1  x
0 EI
24,791.7
EIv–  M  180x  20(x22)  (202) x  102 
(200  10 kPa)(2.60  103 m)
6
 120 x  151
 0.04768 m  47.68 mm (downward)
EIv¿  180(x22)  20(x36)  (103)x  103
 60 x  152  C1
EIv  30x3  (56)x4  (56)x  104  20 x  153
 C 1x  C 2

B.C. EIv (0)  0 0  0  0  0  0  C1(0)  C2


 C2  0

B.C. EIv(20)  0
0  30(20)3  (5/6)(20)4  (5/6)(10)4
 20(5)3 C1(20)
0  112,500  20C1  C1  5625

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SECTION 9.11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 629

Problem 9.12-11 A beam ACBD with simple supports at A and B


and an overhang BD is shown in the figure. (a) Obtain the equation
of the deflection curve for the beam. (b) Calculate the deflections C
and D at points C and D, respectively. (Assume E  30  106 psi
and I  280 in.4)

Solution 9.12-11 Beam with an overhang


FINAL EQUATIONS
y
M0 = 12 k-ft P=8k EIv¿  3x22  144 x  721  (112)x  1442
A B D  12,960
x EIv  x32  72x  722  (116)x  1443
C
 12,960 x
6 ft 6 ft 6 ft (x  in., v  in., v¿  rad, E  30  103 ksi,
I  280 in.4)

M0  144 k-in.
L C  UPWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT C (x  72)
 72 in.
2 EIv(15)  (72)32  72(0)  (116)(0)
L  LAB  144 in.  12,960(72)
3L  746,496
 216 in.
2 746,496 746,496
E  30  103 ksi C  v(15)  
EI (30  103 )(280)
I  280 in.4
 0.08887 in. (upward)

FROM PROB. 9.11-11: Units: kips, inches


D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  216)
EIv––  q(x)  3 x1  144 x  722
EIv(216)  (216)32  72(144)2  (116)(72)3
 11x  1441  8 x  2161  12,960(216)
Note: x  2161  0 and may be dropped from the  3,048,192
equation.
3,048,192 3,048,192
D  v(216)  
EI (30  103 )(280)
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION  0.3629 in. (downward)
EIv‡  V  3x0  144x  721  11x  1440
EIv–  M  3x1  144x  720  11x  1441
EIv¿  (32)x2  144x  721  (112)x  1442
 C1
EIv  (12)x3  (1442)x  722
 (116)x  1443  C1x  C2

B.C. EIv(0)  0 0  0  0  0  C1(0)  C2


 C2  0

B.C. EIv(144)  0 0  (12)(144)3  (72)(72)2


 (116)(0)  C1(144)
0  1,866,240  144 C1
 C1  12,960

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630 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.12-12 The overhanging beam ACBD shown in the figure


is simply supported at A and B. Obtain the equation of the deflection
curve and the deflections C and D at points C and D, respectively.
(Assume E  200 GPa and I  15  106 mm4.)

Solution 9.12-12 Beam with an overhang


B.C. EIv(2.4)  0
y
q = 12 kN/m 0  0.4(2.4)3  (1/12)(1.2)5  (1/12)(0)  4(0)
A C D  2.4 C1
x 0  5.73696  2.4 C1
B
 C1  2.3904
1.2 m 1.2 m 1.2 m
FINAL EQUATION
q  12 knm
EIv¿  1.2x2  (512) x  1.24  (512) x  2.44
L
 1.2 m  12 x  2.42  2.3904
2
L  LAB  2.4 m EIv  0.4x3  (112) x  1.25  (112) x  2.45
E  200 GPa
I  15  106 mm4  4 x  2.43  2.3904x
(x  meters, v  meters, v¿  radians,
FROM PROB. 9.11-12: Units: kilometers, meters E  200  106 kPa, I  15  106 m4)

EIv––  q(x)  2.4 x1  10x  1.21


C  UPWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT C (x  1.2)
 10 x  2.41
EIv(1.2)  0.4(1.2) 3  (112) (0)  (112) (0)
 24 x  2.41  12 x  3.60
 4 (0)  2.3904 (1.2)  2.17728
Note: x  3.60  0 and may be dropped from
the equation. 2.17728 2.17728
C  v(1.2)  
EI (200  106 )(15  106 )
INTEGRATE THE EQUATION  0.00072576 m  0.7258 mm (upward)

EIv‡  v  2.4 x0  (102) x  1.22


D  DOWNWARD DEFLECTION AT POINT D (x  3.6)
 (102) x  2.42  24x  2.420
EIv(3.6)  0.4(3.6) 3  (112) (2.4) 5
EIv–  M  2.4 x¿  (53) x  1.23
 (1/12) (1.2)5
 (53) x  2.43  24 x  2.4¿
 4 (1.2)3  2.3904 (3.6)
Note: x¿  x
 9.57312
EIv¿  1.2x2  (512) x  1.24  (512) x  2.44
9.57312 9.57312
 12 x  2.42  C1 D  v(3.6)  
EI (200  106 )(15  106 )
EIv  0.4x3  (112) x  1.25  (112) x  2.45  0.00319104 m  3.191 mm (downward)
 4 x  2.43  C1x  C2

B.C. EIv(0)  0 0  0  0  0  0  C1(0)  C2


 C2  0

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SECTION 9.11 Representation of Loads on Beams by Discontinuity Functions 631

Temperature Effects

The beams described in the problems for Section 9.13 have constant
flexural rigidity EI. In every problem, the temperature varies linearly
between the top and bottom of the beam.
Problem 9.13-1 A simple beam AB of length L and height h undergoes y
a temperature change such that the bottom of the beam is at temperature T1 h
A B
T2 and the top of the beam is at temperature T1 (see figure). x
T2
Determine the equation of the deflection curve of the beam, the
angle of rotation A at the left-hand support, and the deflection max at
the midpoint. L

Solution 9.13-1 Simple beam with temperature differential


d 2v (T2  T1 ) B.C. 2 V(0)  0  C2  0
Eq. (9-147): v–  2 
dx h
(T2  T1 )(x)(L  x)
dv (T2  T1 )x v
v¿    C1 2h
dx h (positive v is upward deflection)
(T2  T1 )(L  2x)
L v¿  
B.C. 1 (Symmetry) v¿ ¢ ≤  0 2h
2
L(T2  T1 ) L(T2  T1 )
∴ C1   uA  v¿(0) 
2h 2h
(positive A is clockwise rotation)
(T2  T1 )x2 L(T2  T1 )x
v   C2 L L2 (T2  T1 )
2h 2h max  v ¢ ≤ 
2 8h
(positive max is downward deflection)

Problem 9.13-2 A cantilever beam AB of length L and height h (see figure) y


is subjected to a temperature change such that the temperature at the top is T1 h
A T1 B
and at the bottom is T2.
T2 x
Determine the equation of the deflection curve of the beam, the angle
of rotation B at end B, and the deflection B at end B.
L

Solution 9.13-2 Cantilever beam with temperature differential


d 2v (T2  T1 ) B.C. 2 v(0)  0  C2  0
Eq. (9-147): v–  2 
dx h
(T2  T1 )x2
dv (T2  T1 ) v
v¿   x  C1 2h
dx h
(positive v is upward deflection)

B.C. 1 v¿(0)  0  C1  0 L(T2  T1 )


uB  v¿(L) 
h
(T2  T1 ) (positive B is counterclockwise rotation)
v¿  x
h
L2 (T2  T1 )
(T2  T1 ) x2 B  v(L) 
v ¢ ≤  C2 2h
h 2 (positive B is upward deflection)

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632 CHAPTER 9 Deflections of Beams

Problem 9.13-3 An overhanging beam ABC of height h is heated to a y


temperature T1 on the top and T2 on the bottom (see figure). h
A T1 B T1 C
Determine the equation of the deflection curve of the beam, the angle x
of rotation C at end C, and the deflection C at end C. T2 T2

L a

Solution 9.13-3 Overhanging beam with temperature differential


d 2v (T2  T1 ) (T2  T1 ) 2
Eq. (9-147): v–  2  v (x  Lx)
dx h 2h
(positive v is upward deflection)
(This equation is valid for the entire length of the
beam.) (T2  T1 )
v¿  (2x  L)
(T2  T1 )x 2h
v¿   C1
h (T2  T1 )
(T2  T1 )x2 uC  v¿(L  a)  (L  2a)
2h
v  C1x  C2
2h (positive C is counterclockwise rotation)
(T2  T1 ) (L  a) (a)
B.C. 1 v(0)  0  C2  0 C  v(L  a) 
2h
(T2  T1 )L (positive C is upward deflection)
B.C. 2 v(L)  0 ∴ C1  
2h

Problem 9.13-4 A simple beam AB of length L and height h (see figure) y


is heated in such a manner that the temperature difference T2  T1 T1 h
A B
between the bottom and top of the beam is proportional to the distance
x
from support A; that is, T2

T2  T1  T0 x x

in which T0 is a constant having units of temperature (degrees) per unit L


distance.
Determine the maximum deflection max of the beam.

Solution 9.13-4 Simple beam with temperature differential proportional to distance x


T0 2
T2  T1  T0 x v¿   (L  3x2 )
6h
d v (T2  T1 ) T0 x
2
Eq. (9-147): v–  2   (positive v¿ is upward to the right)
dx h h
dv T0 x2 MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
v¿    C1
dx 2h
Set v¿  0 and solve for x.
T0 x3
v  C1x  C2 L
6h L2  3x 2  0 x1 
3
B.C. 1 v (0)  0  C2  0 T0 L3
vmax  v(x1 )  
T0 L2 93h
B.C. 2 v (L)  0 ∴ C1  
6h T0 L3
max  vmax 
T0 x 2 93h
v (L  x2 ) (positive max is downward)
6h
(positive v is upward deflection)

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