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Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Mechanical Weathering - physical breaking up of rocks into smaller pieces; increase
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks Mechanical Weathering - physical breaking up of rocks into smaller pieces; increase

Mechanical Weathering

- physical breaking up of rocks into smaller pieces; increase in surface area

- prevails in cold climates, high altitudes, and dry regions

a. Frost Wedging

repeated cycles of freezing and thawing

results to talus (pile of rocks that accumulates at the base of a cliff)

b. Abrasion and Grinding

sand blasting

c. Heating and Cooling

differences in temperatures in a rock give rise to differential expansion (heating) and contraction (cooling)

d. Wetting and Drying

disruption of soil results in the swelling and contracting of some soil particles

e. Organisms

burrowing

f. Unloading [sheeting]

removal of thick layers of sediments overlying deeply buried rocks by erosion or uplift

common in batholiths

Chemical Weathering

- breakdown of minerals by chemical reactions with water, with chemicals dissolved in water or with gases in the air

- produces more stable or strong minerals

a. Dissolution

dissolving of a solid in a liquid

b. Hydrolysis

process of minerals reacting with water to form hydroxides

changes silicates to hydroxides

SO4 + H2O -> OH

c. Acidification

producing acids

H2O + specific minerals

d. Hydration

adding H2O to a system of minerals

forms hydrates

e. Oxidation and Reduction

combination of oxygen with a compound

oxidation -> rust

f. Ion-exchange

transfer of charged atoms (ions)

most effective in clays Special Types of Weathering

a. Differential Weathering

differences in strength

more resistant material is on top of less resistant; top- heavy structures

b. Spheroidal Weathering

strength of material is not relevant

focuses on the cracks in rocks

water seeps into cracks and rounds out edges

Susceptibility of Minerals to Chemical Weathering

out edges Susceptibility of Minerals to Chemical Weathering Factors Controlling Weathering a. Source Composition o

Factors Controlling Weathering

a. Source Composition

o mineralogy, texture, and rock structure

b. Climate

o

temperature fluctuations

o

precipitation

c. Topographic Relief

o influence of the amount of rock expose to the forces of weathering

Products of Weathering

a. Soil

o

combination of rock, air, water, and organic material

b. Soil Type

o

varies in color, texture, and mineral content

c. Types/Order of Soil

o

Laterite -> tropical, soft reddish-gray resolves

Soil Profile

O

Horizon

 

-

organic layers of soil, made up mostly of leaf litter and humus (decomposed organic matter)

A

Horizon [Topsoil]

-

made up of humus and mixed mineral particles

E

Horizon [Eluviation Layer]

- leeching layer

- light in color

- mostly sand and silt

- lost most of minerals and clay as water drips through

B Horizon [Subsoil; Layer of Accumulation]

- clay and mineral deposits received from E Horizon

C Horizon [Regolith]

- slightly broken-up bedrock; no plant roots due to little organic material

- Competence

o biggest size an agent can transport

o capability of current [maximum]

o ex. >2cm

- Capacity

R

[Bedrock; Parent]

o

maximum amount of sediment agent can transport

 

-

unweathered rock layer

Sediment/Rock Maturity

Erosion

- textural

 

-

old word meaning “eat away”

o

grain size [smaller, rounded, etc.]

- involves movement of rock/soil Agents of Erosion

-

- ice

- orgnisms

gravity

- compositional

o mature types have lower temperature

Deposition

- transporting sediments requires energy

- grain size has relationship with energy

- water

o

smaller grains -> less energy

- wind

o

bigger grains -> more energy

Transportation

o

river slows down -> sediment will drop out

Agents of Sediment Transportation

o

river speeds up -> water can pick up sediment

- ice

- wind

- water

Distance of Sediment Transport

- gravel -> fast-moving water or rock slides

- sand -> wind and wave action (commonly in beaches)

- silt and clay -> lakes, swamps, and deep oceans Diagenesis

-

affects clast:

- physical, chemical, and biological processes which collectively

 

o

roundness and sphericity

result in

o

sorting

o

transformation of sediments into sedimentary rock

o

grain size

o

modification of the texture and mineralogy of rock

Ways of Physically Transporting Particles

a.

Suspension

fine, light material is carried along river

no contact with riverbed

b.

Saltation

jumping sediments over riverbed

c.

Traction

large boulders and rocks are rolled along riverbed

d.

Solution

minerals are dissolved in water

Sorting

- measure of variation of grain sizes

- short distance: poorly sorted

- long distance: well-sorted Roundness and Sphericity

- indication of transportation

- roundess

o

how rounded corners are

o

always a function of transportation

- sphericity

o

sphere-like shape

o

not necessarily a function of transportation

o

influenced by environment

of transportation o influenced by environment Competence and Capacity a. Compaction a. volume of a

Competence and Capacity

a. Compaction

a. volume of a sediment is reduced as the grains are squeezed together

b. Cementation

a. separate sedimentary grains are “cemented” together by substances like calcite, silica, and iron oxide to form a sedimentary rock

c. Others

a. recrystallization of unstable sediments

b. dissolution and replacement

c. bioturbation Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

c. bioturbation Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic vs. Non-Clastic Clastic (detrital) - mechanically

Clastic vs. Non-Clastic Clastic (detrital)

- mechanically fragmented components

- commonly terrestrial Non-Clastic

- biochemical or chemical processes

- commonly aquatic environments

Siliciclastic or Clastic

o

peat (not rock) is buried (shallow burial) becomes

-

broken or fragmental texture

lignite (low grade) and becomes bituminous coal

 

o

clast (larger pieces)

(lignite and bituminous are sedimentary)

o

matrix (mud or fine-grained sediment)

o

anthracite: high grade coal

o

cement (glue that holds it all together)

Proportions of Rock Types on Earth

- classified based on texture (grain size) and composition

- divided into size category based on Wentworth Scale

- divided into size category based on Wentworth Scale Conglomerates or Breccia - 2mm in grain

Conglomerates or Breccia

- 2mm in grain size

Sandstone

- 1/16 mm to 2mm

- amount of minerals

Mudstone

o

o

o

arkose (feldspar) – 50% or more lithic (lithic fragments) – 50% or more quartz – 90% or more

- siltstone (1/265 mm to 1/16 mm)

- claystone (less than 1/265 mm)

-

- lick me (tongue should stick)

gritty

Under both Chemical and Biochemical

-

carbonates

o mineral calcite (CaCo3)

o formed by both chem. and biochem. processes

o mixed together in various combinations

o extremely abundant and important

- chert

§ i.e. limestones

o siliceous rocks (SiO2)

o recrystallized skeletons of ‘animals’

§ single-celled radiolarians and flass sponges

§ single-celled plants (diatoms and silicoflagellates)

Chemical Products

- Evaporites

o

rock salt (halite; NaCl) and gypsum (CaSO4 + H2O)

o

dissolved in sea water (which makes water salty)

o sea water evaporates in closed areas (i.e. lagoons); salt concentration becomes very high, supersaturates, and precipitates out Biochemical Products

- coal

o plant remains

out Biochemical Products - coal o plant remains Importance of Sedimentary Rocks - geological history o

Importance of Sedimentary Rocks

- geological history

o

fossils are only found in sed. rocks

o

correlate ages (relative and absolute dating)

o

paleogeography and paleoclimatology

o

paleoenvironment

o source materials and history of transportation and deposition Resources from Sedimentary Rocks

-

used as sand and gravel

o

road base, concrete

-

-

pure sand: glass-making placer deposits

o gold, diamond, garnet

- building stone and ornamental materials; filtering

-

- fossil fuels

cement

o coal, petroleum, natural gas

-

food additives

Sedimentary Structures

- interbedded sandstone and conglomerate

Structures - interbedded sandstone and conglomerate - graded bedding o variation in particle size in a

- graded bedding

o variation in particle size in a single bed

- tilted beds - mudcracks - ripple marks o unidirectional or bidirectional - cross bedding

-

tilted beds

- tilted beds - mudcracks - ripple marks o unidirectional or bidirectional - cross bedding o

- mudcracks

- tilted beds - mudcracks - ripple marks o unidirectional or bidirectional - cross bedding o

- ripple marks

o unidirectional or bidirectional

mudcracks - ripple marks o unidirectional or bidirectional - cross bedding o layers in between layers

- cross bedding

o layers in between layers

-

tool marks

o grazing of foreign materials brought by current

in between layers - tool marks o grazing of foreign materials brought by current - biorturbation

- biorturbation

o action of organisms

in between layers - tool marks o grazing of foreign materials brought by current - biorturbation