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REGULATION

2013
YEAR: 2017
AR 6703
PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND
ETHICS
SEMSETER IX

[UNIT V - IMPORTANT LEGISLATIONS AND


CURRENT TRENDS]
FACULTY IN-CHARGE: VANDHANA MURALIDHARAN
SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

TOPICS

 DEVELOPMENT REGULATIONS IN SECOND MASTER PLAN FOR CMA,

CHENNAI CORPORATION BUILDING RULES 1972

 FACTORIES ACT

 PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT

 BARRIER FREE ENVIRONMENT

 COSTAL REGULATION ZONE

 HERITAGE ACT

 GLOBALISATION AND ITS IMPACT ON ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION -03

 PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE

 ENTRY OF FOREIGN ARCHITECTS IN INDIA

 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON ARCHITECTURAL

PRACTICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 03

 EMERGING SPECIALISATIONS IN THE FIELD OF ARCHITECTURE ---------03

o ARCHITECT AS CONSTRUCTION / PROJECT MANAGER----------------------- 03

o ARCHITECTURAL JOURNALISM

o ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


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SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

GLOBALISATION AND ITS IMPACT ON ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSION

Refer article: GLOBALISATION AND ARCHITECTURE by ROBERT ADAM +


IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON INDIAN ARCHITCTURE by VSDP (attached along
with these notes)

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON ARCHITECTURAL


PRACTICE

Refer article: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE:


KNOWLEDGE MODELLING APPROACH AND BIM by Ajla Aksamija & Mir M. Ali
(attached along with these notes)

EMERGING SPECIALISATIONS IN THE FIELD OF ARCHITECTURE

Architect as Construction / Project Manager

Introduction

Job definitions have broadened in the last few years with many titles defining overlapping
responsibilities. Construction managers oversee the day-to-day operations involved when
constructing facilities, buildings, road systems or homes. Project managers usually oversee
business systems and processes, but can also oversee a construction project from inception to
completion.

Construction Manager

A construction manager is involved in personnel management at the construction site. He


ensures that materials are delivered on time and that tools are available on the work site. He
also administers the construction budget. He will request work order changes and make
decisions as to building practices in compliance with building codes. He could also be
responsible for meeting with consultants, clients, engineers and inspectors.

Project Manager

The title of project manager has taken on broader dimensions since 2000. Project managers
oversee all elements of a project, which could include manufacturing, construction and
marketing. In a large corporation, for example, a company might have a multiphase
construction project. The project manager would oversee the administrative needs of the
project, including budgeting and funding, but would have an on-site construction manager
involved in the day-to-day personnel and site supervision. The project manager becomes the
"face" of the project.

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


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SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

FIGURE 5.1 – PROJECT MANAGER & CONSTRUCTION MANAGER SCHEDULE

A project management firm deals in all aspects of the project development process from the
initial assessment/conception phase, until the final move in, and beyond. A construction
manager, on the other hand, is concerned solely with the construction aspect of the project.

Without interfering on any particular professional’s responsibilities, a true third party project
manager leads and helps to integrate all vendors, elements and phases of a project from
start to finish. Designers, contractors and real estate brokers are very capable within their
specialties, but can fall short if entrusted with an independent project management firm’s
responsibilities—and so can a construction manager.

A project manager will act as your advocate and representative throughout the project so
that all of the goals from beginning to end are met. During the project’s life cycle [or]
duration, a project manager will become the owner’s trusted advisor, go-to person and single
point of contact for project performance and procedure. A project manager oversees
procurement of specialty consultants such as Audio Visual, Food Service, Security, and IT,
with direction from the client. The project manager will then act as liaison between the client
and all vendors, designers, engineers and contractors to ensure smooth, constant
communication across the various parties, so everyone stays on the same page for the full
duration.

In simple terms, the project manager will make sure all activities are aligned with the client’s
overall goals and objectives for the project. This means that the project manager will plan,
manage, oversee and fine-tune all of the details of the project, not just its construction
phase—and will even help to select and ultimately manage the construction manager.

A project manager will assist in the hiring of a general contractor and/or construction
manager and will oversee their quality of work through site visits, punch-list walkthroughs,
and reports at weekly project meetings. A project manager will also track and review the
construction managers change orders, make sure all vendors are coordinated to and with the
CM’s schedule and challenge the CM on lead times for products and delays.

*It is important to note that there is a difference between a general contractor and a
construction manager.

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


S.V.RAVINDRA, www.google.co.images? Page 4
SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

A typical construction manager has a scope of work that is limited to the pre-
construction/construction phase. A construction manager will supervise all construction
aspects of a project and will typically participate in pre-construction meetings, provide onsite
supervision during construction, and manage sub-contractors. They may also directly hold
subcontractor contracts, and is therefore liable for all of the subcontractors’ work.

A project manager will plan, manage, oversee and fine-tune all of the details of the
project, not just its construction phase

Construction Management:

A project delivery system that uses a construction manager to facilitate the design and
construction of a project by organizing and directing men, materials, and equipment to
accomplish the purpose of the designer. A professional service that applies effective
management techniques to the planning, design, and construction of a project from inception
to completion for the purpose of controlling time, cost and quality.

Project management:

The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the
project requirements.

Construction manager

The functions of construction management typically include the following:

1. Specifying project objectives and plans including delineation of scope, budgeting,


scheduling, setting performance requirements, and selecting project participants.
2. Maximizing resource efficiency through procurement of labour, materials and
equipment.
3. Implementing various operations through proper coordination and control of planning,
design, estimating, contracting and construction in the entire process.
4. Developing effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts.

Roles and Responsibilities of Construction Manager:

 Schedule the project in logical steps and budget time required to meet deadlines.
 Determine labour requirements and dispatch workers to construction sites.
 Inspect and review projects to monitor compliance with building and safety codes,
and other regulations.
 Interpret and explain plans and contract terms to administrative staff, workers, and
clients, representing the owner or developer.
 Prepare contracts and negotiate revisions, changes and additions to contractual
agreements with architects, consultants, clients, suppliers and subcontractors.

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


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SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

 Obtain all necessary permits and licenses.


 Direct and supervise workers.
 Study job specifications to determine appropriate construction methods.
 Select, contract, and oversee workers who complete specific pieces of the project,
such as painting or plumbing.
 Requisition supplies and materials to complete construction projects.
 Prepare and submit budget estimates and progress and cost tracking reports.
 Develop and implement quality control programs.
 Take actions to deal with the results of delays, bad weather, or emergencies at
construction site.
 Confer with supervisory personnel, owners, contractors, and design professionals to
discuss and resolve matters such as work procedures, complaints, and construction
problems.
 Plan, organize, and direct activities concerned with the construction and maintenance
of structures, facilities, and systems.
 Investigate damage, accidents, or delays at construction sites, to ensure that proper
procedures are being carried out.
 Evaluate construction methods and determine cost-effectiveness of plans, using
computers.
 Direct acquisition of land for construction projects.

Project Management

Various Stages of Project

FIGURE 5.2 – STAGES IN PROJECT DEVELOPEMNT

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


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SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

Why do companies use PM?

 To handle projects effectively in an organization.


 To define the project and agree with the customer.
 To plan and assess resource needs for the project.
 To estimate project cost and make proposals.
 To plan and schedule activities in a project.
 To allocate the right resource at the right time.
 To assess risk and failure points and make backup plans.
 To lead a project team effectively and communicate well.

Why do people learn PM?

 To explore the latest concepts and techniques of project management.


 To increase value/contribution to the organisation.
 To prove yourself skilful in managing projects.
 To learn a new thought process that helps organized thinking and structured approach.
 To acquire a professional degree/recognition and increase job prospects.
 Endless possibilities and benefits.

Project Management Plan:

“Tells how work will be done”

The key to a successful project is on the planning. All the detailed planning work for different
aspects of the project is integrated into one single plan known as the Project Management
Plan.

FIGURE 5.3 – PROJECT MANAGEMENT FLOW

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


S.V.RAVINDRA, www.google.co.images? Page 7
SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

The PM Plan establishes the project:

FIGURE 5.4 – PM PLAN

Project Management Process

Enter Phase / Start


Project

Monitoring &
Controlling
Processes

Exit Phase/ End


Project

FIGURE 5.5 – PM PROCESS

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


S.V.RAVINDRA, www.google.co.images? Page 8
SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

Monitoring & Controlling Processes


Monitoring &

Monitoring &

Monitoring &
Controlling Processes

Controlling Processes

Controlling Processes
Initiating Processes Planning Processes Closing Processes
+ Executing
Processes

FIGURE 5.6 – MONITORING & CONTROLLING PROCESSES

Project Management Stages

PLANNING

SCHEDULING

CONTROLLING

CLOSING

FIGURE 5.7 – PM STAGES

Planning Phase

This is the most important phase of the project management.

Planning is an art and science of converting a set of objectives to realization through a series
of steps executed in an organized and predicted way so that there will be less requirement of
changes in the plan later on. Like the old saying ‘plan the work. Work the plan.’

Scheduling Phase

This is the process of formalizing the planned activities, assigning the durations, resources
and sequence of occurrence in consultation with the team members.

Planning and scheduling phases are under taken before the actual project starts.

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


S.V.RAVINDRA, www.google.co.images? Page 9
SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

Controlling Phase

This phase is undertaken during the actual project implementation.

Project controlling is mechanism established to determine deviations from the project base
schedule, to re-plan and reschedule during implementation to compensate the deviations on
the basis of commissioning minima, flow of resources like finance, man power, and
equipment and application techniques.

Closing Phase

Closing phase is the last phase of the project which brings close out of the complete project.
Whatever the project requirements are pre-defined, during this phase the total delivery is
made and it is accepted by the customer.

Maximum conflicts can arise in the project during this phase between those who have worked
to deliver the outcome (contractor) and those who are accepting the results of the work
(customer).

PM Knowledge Areas

CHANGE
INTEGRATIO
DOCUMEN N
T

PROCUREMENT SCOPE

RISK TIMES

COMMUNICATIO COST
N

HUMAN
QUALITY
RESOURCE

FIGURE 5.8 – PM KNOWLEDGE AREAS

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


S.V.RAVINDRA, www.google.co.images? Page 10
SIGMA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
MOODODU, ANDUCODE POST
KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT - 629 168

Suitability of architect as construction / project manager:

Architectural project managers typically are involved in most, if not all, aspects of
construction projects. These professionals consider many factors as they help architectural
projects involving commercial, industrial or residential buildings reach completion. Most
architectural project managers spend a significant portion of their time consulting with clients
in an office setting. However, they also visit construction sites, where they interact with
engineers, contractors and construction personnel.

Architectural Project Manager Duties

From site preparation to building completion, architectural project managers oversee


elements of the design and construction processes. Part of this preparation includes
developing, organizing and reviewing building plans, as well as preparing construction
contracts for general contractors. Architectural project managers also can take part in
interviewing and hiring contractors for proposed projects. As they consult with clients, these
professionals generally include a cost estimate based on equipment, materials and labour
requirements.

Architectural project managers must ensure that construction projects meet environmental,
safety, structural, zoning and aesthetic standards. They determine and schedule different
stages of the building process according to client needs. During construction site visits, they
monitor progress and ascertain whether phases of the construction process are in compliance
with building plans and project deadlines. After building completion, project managers may
provide additional services for expansion and relocation projects

Note: Seminar – Refer Professional Practice by KG Krishnamurthy & SV Ravindra

 Development regulations in second master plan for CMA, Chennai corporation


building rules 1972
 Factories act
 Persons with disabilities act
 Barrier free environment
 Costal regulation zone
 Heritage act
 Preparedness for international practice
 Entry of foreign architects in India
 Architectural journalism
 Architectural photography

SOURCE: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE, K.G.KRISHNAMURTHY &


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