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Green Farming Vol.

1 (6) : 563-565 (November-December, 2010) (New Series) tssN 0974-0775

Evaluation of genetic diversity of horsegram (Macrotyloma

uniflorum) germplasm through phenotypic trait analysis
Genetics and Plant Breeding Research Centre, Botany Department, J.E.S. R.G. Bagdia Arts,
S.B. Lakhotiya Commerce & R. BezonjiScience College, Jalna - 431 203 (Maharashtra)

ABSTRACT . The field trial of twenty two accessions of horsegram lMacrogloma uniflorum (Verdcourt)l was evaluated at
vegetative stages to ascertain the extent of genetic diversity and access heterogencity among the Germplasm. lt was
concluded that high degree of allelic variation was present in seed colour, seed shape, pod shape, crop duration, primary
branches, pods per plants, yields per planti, shattering and non shattering ability. The correlation among plant height,
numberof primary branches, numberof grain per pod, 1000 grain weight, yield per plantas well as direct and indirect effects
of those traits on the grains yield were investigated. These characters had significant effect on grain yield. Accessions with
best performance were assorted for the desired parameters for its utilization in breeding programme.

Keywords t Genetic diversity, germplasm, heterogencity, horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum.

Horsegram lMacrotyloma uniflorum (Lam) Verdcourt, MATERIALAND METHODS
Family, Fabaceae, (Ndik, 2OOO)I is a multipurpose, rich
protein crop, cultivated in lndia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, An experiment was conducted during khar7season, 2008
Srilanka, Nepal and West Africa. According to Jansen (1 989) at Genetics and Plant Breeding Research Center, J.E.S.
Horsegram is a native to Acacia thickets of lndia. Horsegram College Jalna, Maharashtra, lndia. Germplasm consisting of
is sown late in the rainy season by poor farmer, tribal twenty two accessions, collected from local and regional
localities, in marginal and drought prone areas of lndia. NBPGR Station, Akola (M.S.) were characterised. The
Average crop establishment is often poor and yields are low. lt experimental field was in a plot of 6 X 4 ft. length with three
derives its importance from its adaptability to poor soil and replication for each accession in Randomized Block Design
adverse climate conditions (Reddy et al., 2006). Although (RBD) (Breese and Hayward, 1972) tor each genotype.
horsegram is a "neglected" crop and farmer's choice to grow Approved cultural practices were used for irrigation, weeding,
as a crop due to poor-yielding landraces or to modern pesticides and fertilizer application. Data was recorded both
varieties for which access to seed is limited. The dried and on qualitative and quantitative traits for 5 randomly sampled
green stalks and leaves are used as fodder and the green plants.
pods are consumed as vegetables, where as the seeds are The averages were analysed by simple statistics. The
eaten after being boiled whole or after splitting or after being data was subjected to analysis of standard deviation,
ground and cooked. variance and correlations coefficient following the procedure
ln Marathwada region of Maharashtra only tribal area, given by Panse and Sukhatme (1989). Quantitative traits of
where the average rainfall is very low, used under cultivation. the germplasm included plant height, pod length, number of
of horsegram in khaif season only. Therefore, liftle attention pods per plants, number of seeds per pod, 1 000 seed wt. and
has been given to varietals improvement of this legume crop biomass, where as the qualitative characters comprised of
outside the temperate regions of developing countries like seed colour, seed shape, flower colour, pod shape and
lndia. Keeping in view the importance of such crop and its shattering ability were recorded. The mean value of each
phenotype as well as genetic diversity, the available character for each accession was calculated and subjected
germplasm was evaluated for economically important traits, to statistical analysis.
phenotypic elaboration and their further utilization in the
breeding programmes. Based on this, promising genotype RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
can be identified. The genotype performing well can be put to
Analysis of basic data collected on the various traits of
further use in the breeding programmes.
horsegram is given in Table 1. This analysis of variance was
carried out for various characters in 22 horsegram genotype.

564 Kulkarni Green Farming 1 (6)

Table 1. Basic data for quantitative traits of 22

The result shows that immense genetic diversity is
accessions of horsegram
present among the germplasm. As the phenotypic
Stand. characterization is the first step toward the classification of
Characters Mean dev. Variance Min. Max. crop germplasm it can very wisely used for improvement of
Days to 50% flowering 51.64 12.01 144.21 36.58 76.76
horsegram. During present study height level of allelic
PIant height (cm) 79.15 15.34 235.30 47.13 112.13 variation among qualitative trait was observed in seed colour
Prim. Br. / plant 5.34 0.99 0.97 3.61 7.01 and seed shape. Considerable degree of allelic variation was
Pods / plant 35.35 6.57 43.15 27.41 48.00 observed for pod shape, pod surface, seed surface as well.
Seeds / pod 4.99 0.85 0.72 3.61 6.84 All these parameters are of much importance for description
Pod size (cm) 4.46 0.36 0.13 3.86 5.36 of the genotypes. As the quantitative traits are economically
Av. yield / plant (gm) 4.14 1"45 2.10 2.09 7.57
more important and are generally used for the improvement
1000 seed wt.(Sm) 29.61 2.39 5.73 24.94 34.10
of the crop (Amurrio et al., 1gg5) analysls revealed that high
Biomass 203.75 73.35 5380.08 98.16 376.23
degree of variation in Biomass, grain yield number of pods
Among these traits huge amount of variance had been per plant, 1000 seeds weight, plant height and days to 50%
recorded of biomass (Table 2). Considerable differences in flowering is available for crop improvement of the crop.
variance had been recorded in the minimum and maximum Further higher variance for these traits indicates the
values l.e. 24.94 g to 34.10 g; 36.58 to 76.76;47.13to j12.13; importance of the germplasm for the further improvement
2.09 g to 7.57 g and 108.16 to 416.23 for average yield per through simple selection from these genotypes. The lower
plant, days to 50% flowering, plant height, yield per plant and level of variance in the various parameters might be due to
biomass, respectively, also exhibited sufficient amount of narrow genetic base of the germplasm (Nisareta/.,200g)
variation.(Table 2). The result obtained revealed that the mean and high
The correlation coefficients among the quaniltative traits range for seed yield was observed in horsegram genotype.
(Table 2) revealed that average grain yield per plant was The analysis of variance for all the characters of these traits
positively correlated with days to 50% flowering, plant height, revealed significant difference. The higher values for range
primary branches per plants, pods per plant, after keen were observed for number of pods per plant, planl height,
observation of all the traits and using different statistical days to 50% flowering. While it was low for seeds per pod,
analysis, the best performance and genetically diverse gene size average yield per plant and primary branches per plants
pools were selected (Table 3) for developing improved variation in important yield contributing characters indicted
genotype. scope for selections of desirable type. Similar result was
Table 2. correlation coefficient among traits in the horsegram germplasm

days to 50% Plant Pri. branches/ Pods / Seeds / Pod size Ave. yield 1000 seed
flowering (cm) plant
ht. ptant pod (cm) / plant (gm) wt.(Sm)
Plant height (cm) 0.670
Pri. Br / plant 0.280 0.28
Pods / plant - 0.33 0.02 - 0.42
Seeds / pod - 0.05 0.02 0.36 0.26
Pod size (cm) 0.02 - 0.01 0.10 - 0.09 - 0.02
Ave. yield / plant (gm) 0.19 0.34 0.02 0.40 0.09 - 0.12
1000 seed wt.(gm) - 0.29 - 0.08 - 0.13 - 0.29 - 0.12 0.27 - 0.12
Biomass 0.69 o97 0.36 - 0.35 0.06 - 0.02 0.26 - 0.'15

Table 3. Showing the best accession performance for different genetic parameters
Genetic parameters Range Accession of best performance
Days to 50 % Flowering 36.58-41.56 Days 267582; 341283; 341294; 341307 341 308,341 307 ,341285.
Plant height 80-112.5 cm 26821 4; 282590; 341283; 341293: 267941,312386,283412.
Primary branches 5.11-7.01 No. 259329 ; 2834 I 2; 267 582; 282590 ; 267 9 4 1 : 34 1 283; 3 1 2386 ; 34 1 29 1 .
Pods per plants 41 .82-48.00 No. 34 1 294 ; 26821 4 : 282586 ; 267 582; 34 1 293 ; 34 1 2BS ; 26821 3: 34 1 307 ; 34 1 308.
Average yield/plant 4.24-7.57 gm 268213;341263;282590;259326;341308;282586;341294;267941;268214;312386;
1 000 seed wt. >30.5 gm 259326;259327:282586;283412;312386 341283;341285;267942;282590;312383;
341 29 1 : 341 294; 341 307 .

Biomass >200 gm 282590 ; 26821 4 ; 34 I 293; 34 1 283; 3 1 2 383 ; 3 1 2383 ; 3834 1 2: 282586.

Nov.-Dec. 2010 Evaluation of genetic diversity of horsegram germplasm through phenotypic trait analysis 565

observed by Magar et a/. (2008) in pigeon pea, Sundharaiya ACKNOWLEDGMENT

et al. (2009), Yuvaraj and Naram Naidu (2009) in Rajmah
beans, Pandey et al. (2004) in French bean and Nisar ef a/. The author expresses sincerely thanks to the UGC (WR)
(2008) in pea. for financial help, Regional Director, NBPGR, Akola, for
providing the seeds of germplasm lines and Dr. R. S.
The estimates of variance for different traits studied are
Agrawal, Principal, J.E.S.College Jalna for providing the field
presented in Table 1. The magnitudes of variance were
for conducting an experiment.
highest for biomass (5380.08), pods per plant (43.15) and
1000 seed grain wt followed by (5.73) and average yield per
plant (2.10). The lowest magnitudes for variance were
primary branches (0.97), seeds per pod (0.72), pod size Amurrio, J.M., DeRon, A.M. and Zeven, A.C. 1995. Numerical
(0.13). Taxonomy of lberian pea landraces based on quantitative
The estimates of correlation coefficient/variance (CV) are and q ualitative characters. E u p hyti ca. 82 : 1 95-205.
presented in Table 2. The present study show that yield per Breese, E.L. and Hayward, M.D. 1972. The genetic basis of
plant having positive correlation with days to 50% flowering, present breeding methods in forage crops. Euphytica.2l '.

plant height, primary branches per plant, pods per plant, 324-326.
similarly pods size also shows positive correlation to maturity, Jansen P.C.M. '1989. Macrotyloma uniflorum (lam) Verdc. ln :
plant height, primary branches. Where as it was also noted Plant Resources of Soufh East Asia, Pulses, Wagenin'.
that there are no correlation or negative correlation with 1000 Pudoc. pp" 53-54.
seed weight to maturity, plant height, primary branches, pods Magar, N.M., Mane, L.L., Patil, S.S., Gavit, A.F. and Pawar, V.Y
per plant, seeds per pod and average yields per plant. (2008) Genetic variability in pigeon pea (Caianus caian (L)
Similarly seeds per pod show negative correlation with M illsp), Bioi nfolet. 5 (3) : 269-27 3.

maturity and plant height where as it shows high positive Naik, V.N. (2000) ln : Flora of Marathwada, Amrut Prakashan,
correlation with primary branches per plant and pods per Aurangabad. pp.286.
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Simple borrelation many times does not give a clear H. and lslam, M. 2008. Evaluation of genetic diversity of pea
picture of the association between different traits of a crop germplasm through phenotypic trait analysis. Pak. J. Bot.40
species. For this, one should go for path coefficient analysis (5):2081-2086.
which is based on cause effect relationship. Negligible Pandey, U.P., Prasad, G., Pandey, Sudhakar and Dwivedi, S.P.
positive direct effect on seed yield was shown by pods per 2004. Correlation and path coefficient analysis in French
plant and maturity, plant height, and '1 000 seed weight. bean (Phaseo lus vulgaris L.). Progressive Horticulture. 36 :
However more of less negative correlation shows directly 366-370.
effect was exhibited by 1000 grain weight. Study is supported Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, PV. 1989. Statistical Methods for
by earlier findings by several workers in other crops by Magar Agricultural Workers. Indian Council for Agricultural
et al. (2008) in pigeon pea, Sundharaiya et al. (2009), Yuvaraj Research, New Delhi. p.381.
and Naram Naidu (2009) in Rajmah beans, Pandey et a/. Reddy, B.N., Brijitha, N. and Raghveder, C.R.20061 Biochemical
(2004) in French bean and Nisaref a/. (2008)in pea. changes in field and storage seed samples of horsegram.
Bioinfolet. 3 (2) :75-84.
After keen observation of all the traits and using different
statistical analysis the best performance and genetically Sundharaiya, K., Jansirani, P., Veeraragavathatham, D. and
diverse gene pools were selected (Table 3) for developing Sivakumar, M. 2009. Genotypic correlation of biometric trait
and leaf curl virus in tomato Madras Agric. J, 96 (1-6) : 82-
improved genotype.
CONGLUSION Virk, D.S., Chakraborty, M., Gosh, J. and Harris, D. 2006.
Participatory evaluation of horsegram (Macrotyloma
Genetic diversity in these traits can be improved by uniflorum)varieties and their on station responses to on farm
broadening gene pool through international sources, wide seed priming in eastern lndia . Source : Springer Website.
hybridization, mutation or other genetic modification. lt is Yuvaraj, K.M. and Naram Naidu, L. 2009. Screening Varieties of
concluded that sufficient genetic diversity is available at Phaseolus vulgaris lorNorth Coastal Andhra Pradesh.
phenotypic level which provide an opportunity for selecting MadrasAgric. J. 96 (1-6) '.67-70.
designed traits.

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