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Folder of Wisdom

Jonathan Porro

Theory/Topic Principles/Major Application

Piaget Cognitive development occurs when children are faced with three By knowing the stage of cognitive development of
processes: equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation. Also occurs in 4 one's students, a teacher could correctly identify the
key stages. strengths and weaknesses of their students. With this
Processes knowledge, teachers could shape curriculum to meet
1. Equilibrium - Adapting to new situations to better ones the capabilities of students with accuracy.
understanding of concepts. Consideration for Vygotsky's contributions to cognitive
2. Assimilation - The use of ones understanding of one concept to development are recommended.
explain another.
3. Accommodation - Ones understanding of a concept is improved by a
new experience.
1. Sensorimotor (0-2) - Develop object permanence and intentional
2. Preoperational (2-7) - Develop symbolic representation. Stuck in
egocentric thinking. Perspective on problems is negatively affected
by centration.
3. Concrete Operational (7-11) - Children exist centration, now able to
think about various perspectives to problems. Lacking reversibility
and logical thinking. Achieve the ability to arrange objects in orderly
4. Formal Operations (11+) - Development of abstract thinking and
deductive reasoning. Reversibility is accomplished as well and
children can think logically.
1. Doesn't go past age 11
2. Doesn't discuss external influences on development
3. Overstating abilities of children
Vygotsky Cognitive development occurs naturally, but can be assisted by those By accurately assessing the skills of students, teachers
already ahead on their own development. can arrange group work to initiate scaffolding. If a
Terms teacher were to have close reading groups, for
1. Zone of Proximal Development - The area in between ones base skill example, they could try to put at least one advanced
and the skill of a mentor. (see illustration) student in each group to facilitate learning. Advanced
a. Scaffolding - Teachers, parents, skilled peers raise up base students would get to reinforce their knowledge by
understanding. mentoring, and less skilled students will receive the
b. Intersubjectivity - Investment in student's success; positive help of a peer.
c. Material Tools - Tools used to accomplish unobtainable tasks Increased by Skilled Person
(calculator, ruler, computer, etc.)
d. Psychological Tools - Manners/Social Cues can be taught
Critique Teaching Occurs
1. Scaffolding can hold back advanced students Base Skill Here
2. Zone of Proximal Development is vague
Erikson Throughout development, people face 8 crises, which must be overcome, From elementary to secondary education, students
lest they hinder one's development, having a domino effect on following struggle with initiative, industry, and identity. Erikson
stages. claims that the family is the primary agent for initiative,
Stages of Psychosocial Development but I believe that teachers can be just as crucial. This
1. Basic Trust v. Mistrust (0-1) - Infants learn whether or not needs will could be helped, not by any specific activity, but by
be met by others [parents]. constant practice. For example, I would let my students
2. Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt (1-3) - Children will take responsibility for know that they should call me out if I am very wrong
some of their own needs, or feel shameful of their abnormal about something. Not only would this let me appear
dependence on others [parents]. more human to them, it would give them the
3. Initiative v. Guilt (3-6) - Children try to accept responsibilities beyond confidence they need to take initiative more often. I
their capacity, or will feel guilty for conflicting with others [family]. could also carry this over by letting certain students
4. Industry v. Inferiority (6-12) - Children master social/academic skills, who seem to be lacking initiative make certain class
feeling a sense of accomplishment, or feel inferior to their peers decisions. Who will be the line leader, or, how much
[teachers and peers]. time should we have for this activity are appropriate
5. Identity v. Role Confusion (12-20) - Adolescents either gain a sense of questions to ask. For industry, I could try to avoid
identity and skill in an area, or feel existential confusion regarding hierarchies being developed in class. This would involve
their role in society [society/peers]. strategic grouping regarding my students’
6. Intimacy v. Isolation (20-40) - Adults either form meaningful socioeconomic and academic statuses. Also, being
relationships or feel isolated [lovers, spouses, close friends]. aware of community resources such as churches who
7. Generativity v. Stagnation (40-65) - Adults either assume do food drives or clothing donations would be helpful
responsibility of their culture or suffer a mid-life crisis and become in leading my students’ families to resources they need

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responsibility of their culture or suffer a mid-life crisis and become in leading my students’ families to resources they need
self-centered [spouse, children, cultural norms]. to be on the same level as their peers. Identity could be
8. Ego Integrity v. Despair (65+) - The old adult feels proud of their life cultivated simply by connecting lessons to the specific
and accomplishments, or feels regret at having not taken advantage interests of my students and pointing them to
of opportunities, often feeling resentment or bitterness [life extracurricular activities. This would help them find
experience, social experiences]. their passions and answer the question Who am I?
1. Parent involvement dwindles, when parents often play strong roles in
peoples' lives well into adulthood.
2. 20-40, strong relationships are actually sought all throughout life.
Kohlberg Morally, people develop from more selfish intents when they are younger My high school students will likely fall in the
to more selfless intents when they are older. conventional stage of moral development. That being
Stages said, they will likely behave in accordance to what their
1. Preconventional (0-9) peers expect from them. For this reason, it is necessary
a. Punishment - compliance with rules to avoid punishment to develop a flourishing classroom environment, where
b. Reward - compliance with rules for rewards I can direct what students expect from themselves as
2. Conventional (9-20) well as each other. By giving them all similar stakes in
a. Good boy/girl - Conformity for approval of others their behavior [see the application of Skinner], I can
b. Authority - Conformity for societal rules/laws create a safe and cooperative classroom.
3. Postconventional (20+) In addition, I could help students to advance in their
a. Social Contract - Recognition that rules can be broken for the moral development, not through the use of vague
greater good scenarios with limited options, but by pointing out
b. Individual Morality - Internal beliefs/values are rigid and when a problem is present and having an engaging
unaffected by circumstances. classroom discussion about it. This could also be done
Critique by adding discussion of morality into the literature we
1. Scenarios lack context and have limited options read.
2. Postconventional order is subjective, acting solely on inner values can
be perceived as selfish and morally misdirected
Skinner The theory of Operant Conditioning states that behavior can be affected I plan on teaching high school English, so my students will
through systems of punishments and rewards. be roughly 13-18 years old.
Terms Positive reinforcement, the addition of pleasant stimuli,
1. Punishment - consequence after undesirable behavior should only be considered as verbal praise or extra credit
a. Aversive Stimuli - yelling, grabbing, scolding, psychologically at this age. Students are not so much concerned with
damaging receiving toys and candy as they once were, nor are they
b. Reinforcement Removal - taking away enjoyable stimulus. interested solely in impressing the teacher. If a student is
c. Extinction - ignore behavior adhering to all rules, I would be congratulatory, but in a
small way. Simply acknowledging that a student has had a
d. Time Out - remove from source of undesirable behavior
good idea or that they did something very mature and
e. Response Cost - Lose points in Token Economy
responsible should be enough. This will assure them that
2. Reinforcement - consequence after desirable behavior
they are doing something correctly and make them feel
a. Positive - add desirable stimulus respected by themselves and peers.
i. Premack Principle - this for that As far as schedules of reinforcement, I am most fond of a
ii. Token Economy fixed interval for older students. At this point, behavior
b. Negative - remove undesirable stimulus should be expected, so I should not have to reward them
c. Schedules of Reinforcement for each time they behave. If they adhere to all of my class
i. Fixed Interval - after fixed time, give reinforcement and school rules for two weeks, I may be inclined to treat
ii. Fixed Ratio - after # of times demonstrating behavior them to something mentioned earlier.
iii. Variable Ratio - random target behavior Of course, not all students will be interested in cultivating
iv. Variable Interval - random time a cooperative classroom community and may infringe
upon the established rules. Let’s say a student is not
adhering to the school’s Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) and
is texting while I am giving a lesson. I am keen on
extinction and time-outs as punishments for minimal
offenses like this. I may slowly walk over to the student
while lecturing just to show them I am aware of their
behavior. If they do not get the hint, they will put their
phone in a box on my desk. After they are removed from
their distraction, they may be inclined to pay attention.
For more severe infractions, I may have to give students
detentions. Infractions I’ll have no patience for are
cheating and bullying. If I see this, the student is getting
detention. In addition, parents will be called and grades
will be affected. Some things just boil down to common
decency, which should be mostly established this late into
high school.
Multiple Intelligence The theory claims that there are at least 9 different intelligences that I am not too fond of the theory of Multiple
people are innately skilled with. This counters the idea that intelligence can Intelligences, as it seems to categorize students away
be based on a standard set of criteria. It is important to note that people from each other, rather than give them similar goals.
can be adept in more than one intelligence. Furthermore, the theory may make students embrace
Intelligences their weaknesses instead of encouraging them to
1. Spatial - visualizing the world, adept at artistic endeavors such as improve. If I have an intrapersonal student, I cannot
painting and drawing, and mathematic fields like geometry. exclude them from group work. All that will do is
2. Naturalistic - understanding nature and living things, adept at cultivate social ineptitude in my students. I do,

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2. Naturalistic - understanding nature and living things, adept at cultivate social ineptitude in my students. I do,
biological fields such as botany and zoology. however, see some promise in incorporating certain
3. Musical - more able to discern different sounds and play music by elements of natural, kinesthetic, and interpersonal
ear. Adept at identifying rhythms and meter. intelligences into more common core linguistic ad
4. Logical/Mathematical - adept in fields of math regarding quantifying, mathematic ones. If done correctly, this could engage
hypothesizing, and problem-solving. students and cultivate their learning.
5. Existential - adept at fields of philosophy, especially those regarding One way I might do this in my English class is by giving
existence. Why we are here and why we die the students choices occasionally. I made mention of
6. Interpersonal - adept at working with and understanding other this earlier and will probably continue to do so as it fits
people. More likely to be a team leader and have charismatic well into multiple fields of pedagogy, but simply giving
qualities. students choices in the way they are assessed is an
7. Bodily/Kinesthetic - adept at controlling the body intentionally. More effective way to play on their strengths and engage
likely to be skilled in dancing, sports, and other physical endeavors. them.
8. Linguistic - adept at endeavors involving language. May have
nuanced vocabulary and may be skilled in writing/reading.
9. Intrapersonal - Awareness/reliance of oneself. Less likely to work well
in groups, but exceptionally skilled in solo work.
1. Certain intelligences such as existential and naturalistic are vague.
2. Tests to identify ones intelligence assess preference rather than
actual aptitude in a field.
Bandura Albert Bandura conducted the Bobo Doll experiment in the 60's. This test If I were trying to be an elementary teacher, this study
was used to assess whether or not aspects of operant conditioning would would have more implications to my career. Knowing
affect aggression in children. that my students are extremely impressionable, I could
Study try to model appropriate behavior. This could be done
Children were shown a video of an adult confronting a Bobo Doll. The by giving them anecdotes concerning what I have done
adult would push and kick the doll, as well as throw balls at it and in certain situations and what I learned from them. In
beat it with a hammer. Children who watched this video were taken addition, simply showing equal kindness to my
into three groups. students will show them what is to be expected from
1. Film ended after aggression them.
2. Film ended with praise for aggression One more thing I could do is identify one student
3. Film ends with punishment for aggression whom the rest look up to and give them praise for
After the film, children were taken into a room filled with a wide demonstrating positive behavior. This can then trickle
array of toys, including a Bobo Doll. The findings were such… down when the other students start displaying desired
1. Group 1 displayed heavy aggression toward the doll behaviors.
2. Group 2 displayed slightly heavier aggression toward the doll
3. Group 3 displayed little to no aggression toward the doll
Kids have very malleable minds and will do what they see role
models do, especially if the role model's acts are followed by positive
Assessment/Authentic Assessing is the process of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting all relevant Authentic assessment is crucial to building confidence
information about a student's academic performance. and passion in the learning of students. By giving them
Types of Assessment larger assessments, especially ones such as portfolios
1. Formal - Tests, quizzes, papers; all are graded and performance-based, I could distribute the
2. Informal - observation-based; often not graded responsibility of learning equally. I could outline
3. Formative - aim is to track student progress as it FORMS specific goals for my students and give them a set of
4. Summative - aim is to track the SUMMATION of student progress resources to refer to (notes, websites, etc.). Then I
Types of Authentic Assessment could make myself more and more scarce, cultivated
1. Performance Based - individual work is based on curriculum and is their reliance on themselves and peers.
used to apply/create knowledge. [Active Learning]
2. Portfolio - Collection of total work completed over a period of time to
judge a student's overall progress and gained strengths.
3. Observation Based - Student is watched/compared to their
performance before learning.
Maslow Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs claims that everyone has a set of needs which Understanding and acknowledging the needs of a
can be categorized in a pyramid with the importance of said needs student before pushing them to academic success is
correlating to how low they are. It is said that, if the lower tiers cannot be valuable information for a teacher to have. If a student
satiated, learning will be hindered. is not sleeping or coming to school hungry, a teacher
Deficiency Needs should be someone they can rely on to prepare them.
1. Physiological - sleep, rest, food, oxygen 1. Physiological - a teacher should have access to
2. Safety - structure, stability community resources to help students who are
3. Belonging/Love - fitting in, affiliation, social support growing up in impoverished conditions. Food
4. Esteem - self-esteem, competence, respect and clothing drives run by local churches are a
Growth Needs go-to for such things.
1. Understanding - knowledge, meaning 2. Safety - is a student is showing signs of being
2. Aesthetic - beauty, form, balance abused by guardians, it is the job of a teacher to
3. Self-Actualization - being the best person one can be identify the issue and take action, moving the
4. Transcendence - helping others self-actualize student to a safer environment.
Critique 3. Belonging - Teachers should cultivate a positive
1. Simplifies the human condition classroom environment in which positive

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1. Simplifies the human condition classroom environment in which positive
2. People may be tackling multiple tiers at once engagement with peers is reinforced and
3. Some tiers fit in with each other too well (e.g. basic needs) hostility is punished.
4. Esteem - Teachers should constantly recognize
students strengths and use them to improve
their weaknesses. For example, if a student is
shy, but shows exceptional skill in reading with
inflection and pace, I may be inclined to help
them join the school's drama club.
Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy claims that there are tiers to learning, with basic recall Again, the need for varying assessments and
being on the bottom and the ability to create being on the top. Using assignments is necessary to cultivate genuine learning
varying styles of questioning and prompting, teachers can facilitate higher- experiences. There is nothing wrong with utilizing the
level learning. lower tiers to establish a base understanding of
Tiers curriculum, but it is necessary to build upon that more
and more until students can create. An example of this
1. Remember - recall/define/duplicate which I love is when teaching the epic poem, Beowulf,
2. Understand - explain/classify/discuss/describe a teacher may start by telling students to recount
3. Apply - use/execute/interpret/sketch events from the story and describe them. This takes
4. Analyze - connect/compare/contrast/question care of the first two tiers and establishes a base
5. Evaluate - justify/argue/judge/support/critique understanding of the plot and the style of writing.
6. Create - produce/design/assemble/investigate Then, a teacher could ask students to draw out certain
Critique scenes, compare them to others, judge Beowulf himself
1. Some prompts for tiers are simply synonymous to prompts in other as a hero, and write their own shortened epic poem in
tiers and don't differentiate as much as they should. the same style. This transition would be very gradual
but almost seamless if done in a correct chronology.

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