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Advances in High Energy Physics


Volume 2015, Article ID 650813, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/650813

Research Article
Similarity Solution for Free Convection Flow of
a Micropolar Fluid under Convective Boundary Condition via
Lie Scaling Group Transformations

Ch. RamReddy, T. Pradeepa, and D. Srinivasacharya


Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506004, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Ch. RamReddy; chittetiram@gmail.com

Received 19 January 2015; Revised 26 April 2015; Accepted 27 April 2015

Academic Editor: Ming Liu

Copyright © 2015 Ch. RamReddy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The
publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3 .

The free convective flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid along permeable vertical plate under the convective boundary
condition is investigated. The Lie scaling group of transformations is applied to get the similarity representation for the system
of partial differential equations and then the resulting systems of equations are solved using spectral quasi-linearisation method.
A quantitative comparison of the numerical results is made with previously published results for special cases and the results are
found to be in good agreement. The results of the physical parameters on the developments of flow, temperature, concentration,
skinfriction, wall couple stress, heat transfer, and mass transfer characteristics along vertical plate are given and the salient features
are discussed.

1. Introduction proportional to the inverse square root of the axial length.


In the presence of an internal heat generation local similarity
In the past few decades, most of the researchers considered solution for free convection heat transfer from a moving
convective heat transfer problems with either constant wall vertical plate with the convective boundary condition is
temperature (CWT), constant heat flux (CHF), or Newtonian discussed by Makinde [3]. The laminar natural convection
heating (NH) in a Newtonian and/or non-Newtonian fluid. flow over a semi-infinite moving vertical plate under the
Recently, a novel mechanism for the heating process has convective boundary condition is examined by Ibrahim and
drawn the involvement of many researchers, namely, convec- Bhashar Reddy [4]. RamReddy et al. [5] investigated the
tive boundary condition (CBC), where the heat is supplied to influence of the prominent Soret effect on mixed convection
the convecting fluid through a bounding surface with a finite in a nanofluid under the convective boundary conditions. The
heat capacity. Further, this results in the heat transfer rate nonsimilar result has been presented for the free convection
through the surface being proportional to the local difference boundary layer flow along a solid sphere under the convective
in temperature with the ambient conditions (Merkin [1]). boundary conditions by Alkasasbeh et al. [6]. More recently,
Besides, it is more general and realistic, particularly in various a note on the natural convection along convectively heated
technologies and industrial operations such as transpiration vertical plate is given by Pantokratoras [7].
cooling process, textile drying, and laser pulse heating. Aziz One of the best established theories of fluids with
[2] reported similarity solution for thermal boundary layer microstructure is the theory of micropolar fluids and this
flow over a flat plate in a uniform stream of fluid with theory can be found in the books by Lukaszewicz [8] and
the convective boundary condition and he concluded that a Eremeyev et al. [9]. It has gathered a good deal of attention
similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer due to the obvious reasons that the Navier Stokes equation for
related to hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is Newtonian fluids cannot successfully explain the attributes of
2 Advances in High Energy Physics

fluids with a substructure. Physically, the micropolar fluids boundary condition has not been investigated so far. Moti-
may be treated as non-Newtonian fluids consisting of dumb- vated by all these works, this paper attempts to present the
bell molecules or rigid cylindrical element, polymer fluids, new similarity transformations and corresponding similarity
fluid suspension, animal blood, and so forth. Further, the solution to investigate the free convection flow of a micropo-
theory of micropolar fluids includes microrotation as well lar fluid under the convective boundary condition using the
as microinertia effects. This theory studies viscous fluids in Lie group transformations. The mathematical model involv-
which microconstituents are rigid and spherical or randomly ing the convective boundary conditions becomes slightly
oriented as well. The subject of free convection boundary more complicated leading to the complex interactions of the
layer flow in a micropolar fluid has been keyed out by flow, heat, and mass transfer mechanism. Further, the analyt-
several investigators due to its immense applications in the ical solution is out of scope in the present set-up and hence a
engineering problems such as solar energy collecting devices, numerical solution is obtained for the current problem. Also,
air conditioning of a room, material processing, and passive the influence of important parameters, namely, micropolar,
suction/injection, and convective heat transfer parameters,
cooling of nuclear reactors. The boundary layer flow over
on the physical quantities of the flow, heat, and mass transfer
a semi-infinite flat plate is considered for analyzing theory
rates is analyzed in different flow situations.
of micropolar fluid and its application to low concentration
suspension flow by Ahmadi [10]. Rees and Pop [11] discussed
the free convection boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid 2. Mathematical Formulation
from a vertical flat plate. The nonsimilarity transformations Consider the steady, laminar, and free convective flow of
are used to analyze the effects of double stratification on an incompressible micropolar fluid with the free stream
free/mixed convective transport in a micropolar fluid by temperature and concentration, 𝑇∞ and 𝐶∞ , respectively.
Srinivasacharya and RamReddy [12–14] (also see the ref- Choose the coordinate system such that the 𝑥-axis is along
erences cited therein). The problems of a steady laminar the vertical plate and 𝑦-axis normal to the plate, as shown
stagnation point flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet in Figure 1. The suction/injection velocity distribution is
in an incompressible micropolar fluid under the convective assumed to be V𝑤 . The plate is either heated or cooled from
surface boundary condition are discussed by Yacob and Ishak left by convection from a fluid of temperature 𝑇𝑓 with 𝑇𝑓 >
[15] and Zaimi and Ishak [16]. Merely from the literature, it 𝑇∞ corresponding to a heated surface (assisting flow) and
is noted that the majority of the researchers have found the 𝑇𝑓 < 𝑇∞ corresponding to a cooled surface (opposing flow),
local similarity or nonsimilarity solutions for the problems respectively. On the wall concentration is taken to be constant
involving convective boundary conditions, since most of the and is given by 𝐶𝑤 .
researchers have taken a convective heat transfer coefficient By employing Boussinesq approximation and making
as a function 𝑥 for getting the similarity solutions in their use of the standard boundary layer approximations, the
problems. Nevertheless, the assumption of a heat transfer governing equations for the micropolar fluid [10] are given
coefficient varying along the plate as a function of 𝑥 is not by
realistic and very difficult to be obtained in practice. For that
cause, it could be supposed that the above works have only 𝜕𝑢 𝜕V
+ = 0, (1)
theoretical value. 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
In the recent past, several researchers are focused on
𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑢
obtaining the similarity solutions of the convective transport 𝜌 (𝑢 +V )
phenomena problems arising in fluid dynamics, aerodynam- 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
ics, plasma physics, meteorology, and some branches of engi-
𝜕2 𝑢 𝜕𝜔 (2)
neering by using different procedures. One such procedure = (𝜇 + 𝜅) 2
+𝜅
is Lie group analysis. The concept of Lie group analysis also 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
called symmetry analysis is developed by Sophius Lie to
+ 𝜌𝑔∗ (𝛽𝑇 (𝑥) (𝑇 − 𝑇∞ ) + 𝛽𝐶 (𝑥) (𝐶 − 𝐶∞ )) ,
determine transformations which map a given differential
equation to itself and it unifies almost all known exact 𝜕𝜔 𝜕𝜔 𝜕2 𝜔 𝜕𝑢
integration techniques (see [17–19]). It provides a potent, 𝜌𝑗 (𝑢 + V ) = 𝛾 2 − 𝜅 (2𝜔 + ) , (3)
sophisticated, and systematic tool for generating the invariant 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
solutions of the system of nonlinear partial differential equa-
𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕2 𝑇
tions (PDEs) with relevant initial or boundary conditions. 𝑢 +V = 𝛼 2, (4)
A special form of Lie group transformations, known as the 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
scaling group, has been suggested by various researchers to
𝜕𝐶 𝜕𝐶 𝜕2 𝐶
study convection flows of different flow phenomena (see 𝑢 +V =𝐷 2, (5)
Tapanidis et al. [20], Hassanien and Hamad [21], Kandasamy 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
et al. [22], Aziz et al. [23], Mutlag et al. [24], etc.; they are where 𝑢 and V are the velocity components in 𝑥 and 𝑦
worth observing). directions, respectively, 𝜔 is the component of microrotation
From the literature survey, it seems that the problem of whose direction of rotation lies in the 𝑥 𝑦-plane, 𝑇 is the
the free convective heat and mass transport along permeable temperature, 𝐶 is the concentration, 𝑔∗ is the acceleration
vertical plate in a micropolar fluid under the convective due to gravity, 𝜌 is the density, 𝜇 is the dynamic coefficient
Advances in High Energy Physics 3

x 3. Nondimensionalization of
g ∗ the Governing Equations
u=0 Introduce the following dimensionless variables:
 = w 𝑥
𝑥= ,
T → T∞ 𝐿
𝝏T
−k = hf (Tf − T) u 𝑦
𝝏y C → C∞ 𝑦 = Gr1/4 ,
𝐿
C = Cw  𝐿
𝑢= 𝑢,
]Gr1/2
𝐿
V= V,
]Gr1/4 (7)
2
𝐿
𝜔= 𝜔,
]Gr3/4
y
𝑇 − 𝑇∞
𝜃= ,
Figure 1: Physical model and coordinate system. 𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞
𝐶 − 𝐶∞
𝜙= ,
𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞
of viscosity, 𝛽𝑇 (𝑥) is the volumetric coefficient of thermal
expansion, 𝛽𝐶(𝑥) is the volumetric coefficient of solutal where Gr = 𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇0 (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ )𝐿3 /]2 is the Grashof number.
expansions, 𝜅 is the vortex viscosity, 𝑗 is the microinertia In view of the continuity equation (1), we introduce the
density, 𝛾 is the spin-gradient viscosity, 𝛼 is the thermal stream function 𝜓 by
diffusivity, and 𝐷 is the solutal diffusivity of the medium.
The boundary conditions are 𝜕𝜓
𝑢= ,
𝜕𝑦
𝑢 = 0, (8)
𝜕𝜓
V = V𝑤 , V=− .
𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑢 Using (7) and (8) into (2)–(5), we get the following momen-
𝜔 = −𝑛 ,
𝜕𝑦 tum, angular momentum, energy, and concentration equa-
(6a) tions:
𝜕𝑇
−𝑘 = ℎ𝑓 (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇) ,
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝜓 𝜕2 𝜓 𝜕𝜓 𝜕2 𝜓 1 𝜕3 𝜓 𝜕𝜔
Δ1 = − − ( ) [ −𝑁 ]
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦2 1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦3 𝜕𝑦
𝐶 = 𝐶𝑤 ,
𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇 (𝑥) (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ) 𝐿3
at 𝑦 = 0, − 𝜃
]2 Gr
𝑢 = 0,
𝑔∗ 𝛽𝐶 (𝑥) (𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ ) 𝐿3
− 𝜙 = 0,
𝜔 = 0, ]2 Gr
𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜔 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜔 2 − 𝑁 𝜕2 𝜔
𝑇 = 𝑇∞ , (6b) Δ2 = − −( )
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 2 − 2𝑁 𝜕𝑦2
𝐶 = 𝐶∞ , 𝑁 𝜕2 𝜓
+( ) [2𝜔 + 2 ] = 0,
as 𝑦 󳨀→ ∞, 1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦
(9)
𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜃 1 𝜕2 𝜃
where subscripts 𝑤 and ∞ indicate the conditions at the wall Δ3 = − − = 0,
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 Pr 𝜕𝑦2
and at the outer edge of the boundary layer, respectively, ℎ𝑓
is the convective heat transfer coefficient, 𝑘 is the thermal 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜙 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜙 1 𝜕2 𝜙
Δ4 = − − = 0.
conductivity of the fluid, and 𝑛 is a material constant. Further, 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 Sc 𝜕𝑦2
we follow the work of many recent authors by assuming that
𝛾 = (𝜇 + 𝜅/2)𝑗. This assumption is invoked to allow the field In usual definitions, ] is the kinematic viscosity, Pr = ]/𝛼 is
of equations to predict the correct behavior in the limiting the Prandtl number, Sc = ]/𝐷 is the Schmidt number, 𝑁 =
case when the microstructure effects become negligible and 𝜅/(𝜇 + 𝜅) (0 ≤ 𝑁 < 1) is the coupling number [25], and the
the total spin 𝜔 reduces to the angular velocity [10]. microinertia density is taken to be 𝑗 = 𝐿2 /Gr1/2 .
4 Advances in High Energy Physics

Now boundary conditions (6a) and (6b) become in (11) may be treated as a point transformation, transforming
the coordinates
𝜕𝜓
= 0, (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝜓, 𝜔, 𝜃, 𝜙, 𝛽𝑇 , 𝛽𝐶)
𝜕𝑦
(12)
𝜕𝜓 = (𝑥∗ , 𝑦∗ , 𝜓∗ , 𝜔∗ , 𝜃∗ , 𝜙∗ , 𝛽𝑇∗ , 𝛽𝐶∗ ) .
= 𝑓𝑤 ,
𝜕𝑥
We now investigate the relationship among the exponents 𝛼𝑖
2 (where 𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8) such that
𝜕𝜓
𝜔 = −𝑛 , (10a)
𝜕𝑦2
𝜕 3 𝜓∗
Δ 𝑗 [𝑥∗ , 𝑦∗ , 𝑢∗ , V∗ , . . . , ]
𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑦∗ 3
= − Bi (1 − 𝜃) ,
𝜕𝑦
𝜕3 𝜓
𝜙 = 1, = 𝐻𝑗 [𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑢, V, . . . , ; 𝑎] (13)
𝜕𝑦3
at 𝑦 = 0, 𝜕3 𝜓
𝜕𝜓 ⋅ Δ 𝑗 [𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑢, V, . . . , ], (𝑗 = 1, 2, 3, 4) .
= 0, 𝜕𝑦3
𝜕𝑦
This is the requirement that the differential forms Δ 1 , Δ 2 , Δ 3 ,
𝜔 = 0, and Δ 4 are conformally invariant under transformation (11).
(10b) Substituting transformations (11) in (9), we have
𝜃 = 0,
𝜙 = 0, 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕2 𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕2 𝜓∗
Δ 1 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +2𝛼2 −2𝛼3 ) ( − )
𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗ 2
as 𝑦 󳨀→ ∞,
1 𝜕 3 𝜓∗
1/4
where 𝑓𝑤 = −(𝐿/]Gr )V𝑤 is the suction/injection parame- −( ) 𝑒𝜀(3𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) ∗ 3
1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦
ter. It is worth mentioning that 𝑓𝑤 determines the transpira-
tion rate at the surface, with 𝑓𝑤 > 0 for suction and 𝑓𝑤 < 0 for 𝑁 𝜕𝜔∗
injection, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0 corresponds to an impermeable surface. −( ) 𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼4 ) ∗ (14a)
1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦
Further, Bi = ℎ𝑓 𝐿/𝑘Gr1/4 is the Biot number. It is a ratio of
the internal thermal resistance of the plate to the boundary 𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇∗ (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ) 𝐿3
layer thermal resistance of the hot fluid at the bottom of the − 𝑒−𝜀(𝛼5 +𝛼7 ) 𝜃∗
]2 Gr
surface.
𝑔∗ 𝛽𝐶∗ (𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ ) 𝐿3 −𝜀(𝛼6 +𝛼8 ) ∗
− 𝑒 𝜙 = 0,
4. Similarity Equations via Lie Scaling Group ]2 Gr
Transformations 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜔∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜔∗
Δ 2 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +𝛼2 −𝛼3 −𝛼4 ) ( − )
𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗
A one-parameter Lie scaling group of transformations, which
is a simplified form of Lie group transformation, is selected as 2−𝑁 𝜕2 𝜔∗
(for more, see [26–31]) −( ) 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼4 ) ∗ 2
2 − 2𝑁 𝜕𝑦 (14b)
Γ : 𝑥∗ = 𝑥𝑒𝜀𝛼1 , 2 ∗
𝑁 𝜕𝜓
𝑦∗ = 𝑦𝑒𝜀𝛼2 , +( ) (2𝜔∗ 𝑒−𝜀𝛼4 + 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) ∗ 2 )
1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦
𝜓∗ = 𝜓𝑒𝜀𝛼3 ,
= 0,
∗ 𝜀𝛼4
𝜔 = 𝜔𝑒 ,
𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜃∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜃∗
(11) Δ 3 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +𝛼2 −𝛼3 −𝛼5 ) ( − )
𝜃∗ = 𝜃𝑒𝜀𝛼5 , 𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗
(14c)
𝜙∗ = 𝜙𝑒𝜀𝛼6 , 1 𝜕2 𝜃∗
− 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼5 ) ( ∗ 2 ) = 0,
Pr 𝜕𝑦
𝛽𝑇∗ = 𝛽𝑇 𝑒𝜀𝛼7 ,
𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜙∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜙∗
𝛽𝐶∗ = 𝛽𝐶𝑒𝜀𝛼8 . Δ 4 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +𝛼2 −𝛼3 −𝛼6 ) ( − )
𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗
Here 𝜀 ≠ 0 is the parameter of the group and 𝛼𝑖 (where (14d)
1 𝜕2 𝜙∗
𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8) are arbitrary real numbers whose interrela- − 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼6 ) ( ∗ 2 ) = 0.
tionship will be determined by our analysis. Transformations Sc 𝜕𝑦
Advances in High Energy Physics 5

Now, boundary conditions (10a) and (10b) become Expanding by the Taylor series in power of 𝜀, keeping the term
up to the first degree (neglecting higher power of 𝜀), we get
𝜕𝜓∗
𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) = 0, 𝑥∗ − 𝑥 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝑥,
𝜕𝑦∗
𝜕𝜓∗ 𝑦∗ = 𝑦,
𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 −𝛼3 ) ∗ = 𝑓𝑤 ,
𝜕𝑥 𝜓∗ − 𝜓 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝜓,
𝜕 2 𝜓∗
𝑒−𝜀𝛼4 𝜔∗ = − 𝑛𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) ∗ 2 , (15a) 𝜔∗ − 𝜔 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝜔,
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝜃 ∗ (19)
𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼5 ) ∗ = − Bi (1 − 𝑒−𝜀𝛼5 𝜃∗ ) , 𝜃∗ = 𝜃,
𝜕𝑦
𝜙∗ = 𝜙,
𝑒−𝜀𝛼6 𝜙∗ = 1,
at 𝑦∗ = 0, 𝛽𝑇∗ − 𝛽𝑇 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝛽𝑇 ,
𝜕𝜓∗
𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) = 0, 𝛽𝐶∗ − 𝛽𝐶 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝛽𝐶.
𝜕𝑦∗
The characteristic equations are
𝑒−𝜀𝛼4 𝜔∗ = 0,
(15b) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝜓 𝑑𝜔 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜙 𝑑𝛽𝑇
𝑒−𝜀𝛼5 𝜃∗ = 0, = = = = = =
𝛼1 𝑥 0 𝛼1 𝜓 𝛼1 𝜔 0 0 𝛼1 𝛽𝑇
𝑒−𝜀𝛼6 𝜙∗ = 0, (20)
as 𝑦∗ 󳨀→ ∞. 𝑑𝛽𝐶
= .
𝛼1 𝛽𝐶
The system remains invariant under the group transforma-
tion Γ. We then have the following relationships for the Solving the above characteristic equations, we have the
parameters: following similarity transformations:
𝜂 = 𝑦,
𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 − 2𝛼3 = 3𝛼2 − 𝛼3 = 𝛼2 − 𝛼4 = − 𝛼5 − 𝛼7
= − 𝛼6 − 𝛼8 ; 𝜓 = 𝑥𝑓 (𝜂) ,
𝛼1 + 𝛼2 − 𝛼3 − 𝛼4 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼4 = − 𝛼4 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼3 ;
𝜔 = 𝑥𝑔 (𝜂) ,
𝛼1 + 𝛼2 − 𝛼3 − 𝛼5 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼5 ;
𝛼1 + 𝛼2 − 𝛼3 − 𝛼6 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼6 ; 𝛽𝑇 = 𝛽𝑇0 𝑥, (21)
(16)
𝛼1 − 𝛼3 = 0; 𝛽𝐶 = 𝛽𝐶0 𝑥,
− 𝛼4 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼3 ; 𝜃 = 𝜃 (𝜂) ,
𝛼2 − 𝛼5 = 0 = − 𝛼5 ;
𝜙 = 𝜙 (𝜂) ,
𝛼6 = 0.
where 𝛽𝑇0 and 𝛽𝐶0 are constant thermal and mass coefficient
Solving linear system (16), we have the following relationship of expansion.
among the exponents: Using (21) into (9), we get the following similarity
equations:
𝛼1 = 𝛼3 = 𝛼4 = 𝛼7 = 𝛼8 ,
(17) 1 𝑁
𝛼2 = 𝛼5 = 𝛼6 = 0. ( ) 𝑓󸀠󸀠󸀠 + 𝑓𝑓󸀠󸀠 − 𝑓󸀠2 + ( ) 𝑔󸀠 + 𝜃 + B𝜙
1−𝑁 1−𝑁
The set of transformations Γ reduces to = 0,

𝑥∗ = 𝑥𝑒𝜀𝛼1 , 2−𝑁 𝑁
( ) 𝑔󸀠󸀠 + 𝑓𝑔󸀠 − 𝑓󸀠 𝑔 − ( ) (2𝑔 + 𝑓󸀠󸀠 )
2 − 2𝑁 1−𝑁
𝑦∗ = 𝑦, (22)
∗ 𝜀𝛼1 = 0,
𝜓 = 𝜓𝑒 ,
∗ 𝜀𝛼1 1 󸀠󸀠
𝜔 = 𝜔𝑒 , 𝜃 + 𝑓𝜃󸀠 = 0,
(18) Pr
𝜃∗ = 𝜃, 1 󸀠󸀠
𝜙∗ = 𝜙, 𝜙 + 𝑓𝜙󸀠 = 0,
Sc
𝛽𝑇∗ = 𝛽𝑇 𝑒𝜀𝛼1 , where the primes indicate differentiation with respect to 𝜂
alone and B = 𝛽𝐶0 (𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ )/𝛽𝑇0 (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ) is the buoyancy
𝛽𝐶∗ = 𝛽𝐶𝑒𝜀𝛼1 . ratio.
6 Advances in High Energy Physics

Boundary conditions (10a) and (10b) in terms of 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝜃, 6. Numerical Solution Using the Spectral
and 𝜙 become Quasi-Linearization Method (SQLM)
𝜂 = 0 : 𝑓 (0) = 𝑓𝑤 , In this section, we describe the quasi-linearization method
(QLM) for solving the governing system of (22) along
𝑓󸀠 (0) = 0, with boundary conditions (23a) and (23b). This QLM is
a generalization of the Newton-Raphson method and was
𝑔 (0) = − 𝑛𝑓󸀠󸀠 (0) , (23a) proposed by Bellman and Kalaba [32] for solving nonlinear
boundary value problems.
𝜃󸀠 (0) = − Bi [1 − 𝜃 (0)] , Assume that the solutions 𝑓𝑟 , 𝑔𝑟 , 𝜃𝑟 , and 𝜙𝑟 of (22) at the
𝜙 (0) = 1, (𝑟+1)th iteration are 𝑓𝑟+1 , 𝑔𝑟+1 , 𝜃𝑟+1 , and 𝜙𝑟+1 . If the solutions
at the previous iteration are sufficiently close to the solutions
𝜂 󳨀→ ∞ : 𝑓󸀠 (∞) = 0, at the present iteration, the nonlinear components of (22)
can be linearised using one-term Taylor series of multiple
𝑔 (∞) = 0, variables so that (22) give the following iterative sequence of
(23b) linear differential equations:
𝜃 (∞) = 0,
1
( ) 𝑓󸀠󸀠󸀠 + 𝑎 𝑓󸀠󸀠 + 𝑎 𝑓󸀠 + 𝑎 𝑓
𝜙 (∞) = 0. 1 − 𝑁 𝑟+1 1,𝑟 𝑟+1 2,𝑟 𝑟+1 3,𝑟 𝑟+1
𝑁
5. Skin Friction, Wall Couple Stress, and Heat +( ) 𝑔󸀠 + 𝜃 + B𝜙𝑟+1 = 𝑅1,𝑟 ,
1 − 𝑁 𝑟+1 𝑟+1
and Mass Transfer Coefficients
2−𝑁
( ) 𝑔󸀠󸀠 + 𝑏 𝑔󸀠 + 𝑏 𝑔 + 𝑏 𝑓󸀠
The wall shear stress and the wall couple stress are 2 − 2𝑁 𝑟+1 3,𝑟 𝑟+1 4,𝑟 𝑟+1 1,𝑟 𝑟+1
(26)
𝑁
𝜕𝑢 + 𝑏2,𝑟 𝑓𝑟+1 − ( ) 𝑓󸀠󸀠 = 𝑅2,𝑟 ,
𝜏𝑤 = [(𝜇 + 𝜅) + 𝜅𝜔] , 1 − 𝑁 𝑟+1
𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0
(24a) 1 󸀠󸀠
𝜕𝜔 𝑐1,𝑟 𝑓𝑟+1 + 𝜃 + 𝑐 𝜃󸀠 = 𝑅3,𝑟 ,
𝑚𝑤 = 𝛾 [ ] , Pr 𝑟+1 2,𝑟 𝑟+1
𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0 1 󸀠󸀠 󸀠
𝑑1,𝑟 𝑓𝑟+1 + 𝜙 + 𝑑2,𝑟 𝜙𝑟+1 = 𝑅4,𝑟 ,
and the heat and mass transfers from the plate, respectively, Sc 𝑟+1
are given by where the coefficients 𝑎𝑠1 ,𝑟 (𝑠1 = 1, 2, 3), 𝑏𝑠2 ,𝑟 (𝑠2 = 1, 2, . . . ,
4), 𝑐𝑠3 ,𝑟 (𝑠3 = 1, 2), 𝑑𝑠4 ,𝑟 (𝑠4 = 1, 2), and 𝑅𝑠5 ,𝑟 (𝑠5 = 1, 2, . . . ,
𝜕𝑇 4) are known functions (from previous iterations) and are
𝑞𝑤 = − 𝑘 [ ] , defined as
𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0
(24b) 𝑎1,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,
𝜕𝐶
𝑞𝑚 = − 𝐷 [ ] . 𝑎2,𝑟 = − 2𝑓𝑟󸀠 ,
𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0
𝑎3,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟󸀠󸀠 ,
The nondimensional skin friction 𝐶𝑓 = 2𝜏𝑤 /𝜌𝑢2∗ , wall 2
𝑅1,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 𝑓𝑟󸀠󸀠 − (𝑓𝑟󸀠 ) ,
couple stress 𝑀𝑤 = 𝑚𝑤 /𝜌𝑢2∗ 𝑥, the local Nusselt number
𝑏1,𝑟 = − 𝑔𝑟 ,
𝑁𝑢𝑥 = 𝑞𝑤 𝑥/𝑘(𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ), and local Sherwood number Sh𝑥 =
𝑞𝑚 𝑥/𝐷(𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ ) are given by 𝑏2,𝑟 = 𝑔𝑟󸀠 ,
𝑏3,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,
1 − 𝑛𝑁 󸀠󸀠
𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4
𝑥 = 2( ) 𝑓 (0) , 2𝑁
1−𝑁 𝑏4,𝑟 = − 𝑓𝑟󸀠 − ( ),
1−𝑁 (27)
2−𝑁 = 𝑓𝑟 𝑔𝑟󸀠 − 𝑓𝑟󸀠 𝑔𝑟 ,
𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2
𝑥 =( ) 𝑔󸀠 (0) , 𝑅2,𝑟
2 − 2𝑁
𝑐1,𝑟 = 𝜃𝑟󸀠 ,
𝑁𝑢𝑥 (25)
= − 𝜃󸀠 (0) , 𝑐2,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,
Gr1/4
𝑥
𝑅3,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 𝜃𝑟󸀠 ,
Sh𝑥
= − 𝜙󸀠 (0) , 𝑑1,𝑟 = 𝜙𝑟󸀠 ,
Gr1/4
𝑥
𝑑2,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,
where 𝑢2∗ is the characteristic velocity and Gr𝑥 = 𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇0 (𝑇𝑓 −
𝑇∞ )𝑥3 /]2 is the local Grashof number. 𝑅4,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 𝜙𝑟󸀠 ,
Advances in High Energy Physics 7

subject to boundary conditions where 𝜂∞ is the scaling parameter used to invoke the
boundary condition at infinity. The functions 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝜃, and 𝜙
are approximated at the collocation points by
𝑓𝑟+1 (0) = 𝑓𝑤 ,
𝑁
󸀠
𝑓𝑟+1 = 0, 𝑓 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,
󸀠 𝑘=0
𝑓𝑟+1 (∞) = 0, 𝑁
󸀠󸀠 𝑔 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝑔 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,
𝑔𝑟+1 = − 𝑛𝑓𝑟+1 (0) ,
𝑘=0

𝑔𝑟+1 (∞) = 0, (28) 𝑁 (32)


𝜃 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝜃 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,
󸀠
𝜃𝑟+1 (0) = − Bi (1 − 𝜃 (0)) , 𝑘=0
𝑁
𝜃𝑟+1 (∞) = 0, 𝜙 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝜙 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,
𝑘=0
𝜙𝑟+1 (0) = 1,
𝑗 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 𝑁,
𝜙𝑟+1 (∞) = 0.
where 𝑇𝑘 is the 𝑘th Chebyshev polynomial defined as
System (26) constitutes a linear system of coupled differen- 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏) = cos [𝑘 cos−1 (𝜏)] . (33)
tial equations with variable coefficients and can be solved
iteratively using any numerical method for 𝑟 = 1, 2, 3, . . .. The derivatives of the variables at the collocation points are
In this work, as will be discussed below, the Chebyshev represented as
pseudospectral method was used to solve the QLM scheme
𝑁
(26) (for more details, refer to the works of Motsa et al. 𝑑𝑝 𝑓 𝑝
[33, 34]): 𝑝
= ∑ D𝑙𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,
𝑑𝜂 𝑘=0
𝑁
𝑑𝑝 𝑔
𝑓0 (𝜂) = 𝑓𝑤 + 1 − 𝑒−𝜂 , = ∑
𝑝
D 𝑔 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,
𝑑𝜂𝑝 𝑘=0 𝑙𝑘
𝑔0 (𝜂) = − 𝑛𝑒−𝜂 , 𝑁
𝑑𝑝 𝜃 𝑝
(34)
Bi (29) = ∑ D 𝜃 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,
𝜃0 = 𝑒−𝜂 , 𝑑𝜂𝑝 𝑘=0 𝑙𝑘
Bi + 1
𝑁
𝑑𝑝 𝜙 𝑝
𝜙0 = 𝑒−𝜂 , 𝑝
= ∑ D𝑙𝑘 𝜙 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,
𝑑𝜂 𝑘=0

and starting from these sets of initial approximations 𝑓0 , 𝑔0 , 𝑙 = 0, 1, . . . , 𝑁,


𝜃0 , and 𝜙0 , the iteration schemes (26) can be solved iteratively where 𝑝 is the order of the derivative and D = 2D/𝜂∞ is the
for 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜂), 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜂), 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜂), and 𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜂) when 𝑟 = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Chebyshev spectral differentiation matrix and its entries are
For this, we discretise the equation using the Chebyshev clearly defined in Canuto et al. [35].
spectral collocation method. The unknown functions are Substituting (31)–(34) into (26) leads to the matrix equa-
approximated by the Chebyshev interpolating polynomials tion
in such way that they are collocated at the Gauss-Lobatto
collocation points defined as 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑅, (35)
subject to the boundary conditions
𝜋𝑗
𝜏𝑗 = cos , 𝑗 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 𝑁, (30)
𝑁 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = 𝑓𝑤 ,
𝑁

where 𝑁 is the number of collocation points. The physical ∑ D𝑁𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) = 0,


𝑘=0
region [0, ∞) is transformed into the region [−1, 1] using the
domain truncation technique in which the problem is solved 𝑁

on the interval [0, 𝜂∞ ] instead of [0, ∞). This leads to the ∑ D0𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) = 0,
𝑘=0
mapping
𝑁
𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = − 𝑛 ∑ D2𝑁𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,
𝜂 𝜏+1 𝑘=0
= , −1 ≤ 𝜏 ≤ 1, (31)
𝜂∞ 2 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) = 0,
8 Advances in High Energy Physics

𝑁 Table 1: Comparison of −𝜃󸀠 (0) for free convection along a vertical


∑ D𝑁𝑘 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑘 ) − Bi 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = − Bi, flat plate in Newtonian fluid when 𝑁 = 0, 𝑛 = 0, B = 0, Pr = 1,
𝑘=0 Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0.
𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) = 0,
Merkin [36] Nazar et al. [37] Molla et al. [38] Present
𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = 1,
0.4214 0.4214 0.4214 0.4214313
𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) = 0.
(36)
𝐴 34 = 0,
In (35) 𝐴 is a (4𝑁 + 4) × (4𝑁 + 4) square matrix and 𝑋 and 𝑅
𝐴 41 = diag [𝑑1,𝑟 ] ,
are (4𝑁 + 1) × 1 column vectors defined by
𝐴 11 𝐴 12 𝐴 13 𝐴 14 𝐴 42 = 0,
[ ]
[𝐴 21 𝐴 22 𝐴 23 𝐴 24 ] 𝐴 43 = 0,
𝐴=[
[𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 ] ,
]
[ 31 32 33 34 ] 1 2
𝐴 44 = D + diag [𝑑2,𝑟 ] D,
[𝐴 41 𝐴 42 𝐴 43 𝐴 44 ] Sc
F𝑟+1 R1 = 𝑅1,𝑟 ,
[ ]
[G𝑟+1 ] R2 = 𝑅2,𝑟 ,
𝑋=[
[Θ ] ,
] (37)
[ 𝑟+1 ]
R3 = 𝑅3,𝑟 ,
[Φ𝑟+1 ]
R1 R4 = 𝑅4,𝑟 ,
[ ] (38)
[R2 ]
𝑅=[ ]
[R ] ,
[ 3] and here I is an identity matrix, the size of the matrix 0 is
(𝑁+1)×1, and diag[ ] is a diagonal matrix of size (𝑁+1)×(𝑁+
[R4 ] 1). Subscript r denotes the iteration number. After modifying
where matrix system (35) to incorporate boundary condition (36),
𝑇 the solution is obtained as
F = [𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] ,
𝑇
G = [𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] , 𝑋 = 𝐴−1 𝑅. (39)
𝑇
Θ = [𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] ,
𝑇
7. Results and Discussions
Φ = [𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] ,
It is noticed that the present problem reduces to free convec-
1
𝐴 11 = ( ) D3 + diag [𝑎1,𝑟 ] D2 + diag [𝑎2,𝑟 ] D tion heat transfer along an impermeable vertical plate in a
1−𝑁 micropolar fluid without the convective boundary condition
+ diag [𝑎3,𝑟 ] , when 𝑓𝑤 = 0, Bi → ∞, and B = 0. Also in the limit as 𝑁 →
𝑁 0, governing equations (2)–(5) reduce to the corresponding
𝐴 12 = ( ) D,
1−𝑁 equations for a free convection heat and mass transfer in
a viscous fluid. In order to validate the code generated the
𝐴 13 = I, results of the present problem have been compared with the
𝐴 14 = BI, results obtained by Merkin [36], Nazar et al. [37], and Molla
et al. [38] as a special case by taking 𝑁 = 0, 𝑛 = 0, B = 0,
𝑁 Pr = 1, Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0 and it was found that
𝐴 21 = − ( ) D2 + diag [𝑏1,𝑟 ] D + diag [𝑏2,𝑟 ] , they are in good agreement, as presented in Table 1. Also, the
1−𝑁
comparison of heat transfer coefficient has been made with
2−𝑁
𝐴 22 = ( ) D2 + diag [𝑏3,𝑟 ] D + diag [𝑏4,𝑟 ] , the results obtained by Nazar et al. [37] as shown in Table 2
2 − 2𝑁 when 𝑛 = 0.5, B = 0, Pr = 1, Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0.
𝐴 23 = 0, To study the effects of coupling number 𝑁, suction/injection
parameter 𝑓𝑤 , Biot number Bi, and material parameter 𝑛,
𝐴 24 = 0, computations were carried out in the cases of B = 1.0,
Pr = 0.71, and Sc = 0.22.
𝐴 31 = diag [𝑐1,𝑟 ] , The effects of the coupling number 𝑁 on the dimension-
less velocity, microrotation, temperature, and concentration
𝐴 32 = 0,
are illustrated in Figures 2(a)–2(d) with fixed values of
1 2 other parameters. The coupling number 𝑁 characterizes the
𝐴 33 = D + diag [𝑐2,𝑟 ] D, coupling of linear and rotational motion arising from the
Pr
Advances in High Energy Physics 9

0.6 0.1
Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5
0.5 0.0

−0.1
0.4
−0.2
0.3 g
f󳰀

−0.3
0.2
−0.4

0.1
−0.5
Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5
0.0 −0.6
0 4 8 12 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.0, N = 0.0 n = 0.5, N = 0.6 n = 0.0, N = 0.0 n = 0.5, N = 0.6


n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9 n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9
n = 0.5, N = 0.3 n = 0.5, N = 0.3
(a) (b)
0.16 1.0
Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5 Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5

0.8
0.12

0.6
𝜃 0.08 𝜙
0.4

0.04
0.2

0.00 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.0, N = 0.0 n = 0.5, N = 0.6 n = 0.0, N = 0.0 n = 0.5, N = 0.6


n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9 n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9
n = 0.5, N = 0.3 n = 0.5, N = 0.3
(c) (d)

Figure 2: Effect of 𝑁 on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

Table 2: Comparison of −𝜃󸀠 (0) for free convection flow in a fluid particles. In the case of 𝑁 = 0 (i.e., as 𝜅 tends to
micropolar fluid obtained by Nazar et al. [37] when 𝑛 = 0.5, B = 0, zero) the micropolarity is absent and fluid becomes nonpolar
Pr = 1, Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0. fluid. With a large value of 𝑁 effect of microstructure
becomes significant, whereas with a diminished value of 𝑁
𝑁 Nazar et al. [37] Present the individuality of the substructure is much less articulated.
0.00 0.4214 0.4214 As 𝑁 increases, it is found from Figure 2(a) that the max-
0.33 0.3991 0.3990 imum velocity decreases in amplitude and the location of
the maximum velocity moves farther away from the wall.
0.50 0.3834 0.3834
Since 𝑁 → 0 corresponds to viscous fluid, the velocity in
0.60 0.3709 0.3709 case of a micropolar fluid has been less compared to that
0.66 0.3608 0.3608 of viscous fluid case. It can be observed from Figure 2(b)
0.71 0.3522 0.3522
that, as 𝑁 increases, initially microrotation profiles tend to
become flatter and then approach their free stream values
0.75 0.3447 0.3447 far away from the wall. This happens due to the vanishing
10 Advances in High Energy Physics

0.1
0.6 fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5
0.0
0.5
−0.1
0.4
−0.2
0.3 g
f󳰀

−0.3

0.2
−0.4

0.1 −0.5
fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5
0.0 −0.6
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10
𝜂 𝜂

Bi = 0.1 Bi = 5.0 Bi = 0.1 Bi = 5.0


Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0 Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0
(a) (b)
1.0 1.0
fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5 fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6
𝜃 𝜙
0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
𝜂 𝜂

Bi = 0.1 Bi = 5.0 Bi = 0.1 Bi = 5.0


Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0 Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0
(c) (d)

Figure 3: Effect of Bi on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

of antisymmetric part of the stress on the boundary that plate takes place. Figure 3(a) depicts fluid velocity profiles
corresponds to a weak concentration of microelements. This for different values of the Biot number with 𝑁 = 0.5, 𝑓𝑤 =
is because an increment in the value of 𝑁 implies a higher 0.5, and 𝑛 = 0.5. Generally, fluid velocity is zero at plate
vortex viscosity of fluid which promotes the microrotation surface and increases gradually away from plate to free stream
of micropolar fluids. It is seen from Figures 2(c) and 2(d) value satisfying boundary conditions. It is interesting to note
that thermal and concentration boundary layers of the that an increase in the intensity of convective surface heat
fluid increase with increase in coupling number 𝑁. Hence, transfer Bi produces significant enhancement in fluid velocity
temperature and concentration in case of micropolar fluids within the momentum boundary layer. In Figure 3(b), we
are more than those of the viscous fluid case. bring out the behavior of microrotation with different values
The Biot number Bi is the ratio of internal thermal of Biot number Bi for fixed values of other parameters. As the
resistance of a solid to boundary layer thermal resistance. parameter value Bi increases microrotation showing reverse
When Bi = 0 the plate is totally insulated, internal thermal rotation near the two boundaries. Hence, the condition of
resistance of the plate is extremely high, and no convective vanishing of antisymmetric part of the stress on the boundary
heat transfer to the cold fluid on the upper part of the results in a drastic change of the microrotation profiles.
Advances in High Energy Physics 11

0.7 0.1
N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5 N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5
0.6
0.0

0.5
−0.1
0.4
g
f󳰀

0.3 −0.2

0.2 −0.3

0.1
−0.4
0.0
0 3 6 9 12 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
𝜂 𝜂

fw = −0.5 fw = 1.0 fw = −0.5 fw = 1.0


fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0 fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0

(a) (b)
0.30 1.0
N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5 N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5
0.25
0.8

0.20
0.6

𝜃 0.15 𝜙
0.4
0.10

0.2
0.05

0.00 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 3 6 9 12
𝜂 𝜂

fw = −0.5 fw = 1.0 fw = −0.5 fw = 1.0


fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0 fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0

(c) (d)

Figure 4: Effect of 𝑓𝑤 on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

Given that convective heating increases with Biot number, The effect of 𝑓𝑤 on velocity profile is depicted in
Bi → ∞ simulates the isothermal surface which is clearly Figure 4(a). Here, 𝑓𝑤 > 0 represents suction and 𝑓𝑤 < 0
seen from Figure 3(c), where 𝜃(0) = 1 as Bi → ∞. In denotes injection. The lower velocity is noticed in case of suc-
fact, a high Biot number indicates higher internal thermal tion when compared to case of injection. From Figure 4(b),
resistance of the plate than boundary layer thermal resistance. we note that microrotation is showing reverse rotation near
In this fluid temperature is maximum at the plate surface two boundaries with both suction and injection parame-
and decreases exponentially to zero value far out from the ter. The dimensionless temperature for different values of
plate satisfying boundary conditions. As a consequence, an suction/injection parameters is drawn in Figure 4(c). It is
increment in the Biot number leads to increase of fluid readable that the temperature of the fluid is more in case of
temperature efficiency. Figure 3(d) illustrates the variation of injection, whereas it is less in case of suction in comparison
dimensionless concentration for different values of Bi. It is with the impermeable surface case (𝑓𝑤 = 0). Figure 4(d)
clear that the concentration of fluid decreases with increase demonstrates dimensionless concentration for different val-
of Bi. ues of suction/injection parameters. It is determined that the
12 Advances in High Energy Physics

0.6

Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5 0.0


0.5
−0.2
0.4
−0.4
0.3 g
f󳰀

−0.6
0.2
−0.8
0.1
−1.0 Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10
𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.0 n = 1.0 n = 0.0 n = 1.0


n = 0.5 n = 0.5
(a) (b)
0.15 1.0
Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5 Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.12 0.8

0.09 0.6
𝜃 𝜙
0.06 0.4

0.03 0.2

0.00 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.0 n = 1.0 n = 0.0 n = 1.0


n = 0.5 n = 0.5
(c) (d)

Figure 5: Effect of material parameter 𝑛 on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

concentration of fluid is more with injection, whereas it is less location of the minimum velocity moves farther away from
with suction when compared to the impermeable surface case the wall. From Figure 5(b), we observe that the microrotation
(𝑓𝑤 = 0). As a finale, the thermal and solutal boundary layer is decreasing with increasing value of material parameter
thicknesses increase in case of injection compared to case of 𝑛 within the boundary layer. It is clear from Figures 5(c)-
suction as displayed in Figures 4(c) and 4(d). 5(d) that the thermal and solutal boundary layer thicknesses
In Figures 5(a)–5(d), the effect of material parameter decrease with increase of material parameter 𝑛.
𝑛 on dimensionless velocity, microrotation, temperature, The variations of −𝜃󸀠 (0) and −𝜙󸀠 (0) versus coupling
and concentration is presented for fixed values of other number 𝑁 are shown in Figures 6–8. It can be noticed from
parameters, since the material parameter 𝑛 signifies the these figures that the heat and mass transfer coefficients
microrotation effects (i.e., for 𝑛 = 0, particles are not free are less in case of micropolar fluids when compared to the
to revolve near the surface whereas, as 𝑛 increases from 0 to viscous fluids. This is because as 𝑁 increases, the thermal
1, the microrotation term gets augmented and induces flow and solutal boundary layer thicknesses become larger, thus
enhancement). As 𝑛 increases, it is found from Figure 5(a) giving rise to a small value of local heat and mass transfer
that the minimum velocity increases in amplitude and the rates. The effect of the Biot number Bi with fixed 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5
Advances in High Energy Physics 13

0.7
0.32
0.6

0.5 0.30
Nu x Gr−1/4

0.4

Shx Gr−1/4
x

x
0.28
0.3

0.2
fw = 0.5, n = 0.5 0.26
0.1
fw = 0.5, n = 0.5
0.0 0.24
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
N N

Bi = 0.1 Bi = 5.0 Bi = 0.1 Bi = 5.0


Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0 Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0
(a) (b)

Figure 6: Effect of Bi on (a) heat transfer rate and (b) mass transfer rate.

0.10 0.6
Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5

0.09 0.5

0.08 0.4
Nu x Gr−1/4

Shx Gr−1/4
x

0.07 0.3

0.06 0.2
Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5

0.05 0.1
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
N N

fw = −0.5 fw = 1.0 fw = −0.5 fw = 1.0


fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0 fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0

(a) (b)

Figure 7: Effect of 𝑓𝑤 on (a) heat transfer rate and (b) mass transfer rate.

and 𝑛 = 0.5 on local heat transfer coefficient is exhibited 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5 on local heat and mass transfer coefficients. Figure 8
in Figure 6. It is found from Figure 6 that local heat transfer reveals that the local heat and mass transfer coefficients are
rate increases nonlinearly with the increase in Biot number enhanced by the increase in material parameter 𝑛. This is
Bi. The influence of the Biot number Bi on local mass transfer because when 𝑛 increases from 0 to 1, the microrotation term
coefficient is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6 reveals that the local gets augmented and induces flow enhancement.
mass transfer coefficient is enhanced by the growth in the The variations of 𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4𝑥
and 𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2 𝑥
, which are
Biot number Bi. In Figure 7, the effect of the suction/injection proportional to the coefficients of skin friction and wall
parameter 𝑓𝑤 with fixed Bi = 0.1 and 𝑛 = 0.5 on local heat couple stress, are shown in Table 3 with different values of
and mass transfer coefficients is displayed. It is found from the coupling number 𝑁 for fixed 𝑛 = 0.5, 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5, and
Figure 7 that the local heat and mass transfer coefficients are Bi = 0.1. It indicates that the skin friction factor is higher
less in the case of injection 𝑓𝑤 < 0 in comparison with the for micropolar fluid than the viscous fluids (𝑁 = 0). Since
case of suction 𝑓𝑤 > 0. Figure 8 is prepared to analyze the micropolar fluids offer a heavy resistance (resulting from
effect of the material parameter 𝑛 with fixed Bi = 0.1 and vortex viscosity) to fluid movement and cause larger skin
14 Advances in High Energy Physics

0.087

0.30

0.086
0.28

Shx Gr−1/4
Nu x Gr−1/4

x
x

0.085
0.26

0.084 0.24
fw = 0.5, Bi = 0.1 fw = 0.5, Bi = 0.1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
N N

n = 0.0 n = 1.0 n = 0.0 n = 1.0


n = 0.5 n = 0.5
(a) (b)

Figure 8: Effect of material parameter 𝑛 on (a) heat transfer rate and (b) mass transfer rate.

Table 3: Effects of skin friction and wall couple stress for varying 𝑁 = 0.5 is illustrated in Table 3. It can be noticed that the
values of Biot numbers Bi, micropolar parameter 𝑁, material skin friction and wall couple stress coefficients are increasing
parameter 𝑛, and suction/injection parameter 𝑓𝑤 . with increase of Bi for fixed values of other parameters.
This notice is consistent with physical profiles presented in
𝑁 Bi 𝑓𝑤 𝑛 𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4
𝑥 𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2
𝑥
Figure 3. The effects of suction/injection parameter on the
0.1 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.424227 0.63279 skin friction and wall couple stress coefficients are also shown
0.3 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.502716 0.639966 in Table 3. It is noted that the skin friction and wall couple
0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.647987 0.630863 stress coefficients are less with injection case, whereas they
0.7 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.943561 0.603879 are more with suction case when compared to the case of
0.9 0.1 0.5 0.5 3.874631 0.550891 impermeable surface. Finally, the detailed behavior of the
0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.647987 0.630863 material parameter 𝑛 is given in Table 3. The skin friction
0.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 3.211755 0.805879 decreases and wall couple stress increases with increase of
0.5 5.0 0.5 0.5 3.533141 0.908078 material parameter 𝑛.
0.5 20.0 0.5 0.5 3.629791 0.939137
0.5 0.1 −0.5 0.5 2.426265 0.336219 8. Conclusions
0.5 0.1 0.0 0.5 2.530014 0.465429
In this composition, the similarity solution of the free convec-
0.5 0.1 1.0 0.5 2.737553 0.820899
tion flow on a permeable vertical plate of a micropolar fluid
0.5 0.1 2.0 0.5 2.721244 1.193596
under the convective boundary condition is obtained using
0.5 0.1 0.5 0.0 2.916655 −0.289339 Lie group transformations. Using the similarity variables, the
0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.647987 0.630863 governing equations are transformed into a set of nondi-
0.5 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.232556 2.066191 mensional parabolic equations. These equations are solved
numerically using spectral quasi-linearisation method. The
numerical computation is carried out for various values of
nondimensional physical parameters. The main findings are
friction factor compared to viscous fluid, the results as well summarized as follows:
suggest larger values of coupling number 𝑁 and lower wall
couple stresses. Since the skin friction coefficient 𝑓󸀠󸀠 (0) and (i) The numerical results indicate that velocity distribu-
wall couple stress coefficient as well as high temperature and tion is less near the plate but it is more far away from
mass transport rates are more depressed in the micropolar the plate; the wall couple stress coefficient and rate of
fluid comparing to the viscous fluid, which may be beneficial heat and mass transfers are lower but the temperature
in flow, temperature, and concentration control of polymer and concentration distributions and the skin friction
processing, thus, the presence of microscopic effects arising coefficient are higher for the micropolar fluids in
from the local structure and of the fluid elements reduces the comparison with those of viscous fluids. Also, the
high temperature and mass transfer coefficients. The effect reverse rotation of microrotation near two boundaries
of Bi on 𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4
𝑥
and 𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2𝑥
for 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5, 𝑛 = 0.5, and is found with the increasing value of 𝑁.
Advances in High Energy Physics 15

(ii) An increase in Biot number Bi decreases concen- [6] H. T. Alkasasbeh, M. Z. Salleh, R. M. Tahar, and R. Nazar,
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in Biot number Bi enhances velocity distribution vectively heated vertical plate,” International Journal of Thermal
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of microrotation near two boundaries within the Birkhäauser, Basel, Switzerland, 1999.
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(iii) Less velocity, temperature, and concentration distri-
[10] G. Ahmadi, “Self-similar solution of imcompressible micropo-
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wall. [12] D. Srinivasacharya and C. RamReddy, “Effect of double stratifi-
(iv) It is found that microrotation, temperature, and con- cation on mixed convection in a micropolar fluid,” Matematika,
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a stretching/shrinking sheet in a micropolar fluid with a
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests convective surface boundary condition,” The Canadian Journal
regarding the publication of this paper. of Chemical Engineering, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 621–626, 2012.
[16] K. Zaimi and A. Ishak, “Stagnation-point flow and heat transfer
Acknowledgment over a nonlinearly stretching/shrinking sheet in a micropolar
fluid,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2014, Article ID
The authors are thankful to the reviewers for their valuable 261630, 6 pages, 2014.
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Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
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