0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

0 Aufrufe17 Seiten£zxdtcfyigvuohijnomkl;xctyvgubhnjkml,

Feb 11, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

£zxdtcfyigvuohijnomkl;xctyvgubhnjkml,

© All Rights Reserved

0 Aufrufe

£zxdtcfyigvuohijnomkl;xctyvgubhnjkml,

© All Rights Reserved

- Thermal and Fluids_engineering Syllabus m. Tech
- Module 6: Short Questions
- HMT
- 1-s2.0-S0735193310002496-main
- Chapter 19 - Engineering Data Book III
- Effect of Hall Currents, Thermal Radiation and Radiation Absorption on Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Flow Past a Stretching Sheet
- Convection
- OE 2060 - ppt1
- Heat Exchangers
- Chapter 8 Combined
- Heat Chap08 001
- Coat
- Thermodynamics and Propulsion
- HMT.Qustion ban ME1251.pdf
- Combined Effects of Stress Work and Heat Generation on Mhd Natural Convection Flow Along a Vertical Flat Plate With Power Law Variation of Uniform Surface Temperature
- Comparison of Simplified Models in the Prediction of Two Phase Flow in Pipelines, 2010
- Heat Exchanger Analysis
- Batchelor 1 Flow
- Fluid
- Seyed Mostafa Ghiaasiaan -Convective Heat and Mass Transfer-Cambridge University Press (2011).pdf

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

Volume 2015, Article ID 650813, 16 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/650813

Research Article

Similarity Solution for Free Convection Flow of

a Micropolar Fluid under Convective Boundary Condition via

Lie Scaling Group Transformations

Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506004, India

Copyright © 2015 Ch. RamReddy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The

publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3 .

The free convective flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid along permeable vertical plate under the convective boundary

condition is investigated. The Lie scaling group of transformations is applied to get the similarity representation for the system

of partial differential equations and then the resulting systems of equations are solved using spectral quasi-linearisation method.

A quantitative comparison of the numerical results is made with previously published results for special cases and the results are

found to be in good agreement. The results of the physical parameters on the developments of flow, temperature, concentration,

skinfriction, wall couple stress, heat transfer, and mass transfer characteristics along vertical plate are given and the salient features

are discussed.

In the presence of an internal heat generation local similarity

In the past few decades, most of the researchers considered solution for free convection heat transfer from a moving

convective heat transfer problems with either constant wall vertical plate with the convective boundary condition is

temperature (CWT), constant heat flux (CHF), or Newtonian discussed by Makinde [3]. The laminar natural convection

heating (NH) in a Newtonian and/or non-Newtonian fluid. flow over a semi-infinite moving vertical plate under the

Recently, a novel mechanism for the heating process has convective boundary condition is examined by Ibrahim and

drawn the involvement of many researchers, namely, convec- Bhashar Reddy [4]. RamReddy et al. [5] investigated the

tive boundary condition (CBC), where the heat is supplied to influence of the prominent Soret effect on mixed convection

the convecting fluid through a bounding surface with a finite in a nanofluid under the convective boundary conditions. The

heat capacity. Further, this results in the heat transfer rate nonsimilar result has been presented for the free convection

through the surface being proportional to the local difference boundary layer flow along a solid sphere under the convective

in temperature with the ambient conditions (Merkin [1]). boundary conditions by Alkasasbeh et al. [6]. More recently,

Besides, it is more general and realistic, particularly in various a note on the natural convection along convectively heated

technologies and industrial operations such as transpiration vertical plate is given by Pantokratoras [7].

cooling process, textile drying, and laser pulse heating. Aziz One of the best established theories of fluids with

[2] reported similarity solution for thermal boundary layer microstructure is the theory of micropolar fluids and this

flow over a flat plate in a uniform stream of fluid with theory can be found in the books by Lukaszewicz [8] and

the convective boundary condition and he concluded that a Eremeyev et al. [9]. It has gathered a good deal of attention

similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer due to the obvious reasons that the Navier Stokes equation for

related to hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is Newtonian fluids cannot successfully explain the attributes of

2 Advances in High Energy Physics

fluids with a substructure. Physically, the micropolar fluids boundary condition has not been investigated so far. Moti-

may be treated as non-Newtonian fluids consisting of dumb- vated by all these works, this paper attempts to present the

bell molecules or rigid cylindrical element, polymer fluids, new similarity transformations and corresponding similarity

fluid suspension, animal blood, and so forth. Further, the solution to investigate the free convection flow of a micropo-

theory of micropolar fluids includes microrotation as well lar fluid under the convective boundary condition using the

as microinertia effects. This theory studies viscous fluids in Lie group transformations. The mathematical model involv-

which microconstituents are rigid and spherical or randomly ing the convective boundary conditions becomes slightly

oriented as well. The subject of free convection boundary more complicated leading to the complex interactions of the

layer flow in a micropolar fluid has been keyed out by flow, heat, and mass transfer mechanism. Further, the analyt-

several investigators due to its immense applications in the ical solution is out of scope in the present set-up and hence a

engineering problems such as solar energy collecting devices, numerical solution is obtained for the current problem. Also,

air conditioning of a room, material processing, and passive the influence of important parameters, namely, micropolar,

suction/injection, and convective heat transfer parameters,

cooling of nuclear reactors. The boundary layer flow over

on the physical quantities of the flow, heat, and mass transfer

a semi-infinite flat plate is considered for analyzing theory

rates is analyzed in different flow situations.

of micropolar fluid and its application to low concentration

suspension flow by Ahmadi [10]. Rees and Pop [11] discussed

the free convection boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid 2. Mathematical Formulation

from a vertical flat plate. The nonsimilarity transformations Consider the steady, laminar, and free convective flow of

are used to analyze the effects of double stratification on an incompressible micropolar fluid with the free stream

free/mixed convective transport in a micropolar fluid by temperature and concentration, 𝑇∞ and 𝐶∞ , respectively.

Srinivasacharya and RamReddy [12–14] (also see the ref- Choose the coordinate system such that the 𝑥-axis is along

erences cited therein). The problems of a steady laminar the vertical plate and 𝑦-axis normal to the plate, as shown

stagnation point flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet in Figure 1. The suction/injection velocity distribution is

in an incompressible micropolar fluid under the convective assumed to be V𝑤 . The plate is either heated or cooled from

surface boundary condition are discussed by Yacob and Ishak left by convection from a fluid of temperature 𝑇𝑓 with 𝑇𝑓 >

[15] and Zaimi and Ishak [16]. Merely from the literature, it 𝑇∞ corresponding to a heated surface (assisting flow) and

is noted that the majority of the researchers have found the 𝑇𝑓 < 𝑇∞ corresponding to a cooled surface (opposing flow),

local similarity or nonsimilarity solutions for the problems respectively. On the wall concentration is taken to be constant

involving convective boundary conditions, since most of the and is given by 𝐶𝑤 .

researchers have taken a convective heat transfer coefficient By employing Boussinesq approximation and making

as a function 𝑥 for getting the similarity solutions in their use of the standard boundary layer approximations, the

problems. Nevertheless, the assumption of a heat transfer governing equations for the micropolar fluid [10] are given

coefficient varying along the plate as a function of 𝑥 is not by

realistic and very difficult to be obtained in practice. For that

cause, it could be supposed that the above works have only 𝜕𝑢 𝜕V

+ = 0, (1)

theoretical value. 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

In the recent past, several researchers are focused on

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑢

obtaining the similarity solutions of the convective transport 𝜌 (𝑢 +V )

phenomena problems arising in fluid dynamics, aerodynam- 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

ics, plasma physics, meteorology, and some branches of engi-

𝜕2 𝑢 𝜕𝜔 (2)

neering by using different procedures. One such procedure = (𝜇 + 𝜅) 2

+𝜅

is Lie group analysis. The concept of Lie group analysis also 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

called symmetry analysis is developed by Sophius Lie to

+ 𝜌𝑔∗ (𝛽𝑇 (𝑥) (𝑇 − 𝑇∞ ) + 𝛽𝐶 (𝑥) (𝐶 − 𝐶∞ )) ,

determine transformations which map a given differential

equation to itself and it unifies almost all known exact 𝜕𝜔 𝜕𝜔 𝜕2 𝜔 𝜕𝑢

integration techniques (see [17–19]). It provides a potent, 𝜌𝑗 (𝑢 + V ) = 𝛾 2 − 𝜅 (2𝜔 + ) , (3)

sophisticated, and systematic tool for generating the invariant 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

solutions of the system of nonlinear partial differential equa-

𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕2 𝑇

tions (PDEs) with relevant initial or boundary conditions. 𝑢 +V = 𝛼 2, (4)

A special form of Lie group transformations, known as the 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

scaling group, has been suggested by various researchers to

𝜕𝐶 𝜕𝐶 𝜕2 𝐶

study convection flows of different flow phenomena (see 𝑢 +V =𝐷 2, (5)

Tapanidis et al. [20], Hassanien and Hamad [21], Kandasamy 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

et al. [22], Aziz et al. [23], Mutlag et al. [24], etc.; they are where 𝑢 and V are the velocity components in 𝑥 and 𝑦

worth observing). directions, respectively, 𝜔 is the component of microrotation

From the literature survey, it seems that the problem of whose direction of rotation lies in the 𝑥 𝑦-plane, 𝑇 is the

the free convective heat and mass transport along permeable temperature, 𝐶 is the concentration, 𝑔∗ is the acceleration

vertical plate in a micropolar fluid under the convective due to gravity, 𝜌 is the density, 𝜇 is the dynamic coefficient

Advances in High Energy Physics 3

x 3. Nondimensionalization of

g ∗ the Governing Equations

u=0 Introduce the following dimensionless variables:

= w 𝑥

𝑥= ,

T → T∞ 𝐿

𝝏T

−k = hf (Tf − T) u 𝑦

𝝏y C → C∞ 𝑦 = Gr1/4 ,

𝐿

C = Cw 𝐿

𝑢= 𝑢,

]Gr1/2

𝐿

V= V,

]Gr1/4 (7)

2

𝐿

𝜔= 𝜔,

]Gr3/4

y

𝑇 − 𝑇∞

𝜃= ,

Figure 1: Physical model and coordinate system. 𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞

𝐶 − 𝐶∞

𝜙= ,

𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞

of viscosity, 𝛽𝑇 (𝑥) is the volumetric coefficient of thermal

expansion, 𝛽𝐶(𝑥) is the volumetric coefficient of solutal where Gr = 𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇0 (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ )𝐿3 /]2 is the Grashof number.

expansions, 𝜅 is the vortex viscosity, 𝑗 is the microinertia In view of the continuity equation (1), we introduce the

density, 𝛾 is the spin-gradient viscosity, 𝛼 is the thermal stream function 𝜓 by

diffusivity, and 𝐷 is the solutal diffusivity of the medium.

The boundary conditions are 𝜕𝜓

𝑢= ,

𝜕𝑦

𝑢 = 0, (8)

𝜕𝜓

V = V𝑤 , V=− .

𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑢 Using (7) and (8) into (2)–(5), we get the following momen-

𝜔 = −𝑛 ,

𝜕𝑦 tum, angular momentum, energy, and concentration equa-

(6a) tions:

𝜕𝑇

−𝑘 = ℎ𝑓 (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇) ,

𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝜓 𝜕2 𝜓 𝜕𝜓 𝜕2 𝜓 1 𝜕3 𝜓 𝜕𝜔

Δ1 = − − ( ) [ −𝑁 ]

𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦2 1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦3 𝜕𝑦

𝐶 = 𝐶𝑤 ,

𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇 (𝑥) (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ) 𝐿3

at 𝑦 = 0, − 𝜃

]2 Gr

𝑢 = 0,

𝑔∗ 𝛽𝐶 (𝑥) (𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ ) 𝐿3

− 𝜙 = 0,

𝜔 = 0, ]2 Gr

𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜔 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜔 2 − 𝑁 𝜕2 𝜔

𝑇 = 𝑇∞ , (6b) Δ2 = − −( )

𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 2 − 2𝑁 𝜕𝑦2

𝐶 = 𝐶∞ , 𝑁 𝜕2 𝜓

+( ) [2𝜔 + 2 ] = 0,

as 𝑦 → ∞, 1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦

(9)

𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜃 1 𝜕2 𝜃

where subscripts 𝑤 and ∞ indicate the conditions at the wall Δ3 = − − = 0,

𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 Pr 𝜕𝑦2

and at the outer edge of the boundary layer, respectively, ℎ𝑓

is the convective heat transfer coefficient, 𝑘 is the thermal 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜙 𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜙 1 𝜕2 𝜙

Δ4 = − − = 0.

conductivity of the fluid, and 𝑛 is a material constant. Further, 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 Sc 𝜕𝑦2

we follow the work of many recent authors by assuming that

𝛾 = (𝜇 + 𝜅/2)𝑗. This assumption is invoked to allow the field In usual definitions, ] is the kinematic viscosity, Pr = ]/𝛼 is

of equations to predict the correct behavior in the limiting the Prandtl number, Sc = ]/𝐷 is the Schmidt number, 𝑁 =

case when the microstructure effects become negligible and 𝜅/(𝜇 + 𝜅) (0 ≤ 𝑁 < 1) is the coupling number [25], and the

the total spin 𝜔 reduces to the angular velocity [10]. microinertia density is taken to be 𝑗 = 𝐿2 /Gr1/2 .

4 Advances in High Energy Physics

Now boundary conditions (6a) and (6b) become in (11) may be treated as a point transformation, transforming

the coordinates

𝜕𝜓

= 0, (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝜓, 𝜔, 𝜃, 𝜙, 𝛽𝑇 , 𝛽𝐶)

𝜕𝑦

(12)

𝜕𝜓 = (𝑥∗ , 𝑦∗ , 𝜓∗ , 𝜔∗ , 𝜃∗ , 𝜙∗ , 𝛽𝑇∗ , 𝛽𝐶∗ ) .

= 𝑓𝑤 ,

𝜕𝑥

We now investigate the relationship among the exponents 𝛼𝑖

2 (where 𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8) such that

𝜕𝜓

𝜔 = −𝑛 , (10a)

𝜕𝑦2

𝜕 3 𝜓∗

Δ 𝑗 [𝑥∗ , 𝑦∗ , 𝑢∗ , V∗ , . . . , ]

𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑦∗ 3

= − Bi (1 − 𝜃) ,

𝜕𝑦

𝜕3 𝜓

𝜙 = 1, = 𝐻𝑗 [𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑢, V, . . . , ; 𝑎] (13)

𝜕𝑦3

at 𝑦 = 0, 𝜕3 𝜓

𝜕𝜓 ⋅ Δ 𝑗 [𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑢, V, . . . , ], (𝑗 = 1, 2, 3, 4) .

= 0, 𝜕𝑦3

𝜕𝑦

This is the requirement that the differential forms Δ 1 , Δ 2 , Δ 3 ,

𝜔 = 0, and Δ 4 are conformally invariant under transformation (11).

(10b) Substituting transformations (11) in (9), we have

𝜃 = 0,

𝜙 = 0, 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕2 𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕2 𝜓∗

Δ 1 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +2𝛼2 −2𝛼3 ) ( − )

𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗ 2

as 𝑦 → ∞,

1 𝜕 3 𝜓∗

1/4

where 𝑓𝑤 = −(𝐿/]Gr )V𝑤 is the suction/injection parame- −( ) 𝑒𝜀(3𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) ∗ 3

1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦

ter. It is worth mentioning that 𝑓𝑤 determines the transpira-

tion rate at the surface, with 𝑓𝑤 > 0 for suction and 𝑓𝑤 < 0 for 𝑁 𝜕𝜔∗

injection, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0 corresponds to an impermeable surface. −( ) 𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼4 ) ∗ (14a)

1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦

Further, Bi = ℎ𝑓 𝐿/𝑘Gr1/4 is the Biot number. It is a ratio of

the internal thermal resistance of the plate to the boundary 𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇∗ (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ) 𝐿3

layer thermal resistance of the hot fluid at the bottom of the − 𝑒−𝜀(𝛼5 +𝛼7 ) 𝜃∗

]2 Gr

surface.

𝑔∗ 𝛽𝐶∗ (𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ ) 𝐿3 −𝜀(𝛼6 +𝛼8 ) ∗

− 𝑒 𝜙 = 0,

4. Similarity Equations via Lie Scaling Group ]2 Gr

Transformations 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜔∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜔∗

Δ 2 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +𝛼2 −𝛼3 −𝛼4 ) ( − )

𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗

A one-parameter Lie scaling group of transformations, which

is a simplified form of Lie group transformation, is selected as 2−𝑁 𝜕2 𝜔∗

(for more, see [26–31]) −( ) 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼4 ) ∗ 2

2 − 2𝑁 𝜕𝑦 (14b)

Γ : 𝑥∗ = 𝑥𝑒𝜀𝛼1 , 2 ∗

𝑁 𝜕𝜓

𝑦∗ = 𝑦𝑒𝜀𝛼2 , +( ) (2𝜔∗ 𝑒−𝜀𝛼4 + 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) ∗ 2 )

1−𝑁 𝜕𝑦

𝜓∗ = 𝜓𝑒𝜀𝛼3 ,

= 0,

∗ 𝜀𝛼4

𝜔 = 𝜔𝑒 ,

𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜃∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜃∗

(11) Δ 3 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +𝛼2 −𝛼3 −𝛼5 ) ( − )

𝜃∗ = 𝜃𝑒𝜀𝛼5 , 𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗

(14c)

𝜙∗ = 𝜙𝑒𝜀𝛼6 , 1 𝜕2 𝜃∗

− 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼5 ) ( ∗ 2 ) = 0,

Pr 𝜕𝑦

𝛽𝑇∗ = 𝛽𝑇 𝑒𝜀𝛼7 ,

𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜙∗ 𝜕𝜓∗ 𝜕𝜙∗

𝛽𝐶∗ = 𝛽𝐶𝑒𝜀𝛼8 . Δ 4 = 𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 +𝛼2 −𝛼3 −𝛼6 ) ( − )

𝜕𝑦∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑥∗ 𝜕𝑦∗

Here 𝜀 ≠ 0 is the parameter of the group and 𝛼𝑖 (where (14d)

1 𝜕2 𝜙∗

𝑖 = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8) are arbitrary real numbers whose interrela- − 𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼6 ) ( ∗ 2 ) = 0.

tionship will be determined by our analysis. Transformations Sc 𝜕𝑦

Advances in High Energy Physics 5

Now, boundary conditions (10a) and (10b) become Expanding by the Taylor series in power of 𝜀, keeping the term

up to the first degree (neglecting higher power of 𝜀), we get

𝜕𝜓∗

𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) = 0, 𝑥∗ − 𝑥 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝑥,

𝜕𝑦∗

𝜕𝜓∗ 𝑦∗ = 𝑦,

𝑒𝜀(𝛼1 −𝛼3 ) ∗ = 𝑓𝑤 ,

𝜕𝑥 𝜓∗ − 𝜓 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝜓,

𝜕 2 𝜓∗

𝑒−𝜀𝛼4 𝜔∗ = − 𝑛𝑒𝜀(2𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) ∗ 2 , (15a) 𝜔∗ − 𝜔 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝜔,

𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝜃 ∗ (19)

𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼5 ) ∗ = − Bi (1 − 𝑒−𝜀𝛼5 𝜃∗ ) , 𝜃∗ = 𝜃,

𝜕𝑦

𝜙∗ = 𝜙,

𝑒−𝜀𝛼6 𝜙∗ = 1,

at 𝑦∗ = 0, 𝛽𝑇∗ − 𝛽𝑇 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝛽𝑇 ,

𝜕𝜓∗

𝑒𝜀(𝛼2 −𝛼3 ) = 0, 𝛽𝐶∗ − 𝛽𝐶 = 𝜀𝛼1 𝛽𝐶.

𝜕𝑦∗

The characteristic equations are

𝑒−𝜀𝛼4 𝜔∗ = 0,

(15b) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝜓 𝑑𝜔 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜙 𝑑𝛽𝑇

𝑒−𝜀𝛼5 𝜃∗ = 0, = = = = = =

𝛼1 𝑥 0 𝛼1 𝜓 𝛼1 𝜔 0 0 𝛼1 𝛽𝑇

𝑒−𝜀𝛼6 𝜙∗ = 0, (20)

as 𝑦∗ → ∞. 𝑑𝛽𝐶

= .

𝛼1 𝛽𝐶

The system remains invariant under the group transforma-

tion Γ. We then have the following relationships for the Solving the above characteristic equations, we have the

parameters: following similarity transformations:

𝜂 = 𝑦,

𝛼1 + 2𝛼2 − 2𝛼3 = 3𝛼2 − 𝛼3 = 𝛼2 − 𝛼4 = − 𝛼5 − 𝛼7

= − 𝛼6 − 𝛼8 ; 𝜓 = 𝑥𝑓 (𝜂) ,

𝛼1 + 𝛼2 − 𝛼3 − 𝛼4 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼4 = − 𝛼4 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼3 ;

𝜔 = 𝑥𝑔 (𝜂) ,

𝛼1 + 𝛼2 − 𝛼3 − 𝛼5 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼5 ;

𝛼1 + 𝛼2 − 𝛼3 − 𝛼6 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼6 ; 𝛽𝑇 = 𝛽𝑇0 𝑥, (21)

(16)

𝛼1 − 𝛼3 = 0; 𝛽𝐶 = 𝛽𝐶0 𝑥,

− 𝛼4 = 2𝛼2 − 𝛼3 ; 𝜃 = 𝜃 (𝜂) ,

𝛼2 − 𝛼5 = 0 = − 𝛼5 ;

𝜙 = 𝜙 (𝜂) ,

𝛼6 = 0.

where 𝛽𝑇0 and 𝛽𝐶0 are constant thermal and mass coefficient

Solving linear system (16), we have the following relationship of expansion.

among the exponents: Using (21) into (9), we get the following similarity

equations:

𝛼1 = 𝛼3 = 𝛼4 = 𝛼7 = 𝛼8 ,

(17) 1 𝑁

𝛼2 = 𝛼5 = 𝛼6 = 0. ( ) 𝑓 + 𝑓𝑓 − 𝑓2 + ( ) 𝑔 + 𝜃 + B𝜙

1−𝑁 1−𝑁

The set of transformations Γ reduces to = 0,

𝑥∗ = 𝑥𝑒𝜀𝛼1 , 2−𝑁 𝑁

( ) 𝑔 + 𝑓𝑔 − 𝑓 𝑔 − ( ) (2𝑔 + 𝑓 )

2 − 2𝑁 1−𝑁

𝑦∗ = 𝑦, (22)

∗ 𝜀𝛼1 = 0,

𝜓 = 𝜓𝑒 ,

∗ 𝜀𝛼1 1

𝜔 = 𝜔𝑒 , 𝜃 + 𝑓𝜃 = 0,

(18) Pr

𝜃∗ = 𝜃, 1

𝜙∗ = 𝜙, 𝜙 + 𝑓𝜙 = 0,

Sc

𝛽𝑇∗ = 𝛽𝑇 𝑒𝜀𝛼1 , where the primes indicate differentiation with respect to 𝜂

alone and B = 𝛽𝐶0 (𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ )/𝛽𝑇0 (𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ) is the buoyancy

𝛽𝐶∗ = 𝛽𝐶𝑒𝜀𝛼1 . ratio.

6 Advances in High Energy Physics

Boundary conditions (10a) and (10b) in terms of 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝜃, 6. Numerical Solution Using the Spectral

and 𝜙 become Quasi-Linearization Method (SQLM)

𝜂 = 0 : 𝑓 (0) = 𝑓𝑤 , In this section, we describe the quasi-linearization method

(QLM) for solving the governing system of (22) along

𝑓 (0) = 0, with boundary conditions (23a) and (23b). This QLM is

a generalization of the Newton-Raphson method and was

𝑔 (0) = − 𝑛𝑓 (0) , (23a) proposed by Bellman and Kalaba [32] for solving nonlinear

boundary value problems.

𝜃 (0) = − Bi [1 − 𝜃 (0)] , Assume that the solutions 𝑓𝑟 , 𝑔𝑟 , 𝜃𝑟 , and 𝜙𝑟 of (22) at the

𝜙 (0) = 1, (𝑟+1)th iteration are 𝑓𝑟+1 , 𝑔𝑟+1 , 𝜃𝑟+1 , and 𝜙𝑟+1 . If the solutions

at the previous iteration are sufficiently close to the solutions

𝜂 → ∞ : 𝑓 (∞) = 0, at the present iteration, the nonlinear components of (22)

can be linearised using one-term Taylor series of multiple

𝑔 (∞) = 0, variables so that (22) give the following iterative sequence of

(23b) linear differential equations:

𝜃 (∞) = 0,

1

( ) 𝑓 + 𝑎 𝑓 + 𝑎 𝑓 + 𝑎 𝑓

𝜙 (∞) = 0. 1 − 𝑁 𝑟+1 1,𝑟 𝑟+1 2,𝑟 𝑟+1 3,𝑟 𝑟+1

𝑁

5. Skin Friction, Wall Couple Stress, and Heat +( ) 𝑔 + 𝜃 + B𝜙𝑟+1 = 𝑅1,𝑟 ,

1 − 𝑁 𝑟+1 𝑟+1

and Mass Transfer Coefficients

2−𝑁

( ) 𝑔 + 𝑏 𝑔 + 𝑏 𝑔 + 𝑏 𝑓

The wall shear stress and the wall couple stress are 2 − 2𝑁 𝑟+1 3,𝑟 𝑟+1 4,𝑟 𝑟+1 1,𝑟 𝑟+1

(26)

𝑁

𝜕𝑢 + 𝑏2,𝑟 𝑓𝑟+1 − ( ) 𝑓 = 𝑅2,𝑟 ,

𝜏𝑤 = [(𝜇 + 𝜅) + 𝜅𝜔] , 1 − 𝑁 𝑟+1

𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0

(24a) 1

𝜕𝜔 𝑐1,𝑟 𝑓𝑟+1 + 𝜃 + 𝑐 𝜃 = 𝑅3,𝑟 ,

𝑚𝑤 = 𝛾 [ ] , Pr 𝑟+1 2,𝑟 𝑟+1

𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0 1

𝑑1,𝑟 𝑓𝑟+1 + 𝜙 + 𝑑2,𝑟 𝜙𝑟+1 = 𝑅4,𝑟 ,

and the heat and mass transfers from the plate, respectively, Sc 𝑟+1

are given by where the coefficients 𝑎𝑠1 ,𝑟 (𝑠1 = 1, 2, 3), 𝑏𝑠2 ,𝑟 (𝑠2 = 1, 2, . . . ,

4), 𝑐𝑠3 ,𝑟 (𝑠3 = 1, 2), 𝑑𝑠4 ,𝑟 (𝑠4 = 1, 2), and 𝑅𝑠5 ,𝑟 (𝑠5 = 1, 2, . . . ,

𝜕𝑇 4) are known functions (from previous iterations) and are

𝑞𝑤 = − 𝑘 [ ] , defined as

𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0

(24b) 𝑎1,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,

𝜕𝐶

𝑞𝑚 = − 𝐷 [ ] . 𝑎2,𝑟 = − 2𝑓𝑟 ,

𝜕𝑦 𝑦=0

𝑎3,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,

The nondimensional skin friction 𝐶𝑓 = 2𝜏𝑤 /𝜌𝑢2∗ , wall 2

𝑅1,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 𝑓𝑟 − (𝑓𝑟 ) ,

couple stress 𝑀𝑤 = 𝑚𝑤 /𝜌𝑢2∗ 𝑥, the local Nusselt number

𝑏1,𝑟 = − 𝑔𝑟 ,

𝑁𝑢𝑥 = 𝑞𝑤 𝑥/𝑘(𝑇𝑓 − 𝑇∞ ), and local Sherwood number Sh𝑥 =

𝑞𝑚 𝑥/𝐷(𝐶𝑤 − 𝐶∞ ) are given by 𝑏2,𝑟 = 𝑔𝑟 ,

𝑏3,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,

1 − 𝑛𝑁

𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4

𝑥 = 2( ) 𝑓 (0) , 2𝑁

1−𝑁 𝑏4,𝑟 = − 𝑓𝑟 − ( ),

1−𝑁 (27)

2−𝑁 = 𝑓𝑟 𝑔𝑟 − 𝑓𝑟 𝑔𝑟 ,

𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2

𝑥 =( ) 𝑔 (0) , 𝑅2,𝑟

2 − 2𝑁

𝑐1,𝑟 = 𝜃𝑟 ,

𝑁𝑢𝑥 (25)

= − 𝜃 (0) , 𝑐2,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,

Gr1/4

𝑥

𝑅3,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 𝜃𝑟 ,

Sh𝑥

= − 𝜙 (0) , 𝑑1,𝑟 = 𝜙𝑟 ,

Gr1/4

𝑥

𝑑2,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 ,

where 𝑢2∗ is the characteristic velocity and Gr𝑥 = 𝑔∗ 𝛽𝑇0 (𝑇𝑓 −

𝑇∞ )𝑥3 /]2 is the local Grashof number. 𝑅4,𝑟 = 𝑓𝑟 𝜙𝑟 ,

Advances in High Energy Physics 7

subject to boundary conditions where 𝜂∞ is the scaling parameter used to invoke the

boundary condition at infinity. The functions 𝑓, 𝑔, 𝜃, and 𝜙

are approximated at the collocation points by

𝑓𝑟+1 (0) = 𝑓𝑤 ,

𝑁

𝑓𝑟+1 = 0, 𝑓 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,

𝑘=0

𝑓𝑟+1 (∞) = 0, 𝑁

𝑔 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝑔 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,

𝑔𝑟+1 = − 𝑛𝑓𝑟+1 (0) ,

𝑘=0

𝜃 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝜃 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,

𝜃𝑟+1 (0) = − Bi (1 − 𝜃 (0)) , 𝑘=0

𝑁

𝜃𝑟+1 (∞) = 0, 𝜙 (𝜏) = ∑ 𝜙 (𝜏𝑘 ) 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏𝑗 ) ,

𝑘=0

𝜙𝑟+1 (0) = 1,

𝑗 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 𝑁,

𝜙𝑟+1 (∞) = 0.

where 𝑇𝑘 is the 𝑘th Chebyshev polynomial defined as

System (26) constitutes a linear system of coupled differen- 𝑇𝑘 (𝜏) = cos [𝑘 cos−1 (𝜏)] . (33)

tial equations with variable coefficients and can be solved

iteratively using any numerical method for 𝑟 = 1, 2, 3, . . .. The derivatives of the variables at the collocation points are

In this work, as will be discussed below, the Chebyshev represented as

pseudospectral method was used to solve the QLM scheme

𝑁

(26) (for more details, refer to the works of Motsa et al. 𝑑𝑝 𝑓 𝑝

[33, 34]): 𝑝

= ∑ D𝑙𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,

𝑑𝜂 𝑘=0

𝑁

𝑑𝑝 𝑔

𝑓0 (𝜂) = 𝑓𝑤 + 1 − 𝑒−𝜂 , = ∑

𝑝

D 𝑔 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,

𝑑𝜂𝑝 𝑘=0 𝑙𝑘

𝑔0 (𝜂) = − 𝑛𝑒−𝜂 , 𝑁

𝑑𝑝 𝜃 𝑝

(34)

Bi (29) = ∑ D 𝜃 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,

𝜃0 = 𝑒−𝜂 , 𝑑𝜂𝑝 𝑘=0 𝑙𝑘

Bi + 1

𝑁

𝑑𝑝 𝜙 𝑝

𝜙0 = 𝑒−𝜂 , 𝑝

= ∑ D𝑙𝑘 𝜙 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,

𝑑𝜂 𝑘=0

𝜃0 , and 𝜙0 , the iteration schemes (26) can be solved iteratively where 𝑝 is the order of the derivative and D = 2D/𝜂∞ is the

for 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜂), 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜂), 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜂), and 𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜂) when 𝑟 = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Chebyshev spectral differentiation matrix and its entries are

For this, we discretise the equation using the Chebyshev clearly defined in Canuto et al. [35].

spectral collocation method. The unknown functions are Substituting (31)–(34) into (26) leads to the matrix equa-

approximated by the Chebyshev interpolating polynomials tion

in such way that they are collocated at the Gauss-Lobatto

collocation points defined as 𝐴𝑋 = 𝑅, (35)

subject to the boundary conditions

𝜋𝑗

𝜏𝑗 = cos , 𝑗 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 𝑁, (30)

𝑁 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = 𝑓𝑤 ,

𝑁

𝑘=0

region [0, ∞) is transformed into the region [−1, 1] using the

domain truncation technique in which the problem is solved 𝑁

on the interval [0, 𝜂∞ ] instead of [0, ∞). This leads to the ∑ D0𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) = 0,

𝑘=0

mapping

𝑁

𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = − 𝑛 ∑ D2𝑁𝑘 𝑓 (𝜏𝑘 ) ,

𝜂 𝜏+1 𝑘=0

= , −1 ≤ 𝜏 ≤ 1, (31)

𝜂∞ 2 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) = 0,

8 Advances in High Energy Physics

∑ D𝑁𝑘 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑘 ) − Bi 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = − Bi, flat plate in Newtonian fluid when 𝑁 = 0, 𝑛 = 0, B = 0, Pr = 1,

𝑘=0 Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0.

𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) = 0,

Merkin [36] Nazar et al. [37] Molla et al. [38] Present

𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁) = 1,

0.4214 0.4214 0.4214 0.4214313

𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) = 0.

(36)

𝐴 34 = 0,

In (35) 𝐴 is a (4𝑁 + 4) × (4𝑁 + 4) square matrix and 𝑋 and 𝑅

𝐴 41 = diag [𝑑1,𝑟 ] ,

are (4𝑁 + 1) × 1 column vectors defined by

𝐴 11 𝐴 12 𝐴 13 𝐴 14 𝐴 42 = 0,

[ ]

[𝐴 21 𝐴 22 𝐴 23 𝐴 24 ] 𝐴 43 = 0,

𝐴=[

[𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 𝐴 ] ,

]

[ 31 32 33 34 ] 1 2

𝐴 44 = D + diag [𝑑2,𝑟 ] D,

[𝐴 41 𝐴 42 𝐴 43 𝐴 44 ] Sc

F𝑟+1 R1 = 𝑅1,𝑟 ,

[ ]

[G𝑟+1 ] R2 = 𝑅2,𝑟 ,

𝑋=[

[Θ ] ,

] (37)

[ 𝑟+1 ]

R3 = 𝑅3,𝑟 ,

[Φ𝑟+1 ]

R1 R4 = 𝑅4,𝑟 ,

[ ] (38)

[R2 ]

𝑅=[ ]

[R ] ,

[ 3] and here I is an identity matrix, the size of the matrix 0 is

(𝑁+1)×1, and diag[ ] is a diagonal matrix of size (𝑁+1)×(𝑁+

[R4 ] 1). Subscript r denotes the iteration number. After modifying

where matrix system (35) to incorporate boundary condition (36),

𝑇 the solution is obtained as

F = [𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝑓𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] ,

𝑇

G = [𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝑔𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] , 𝑋 = 𝐴−1 𝑅. (39)

𝑇

Θ = [𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝜃𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] ,

𝑇

7. Results and Discussions

Φ = [𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏0 ) , 𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏1 ) , . . . , 𝜙𝑟+1 (𝜏𝑁)] ,

It is noticed that the present problem reduces to free convec-

1

𝐴 11 = ( ) D3 + diag [𝑎1,𝑟 ] D2 + diag [𝑎2,𝑟 ] D tion heat transfer along an impermeable vertical plate in a

1−𝑁 micropolar fluid without the convective boundary condition

+ diag [𝑎3,𝑟 ] , when 𝑓𝑤 = 0, Bi → ∞, and B = 0. Also in the limit as 𝑁 →

𝑁 0, governing equations (2)–(5) reduce to the corresponding

𝐴 12 = ( ) D,

1−𝑁 equations for a free convection heat and mass transfer in

a viscous fluid. In order to validate the code generated the

𝐴 13 = I, results of the present problem have been compared with the

𝐴 14 = BI, results obtained by Merkin [36], Nazar et al. [37], and Molla

et al. [38] as a special case by taking 𝑁 = 0, 𝑛 = 0, B = 0,

𝑁 Pr = 1, Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0 and it was found that

𝐴 21 = − ( ) D2 + diag [𝑏1,𝑟 ] D + diag [𝑏2,𝑟 ] , they are in good agreement, as presented in Table 1. Also, the

1−𝑁

comparison of heat transfer coefficient has been made with

2−𝑁

𝐴 22 = ( ) D2 + diag [𝑏3,𝑟 ] D + diag [𝑏4,𝑟 ] , the results obtained by Nazar et al. [37] as shown in Table 2

2 − 2𝑁 when 𝑛 = 0.5, B = 0, Pr = 1, Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0.

𝐴 23 = 0, To study the effects of coupling number 𝑁, suction/injection

parameter 𝑓𝑤 , Biot number Bi, and material parameter 𝑛,

𝐴 24 = 0, computations were carried out in the cases of B = 1.0,

Pr = 0.71, and Sc = 0.22.

𝐴 31 = diag [𝑐1,𝑟 ] , The effects of the coupling number 𝑁 on the dimension-

less velocity, microrotation, temperature, and concentration

𝐴 32 = 0,

are illustrated in Figures 2(a)–2(d) with fixed values of

1 2 other parameters. The coupling number 𝑁 characterizes the

𝐴 33 = D + diag [𝑐2,𝑟 ] D, coupling of linear and rotational motion arising from the

Pr

Advances in High Energy Physics 9

0.6 0.1

Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5

0.5 0.0

−0.1

0.4

−0.2

0.3 g

f

−0.3

0.2

−0.4

0.1

−0.5

Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5

0.0 −0.6

0 4 8 12 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9 n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9

n = 0.5, N = 0.3 n = 0.5, N = 0.3

(a) (b)

0.16 1.0

Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5 Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5

0.8

0.12

0.6

𝜃 0.08 𝜙

0.4

0.04

0.2

0.00 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9 n = 0.5, N = 0.1 n = 0.5, N = 0.9

n = 0.5, N = 0.3 n = 0.5, N = 0.3

(c) (d)

Figure 2: Effect of 𝑁 on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

Table 2: Comparison of −𝜃 (0) for free convection flow in a fluid particles. In the case of 𝑁 = 0 (i.e., as 𝜅 tends to

micropolar fluid obtained by Nazar et al. [37] when 𝑛 = 0.5, B = 0, zero) the micropolarity is absent and fluid becomes nonpolar

Pr = 1, Bi → ∞, and 𝑓𝑤 = 0. fluid. With a large value of 𝑁 effect of microstructure

becomes significant, whereas with a diminished value of 𝑁

𝑁 Nazar et al. [37] Present the individuality of the substructure is much less articulated.

0.00 0.4214 0.4214 As 𝑁 increases, it is found from Figure 2(a) that the max-

0.33 0.3991 0.3990 imum velocity decreases in amplitude and the location of

the maximum velocity moves farther away from the wall.

0.50 0.3834 0.3834

Since 𝑁 → 0 corresponds to viscous fluid, the velocity in

0.60 0.3709 0.3709 case of a micropolar fluid has been less compared to that

0.66 0.3608 0.3608 of viscous fluid case. It can be observed from Figure 2(b)

0.71 0.3522 0.3522

that, as 𝑁 increases, initially microrotation profiles tend to

become flatter and then approach their free stream values

0.75 0.3447 0.3447 far away from the wall. This happens due to the vanishing

10 Advances in High Energy Physics

0.1

0.6 fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.0

0.5

−0.1

0.4

−0.2

0.3 g

f

−0.3

0.2

−0.4

0.1 −0.5

fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.0 −0.6

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10

𝜂 𝜂

Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0 Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0

(a) (b)

1.0 1.0

fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5 fw = 0.5, n = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

𝜃 𝜙

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

𝜂 𝜂

Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0 Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0

(c) (d)

Figure 3: Effect of Bi on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

of antisymmetric part of the stress on the boundary that plate takes place. Figure 3(a) depicts fluid velocity profiles

corresponds to a weak concentration of microelements. This for different values of the Biot number with 𝑁 = 0.5, 𝑓𝑤 =

is because an increment in the value of 𝑁 implies a higher 0.5, and 𝑛 = 0.5. Generally, fluid velocity is zero at plate

vortex viscosity of fluid which promotes the microrotation surface and increases gradually away from plate to free stream

of micropolar fluids. It is seen from Figures 2(c) and 2(d) value satisfying boundary conditions. It is interesting to note

that thermal and concentration boundary layers of the that an increase in the intensity of convective surface heat

fluid increase with increase in coupling number 𝑁. Hence, transfer Bi produces significant enhancement in fluid velocity

temperature and concentration in case of micropolar fluids within the momentum boundary layer. In Figure 3(b), we

are more than those of the viscous fluid case. bring out the behavior of microrotation with different values

The Biot number Bi is the ratio of internal thermal of Biot number Bi for fixed values of other parameters. As the

resistance of a solid to boundary layer thermal resistance. parameter value Bi increases microrotation showing reverse

When Bi = 0 the plate is totally insulated, internal thermal rotation near the two boundaries. Hence, the condition of

resistance of the plate is extremely high, and no convective vanishing of antisymmetric part of the stress on the boundary

heat transfer to the cold fluid on the upper part of the results in a drastic change of the microrotation profiles.

Advances in High Energy Physics 11

0.7 0.1

N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5 N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5

0.6

0.0

0.5

−0.1

0.4

g

f

0.3 −0.2

0.2 −0.3

0.1

−0.4

0.0

0 3 6 9 12 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

𝜂 𝜂

fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0 fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0

(a) (b)

0.30 1.0

N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5 N = 0.5, Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5

0.25

0.8

0.20

0.6

𝜃 0.15 𝜙

0.4

0.10

0.2

0.05

0.00 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 3 6 9 12

𝜂 𝜂

fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0 fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0

(c) (d)

Figure 4: Effect of 𝑓𝑤 on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

Given that convective heating increases with Biot number, The effect of 𝑓𝑤 on velocity profile is depicted in

Bi → ∞ simulates the isothermal surface which is clearly Figure 4(a). Here, 𝑓𝑤 > 0 represents suction and 𝑓𝑤 < 0

seen from Figure 3(c), where 𝜃(0) = 1 as Bi → ∞. In denotes injection. The lower velocity is noticed in case of suc-

fact, a high Biot number indicates higher internal thermal tion when compared to case of injection. From Figure 4(b),

resistance of the plate than boundary layer thermal resistance. we note that microrotation is showing reverse rotation near

In this fluid temperature is maximum at the plate surface two boundaries with both suction and injection parame-

and decreases exponentially to zero value far out from the ter. The dimensionless temperature for different values of

plate satisfying boundary conditions. As a consequence, an suction/injection parameters is drawn in Figure 4(c). It is

increment in the Biot number leads to increase of fluid readable that the temperature of the fluid is more in case of

temperature efficiency. Figure 3(d) illustrates the variation of injection, whereas it is less in case of suction in comparison

dimensionless concentration for different values of Bi. It is with the impermeable surface case (𝑓𝑤 = 0). Figure 4(d)

clear that the concentration of fluid decreases with increase demonstrates dimensionless concentration for different val-

of Bi. ues of suction/injection parameters. It is determined that the

12 Advances in High Energy Physics

0.6

0.5

−0.2

0.4

−0.4

0.3 g

f

−0.6

0.2

−0.8

0.1

−1.0 Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10

𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.5 n = 0.5

(a) (b)

0.15 1.0

Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5 Bi = 0.1, fw = 0.5, N = 0.5

0.12 0.8

0.09 0.6

𝜃 𝜙

0.06 0.4

0.03 0.2

0.00 0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

𝜂 𝜂

n = 0.5 n = 0.5

(c) (d)

Figure 5: Effect of material parameter 𝑛 on (a) velocity, (b) microrotation, (c) temperature, and (d) concentration profiles.

concentration of fluid is more with injection, whereas it is less location of the minimum velocity moves farther away from

with suction when compared to the impermeable surface case the wall. From Figure 5(b), we observe that the microrotation

(𝑓𝑤 = 0). As a finale, the thermal and solutal boundary layer is decreasing with increasing value of material parameter

thicknesses increase in case of injection compared to case of 𝑛 within the boundary layer. It is clear from Figures 5(c)-

suction as displayed in Figures 4(c) and 4(d). 5(d) that the thermal and solutal boundary layer thicknesses

In Figures 5(a)–5(d), the effect of material parameter decrease with increase of material parameter 𝑛.

𝑛 on dimensionless velocity, microrotation, temperature, The variations of −𝜃 (0) and −𝜙 (0) versus coupling

and concentration is presented for fixed values of other number 𝑁 are shown in Figures 6–8. It can be noticed from

parameters, since the material parameter 𝑛 signifies the these figures that the heat and mass transfer coefficients

microrotation effects (i.e., for 𝑛 = 0, particles are not free are less in case of micropolar fluids when compared to the

to revolve near the surface whereas, as 𝑛 increases from 0 to viscous fluids. This is because as 𝑁 increases, the thermal

1, the microrotation term gets augmented and induces flow and solutal boundary layer thicknesses become larger, thus

enhancement). As 𝑛 increases, it is found from Figure 5(a) giving rise to a small value of local heat and mass transfer

that the minimum velocity increases in amplitude and the rates. The effect of the Biot number Bi with fixed 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5

Advances in High Energy Physics 13

0.7

0.32

0.6

0.5 0.30

Nu x Gr−1/4

0.4

Shx Gr−1/4

x

x

0.28

0.3

0.2

fw = 0.5, n = 0.5 0.26

0.1

fw = 0.5, n = 0.5

0.0 0.24

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

N N

Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0 Bi = 1.0 Bi = 20.0

(a) (b)

Figure 6: Effect of Bi on (a) heat transfer rate and (b) mass transfer rate.

0.10 0.6

Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5

0.09 0.5

0.08 0.4

Nu x Gr−1/4

Shx Gr−1/4

x

0.07 0.3

0.06 0.2

Bi = 0.1, n = 0.5

0.05 0.1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

N N

fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0 fw = 0.0 fw = 2.0

(a) (b)

Figure 7: Effect of 𝑓𝑤 on (a) heat transfer rate and (b) mass transfer rate.

and 𝑛 = 0.5 on local heat transfer coefficient is exhibited 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5 on local heat and mass transfer coefficients. Figure 8

in Figure 6. It is found from Figure 6 that local heat transfer reveals that the local heat and mass transfer coefficients are

rate increases nonlinearly with the increase in Biot number enhanced by the increase in material parameter 𝑛. This is

Bi. The influence of the Biot number Bi on local mass transfer because when 𝑛 increases from 0 to 1, the microrotation term

coefficient is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6 reveals that the local gets augmented and induces flow enhancement.

mass transfer coefficient is enhanced by the growth in the The variations of 𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4𝑥

and 𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2 𝑥

, which are

Biot number Bi. In Figure 7, the effect of the suction/injection proportional to the coefficients of skin friction and wall

parameter 𝑓𝑤 with fixed Bi = 0.1 and 𝑛 = 0.5 on local heat couple stress, are shown in Table 3 with different values of

and mass transfer coefficients is displayed. It is found from the coupling number 𝑁 for fixed 𝑛 = 0.5, 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5, and

Figure 7 that the local heat and mass transfer coefficients are Bi = 0.1. It indicates that the skin friction factor is higher

less in the case of injection 𝑓𝑤 < 0 in comparison with the for micropolar fluid than the viscous fluids (𝑁 = 0). Since

case of suction 𝑓𝑤 > 0. Figure 8 is prepared to analyze the micropolar fluids offer a heavy resistance (resulting from

effect of the material parameter 𝑛 with fixed Bi = 0.1 and vortex viscosity) to fluid movement and cause larger skin

14 Advances in High Energy Physics

0.087

0.30

0.086

0.28

Shx Gr−1/4

Nu x Gr−1/4

x

x

0.085

0.26

0.084 0.24

fw = 0.5, Bi = 0.1 fw = 0.5, Bi = 0.1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

N N

n = 0.5 n = 0.5

(a) (b)

Figure 8: Effect of material parameter 𝑛 on (a) heat transfer rate and (b) mass transfer rate.

Table 3: Effects of skin friction and wall couple stress for varying 𝑁 = 0.5 is illustrated in Table 3. It can be noticed that the

values of Biot numbers Bi, micropolar parameter 𝑁, material skin friction and wall couple stress coefficients are increasing

parameter 𝑛, and suction/injection parameter 𝑓𝑤 . with increase of Bi for fixed values of other parameters.

This notice is consistent with physical profiles presented in

𝑁 Bi 𝑓𝑤 𝑛 𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4

𝑥 𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2

𝑥

Figure 3. The effects of suction/injection parameter on the

0.1 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.424227 0.63279 skin friction and wall couple stress coefficients are also shown

0.3 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.502716 0.639966 in Table 3. It is noted that the skin friction and wall couple

0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.647987 0.630863 stress coefficients are less with injection case, whereas they

0.7 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.943561 0.603879 are more with suction case when compared to the case of

0.9 0.1 0.5 0.5 3.874631 0.550891 impermeable surface. Finally, the detailed behavior of the

0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.647987 0.630863 material parameter 𝑛 is given in Table 3. The skin friction

0.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 3.211755 0.805879 decreases and wall couple stress increases with increase of

0.5 5.0 0.5 0.5 3.533141 0.908078 material parameter 𝑛.

0.5 20.0 0.5 0.5 3.629791 0.939137

0.5 0.1 −0.5 0.5 2.426265 0.336219 8. Conclusions

0.5 0.1 0.0 0.5 2.530014 0.465429

In this composition, the similarity solution of the free convec-

0.5 0.1 1.0 0.5 2.737553 0.820899

tion flow on a permeable vertical plate of a micropolar fluid

0.5 0.1 2.0 0.5 2.721244 1.193596

under the convective boundary condition is obtained using

0.5 0.1 0.5 0.0 2.916655 −0.289339 Lie group transformations. Using the similarity variables, the

0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 2.647987 0.630863 governing equations are transformed into a set of nondi-

0.5 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.232556 2.066191 mensional parabolic equations. These equations are solved

numerically using spectral quasi-linearisation method. The

numerical computation is carried out for various values of

nondimensional physical parameters. The main findings are

friction factor compared to viscous fluid, the results as well summarized as follows:

suggest larger values of coupling number 𝑁 and lower wall

couple stresses. Since the skin friction coefficient 𝑓 (0) and (i) The numerical results indicate that velocity distribu-

wall couple stress coefficient as well as high temperature and tion is less near the plate but it is more far away from

mass transport rates are more depressed in the micropolar the plate; the wall couple stress coefficient and rate of

fluid comparing to the viscous fluid, which may be beneficial heat and mass transfers are lower but the temperature

in flow, temperature, and concentration control of polymer and concentration distributions and the skin friction

processing, thus, the presence of microscopic effects arising coefficient are higher for the micropolar fluids in

from the local structure and of the fluid elements reduces the comparison with those of viscous fluids. Also, the

high temperature and mass transfer coefficients. The effect reverse rotation of microrotation near two boundaries

of Bi on 𝐶𝑓 Gr1/4

𝑥

and 𝑀𝑤 Gr1/2𝑥

for 𝑓𝑤 = 0.5, 𝑛 = 0.5, and is found with the increasing value of 𝑁.

Advances in High Energy Physics 15

(ii) An increase in Biot number Bi decreases concen- [6] H. T. Alkasasbeh, M. Z. Salleh, R. M. Tahar, and R. Nazar,

tration distribution, whereas it causes an increase “Numerical solutions of free convection boundary layer flow on

in temperature distribution, skin friction and wall a solid sphere with convective boundary conditions,” Journal of

couple stress coefficients, and heat and mass transfer Physics: Conference Series, vol. 495, Article ID 012025, 2014.

rates within the boundary layer. Further, enhancing [7] A. Pantokratoras, “A note on natural convection along a con-

in Biot number Bi enhances velocity distribution vectively heated vertical plate,” International Journal of Thermal

near the plate but shows the reverse behavior far Sciences, vol. 76, pp. 221–224, 2014.

away from the plate. We observe reverse rotation [8] G. Lukaszewicz, Micropolar Fluids—Theory and Applications,

of microrotation near two boundaries within the Birkhäauser, Basel, Switzerland, 1999.

boundary layer in the presence of Biot number. [9] V. A. Eremeyev, L. P. Lebedev, and H. Altenbach, Foundations

of Micropolar Mechanics, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2013.

(iii) Less velocity, temperature, and concentration distri-

[10] G. Ahmadi, “Self-similar solution of imcompressible micropo-

butions are observed, more skin friction and wall lar boundary layer flow over a semi-infinite plate,” International

couple stress coefficients and heat and mass transfer Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 639–646, 1976.

rates in the case of suction compared to the case of [11] D. A. Rees and I. Pop, “Free convection boundary-layer flow

injection. Further, microrotation decreases near the of a micropolar fluid from a vertical flat plate,” IMA Journal of

wall and depicts the opposite trend far away from the Applied Mathematics, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 179–197, 1998.

wall. [12] D. Srinivasacharya and C. RamReddy, “Effect of double stratifi-

(iv) It is found that microrotation, temperature, and con- cation on mixed convection in a micropolar fluid,” Matematika,

centration distributions and skin friction coefficients vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 133–149, 2012.

are more in the case of a micropolar fluid with strong [13] D. Srinivasacharya and C. Ramreddy, “Mixed convection heat

concentration (i.e., 𝑛 = 0) when compared to the case and mass transfer in a doubly stratified micropolar fluid,”

of a micropolar fluid with weak concentration (i.e., Computational Thermal Sciences, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 273–287, 2013.

𝑛 = 1/2). Further, velocity is less in the case of 𝑛 = 0 [14] D. Srinivasacharya and C. RamReddy, “Natural convection heat

when compared to the case of 𝑛 = 1/2 near the wall and mass transfer in a micropolar fluid with thermal and mass

and shows the opposite trend far away from the wall. stratification,” International Journal for Computational Methods

in Engineering Science and Mechanics, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 401–413,

2013.

Conflict of Interests [15] N. A. Yacob and A. Ishak, “Stagnation point flow towards

a stretching/shrinking sheet in a micropolar fluid with a

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests convective surface boundary condition,” The Canadian Journal

regarding the publication of this paper. of Chemical Engineering, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 621–626, 2012.

[16] K. Zaimi and A. Ishak, “Stagnation-point flow and heat transfer

Acknowledgment over a nonlinearly stretching/shrinking sheet in a micropolar

fluid,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2014, Article ID

The authors are thankful to the reviewers for their valuable 261630, 6 pages, 2014.

suggestions and comments. [17] L. V. Ovsiannikov, Group Analysis of Differential Equations,

Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1982.

[18] P. J. Olver, Applications of Lie Groups to Differential Equations,

References vol. 107 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer, New York,

[1] J. H. Merkin, “Natural-convection boundary-layer flow on a NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1993.

vertical surface with Newtonian heating,” International Journal [19] G. W. Bluman and S. C. Anco, Symmetry and Integration

of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 392–398, 1994. Methods for Differential Equations, Springer, 2009.

[2] A. Aziz, “A similarity solution for laminar thermal boundary [20] T. Tapanidis, G. Tsagas, and H. P. Mazumdar, “Application of

layer over a flat plate with a convective surface boundary con- scaling group of transformations to viscoelastic second-grade

dition,” Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical fluid flow,” Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Applications, vol.

Simulation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1064–1068, 2009. 8, no. 3, pp. 345–350, 2003.

[3] O. D. Makinde, “Similarity solution for natural convection from [21] I. A. A. Hassanien and M. A. Hamad, “Group theoretic method

a moving vertical plate with internal heat generation and a for unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid along a

convective boundary condition,” Thermal Science, vol. 15, pp. vertical plate in a thermally stratified medium,” Applied Mathe-

S137–S143, 2011. matical Modelling. Simulation and Computation for Engineering

[4] S. M. Ibrahim and N. Bhashar Reddy, “Similarity solution of and Environmental Systems, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1099–1114, 2008.

heat and mass transfer for natural convection over a moving [22] R. Kandasamy, K. Gunasekaran, and S. B. H. Hasan, “Scaling

vertical plate with internal heat generation and a convective group transformation on fluid flow with variable stream con-

boundary condition in the presence of thermal radiation, ditions,” International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 46,

viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction,” ISRN Thermody- no. 7, pp. 976–985, 2011.

namics, vol. 2013, Article ID 790604, 10 pages, 2013. [23] A. Aziz, M. J. Uddin, M. A. A. Hamad, and A. I. Md.

[5] C. RamReddy, P. V. S. N. Murthy, A. J. Chamkha, and A. M. Ismail, “MHD flow over an inclined radiating plate with the

Rashad, “Soret effect on mixed convection flow in a nanofluid temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, variable reactive

under convective boundary condition,” International Journal of index, and heat generation,” Heat Transfer—Asian Research, vol.

Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 64, pp. 384–392, 2013. 41, no. 3, pp. 241–259, 2012.

16 Advances in High Energy Physics

“Heat transfer analysis for falkner-skan boundary layer flow

past a stationary wedge with slips boundary conditions con-

sidering temperature-dependent thermal conductivity,” Sains

Malaysiana, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 855–862, 2013.

[25] S. C. Cowin, “Polar fluids,” Physics of Fluids, vol. 11, no. 9, pp.

1919–1927, 1968.

[26] M. A. Seddeek, M. Y. Akl, and A. M. Al-Hanaya, “Thermal

radiation effects on mixed convection and mass transfer flow

on vertical porous plate with heat generation and chemical

reaction by using scaling group,” Journal of Natural Sciences and

Mathematics, vol. 4, pp. 41–60, 2010.

[27] M. A. A. Hamad, M. J. Uddin, and A. I. M. Ismail, “Investigation

of combined heat and mass transfer by Lie group analysis with

variable diffusivity taking into account hydrodynamic slip and

thermal convective boundary conditions,” International Journal

of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1355–1362, 2012.

[28] M. J. Uddin, W. A. Khan, and A. I. M. Ismail, “MHD free

convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical

plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition,” PLoS ONE,

vol. 7, no. 11, Article ID e49499, 2012.

[29] S. Mukhopadhyay and G. C. Layek, “Effects of variable fluid

viscosity on flow past a heated stretching sheet embedded in

a porous medium in presence of heat source/sink,” Meccanica,

vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 863–876, 2012.

[30] M. J. Uddin, W. A. Khan, and A. I. M. Ismail, “Scaling

group transformation for MHD boundary layer slip flow of a

nanofluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet with heat

generation,” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2012,

Article ID 934964, 20 pages, 2012.

[31] M. M. Rashidi, M. Ferdows, A. B. Parsa, and S. Abelman, “MHD

natural convection with convective surface boundary condition

over a at plate,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2014, Article

ID 923487, 10 pages, 2014.

[32] R. E. Bellman and R. E. Kalaba, Quasilinearisation and Non-

Linear Boundary-Value Problems, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA,

1965.

[33] S. S. Motsa, P. G. Dlamini, and M. Khumalo, “Spectral relaxation

method and spectral quasilinearization method for solving

unsteady boundary layer flow problems,” Advances in Mathe-

matical Physics, vol. 2014, Article ID 341964, 12 pages, 2014.

[34] S. S. Motsa, P. Sibanda, J. M. Ngnotchouye, and G. T. Marewo,

“A spectral relaxation approach for unsteady boundary-layer

flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over a permeable stretch-

ing/shrinking sheet,” Advances in Mathematical Physics, vol.

2014, Article ID 564942, 10 pages, 2014.

[35] C. Canuto, M. Y. Hussaini, A. Quarteroni, and T. Zang,

Spectral Methods. Fundamentals in Single Domains, Scientific

Computation, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006.

[36] J. H. Merkin, “Free convection boundary layer on an isothermal

horizontal cylinder,” in Proceedings of the American Society

of Mechanical Engineers and American Institute of Chemical

Engineers, Heat Transfer Conference, p. 911, ASME, St. Louis, Mo,

USA, August 1976.

[37] R. Nazar, N. Amin, and I. Pop, “Free convection boundary layer

on an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder in a micropolar

fluid,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Heat Transfer

Conference, vol. 2, pp. 525–530, Elsevier, Paris, France, August

2002.

[38] M. M. Molla, M. A. Hossain, and M. C. Paul, “Natural con-

vection flow from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder in

presence of heat generation,” International Journal of Engineer-

ing Science, vol. 44, no. 13-14, pp. 949–958, 2006.

Journal of Journal of The Scientific Journal of

Advances in

Gravity

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Photonics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

World Journal

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Soft Matter

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Condensed Matter Physics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal of

Aerodynamics

Journal of

Fluids

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

http://www.hindawi.com

Statistical Mechanics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Optics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal of

Thermodynamics

Journal of

Computational Advances in Physics Advances in

Methods in Physics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

High Energy Physics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Research International

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Astronomy

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal of

Journal of Journal of International Journal of Journal of Atomic and

Solid State Physics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Astrophysics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Superconductivity

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Biophysics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Molecular Physics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

- Thermal and Fluids_engineering Syllabus m. TechHochgeladen vonDamodar S Prabhu
- Module 6: Short QuestionsHochgeladen voncaptainhass
- HMTHochgeladen vonGaettan Katamba
- 1-s2.0-S0735193310002496-mainHochgeladen vonResearcherz
- Chapter 19 - Engineering Data Book IIIHochgeladen vonFrancisco Suárez
- Effect of Hall Currents, Thermal Radiation and Radiation Absorption on Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Flow Past a Stretching SheetHochgeladen vonInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- ConvectionHochgeladen vonWaqas Hassan
- OE 2060 - ppt1Hochgeladen vonvigambetkar
- Heat ExchangersHochgeladen vonferooxidan
- Chapter 8 CombinedHochgeladen vontamdinh1411
- Heat Chap08 001Hochgeladen vonFrancisco Bernal
- CoatHochgeladen vonShahrukh
- Thermodynamics and PropulsionHochgeladen vonRyu Rylo
- HMT.Qustion ban ME1251.pdfHochgeladen vonNaresh Kumar Reddy
- Combined Effects of Stress Work and Heat Generation on Mhd Natural Convection Flow Along a Vertical Flat Plate With Power Law Variation of Uniform Surface TemperatureHochgeladen vonIJSTR Research Publication
- Comparison of Simplified Models in the Prediction of Two Phase Flow in Pipelines, 2010Hochgeladen vonjoreli
- Heat Exchanger AnalysisHochgeladen vonMelba Estrella
- Batchelor 1 FlowHochgeladen vonIvan Magrini
- FluidHochgeladen vonQuirti Amar
- Seyed Mostafa Ghiaasiaan -Convective Heat and Mass Transfer-Cambridge University Press (2011).pdfHochgeladen vonAlexander Vova
- Result (Ball Valve)Hochgeladen vonBryan Salamat
- Compressible Flow in a NozzleHochgeladen vonNiraj Thakre
- Problems-Fluid Flow PhenomenaHochgeladen vonRomel Leo
- Heat and Mass Transfer to Unsteady MHD Viscoelastic Slip Flow through a Porous Medium with Chemical ReactionHochgeladen vonAnonymous lPvvgiQjR
- FM OldHochgeladen vonRavi Malik
- t1Hochgeladen vonAziful Aieman
- 37351e2c83cd9b9bf177fc781b6a1fb9dbd5Hochgeladen vonalex de souza
- Assignment Week 1 cc.pdfHochgeladen vonPushparaj Maria
- Quiz 1 - Fall 2008 - 2009Hochgeladen vonCarloK98
- Assignment Week 1.pdfHochgeladen vonSachin Salian

- Curriculum PMLHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 17. PGDMLM SyllabusHochgeladen vonNikhil Patwardhan
- Tentative QuestionnaireHochgeladen vonisele1977
- BAHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 2.docxHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 15-16. Campus review. MS of Supply Chain and Logistics Management.pdfHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 7 02 Logistics de ENGHochgeladen vonisele1977
- hjredcHochgeladen vonisele1977
- SHFDSEHBVVHochgeladen vonisele1977
- Books1.docHochgeladen vonisele1977
- Workshop for administrative Staff.docxHochgeladen vonisele1977
- Books1Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 034 CPT6 Variation EnoteHochgeladen vonisele1977
- WORKINGS 1.docxHochgeladen vonisele1977
- Properties of LogarithmsHochgeladen vonRichard Canar Perez
- 1140_Syllabus_Fall_201516Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 83-89Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 02whole.pdfHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 7Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 83-89Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- g 0710016876Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 3-1-132-140Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 1bnHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 1810.08796Hochgeladen vonisele1977
- 7.pdfHochgeladen vonisele1977
- Engineering SyllabusHochgeladen vonisele1977
- 17.docxHochgeladen vonisele1977

- Mixer DesignHochgeladen vonMuhammad Usama
- Protadetails 2018 ManualHochgeladen vonAjayi Tunde
- The Second Law of Thermodynamics MpHochgeladen vonKyle Donaghey
- 122753438 Ultrasonic TestingHochgeladen vonAyman Hamed Malah
- Customizing RADFRAC convergenceHochgeladen vonSurya Budi Widagdo
- ATD objective paper.pdfHochgeladen vonsadiksnm
- Ep01 the Density Measurement of Solid ObjectHochgeladen vonKw Chan
- Question Paper PhyHochgeladen vonkumar
- 2. a Computational Study of Shallow-water Effects on Ship Viscous Resistance (2012) - OKHochgeladen vonCláudio Tavares
- Oil and Gas Compressor RAMHochgeladen vondonprofaghatise
- Hydraulic FluidsHochgeladen vonAchmad Ari Dwi P
- FatigueHochgeladen vonSushil Dhungana
- Exercise Form 4 Heat Us 1 2017Hochgeladen vonMOHAMAD RIZAL BIN MUKHTAR
- NASA TN D-6807Hochgeladen vonhawnt3d
- 03967Hochgeladen vonPedro Abellán
- E527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys in TheHochgeladen vonaezead
- In Militaerischer Schiffbau EnHochgeladen vonhaji
- Replacing the Upper Ball Joint (Control Arm) on a 2007 Honda AccordHochgeladen vonJohnC_NH
- Thermodynamics TutorialsHochgeladen vonJack Stone
- 1162.pdfHochgeladen vonAmir A Sadr
- As 1735.2-2001 Lifts Escalators and Moving Walks Passenger and Goods Lifts - ElectricHochgeladen vonSAI Global - APAC
- vufjhpiohuiyhmokinuiHochgeladen vonMark Joseph Ü
- 2013 Catalog KabeldonCA 1-420 kV SMXB 12-36 kV Pages3-39!3!40 Englis REV AHochgeladen voniyilmaz1
- Here Are the Top 10 Reasons for Dating an EngineerHochgeladen vonMarie Thérèse
- (5) Hydraulic Pumps II.pptHochgeladen vonloveincyber3
- Index of StandardsHochgeladen vonMuhammed Sulfeek
- Wind energyHochgeladen vonMyth Soumith
- 103479425 II Pipeline Design Codes and Standards MSGHochgeladen vongcarreong
- Brazil 2014ugm Pre Certification of Rops for Agricultural TractorsHochgeladen vonphisitlai
- Tapping ChartHochgeladen vonshafie_buang

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.