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By :

Parinda Rajapaksha
Samudra Herath
Isuri Udayangi
Najini Harischandra

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Roadmap
 Introduction

 Scientific Method

 How related to Computer Science?

 Modeling

 Theoretical Computer Science

 Experimental Computer Science

 Computer Simulation

 Pros & Cons

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What is Science ?
 A systematic and logical approach to discovering how
things in the universe work.

 It aims for measurable results through testing and analysis.

 It is not meant to prove theories, but rule out alternative


explanations until a likely conclusion is reached

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What is Science Cont…

 Science consists simply of the formulation and testing of


hypotheses based on observational evidence.

 Science is useful and ongoing.

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How related to Computer Science?
 Study of phenomena related to computers.

 Computing encompasses,
- Computer Science
- Computer Engineering
- Software Engineering
- Information Systems
 The purpose of Computing is the systematic study of
algorithmic processes that describe and transform
information their theory, analysis, design, efficiency and
implementation
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Scientific Method
 In 19th century.

 scientific method is the logical scheme used by scientists


searching for answers to the questions

 It is used to produce scientific theories..


 When conducting a research, scientists observe the scientific
method to collect measurable, empirical evidence in an
experiment related to a hypothesis.

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Scientific Method Cont…
The steps of the scientific method :
1. Pose the question in the context of existing knowledge
(theory & observations)
2. Formulate a hypothesis as a tentative answer

3. Deduce consequences and make predictions

4. Test the hypothesis in a specific experiment/theory field


•In case the hypothesis leads to contradictions and demands a
radical change in the existing theoretical background, it has to be
tested carefully

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Scientific Method Cont…
Rule:
• loop 2-3-4 is repeated with modifications of the hypothesis until
the agreement is obtained, which leads to 5.
• If major discrepancies are found the process must start from the
beginning, 1.

5. When consistency is obtained the hypothesis becomes a


theory and provides a coherent set of propositions that
define a new class of phenomena or a new theoretical
concept
6. A theory is then becoming a framework within which
observations/theoretical facts are explained and predictions
are made
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Scientific Method Cont…

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Scientific Method Cont…
Some key underpinnings to the scientific method:

 The hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable

 Deductive reasoning is the process of using true


premises to reach a logical true conclusion

 dependent variable and an independent variable

 experimental group and a control group.

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What is Computer Science?

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Many definitions
 Study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform
information

 Study of phenomena related to computers

 Study of information structures

 Study and management of complexity

 Mechanization of abstraction

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Mixture of
 Engineering
 Mathematics
 Logic
 Management

Generally CS is,
Information theory concerned on transformation and
interpretation of information

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 Computer science encompasses abstract mathematical
thinking and includes an element of engineering.

 Finding solutions

 Designing skills

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Sub-areas of Computer Science
1. Discrete Structures

2. Programming Fundamentals

3. Algorithms and Complexity

4. Programming Languages

5. Architecture and Organization

6. Operating Systems & etc..

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List expands as computer science
develops..

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 CS Objectives change with time

 Development of theories

 Practical experience in usage

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Scientific methods of computer science

Computer Science

Theoretical Experimental Simulation

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Common Method

Modeling

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Modeling
 Occur in Science

 Simplify a phenomenon

 Identify what is relevant

 Theoretical background

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Simplified model of a phenomenon

Observable/measurable
Description in consequence of a given
symbolic language change in a system

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Question that come in the process

 How to model?

 Is the model appropriate?

 In what way model differs from “reality”?

 Validation: are the results valid?

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Examples

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 Modeling process scheme follows the general scheme of
scientific method presented before

 Theory, experiment and simulation are all about models


of phenomena.

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What is theoretical computer
Science?
 Subset of general computer science and mathematics

 focus on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing

 Includes the theory of computation

 Follows a very classical methodology of building theories with


rigid definitions of
 Objects

 operations

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Key recurring ideas of computing

 Conceptual and formal models

 Different levels of abstraction

 Efficiency

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Data models
 Use to formulate different mathematical concepts

 CS data model – two aspects

 Values they can assume

 Operations on data

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Typical data model examples
 Tree data model

 List data model

 Set data model

 Relational data model

 Graph data model

 Patterns, automata and regular expression

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Physical science and computer
science
 Do not compete with each other on which better explains
the fundamental nature of information

 No new theories develop to reconcile theory with


experimental results reveal unexpected phenomena

 No history of critical experiments that decide the validity


of various theories

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Design and analysis
 Methods are developed for algorithm design

 Measures are defined for computational resources

 Trade offs are explored

 Upper and lower resource bounds are proved

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Main methodological themes
 Iteration – performing sequence of operations repeatedly

 Iterative constructs such as for /while statements

 Recursion – call themselves directly or indirectly

 Induction – definitions and proofs use basis and inductive


step to encompass all possible cases.

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Experimental Computer Science

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What is experimental computer
science?
 Three components define experimental science

 Observation

 Hypothesis testing

 Reproducibility

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 Experimental computer science

 Mathematical modeling of the behavior of computer


systems

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Fields of computer science use
experiments
 Search
 Automatic theorem proving
 Planning
 NP complete problems
 Natural language
 Vision
 Games
 Machine learning

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Computer Simulation

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Computational Science
 computation which comprises computer - based modeling and
simulation, has become the third research methodology within
CS
 Computational Science has emerged, at the intersection of
Computer Science, applied mathematics, and science disciplines
in both theoretical investigation and experimentation

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Computational Science Cont…
Tools
 modeling with 3D visualization and computer simulation

 efficient handling of large data sets

 ability to access a variety of distributed resources

 collaborate with other experts over the Internet

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Computational Science Cont…

 Computational science involves the use of computers


(''supercomputers'') for visualization and simulation of
complex and large-scale phenomena.

 If Computer Science has its basis in computability theory,


then computational science has its basis in computer
simulation

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Computer Simulation
 Definition
simulation: (computer science) the
technique of representing the real world
by a computer program; "a simulation
should imitate the internal processes
and not merely the results of the thing
being simulated“

 Computer simulation makes it possible


to
 investigate regimes that are beyond
current experimental capabilities
 study phenomena that cannot be
replicated in laboratories, such as the
evolution of the universe and Nano
technology

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Simulations

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Key Areas
 Chaos and Complex Systems

 Virtual Reality

 Artificial Life

 Physically Based Modeling and Computer


Animation

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Advantages and Disadvantages
 Advantage

 You can test in many different ways, and the more times

you test, the more accurate your results will be

 Disadvantage

 You can come up with different results which can disprove

your hypothesis, and this leads to inconsistent conclusions

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Wrap-Up
 Introduction

 Scientific Method

 How related to Computer Science?

 Modeling

 Theoretical Computer Science

 Experimental Computer Science

 Computer Simulation

 Pros & Cons


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References
1. Some definitions of Science :
http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/1122sciencedefns.html
2. Computing as a Discipline, Denning, P.J. et al. Commun. ACM
32, 1 (January 1989), 9
3. What is computer science ? :
http://www.cs.mtu.edu/~john/whatiscs.html

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