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SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS OF ISHIBUCHI ROCK FILL DAM BY

SEISMIC CIRCULAR SLIP METHOD


T.Okamoto* and K.Kojima†
Former Shibaura Institute of Technology
Anishi-Sangao 424-30, Noda, 278-0015 Chiba, Japan
e-mail: tosiokmt@gmail.com

Keywords: Rock fill, Earthquake, Crest Settlement, Newmark method, Watanabe-Baba-


Method

Abstract. 55cm of the largest class settlement of rock fill dam in Japan occurred by Iwate-
Miyagi inland earthquake in the crest of Ishibuchi dam which was in the epi-center in 2008.
In this study, the authors analyzed the earthquake behavior of Ishibuchi dam by dynamic
response analysis. When the Ishibuchi dam used the strength of rock material in the
considerably loose density state, the authors could explain actual survey settlement quantity
and was able to show the settlement quantity relations of the earthquake in the extreme state.

1 STUDY BACKGRUND
55cm of the largest class settlement in Japan occurred by Iwate-Miyagi inland earthquake
in the crest of Ishibuchi dam which was the concrete facing rock-fill dam in the seismic center
in 2008. In addition, the importance of knowing the behavior and the condition at the time of
the collapse increases in the recent study. In this study, I obtained the earthquake behavior of
Ishibuchi dam by dynamic response analysis and residual deformation to do analyze strength
of the rock fill and evaluated to reach the collapse from the actual survey settlement quantity
in Ishibuchi dam.

2 DAMAGE OF ISHIBUCHI DAM


Ishibuchi dam was one of only 4 CFRDs in Japan and finished to work because of higher
dam constructed at the downstream in 2012. Ishibuchi dam was completed in 1953 and dam
height H=53m. Ishibuchi dam has upper classes gradient of upstream side1:1.2 - 1.4 and
downstream side 1:1.5, and rough piling-rubble of thickness around 3-4m are located
underneath facing wall, and the most of the embankment are rock fill. Residual deformation
in Ishibuchi dam is shown in figure 1, by Iwate-Miyagi earthquake with M7.2 which occurred
on June 14, 2008, seismic center 8km in depth, and epicentral distance approximately 9.4km.
In addition, because a higher dam was completed to downstream 2km in 2013, Ishibuchi dam
was buried in water and finished the role as the dam.
According to the survey, maximum acceleration is perpendicular to dam axis direction
1,461gal, dam axial 934gal, gravity direction 2,070gal with the seismometer at the crest. The
crest settled to approximately 55cm near the main section (Fig.1), and approximately 53cm
was displaced to the downstream side. Furthermore, almost 16cm settlement seemed was on

Engineer, Saitama prefecture government (former graduate student of S.I.T.

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T.Okamoto and K.Kojima

the upstream side. Action of the reservoir water pressure and the existence of rough piling-
rubble seem with a big factor after all. The displacement of the upstream side slope had been
smaller than the residual displacement of the crest, and the big problem was not seen in facing
wall.
There are few characteristic things about the deformation after the earthquake for
embankment crest long 323m; the deformation is wavily on the downstream crest side at
regular intervals in at least seven places. In real construction lorry railway was constructed on
the direct top of the crest to perform rock high lift dumping from the neighborhood of crest
and at least seven concrete basics peers were constructed, and after embankment concrete
basics peers were just buried, but, by excavation investigation of the crest after the earthquake,
the existence of the concrete basics peer is confirmed (Fig.2). Therefore, basic peers becomes
to be the resistance for the horizontal displacement of the embankment, and the settlement of
the embankment has small possibilities as the concrete basics peer outskirts receive restriction
at the time of an earthquake. In addition, rough piling-rubbles are confirmed in the excavation
investigation on the side like a figure 2 bottom. It was maximum particle size around 30-
50cm.

El.323
At the earthq. H.W.L.318
W.L.314.4

L.W.L.300
53m

Rock fill

El.269

155.53m

At the earthq. Deformation by earthquake:


W.L.314.4 mm
556
162
532
130 604

718

Fig.1 Cross section and deformation by the earthquake of Ishibuchi Dam

Concrete facing

Rock material

Settlement to show
waving Crack
Piling rubble
←downstream ←upstream

Fig.2 Damage and Excavation after the Earthquake at Crest and Embankment by dumped
Rock from Lorry Railway

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T.Okamoto and K.Kojima

Truck railway

Concrete pier

Dumped rock

Fig.2 Damage and Excavation after the Earthquake at Crest and Embankment by dumped
Rock from Truck Railway

3 ANALYSIS

3.1 Method
Static self-weight analysis and dynamic response analysis were performed to simulate the
stress distribution in the embankment and to calculate earthquake stress by Super-FLUSH and
added up these two stresses more, and a safety factor and residual deformation were
calculated by the Watanabe & Baba method. The earthquake response analysis has two kinds
of effective stress method and all stress method, and the Newmark method using the straight
line sliding and Watanabe & Baba (1981) method using the circular sliding are divided into
all stress method as simply residual deformation analysis. FEM analysis result is available to
these methods.
Concerning on Watanabe & Baba method, in the stress before and after the earthquake, the
excessive pore water pressure often adopts the strength based on the consolidated drainage
condition as a zero. This names the Watanabe & Baba CD method to distinguish it from other
method.
In this study, I decided to adopt the Watanabe & Baba CD method for the sandy soil such
as rock materials and revised analysis software.

3.2 INPUT EARTHQUAKE MOTION AND ANALYSIS


The input earthquake motion to use for analysis is the earthquake wave recorded at the
observation point, Tsubakidai which was located near dam site, and after pulling it back, the
authors set engineering base at the -160m depth to approximately agree to the crest
observation wave provided by Ishibuchi dam's greatest acceleration (Fig.3 and 6). Similarly,
the authors set the vertical earthquake motion.
The cross section and material characteristics which the authors used in analysis depends
on Yamaguchi and others (2009), and then FEM model was made (Fig.4). Vs and Poisson
ratio of rough piling-rubble and rock material of the dam were set by findings (Okamoto:
2002a) of the past observed properties, but I thought that these densities were small and
adopted a small value in Vs distribution (Fig.5). In general the amplification rate from
engineering base to the dam foundation becomes around 1.4-3 times and as for the
amplification rate to dam foundation - crest, it is around 3-5 times, and analytical result is the

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same as a general tendency. In addition, the authors thought that the collation with the crest
observation level came by outline reproduction about the horizontal acceleration (Fig.6), but a
big difference was seen about the vertical acceleration. According to Fig.7 analytical vertical
crest acceleration was found to be almost harmonized, and quantity of vertical and horizontal
displacement of 1-2cm was provided when the authors calculated displacement by integral
calculus from crest observation acceleration twice, and the displacement of the seismometer
was confirmed.

response at crest
(by observation and analysis)
EW horizontal maximum accerelation (gal)

□ local public entity

1000 ○ Meteorological Agency


△ k-net
response at 0 50 100km

dam center
base
Input motion at Tsubakidai Ishibuchi dam
enngineering base obsevation
(-160m depth)
tsubakidai Sesmic center

100 obsevation

Ishibuchi dam site


Regression line
10 100

seismic center distance (km)

Fig.3 Ishibuchi Dam and observed Maximum


Horizontal Acceleration

Down
stream
Up
stream

Fig.4 FEM mesh and slip circle

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0
Vs=199+25.6z
10Vs=164+16.0z Vs=234+35.2z
(applied in
this study) average +
20
standard

depth (m)
30 deviation
average -
Vs=464+5.57z
standard
40 average
deviation
Vs=415+4.0z
50
Vs=366+2.43z
60 (applied in this study) unsaturated
rock
70
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Vs (m/s)
Fig.5 Vs – depth of unsaturated rock zone by T. Okamoto (2002a)
Horizontal accerelation (gal)

400
300 input horizontal motion
(pull back at -160m depth)
200 221.71

100
0
-100
-200
-225.27
-300
-400
15 20 25 30
1500
horizontal accerelation (gal)

obseved no obeserved
1000 max1,461.0 gal after here
analysed
500 max1,500.7 gal
0
-500
-1000
-1500
15 20 25 30
2500
obseved analysed
vertical accerelation (gal)

2000 max2,070gal max736.5 gal

1500 no obeserved
after here
1000
500
0
-500
-1000
15 20 25 30
time (s)

Fig.6 Input horizontal motion (upper: Pull back of wave observed at Tsubakidai site to -
160m depth, lower: by observation and analysis) and crest response

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3.3 Shear strength and Simulation analysis


Strength of rock material of Ishibuchi dam used the CD, and it is estimated to be
equivalent to the density to be loose to very loose from the existing strength data (Fig. 8,
Okamoto: 2002b) of rock materials by large size triaxial test (sample diameter above 30 cm),
and rough piling-rubble part was equivalent to be average to loose.

 = tan0 (1)
0 = max ( n =  no )   no = 29.4kN/m2 0 = max-alog( n  no ) ( n >  no )

When the settlement on the downstream side performed parameter study although the
authors did not consider reservoir water pressure at an earthquake, the authors was able to get
observed settlement quantity that φmax=47 .1 degrees was near (Fig.9). φmax=47 .1 degrees is
equivalent to the class that considerable strength is small in the existing strength distribution
of rock materials but it is bigger than the strength of the dense sand, and the filling method is
based on high lift dumping, so the authors thinks that it is possible enough. In addition, the
strength of the domain where confined pressure is small has a big influence to the stability,
because slip circle with minimum safety factor is shallow in case of granular embankment.
2000
□ local public entity observed
UD vertical maximum acceleration (gal)

crest responce
○ Meteorological Agency

1500

1:1
1000
analytical
crest responce
0.5:1
500

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000

EW horizontal maximum acceleration (gal)

Fig.7 Horizontal and vertical maximum acceleration


relation and analyzed value

3.4 Crest settlement at limit state


When the authors assumed the strength of rock materials to max=47 .1 degrees, it is important
to know the crest settlement on the downstream side changed by the earthquake size. So the
authors used the same circle which was able to explain the actual survey settlement
mentioned above, and then could consider about the difference between crest height and
H.W.L. at the time of an earthquake to show overflowing it. As a result, it was like Fig. 10,
and the result with Yamaguchi et.al (2008) and Yamaguchi et.al (2009) were shown for a
comparison and were not able to simulate observation crest settlement quantity this time, and,
at the same degree, it was the greatest acceleration 430gal degree with the engineering base at
the time of the collapse, and the settlement and the horizontal displacement of the crest knew
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T.Okamoto and K.Kojima

what they could tolerate to around 2 times of this earthquake.

70
upper limit for all rock over the world
φ =68.5゜-8.21 log (σ /σ n0)
65

distribution by Japanese
very except shale rock

Electric power Co.


60 dense
internal friction angle φ 0

55 dense

medium
50
loose
45
very loose ?
40

35 lower limt for all rock over the world


φ =45.5゜-8.73 log (σ /σ n0)
30
10 100 1,000 10,000
2
normal stressσ (kN/m )

Fig.8 Distribution of past data of rock material by large


size triaxial test

1
downstream side
circular slip through
center crest
0.8
crest settlement (m)

observed crest settlement


0.6 0.55m
crest center crest center
settlement horizontal deformation
0.4 by analysis by analysis

0.2

47.1°
0
40 45 50 55 60
Φ max (°)

Fig.9 Crest settlement and φmax of rock strength


parameter of Ishibuchi dam by Iwate-Miyagi
inland earthquake

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T.Okamoto and K.Kojima

6 3000

crest maximum horizontal acceleration (gal)


downstream difference between
crest-H.W.L.
side (5m) almost 430gal
5 Φ max =47° 2500

crest maximum

crest settlement (m)


4 2000
horizontal
accerelation crest settlement
3 1500

crest horizontal
2 1000
deformation
observed crest (Φ max
  =65~70°)
1 settlement CFRD H=100m 500
0.55m accumulation damage level
by Yamaguchi et.al. (2008)
Ishibuchi accumulation damage level
0 0
by Yamaguchi et.al. (2009)
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Ishibuchi Newmark method
by Yamaguchi et.al. (2009)
input maximum acceleration at engineering base (-160m depth) (gal)
input maximum acceleration at engineering base (-160m depth) by Yamaguchi
(2008,2009) is estimated to be 1.4 times of dam foundation acceleration

Fig.10 Crest settlement and maximum acceleration at engineering base rock by same Iwate-Miyagi
earthquake motion

4
(crest settlement S / dam heigth H)

estimated : no obsevation
acceleration by this analysis is estimated
this analysis
to 1.4 times that at engineering base
(Ishibuchi)
(-160m depth)

□ LaVillita many number


settlement
3 △ Infiernillo by earthquake
v

■ CFRD
crest settlemnt ratio (%)

● other RD
▲ this analysis(Ishibuchi)

2
ε v=Sv/H
ε v=Sv/H
=4.5×10-5・(Ab-50)
=4.5×10-5・(Ab-300)

Cogoti Ishibuchi
1 estimated Matahina
(difference between
ε v=Sv/H Miboro obseved data)
estimated Mkio
Minase
estimated

0 LosAngels Anderson

0 100Malpasso200 300 400 500 600


estimated
maximum horizontal accerelation at dam center foundation Ab (gal)

Fig.11 Observed crest settlement of rock fill dam all over the world and
maximum acceleration of dam base

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T.Okamoto and K.Kojima

3.5 Crest settlement by earthquake and long-term settlement


Fig.11 shows crest settlement ratio of rock fill dam by earthquake in all over the world,
and adds the result above, and crest settlement is defined to be crest settlement / dam height.
Fig.12 shows the crest settlement of rock fill dam after construction, for both concrete facing
rock fill dam in the world and various type rock fill dam in Japan. We found that these
settlement change in later 1960’s in the world and faster 1970’s in Japan, and embankment
method of rock fill dam changed from high lift dumping to rolling for compact. So,
settlement by earthquake depends on filling method, and it affects larger settlement of
Ishibuchi.

0
Nozori Miboro Shimokotori
0
crest settlement after construction / dam heigth

44m 131m 119m


Miyama 76m Minase
Yashio 65m
Tataragi 64.5m H=90m Foz do Areia
by 160m
Seto 110.5m earthquake
Minase Fades
83m Kurokawa Mackintosh
98m 68m
Ishibuchi Kisennyama Ishibuchi 75m
53m 91m 52.5m
by
earthquake New Exchequer
crest settlemnt ratio (%)

150m
by Nantahala
earthquake
80m

1 1 CCRD

Dix River
CCRD 84m
Cogoti
85m by
AsFRD by earthquake
earthquake
ConcFRD
Strawberry
42m
Wilmot 35m Alto Anchicaya 140m
thin layer rolled core thin layer rolled core
Cethana 110m Outardes2 55m
dumped rock rolled rock
Paloona 38m Murchison 94m
Serpentine 39m Bastyan 75m
2 2 Swift
1960 1980 2000 37.5m

year dumpted rock compacted rock CFRD


except 1 dam
△□: no inside data

1920 1940 1960 1980 2000


year

Fig.12 Crest settlement ratio and elapsed year after construction of rock fill dam, left:
in Japan right: world

4 CONCLUSIONS
When the Ishibuchi dam used the strength in the considerably loose density state, the
authors could explain actual survey settlement quantity and was able to show relations of the
earthquake size and the settlement quantity in the extreme state.

REFERENCES
[1] National Civil Eng. Laboratory (2008): Dam investigation by Iwate-Miyagi inland
earthquake
[2] H. Watanabe and K. Baba (1981): Some consideration of the sliding stability evaluation
technique based on the dynamic analysis of the fill dam, large dam, Vol. 24, 97th, pp .25-

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[3] T. Okamoto (2002a): Comparison with analysis of past data and the Sawada equation
about the elastic wave velocity of the rock-fill dam, 11th Japan earthquake engineering
symp.
[4] T. Okamoto (2002b): Present design conditions for earthquake stability examination of
the rock-fill dam and future prospects, CRI EPI report survey U01036
[5] Y. Yamaguchi, H. Sato, N. Hayashi (2008): 3.8 Study on evaluation method of
settlement of fill dam under strong earthquake, Natin. R & D C. Civil E. Res. Inst.
[6] Y. Yamaguchi, H. Sato and H. Sakamoto (2009): 3.5 Study on evaluation method of
settlement of fill dam under strong earthquake, Natin. R & D C. Civil E. Res. Inst.

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