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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

AN ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS’ TALK IN AN EFL CLASSROOM

Nurul Aisyah
aisyahbnurul@gmail.com
Departmen of English Education, Indonesia University of Education

Abstract: This research was aimed at discovering teachers’ talk category


occurred the most in an EFL classroom and reasons for teacher in choosing
categories that occurred. The data were obtained through observation
conducted in the 10th grade of an EFL classroom at BPI 1 Senior High School
as well as teacher interview. The observation was conducted in five meetings
along with video recording. The data were then analyzed by using framework
of teachers’ talk proposed by Flanders (1970) namely Flanders Interaction
Analysis Categories (FIAC). The findings showed that all categories of
teachers’ talk occurred in the classroom with varied percentage of occurrence.
From those various categories, asking questions was the category occurred the
most in the classroom. Nevertheless, the occurred categories happened
naturally with the consideration of learning situation that takes place. In
addition the analysis of teachers’ talk in the classroom would be beneficial for
teachers to plan and conduct enhanced learning situation.

Keywords: Teachers’ Talk categories, Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC),


EFL, Classroom

Introduction
Interaction is described as the process of classroom interaction. In the classroom
communication; it involves acts, actions, or interaction it is found that in EFL classroom,
practices of two people or more to affect teachers’ talk is dominating the classroom
each other’s experiences or intentions interaction (Flanders 1970; Inamullah, 2008;
(Rummel, 1976; Brown, 2001; Asmara, Nurmasitah, 2010; Goronga, 2013).
2007). Teaching and learning process is an Teachers’ talk focuses on the talking
example of interaction, it involves time that teacher has in a lesson. Moreover it
interaction between teacher and students in has a role as an input for students especially
which they influence each other (Flanders, in an EFL classroom. Teachers’ talk affects
1970; Dagarin, 2004) which is called as the result of the teaching and learning

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

process (Nunan in Inecay, G, 2010; Yanfen participating. A comfortable classroom


& Yuqin, 2010). For instance, teacher environment is associated with students’
provides instructions, lectures, or even motivation and involvement (Gharbavi and
appraisals to the student. Thus, teachers’ talk Iravani, 2014). Hence, the categories
is a big influence in students’ understanding occurred the most in the classroom is taking
and acquisition of a language. Students can the lead in result of the learning process.
learn a lot from the talk that the teacher Classroom interaction (Flanders,
gives, both in first or foreign language, 1970) can be broken down into two:
considering that in our country; Indonesia, teachers’ talk and students’ talk which
which English is rarely used outside the consist of ten categories of communication.
classroom. Teachers’ talk can determine the Teachers’ talk, has two sub categories:
success of a learning process as it is one of indirect influence and direct influence.
the input for students in acquiring language. Indirect influence is then broken down into:
As the teachers’ talk time takes up more accepting feelings, appraisal or encourages,
time than the students’ talk (Flanders, 1970; accepting or using students’ ideas and
Nurmasitah, 2010) it is important to know asking questions. Direct influence is divided
the types of teachers’ talk categories into lectures, giving directions, and criticizes
occurring in the classroom. Types of or justifying authority.
teachers’ talk occur in the classroom are
simply categorized into seven categories by
Flanders. Each category carries different
functions and gives different impact for
students. The right amount of these
categories will construct an effective
teaching and learning process. Thus,
teachers need to find out the categories they
tend to use in classroom. By acknowledging
the categories they tend to use in the
classroom, teachers can design a better
teaching and learning process where
students can feel at ease and actively

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

Taken from Flanders (p. 5, 1970) can be seen clearly whether the teacher
Accepts feeling: accepts and accept students’ feeling or not in both verbal
clarifies the feelings of the students
in a non-threatening manner. and non-verbal phenomena. Accepting
Feelings may be positive or students’ feelings can build classroom
negative. Predicting and recalling
feelings are included. environments that support the teaching and
Praises or encourages: praises or learning process as well as gives confidence
encourages student action or
behavior. Jokes that release
and engage students in the teaching and
tension, not at the expense of learning process. Rothernberg (2006), as
Indirect another individual, nodding head
cited in Putri (2015), affirms that teacher
Influence or saying 'uh huh?' or 'go on' are
included. should provide a safe environment for
T
e Accepts or uses ideas of student: learning and it includes accepting students’
a clarifying, building, or developing
c ideas or suggestions by a student. feelings. Accordingly, students should not
h As teacher brings more of his own
ideas into play, shift to category be punished for exhibiting their feelings.
e
r five.
s

Asks questions: asking a question  Praising or encouraging
about content or procedure with the
t
intent that a student may answer. Praises or encourages bring out
a
l Lectures: giving facts or opinions students’ willingness to participate more in
k about content or procedures;
class and it boosts students confidence.
expressing his own ideas; asking
rhetorical questions. Studies have found that teachers do not
Gives directions: directions, praise deliberately but rather it is a
commands, or orders with which a
Direct student is expected to comply. spontaneous reaction to students’ behavior
Influence and to their subtle demands for praise
Criticizes or justifies authority:
statements, intended to change (Crespo, 2002). On the other hand, Crespo
student behavior from non-
acceptable to acceptable pattern, also asserts that learning is intrinsically
bawling someone out; stating why
the teacher is doing what he is rewarding and learners should not be bribed
doing, extreme self-reference. or forced to learn. Davies (2011) on his
study adds that “praising may cause a
 Accepting feelings change of pace in a lesson, which may result
French and Galloway (1968) asserts in a loss of concentration.” In line with
that this category (accept feelings) emerge in Crespo, Davies states that the negative
both verbal and non-verbal phenomena. It

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

effects of giving praise could overpower the affirmed that critical thinking using teacher
positive ones in many situations in this class. questions facilitate students to answer
Appraisals are not merely indicated questions that will help them in
by saying “good job!” or “well done!” understanding the issues they are
but it can be shown in a form of saying experiencing in society. However, there are
“uh huh!” or simply by teacher’s times when teacher asks questions but they
repetition of students’ answer. carry on their lecture without receiving any
answers, this is not included in this category.
 Accepting or using ideas of students
Giving appreciation to students will  Lecturing
invite students’ willingness to administer their Lecturing is one of the main
ideas. When students’ are feeling appreciated, classroom activities where teacher gives
they will likely have a good time in teaching and
information or instruction to the students.
learning process, thus creates a comfortable
Lecture is defined as a method of teaching
environment. This category can be observed
by which the instructor gives an oral
through teacher’s confirmation of students’
presentation of facts or principles to learners
suggestion such as “I understand what you
mean.” Also through the repetition of students’
and the class usually being responsible for

statement by using his/her own word and build note taking, usually implies little or no class
or develop the ideas given by students by having participation by such means as questioning
a class discussion as worthy of consideration or discussion during the class period (Good
(French and Galloway, 1968). and Merkel, in Kaur, G., 2011).
There are three major types of
 Asking questions lectures: the expository lecture where the
Brown (2001) describes teacher does most of the talking; the lecture-
questioning in interaction as a way to recitation where the teacher does most of the
stimulate students speaking up their talking but habitually stop and asks students
thoughts. Questions given can be specific questions or requests students to
categorized by students’ level. Teacher read prepared material; and the interactive
usually begins with displaying questions lecture is where the teacher begins with a 15
which the answer is common knowledge. to 25 minute mini-lecture and then asks the
Ambrosio (2013) found that many studies students to form learning groups and

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

complete an assignment based on the mini- age which lead to unstable emotion. In the
lecture, then the instructor delivers another meantime, teacher should be able to
mini-lecture (Kaur, 2011). Furthermore, communicate anger, dissatisfaction and
Kaur states that “a good lecture can annoyance with students (Sofyan and
sometimes motivate students to learn in a Mahmud, 2014). Thus there is a need for the
way that printed material cannot.” teacher to be assertive in the classroom of
what can and cannot be done by students.
 Giving directions Critics given should not be harsh and
Brown (2001) states that “students making the students down as it will leave a
need some direction and facilitation of bad effect for students (Gharbavi and
information on how they should demonstrate Iravani, 2014). Additionally, most of
the whole ideas they own systematically.” criticizes that take place are intended to keep
They expect some direction or command the students pay attention and listen to the
from their teacher and need to be directed in speaker at the present time (Sofyan and
doing some classroom activities in order to Mahmud, 2014).
prevent misunderstanding. In accordance, A number of studies have been
Sofyan and Mahmud (2014, p. 56) suggest conducted, Nurmasitah (2010) observed that
that giving direction will provide students teachers’ talk accounted more than 50% of
with opportunity for practicing their the classroom interaction with lecture as the
capability in English language. Thus, most dominating category. On the other
teacher should put an effort in providing hand, Putri (2015), found that the most
good and clear instruction and explanation dominating category occurred in the
so that the classroom activity can be classroom was asking questions. Additional
maintained. A good direction will lead study was carried by Nugroho (2009) in
teaching and learning process into a which it was realized that teachers’ talk
successful one. almost took up to 50% of the whole lesson
and in accordance with Putri, he found that
 Criticizing or justifying authority asking questions was the most dominant
Sometimes in the classroom there category occurred. Each study has distinct
are a few students that are difficult to handle result regarding the time devoted for
as they have some issues bound with their teacher’s talk and the most dominant

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

category used in the classroom. However the Analysis Categories were utilized in order to
rationales of the usage of the category have examine the degree of teachers’ talk.
not been presented. In five meetings all the categories
were observed and analyzed with the help of
Methodology video recording that was transcribed and
This study employed a descriptive coded. From all five meetings observed, all
case study that will be analyzed through the talk were dominated by the teacher. One
qualitative methods and a combination of of the reasons is due to the material given by
simple quantitative, especially in measuring
the teacher is in the form writing and
percentage of each teachers’ talk categories. reading comprehension. Thus, the teacher
This study was conducted at one of private does more of the talking than his students.
senior High Schools in Bandung. An The most dominant type of teachers’
English teacher and 30 students of tenth talk found in this study is asking questions
graders were involved in this research along which took up 40.77% of the whole talk
with the consideration that the observation done by teacher. This category occurred the
conducted will not hampered their study and most due to teachers’ attempt to stimulate
the fact that they are not being prepared for
and invite students to participate in the
national exam. The tenth graders were learning process as well as ensuring students
selected due to their level of proficiency in getting the notion of the lesson. It was also
English. The data were gathered through found that most dominantly asked questions
five classroom observations and an were close-ended questions in which
interview with the teacher. requires short phrases as a response.

Data Presentation and Discussion

 Teachers’ Talk in the Classroom

It was found that all categories of


teachers’ talk from Flanders Interaction
Analysis Categories (FIAC) occurred in the
classroom, some categories were employed
more than others. Flanders Interaction

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

Table 1. Average of Teachers’ Talk Partic Actual Classroom Verbal Code


ipant Interaction
T A thousand pieces of paper 5
Accepting feelings
cranes. 4
Do you know paper cranes?
Criticizing or justifying Ss Origami
authority
T Yes! That’s origami, colorful 3
Praising or encouraging paper. 4
Paper cranes as a gift, you know
Accepting or using
students' ideas
gift?
Ss Hadiaaahh…
Giving direction
In the presented excerpt, question was
Lecturing
asked in order to assist students getting the
Asking questions
notion of a text. The teacher asked students
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00
by saying “Do you know paper cranes?” in

Asking questions which account the close-ended questions as

Asking questions, this category students answered with a short phrase

occurred the most in the classroom “origami.” This type of questions is often

observed. It occurred in all meetings being administered by the teacher as he

frequently, however, on the first session, it always trying to ensure students understand

was dominated by lecturing. This category each difficult word in the text.

occurred up to 40.77% in the average of the Questions were not merely given to

whole lesson. This category is distinguished ensure students’ understanding of a text. The

not only by the exclamation mark but also teacher also asked the students to elaborate

when teacher is waiting for students’ instructions and their progress on the project

response which indicates that the teacher is given which is in line with Brown (2001)

giving a question. However, if teacher ask that asking questions is a way to stimulate

question but the lecture is continued, thus, it students in speaking up their thought.

is not considered as asking question. From


the classroom observed the teacher is likely
to ask for students’ understanding within an
issue.

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

Partic Actual Classroom Verbal 26.32% on the average from a whole lesson.
Code
ipant Interaction
T Okay, guys. *clap hands* 5 This category is indicated by lectures,
remember that today is 18th March information or facts, expressing opinions so
and it is the day that you must
submit your project. on and so forth. Based on the data analyzed
So, how about your movie 4
the teacher employed the lecture-recitation
project? It has been finished or
not? in which the teacher does most of the talking
Ss Yeah…
T So how about your group? 4 but habitually stop and asks students specific
Ss *silent* questions or requests students to read
T Finished, Indah? Finished? So 4
it’s ready to submit? prepared material.
Ss *inaudible*
Partic Actual Classroom Verbal Code
ipant Interaction
As shown in table above, the teacher T Shhh… shhh… so guys, it should 5
frequently asked students about the project be different when you wanna
say something. You must
given as he states “So, how about your know… you must know, for
example if you wanna say
movie project? It has been finished or not?”
something with Pak Dalton or
in which followed by students response somewhere, sometimes you can
go to some countries that use 5
“yeah.” Then the teacher did a follow up for English. Then you will say to
each group as he asked the students “So how the … someone, uuhhh, it comes
from the deep of my heart. Deep
about your group?” This was done to ensure from my heart but if you say
deep from my hurt, no, hurt…
students are making progress and do their sakit ya… hurt. I heart you
task properly. means I love you. But if you say,
I hurt you, different ya, aku 4
menyakitimu.
And hard, hard means…
Lecturing Ss Difficult
Lecturing is the most important part in T Yeah, it’s difficult. 3
This is hard. 5
teaching and learning as it where all the Ss Keras.
information is being conveyed to the T This is hard. 5
Repeat again. Hard. (pointing to 6
students. Correspond with that lecture is the screen)
Ss Hard. Hurt. Heart.
defined as a method of teaching by which
From the excerpt 8, it clearly shows
the instructor gives an oral presentation of
that the teacher employ the lecture-
facts or principles to learners (Good and
recitation type of lectures proposed by
Merkel, in Kaur, G., 2011). In the observed
Kaur (2011). As the teacher gave a
classroom, this category took up almost
statement, ““so guys, it should be different

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

when you wanna say something. You must students need directions and facilitations
know… you must know, for example if you regarding how they should demonstrate the
wanna say something with Pak Dalton or whole ideas they own systematically. From
somewhere, sometimes you can go to some the observation conducted, the teacher
countries that use English….” In which always give a clear instructions for his
followed by a question “And hard, hard students as well as making sure they
means…” understand each instructions. The
Lectures were given then question instructions were given whenever students
were administered to ensure students obtain are asked to have a group discussions,
the right picture of the topic being discussed. project or reading a passage.
Furthermore, the teacher provide more
Partic Actual Verbal Classroom Code
information by giving examples using ipant Interaction
objects around the class as we can see that Okay. Kita ulang, satu-satu 6
dulu. Satu-satu.
the teacher knocking the table to illustrate T
The man has many things such 4
as…
the word “hard.” The way the teacher
Ss Company.
deliver the information is in line with T His… his what? 4
Ss Company.
Sampath’s (1987) statement as cited in Kaur
(2011, p.2) that many facts can be delivered Code
Partic Actual Verbal Classroom
in short amount of time and impressive way ipant Interaction
T Yeah… so who wants to try?? 4
in which the teacher refer to objects found in
Ss *chattering.*
the classroom as an example. T Onil? Okay, Onil. Let’s listen to 6
the story.
S3 One day there was a guy and a
Giving Direction girl. One day there were a guy and
a girl. The girl and the guy were
Giving direction is one of teachers’ falling in love each other….
talk categories which is indicated through *silence*

close supervision, direction and also In the presented excerpts above, both
compliance. This category of teachers’ talk shows a short direction given by the teacher.
took up 12.61% on the average from the The first excerpt depicts how the teacher
whole lesson. Direction was provided in asked students to do a review of a story
order to guide students doing given presented in the previous lesson which is
assignments. As Brown (2001) states that shown by the expression of “Kita ulang,

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

satu-satu dulu. Satu-satu.” This shows that build or develop the ideas given by students.
the teacher gave no pressure to students in Nevertheless, utterance such as “I
performing the activity. In the latter excerpt, understand what you mean” can be
the teacher was asking students to try to re- considered as accepting or using students’
tell the story using their own language and it ideas. In the observation conducted, the
is shown that the students were avoiding to teacher mostly rephrase and making
do the task by chattering, thus, the teacher inferences from students’ ideas or answers.
appoint a student to re-tell the story to the Partic Actual Classroom Verbal Code
ipant Interaction
whole class as he say “Onil? Okay, Onil. T Yes, you know complication? 4
Let’s listen to the story.“ This is in line with Ss Komplikasi jantung
T Yah komplikasi jantung and 3
Sofyan and Mahmud (2014, p. 56) as they liver…
And what does it mean? It’s 4
suggest that giving direction will provide
problem yah?
students with opportunity for practicing their Ss Iyaa
T So, good story should have 5
capability in English language, in this case, problem not flat. Ga kaya tadi
students were asked to review a story from ceritanya flat kan.Yasha went to
school. Yasha goes to school
the previous lesson. In both of the excerpts every day. In the school Yasha
studied hard and then back home.
presented, teacher always gives direction in Finish. Ga ada kan, there is no
a clear and subtle manner. complication and there is no
problem. A good story should
have problem.
Accepting or Using Students’ Ideas
From the excerpt above we can
This category, accepting or using
conclude that student’s answer lead to a new
students’ ideas, occurred less often than the
topic being delivered by the teacher. In this
previous category. It takes up 8.67% on the
excerpt, the teacher propose student’s
average of the whole lesson. This category is
answer which was “Komplikasi jantung“ to
indicated by rephrasing students’ answers or
be discussed as French and Galloway (1968)
ideas, making inferences from students’
pronounce that one of the manners of
ideas or answers, using their ideas to solve
accepting or using students’ ideas is having
the problem. In line with that, French and
a classroom discussion regarding students’
Galloway (1968) state that it can be
statement. This was followed by teacher’s
observed through students’ statement which
statement “’Yah komplikasi jantung and
is modified using teacher’s own word and
liver… And what does it mean? It’s problem

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

yah?” It is shown that the teacher make use Partic Actual Classroom Verbal Code
ipant Interaction
of student response and connect that with T Yeah, illness. 3
teacher’s knowledge within the topic. It is You know cancer? 4
Ss Iya… kanker.
evident that students’ answer was not the T Ya, kanker ya. 3
So the illness is cancer. *cont’d 5
exact answer desired by the teacher,
reading* illness to be his
however, this was overcome by teacher’s obstacle.
Ss Halangan.
logic to correlate students’ answer along T Yeah, very good! 2
with topic being discussed. Sukar or halangan. 3
Therefore, she had chosen to
leave him. So the girl choose to 5
leave. So, because I’m sick I
Praising or Encouraging don’t want to be obstacle. I don’t
It can be inferred from table 1 that the want to become a problem for
him. She had wanted her parents.
teacher was giving appraisals and The girl asked the parents to put
the paper cranes from the man
encourages sufficiently as the category took
beside her. Because, if the day
up 5,51% as the average occurrence of the comes when faith brings him to
her again, he take some of those.
second category in the whole lesson. In So the girl believes that the man
accordance with that, Crespo (2002) states can come back again and bring
the paper cranes.
that teachers should not praise deliberately Understand? 4
but provide a spontaneous reaction to The excerpt above showed that the
students’ behavior. This category is teacher give appraisal to students’ statement.
employed to invite students’ participation The students disclose the word “obstacle” in
during teaching and learning situation. It is which the teacher response with appraisal in
indicated by responses given by the teacher the form of expression such as “very good!”
to students’ answers. At some points the This is in line with Crespo (2002) that
teacher gave encourages to ensure students praises provided should be spontaneous and
have the confidence to convey their not deliberated. The appraisal given was
thoughts. Correspond with that, Crespo then followed with teacher’s exertion of
(2002) stated that encourages and praises student’s answer as the teacher said “sukar
will help students to build their self-esteem. or halangan.” Which then followed by more
elaboration.

Criticizing or Justifying Authorities

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

As we know that feedback is not merely Partic Actual Classroom Verbal Code
ipant Interaction
given in the form of appraisal and T The girl die… di re- 4
encouragement, criticizing and justifying orientationnya diceritain lagi,
terus gimana dong karakter-
authority was also found to be a feedback karakternya? 7
And then… sssshhh! Listen. 5
for students. This category of teachers’ talk And then, Sahili, die. Ujang, die.
were rarely employed by the teacher as it And Sonia become fish. But in let
me love you, the woman didn’t go
took up 4.85% on the average from the to France but got cancer and
passed away. Ya kan? That’s the
whole lesson. The teacher is likely to
re-orientation and the elderly
employ this category only when the students couple said the truth. 6
So here guys! I really want you to
are being noisy, also when he needs to re-construct… Re-construct! Not
gather students’ attention, and criticizing make again. Not create again. Re-
construct. Di construct kembali
incorrect answers. This category shows that cerita yang kemaren. Your own
story in a group, kemaren. Your
teacher has the capability to manage and be own story, please analyze which
assertive of what can and cannot be done in one is the orientation of your
story, okay? Udah buat kan
the classroom. However, teachers should kemaren ceritanya kan
berdasarkan lagu. And then, what
keep in mind that critics given should not be is the complication, climax,
harsh as it can leave bad effect for students resolution and re-orientation of
your own story. 4
(Gharbavi and Iravani, 2014). You got it?
Ss Yeeesss!

From the excerpt shown above, the


teacher is likely to authorize the classroom
by saying “sssshhh! Listen.” which also
ensuring that students are listening and
comprehending the lesson. This is employed
by teacher in order to create a better
classroom environment. Amidon (1966, p.
2) states that criticism or justified authority
is utilized typically to change pupils’
behavior. The teacher showed that
classroom management is indeed needed to
conduct a successful teaching and learning.

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

 Accepting Students’ Feelings Partic Actual Classroom Verbal Code


ipant Interaction
In each meetings the category of Ss Let me love you, woooo….
accepting feeling has the very least S9 Bacain dong.
Ss *laugh*
proportion compared to all the categories. T Okay, so here, as usual I will 1
allow you if you want to read
Each meetings has different number of
the first paragraph.
accepting feelings with the average of Of course I will give you 6
additional score. I will give you
1.08%. In some lessons there were no signs two scores for those who wants to
of occurrence from this category. The first read and I will give you five
scores for those who helps us
meeting showed the highest number of understand the paragraph.
Who wants to read? 4
accepting feelings by the teacher which took I will give it to Faza. 6
up to 3.5% of the lesson. This kind of action
In the excerpt above, the teacher is
is indicated by teacher’s acceptance of
giving students permission to read each
students’ answer or response. In the
paragraph of the text. The teacher’s action
classroom observed, the teacher’s
showed that teacher was aware of students’
acceptance can be seen both from his verbal
feeling. This kind of action makes students
and non-verbal actions as proposed by
feel accepted as Rothernberg (2006) states,
French and Galloway (1968). From the
in Putri (2015) that teacher should provide a
observation held, teacher nodded or smiled
safe environment for learning and it includes
when he seemed to accept the students
accepting students’ feelings. As we can see
feeling. This kind of action occurred
in the action performed by the students in
whenever students are grumbling or
which student 9 ask the teacher to read the
mumbling, giving statement of happiness or
text as he say “Bacain dong.” Then the
other things.
teacher accounts student’s feeling by
offering the opportunity for other students to
read the text.It is shown in the expression
“as usual I will allow you if you want to
read the first paragraph” stated by the
teacher. It implies that the teacher is
considering students’ feeling in taking
action.

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Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

 Teacher’s Interview Students’ participation in the classroom


become one of the considerations for the
It was found that there are four main
teacher in taking actions including teachers’
reasons for the teacher in utilizing the
talk. Moreover, deciding the type of
categories occurred; students’ language
teachers’ talk to be administered. The
ability, students’ participation, students’
teacher stated that some of the classes he
motivation and natural occurrence. Each of
taught do have more students’ talk. This
these reasons will be elaborated below.
happened based on the fact that each class is
different, the classes are heterogeneous not
Students’ language ability
homogeneous. For instance, there are some
Students language ability is one of
superior classes where the students are
the reasons which influenced the amount of
active to express their thought in English.
teachers’ talk occurred in classroom. The
On the other hand, other classes have less
challenge derived from classroom condition
active students. As he claimed, “Like in this
in which not all students are able to speak in
class, in X-3 class, more… I think some of
English. The process of stimulating students
the students really active to speak up in
to talk is engaged by using teachers’ talk.
English and you see from the observation in
This is supported by teacher’s statement that
X-3, the students are active to speak than in
“…but because the condition… not all the
X-4 or X-5, and X-2 is active too.”
students actually can speak in English. The
If the students are remarkably being
problem is teachers should stimulate the
active, the teacher can decrease their talk.
students, so the process of that stimulation is
On the contrary, if students are really shy to
by using teachers’ talk. So my work is to
speak therefore teacher have to provide
stimulate students to speak up. That’s it and
stimulation. This is supported by Gharbavi
the fact more than 50% is teachers’ talk.”
and Iravani (2014) who assert that the
Furthermore, the teacher explained that it is
quality of teachers’ talk matter more than
quite challenging to construct a fifty-fifty
the quantity which means the length of
talk for both teacher and students or grant
teachers’ talk does not matter and what
50% or more time for students and the
matter is the input that students obtain.
remaining for teacher.

Students’ participation Students’ motivation

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Journal of English and Education 2016, 4(2), 63-79

Students’ motivation also plays a part of language used by the teacher and the type
in the occurrence of teachers’ talk in the of interactions occurring in the classroom.”
classroom. If students are motivated a lot to Thus, the language used and types of
learn, then they will speak a lot. As he interactions occurred have to be in
claimed, “Of course. If students have accordance with students’ need. Especially,
instrumental or integrated motivation, it is not possible to make a plan and fix it
although it’s outside or internal motivation. without considering students’ condition. As
It will influence for them eh it’s really he states “So, yeah… so the point is I never
influence to teachers’ talk. Students who is make a plan specifically, I just want to make
motivated a lot to learn, will speak a lot.” a general plan but the condition in the class
Thus, it will decrease the opportunity for the it’s flowing. Asking… Lecturing…
teacher to talk. On the other hand, if the Naturally.” For instance, in the classroom
students have less motivation then the while describing and conducting discussion
teacher should speak a lot in order to the teacher is observing students’ condition.
stimulate the students to speak. This is Furthermore, the teacher claimed
supported by his statement, “But, if, the that it was spontaneous along with the
students have less motivation so the students consideration of classroom condition. In
should… the teacher should I mean, the addition, the teacher stated that “The
teacher should speak a lot in order to condition of the class, like this one, the
stimulate the students to speak. It’s related condition of the class is good.” in which
to each other.” refer to a class where the students are able to
speak English well. The teacher emphasizes
Natural occurrence that the plan for the whole lesson is general
The last reason is teachers’ talk that not specifically planned for each category to
occurred should happened naturally. The occur in a certain quantity.
reason is because in learning process we
have to take account students’ condition. As
Conclusions
stated by Ellis (1985, p. 143) as cited in
Xiaoyan (2006, p. 13) that “whether it is a This research was conducted with the

subject lesson or a language lesson, intention to observe which category of

successful outcomes may depend on the type teachers’ talk occurred the most in an EFL

77
Nurul Aisyah
An Analysis of Teachers’ Talk in an Efl Classroom

classroom as well as finding out reasons for plan in which the teachers’ talk category
the teacher in choosing categories that occurrence was planned. The teacher was
occurred in the learning situation. Moreover, interviewed and given number of questions
the study was conducted in a qualitative regarding teachers’ talk within the topic of
design with a case study approach at one of this research. The teacher stated that there
private Senior High School. were no particular reasons for choosing
categories that occurred. It all happened
Firstly, the findings showed that the
naturally correspondingly with the
category occurred the most proved to be
classroom situation. Furthermore, the
asking questions. All of the teachers’ talk
teacher claimed all categories that occurred
categories occurred in the classroom
was the result of his consideration regarding
observed with different percentages for each
how the students are responding to the
category. This category, asking questions,
learning process that take place. For
was distinguished not only by the
example, if the students are being active
exclamation mark but also when teacher was
then teacher will allow more talk time for
waiting for students’ response which
students and vice versa. The teacher claimed
indicated that the teacher was giving a
to never make a plan specifically or create a
question. Questions given by the teacher
general plan yet take account of the
were mostly administered in order to ensure
condition of the classroom being taught.
students’ understanding within an issue as
well as the whole lesson. Types of questions
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