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# Theory

Pressure
Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that
force is distributed. Its unit is 𝑁𝑚2.

Types of Pressure:

1. Atmospheric pressure
The pressure exerted by the weight of the atmosphere, which at sea level has a mean value of
101,325 pascals (roughly 14.6959 pounds per square inch).

2. Gauge Pressure
The amount by which the pressure measured in a fluid exceeds that of the atmosphere.

3. Absolute Pressure
Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus
atmospheric pressure. Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is
equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted.

## Figure 1- Pressure differences

Bourdon tube pressure gauge
Bourdon tube pressure gauges are the most common type in many areas and are used to measure
medium to high pressures. They cover measuring spans from 600 mbar to 4,000 bars. The
measuring element is a curved tube with a circular, spiral or coiled shape, commonly called
a bourdon tube.

Working principle
The Bourdon pressure gauge operates on the principle that, when pressurized, a flattened tube
tends to straighten or regain its circular form in cross-section. The Bourdon tube comes in C,
helical, and spiral shapes—although most gauges employ the C shape, which is the type of
Bourdon pictured here.

## Applications of Bourdon tube pressure gauge

A. The bourdon tube is used in analog pressure meter.
B. It is used in many hydraulic systems.
C. It is used in foot pump to in indicate pressure developed.

## Figure 2-Bourdon Tube pressure gauge

Theory

1) U-Tube Manometer
Pressure measuring devices using liquid columns in vertical or inclined tubes are
called manometers. One of the most common is the water filled u-tube manometer used to
measure pressure difference in pitot or orifices located in the airflow in air handling or ventilation
system.

Applications
a) A U-tube mercury manometer is used to measure the static pressure of water flowing in a
horizontal e.g. a horizontal pipe.
b) Manometer's are used to measure the difference between dynamic and static pressures and
may be configured as a u-tube

## 2) Inclined tube manometer

A manometer with an inclined tube arrangement helps to amplify the pressure reading, especially
in low pressure range.

Applications
1. Inclined Manometer Features. An inclined manometer is a slightly curved tube with a
liquid inside, typically a form of oil mixture.
2. Benefits. The manometer's inclined angle provides many advantages.
3. Sensitivity. Other manometer tools, such as the U Type, cannot register low-pressure
quantities.
3) Bourdon tube pressure gauge
Bourdon tube pressure gauges are the most common type in many areas and are used to measure
medium to high pressures. They cover measuring spans from 600 mbar to 4,000 bars. The
measuring element is a curved tube with a circular, spiral or coiled shape, commonly called
a bourdon tube.

## Applications of Bourdon tube pressure gauge

A. The bourdon tube is used in analog pressure meter.
B. It is used in many hydraulic systems.
C. It is used in foot pump to in indicate pressure developed.

## Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor

A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect, to measure changes in pressure,
acceleration, temperature, strain, or force by converting them to an electrical charge. The
prefix piezo- is Greek for 'press' or 'squeeze'.

They discovered that minerals such as tourmaline and quartz could transform mechanical energy
into an electrical output. The voltage induced from pressure (Greek: piezo) is proportional to that
applied pressure, and piezoelectric devices can be used to detect single-pressure events as well as
repetitive events.
Applications
1- Manufacturing equipment in transportation system, machine tools, engines, rockets, The
first application of the piezoelectric materials is applied during the world war 1.
2-

1-This sensor is a pollution free sensor.

## Disadvantage of the Piezoelectric Senor

1-If we use the high temperature, it may get affected.

Theory

Pump