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What is a Circuit Breaker?

A circuit breaker is a device, which can

 Make or break a circuit manually or by remote control under normal conditions.

 Break a circuit automatically under fault conditions (like over current, Short circuit, etc).
 Make a circuit manually or by remote control under the fault conditions.

MCB-Miniature Circuit Breaker

MCB is an electromechanical device which guards an electrical circuit from an over

current, that may effect from short circuit, overload or imperfect design. This is a better
option to a Fuse since it doesn’t require alternate once an overload is identified. An MCB
can be simply rearranged and thus gives a better operational protection and greater
handiness without incurring huge operating cost. The operating principle of MCB is

An MCB function by interrupting the stability of electrical flow through the circuit once
an error is detected. In simple conditions this circuit breaker is a switch which routinely
turns off when the current flows through it and passes the maximum acceptable limit.
Generally, these are designed to guard against over current and overheating.

MCB is substituting the rewirable switch-fuse units for low power domestic and industrial applications in a
very quick manner. In wiring system, the MCB is a blend of all three functions such as protection of short
circuit, overload and switching. Protection of overload by using a bimetallic strip & short circuit protection
by used solenoid.

These are obtainable in different pole versions like single, double, triple pole & four poles with neutral poles
if necessary. The normal current rating is ranges from 0.5-63 A with a symmetrical short circuit breaking
capacity of 3-10 KA, at a voltage level of 230 or 440V.

Characteristics of MCB

The characteristics of an MCB mainly include the following

 Rated current is not more than 100 amperes

 Normally, trip characteristics are not adjustable
 Thermal/thermal magnetic operation

MCCB-Molded Case Circuit Breaker

The MCCB is used to control electric energy in distribution n/k and is having short
circuit and overload protection. This circuit Breaker is an electromechanical device
which guards a circuit from short circuit and over current. They offer short circuit and
over current protection for circuits ranges from 63 Amps-3000 Amps. The primary
functions of MCCB is to give a means to manually open a circuit, automatically open a
circuit under short circuit or overload conditions. In an electrical circuit, the over current
may result faulty design

The MCCB is an option to a fuse since it doesn’t need an alternate once an overload is
noticed. Unlike a fuse, this circuit breaker can be simply reset after a mistake and offers enhanced operator
safety and ease without acquiring operating cost. Generally, these circuits have thermal current for over current
and the magnetic element for short circuit release to work faster.
Characteristics of MCCB

The characteristics of an MCCB mainly include the following

 The range of rated current us up to 1000 amperes

 Trip current may be adjusted
 Thermal/thermal magnetic operation

ELCB -Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

The ELCB is used to protect the circuit from the electrical leakage. When someone
gets an electric shock, then this circuit breaker cuts off the power at the time of
0.1 secs for protecting the personal safety and avoiding the gear from the circuit
against short circuit and overload.

ELCB is a security device used in electrical system with high Earth impedance to
avoid shock. It notices small stray voltages on the metal fields of electrical gear,
and interrupt the circuit if an unsafe voltage is detected. The main principle of
Earth leakage protectors is to stop injury to humans and nature due to electric

This circuit breaker is a specialized kind of latching relay that has structures
incoming mains power connected through its switching contacts so that this circuit breaker disconnects the
power supply in an unsafe condition.

The ELCB notices fault currents from live to the ground wire inside the installation it guards. If enough voltage
emerges across the sense coil in the circuit breaker, it will turn off the supply, and stay off until reset by hand.
A voltage-sensing earth leakage circuit breaker doesn’t detect fault currents from exist to any other ground

Characteristics of ELCB

The characteristics of an ELCB mainly include the following

 This circuit breaker connects the phase, earth wire and neutral
 The working of this circuit breaker depends on current leakage

 RCCB (Residual Current Circuit Breaker)

A RCCB is an essential current sensing equipment used to guard a low

voltage circuit from the fault. It comprises of a switch device used to turn
off the circuit when a fault occurs in the circuit. RCCB is aimed at
guarding a person from the electrical shocks. Fires and electrocution are
caused due to the wrong wiring or any earth faults. This type of circuit
breaker is used in situations where there is a sudden shock or fault
happening in the circuit.

Residual Current Circuit Breaker

For instance, a person suddenly enters in contact with an open live wire in
an electrical circuit. In that situation, in the absence of this circuit breaker, a ground fault may occur and an
individual is at the hazardous situation of receiving a shock. But, if the similar circuit is defended with the
circuit breaker, it will tour the circuit in a second therefore, avoiding a person from the electric shock.
Therefore, this circuit breaker is good to install in an electrical circuit.
Characteristics of RCCB

The characteristics of an RCCB mainly include the following

 Both wires phase and neutral are connected through RCCB

 Whenever there is any ground fault occurs, then it trips the circuit
 The amount of current supplies through the line should go back through neutral
 These are a very effective type of shock protection

 What is the Surge Arrester?

A surge arrester is a device to protect electrical equipment from over-voltage transients caused by external
(lightning) or internal (switching) events.

Type of Surge Arrester

 Low-voltage surge arrester: Apply in Low-voltage distribution system, exchange of electrical

appliances protector, low-voltage distribution transformer windings
 Distribution arrester: Apply in 3 kV, 6 kV, 10 kV AC power distribution system to protect
distribution transformers, cables and power station equipment
 The station type of common valve arrester: Used to protect the 3 ~ 220 kV transformer station
equipment and communication system
 Magnetic blow valve station arrester: Use to 35 ~ 500 kV protect communication systems,
transformers and other equipment
 Protection of rotating machine using magnetic blow valve arrester: Used to protect the AC
generator and motor insulation
 Line Magnetic blow valve arrester: Used to protect 330 kV and above communication system
circuit equipment insulation
 DC or blowing valve-type arrester: Use to protect the DC system’s insulation of electrical
 Neutral protection arrester: Apply in motor or the transformer’s neutral protection
 Fiber-tube arrester: Apply in the power station’s wires and the weaknesses protection in the
 Plug-in Signal Arrester: Used to twisted-pair transmission line in order to protect communications
and computer systems
 A Gas Tube Arrester commonly used in the sockets of Coaxial cables
 High-frequency feeder arrester: Used to protect the microwave, mobile base stations satellite
receiver, etc.
 Receptacle-type surge arrester: Use to Protect the terminal Electronic equipment
 Signal Arrester: Apply in MODEM, DDN line, fax, phone, process control signal circuit etc.
 Network arrester: Apply in servers, workstations, interfaces etc.
 Coaxial cable lightning arrester: Used on the coaxial cable to protect the wireless transmission and
receiving system
The transformer has two type
 Power transformer (ត្រង់ស្វ ូរអនុភាព)
 Instrument transformer(ត្រង់ស្វ ូររង្វាស្់)
 Power transformer

During transmission and distribution of electricity one needs to increase or decrease its voltage to ensure
proper transmission and distribution with minimum power loss. This work is achieved with the help of
power transformers. A power transformer is used in a sub-station to step-up or step-down the voltage.

 A step up transformer steps up the voltage or increases the voltage. It is also sometimes
referred as transmission transformer. It is used to step-up generation voltage to a high value
(say 132 kV or 220 kV or more) for transmission of electric power.

 A step down transformer steps down the voltage or decreases the voltage. It is also sometimes
referred as Distribution transformer. It is used to step-down the voltage from values like 132
kV or 220 kV to voltage levels like 11 kV, 22kV or 33 kV. Except at the generating station,
all the subsequent sub-stations use step-down transformers to gradually reduce the voltage of
electric supply and finally deliver it at utilization voltage.

 Instrument Transformers

Instrument Transformers are used in AC system for measurement of electrical quantities i.e. voltage,
current, power, energy, power factor, frequency. Instrument transformers are also used with protective
relays for protection of power system.
Basic function of Instrument transformers is to step down the AC System voltage and current. The
voltage and current level of power system is very high. It is very difficult and costly to design the measuring
instruments for measurement of such high level voltage and current. Generally measuring instruments are
designed for 5 A and 110 V.

The measurement of such very large electrical quantities, can be made possible by using the Instrument
transformers with these small rating measuring instruments. Therefor these instrument transformers are very
popular in modern power system.

Advantages of Instrument Transformers

1. The large voltage and current of AC Power system can be measured by using small rating measuring
instrument i.e. 5 A, 110 – 120 V.
2. By using the instrument transformers, measuring instruments can be standardized. Which results in
reduction of cost of measuring instruments. More ever the damaged measuring instruments can be
replaced easy with healthy standardized measuring instruments.
3. Instrument transformers provide electrical isolation between high voltage power circuit and
measuring instruments. Which reduces the electrical insulation requirement for measuring
instruments and protective circuits and also assures the safety of operators.
4. Several measuring instruments can be connected through a single transformer to power system.
5. Due to low voltage and current level in measuring and protective circuit, there is low power
consumption in measuring and protective circuits.

Types of Instrument Transformers

Instrument transformers are of two types

1. Current Transformer (C.T.)
2. Potential Transformer (P.T.)

1. Current Transformer (C.T.)

Current transformer is used to step down the current of power system to a lower level to make it feasible
to be measured by small rating Ammeter (i.e. 5A ammeter). A typical connection diagram of a current
transformer is shown in figure below.

Primary of C.T. is having very few turns. Sometimes bar primary is also used. Primary is connected in series
with the power circuit. Therefore, sometimes it also called series transformer. The secondary is having
large no. of turns. Secondary is connected directly to an ammeter. As the ammeter is having very small
resistance. Hence, the secondary of current transformer operates almost in short circuited condition. One
terminal of secondary is earthed to avoid the large voltage on secondary with respect to earth. Which in
turns reduce the chances of insulation breakdown and also protect the operator against high voltage. More
ever before disconnecting the ammeter, secondary is short circuited through a switch ‘S’ as shown in figure
above to avoid the high voltage build up across the secondary.

2. Potential or Voltage Transformer (P.T. or VT)

Potential or Voltage transformer is used to step down the voltage of power system to a lower level to
make is feasible to be measured by small rating voltmeter i.e. 110 – 120 V voltmeter. A typical connection
diagram of a potential transformer is showing figure below.
Primary of P.T. is having large no. of turns. Primary is connected across the line (generally between on line
and earth). Hence, sometimes it is also called the parallel transformer. Secondary of P.T. is having few
turns and connected directly to a voltmeter. As the voltmeter is having large resistance. Hence the secondary
of a P.T. operates almost in open circuited condition. One terminal of secondary of P.T. is earthed to
maintain the secondary voltage with respect to earth. Which assures the safety of operators.

Difference between C.T. and P.T.

Few differences between C.T. and P.T. are listed below –

Current Transformer (C.T.) Potential Transformer (P.T.)

1 Connected in series with power circuit. Connected in Parallel with Power circuit.

2 Secondary is connected to Ammeter. Secondary is connected to Voltmeter.

Secondary works almost in open circuited

3 Secondary works almost in short circuited condition.

4 Primary current depends on power circuit current. Primary current depends on secondary burden.

Primary current and excitation vary over wide range with Primary current and excitation variation are
change of power circuit current restricted to a small range.

One terminal of secondary is earthed to avoid the insulation One terminal of secondary can be earthed for
break down. Safety.

7 Secondary is never be open circuited. Secondary can be used in open circuit condition.