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Sankalp Institute of Innovation and Creation

Revision Notes for Second Term
Sub-English Grammar
Created By-Dr.Shalinee Pandya
B.E, M.Tech.P.hd
Speeches And Their Changes
Class-Seventh .ICSE Board
1. What is speech?
a. Direct and Indirect
b. Reporting verb
c. Reported Speech
2. Pronouns
3. Changes in speech
4. Change in pronoun
5. Change in Tenses
6. Change in Conjunctive word
7. Interrogative
8. WH word Sentences
9. Exclamatory
10.Words expressive time and nearness
11.Changes in words expressing
12.Some Rules to remember
Speech: Basically speech is the thought or feeling we express in our words.
Some times we express our self (own words) and some times we
Express the thought or the tall of any other person to any other person.
So there is some difference in expression of both of the things.
Speech/Narration-whenever a speaker speaks i.e. called narration.
(a) Direct and Indirect:
In this way, the exact words of the speaker are reproduced before someone.
This way uses the inverted commas for the part of the sentence which is
expressed by speaker.
So there are two parts of the sentence:
Reporting verb: Outwards of the inverted comma
Reported Speech: Inwards the inverted comma
Teacher said to students,” You all should complete your work.”
Here the bold pert is inside the inverted commas so known as reported speech
And another part is reporting verb.
(b)Indirect speech: Indirect speech is the way in which the speech of the speaker
(actual speaker) is converted into the words of the person who is repeating the speech
of the actual speaker.

Ex: Ram said to me,” I will go to fair.”

Ram told me that he will go to fair.
Keep it inThe
bold letters are showing the changes.
Direct speech:
Here Inverted
inverted commas,
comma isReported
removed,speech firstand
that used, letter
I isisconverted
always capital, comma is put after the
into He.
reporting verb; tense of the reporting verb is never changed.
Indirect speech: comma is removed which was there after reporting verb, inverted comma is removed.
Change in tense and pronouns in reported speech according to the rule,

Pronouns: Pronouns are the replacement of noun so that we need not repeat
any noun.
Here we will study the personal pronoun:
Person Nominative Objective Reflexive pronoun
pronoun pronoun
First I/We Me /us Myself/ourselves
Second You you Yourself
Third He /She/they Him/Her/their Himself/Herself/themselves
Actually why we do we change pronoun, because the way to express the
narration is now changed. We should understand now which type of changes
in pronouns is required now.
The following rules will help you to understand this thing:
There is no any change in tense if the
*Pronoun change is in only reported speech.
Step 1.See the person in the reported speech.
 If it is
(a)Third person---NO change
(b) NOUN-------No change
(c) First person----According to the subject of the reporting verb
(d) Second person--According to the Object of the reporting speech.
Change in tenses:
Keep in Mind: There will be no any change in tense if
*Reporting verb is in present tense.
*The reported speech is universal truth or historical event.
And the changes in reported speech depend upon the tense of the reporting
Tense of Reporting Speech Changes
Past Simple present->Simple Past
Present Continuous->Past Continuous
Present Perfect->Past perfect
PPC->Past Perfect contn..

Simple Past->Past perfect

Past Past Cont.->Past perfect Contn
Can->could, Maymight
Changes in Word: Here-there, Now-then, this–that, these-those, today-that
day, tonight-that night,thus-so,hither-thither,cme-go,last-previous,yesterday-
previous day, tomorrow-the next day, Next week-following week, Ago-
*These changes will not be done if the speech is reported during the same
period, as at the same place.
*Note: If simple past and Past continuous tense in the direct speech
,expresses two actions which took place at the same time, there will be no
any change in tense when we will convert it into indirect.
*If there is not any object mentioned after: Said: in reporting verb then
there is not any requirement to change the word said into “told “.
Some words which are used instead of “said”
Add, explain, admit, cmplaiun, object, promise, deny, remark, point out

Interrogative sentences start with helping verb and end with question mark,
when any interrogative sentence is inward the “ “then we will use “If” or
“Whether” instead of that, make the sentence assertive, do changes
according to the rules in pronouns and tenses. Remove the question marks.
Place full stop.

WH word: No conjunction is used to introduce the indirect speech. We use

the same wh word as “that” instead of wh word, then make the sentence
assertive, replace question mark with full stop.
(wh words –what,why,who,how many etc.)

Reporting verb is changed into some verb of expression.
All exclamations and interjections are omitted.
Inverted commas are removed.
Exclamatory sentences are converted into assertive.
Sign of exclamation is replaced by full stop.
How beautiful!-very beautiful
What a good idea!-a very good idea

Practice Sheet

He says,”I shall go to school”.

Step 1. What is the speech?
Inverted comma is used so it is direct speech.
Step.2 See the reported speech
First person
Change in pronoun-first person changes according to the subject of the
reporting verb, Sub of reporting verb-HE ,I->He
Step -3 Changes in tense
Reporting verb is in present tense so there is not any change,
Step-4How is the reported speech, WH, Interr, Excla,
Then use that, remove inverted commas, and comma.
He says that he will go to school.

Mohan said to Sheela,”Did you dance at Garba night?”

Step,1 Speech-direct
Step 2-person in reported speech, Second person-you
Change it according to obj,of reporting verb-Sheela
You –she
Step-3.Change in tense
Reporting verb is past simple
So reported speech will convert
Reported speech is past simple
Past simple->past perfect
Step-4.How is the reported speech
So we will use “if “instead of that, make the sentence assertive
Did you dance at garba night
You did dance at garba night
She had done dance at garba night.
Now said to-asked
Ans-Mohan asked Sheela if she had done dance at garba night.

Solutions of Exercises:
Dir; I said to him,” You are very ambitious.”
In: I told him that he is very ambitious.
Dir: You said to me, “I am feeling very uneasy and tired. I would like to go
to some hill station.
In: You told me that you were feeling very uneasy and tired and you would
like to go to some hill station.
Dir: Sushma asked me,” Which school do you go to?”
In: Sushama asked me which school I went to.
Dir: The teacher said to student, “Stand up on the bench”.
In: The teacher ordered student to stand up on the bench.
Dir: The spectators said,” Bravo! Well played, Sachin.”
In: The spectators encouraged Sachin to play well.
Dir: He said to me, “Good Morning Sir!”
In: He wished me Good morning.
Dir: The leader said,”Farewell, my friends and countrymen.”
In: The leader bidded to his friends and countrymen.
Good Morning, Good Evening-Wish
Good Bye, farewell-Bid,
Hurrah!, Hah!hah!hah!-Joy or delight
Alas!, Ah,Oh! Alack!-pain, grief sorrow,
Good Heavens! What! Oh!-surprise
Pooh! Pshaw!-contempt
Fie! , shame on you, for shame!-reproof
Look, Hark! Lo! Hush!--attention

Shalinee Pandya, 09545038611

Sankalp Institute of Innovation and Creation