0 views

Uploaded by Naman Gupta

- junytvc.txt
- integration.doc
- pde2010_a2
- STPM Trials 2009 Math T Paper 1 (SMJK Sam Tet Ipoh)
- 106910224 Arch413 Qualities of Architectural Space Plus Space Analysis Matrix Term Project
- References
- 2001_ What Kind of Space is Cyberspace
- STPM 2006
- Scientific Essay
- Mathematics Set2 2014
- Mt-2 Maths Solutions %282013 Batch%29
- Cgal Manual
- Emergence of Time and Physical Interactions
- ACSA.Intl.1997.58.pdf
- Dynamics Problem printable
- 9781315661278_preview.pdf
- Credit Secretits Bible by WIZCREDITGURU 2012-2014
- Final Draft
- Cap Like and Star like Complex Functions
- Lecture 14

You are on page 1of 8

SOS440

Abstract. In this paper, we generalize the Ahmed’s integral and exhibit some identities

involved in it.

Contents

1.1. Notations 1

1.2. Identities involving Ahmed integrals 2

2. Calculation of Coxeter’s integrals 5

2.1. Reduction of Coxeter’s integral to Ahmed integral 5

2.2. Calculation of Classical Coxeter’s Integrals 6

References 8

1.1. Notations. In this section, we introduce some notations that will be used throughout

this paper.

The function Bpxq is defined for x on p´1, 8q by

ż1

dt

Bpxq “ 2

(1.1)

0 xt ` 1

8

ÿ p´1qn n

Bpxq “ x .

n“0

2n ` 1

$ ?

arctan x

’

’ ? px ą 0q

x

’

’

’

&

Bpxq “ 1 px “ 0q (1.2)

’

’ ?

’

’ arctanh ´x

’

% ? p´1 ă x ă 0q.

´x

1

2 SOS440

π

ˆ ˙

1 1

B “ ? ´ Bpxq, px ą 0q

x x 2 x

and

1

Bp´1 ` xq “ ´ log x ` log 2 ` Opxq as x Ñ 0`

2

are particularly worth to notice.

Then the Ahmed integrals App, q, rq are defined by

ż1

def Bpqppx2 ` 1qq

App, q, rq “ 2

dx, (1.3)

0 pr ` 1qpx ` 1

ˆ ˙

def pq

Ãpp, q, rq “ App, q, rq ` B prpq ` 1qq B

q`1

c (1.4)

1 pq

b

“ App, q, rq ` ? arctan rpq ` 1q ¨ arctan .

pqr q`1

These integrals reduce to the classical Ahmed integrals for special choices of parameters,

as we can see

?

tan´1 x2 ` α

ż1 ˆ ˙

1

? dx “ A , α, α ´ 1 , (1.5)

0 px2 ` 1q x2 ` α α

which holds for α ą 1. The definition (1.3) and (1.4) seem very bizarre and visually

unappealing at first glance. But this definition is designed to capture some symmetries

innate in the Ahmed integrals, as we will see.

1.2. Identities involving Ahmed integrals. We first show the following identity.

ż1 ˆż 1 ˙

1 dy

App, q, rq “ 2 2 2

dx

0 pr ` 1qpx ` 1 0 qppx ` 1qy ` 1

ż1ż1

dxdy

“ 2 2 2

0 0 ppr ` 1qpx ` 1q pqppx ` 1qy ` 1q

ż1ż1 ˆ ˙

1 1`r qy2

“ 2

´ dxdy.

0 0 qry ` r ` 1 p1 ` rqpx2 ` 1 pqy2 x2 ` qy2 ` 1

Then by definition (1.1) of B, the former fraction becomes

ż1ż1 ˆ ˙

1`r qr

2 2

dxdy “ B pppr ` 1qq B .

0 0 pqry ` r ` 1q pp1 ` rqpx ` 1q r`1

COXETER’S INTEGRALS 3

ż1 ˆ ˙

qy2 qy2 pqy2

2 2 2

dx “ 2 B

0 pqy x ` qy ` 1 qy ` 1 qy2 ` 1

c d

q y pqy2

“ a arctan .

p qy ` 1

2 qy2 ` 1

by (1.2). So we have

ˆ ˙

qr

App, q, rq “ B pppr ` 1qq B

r`1

c ż1 d

q y pqy2

´ a arctan dy,

p 0 pqry2 ` r ` 1q qy2 ` 1 qy2 ` 1

and it remains to evaluate the last integral. But it is easy to observe that

„ ?

d q ry

b

2

arctan rpqy ` 1q “ a

dy pqry2 ` r ` 1q qy2 ` 1

thus we obtain

c ż1 d

q y pqy2

a arctan dy

p 0 pqry2 ` r ` 1q qy2 ` 1 qy2 ` 1

« d ff1

1 pqy2

b

“ ? 2

arctan rpqy ` 1q arctan

pqr qy2 ` 1

0

ż1 a

2

arctan rpqy ` 1q

´ a dy

0 pp1 ` pqqy2 ` 1q r pqy2 ` 1q

ˆ ˙

pq

“ B prpq ` 1qq B ´ Apq, r, pq,

q`1

from which we deduce (1.7) as desired.

This theorem allows us to transform one Ahmed integral to another one, and in some

limiting case we can obtain a meaningful results. For instance, the limiting condition r Ñ 0

applied to the first part of the identity (1.7), together with Apq, 0, pq “ B pq pp ` 1qq,

immediately yields

ˆ ˙

pq

App, q, 0q “ B pqpp ` 1qq ` Bppq ´ B ,

q`1

and especially for p “ q “ 1, (1.5) gives

? ?

π ?

ż1 ?

tan´1 x2 ` 1 3 2

? dx “ Ap1, 1, 0q “ arctan 2 ´ p2 2 ´ 1q.

2

0 px ` 1q x ` 1 2 2 4

But in general, (1.7) alone gives no specific information about the actual value. So we need

the following identity.

4 SOS440

c ˆ ˙ c ˆ ˙

ad a b`d d bc c b`d b

A , , ` A , ,

bc b`d c b ad b`d a d

˜ d d ¸

π

c c

ad bc a c

“ arctan ` arctan ´ arctan ¨ arctan .

2 bpa ` b ` dq dpb ` c ` dq b d

(1.9)

c c ż1ż1 ?

a c abcd

I “ arctan ¨ arctan “ 2 2

dxdy.

b d 0 0 pax ` bqpcy ` dq

1 A`B 1 1

“ “ ` ,

AB ABpA ` Bq ApA ` Bq BpA ` Bq

we have

ż1ż1 ?

abcd

I“ dxdy

0 0 pax2

` bqpax2

` cy2 ` b ` dq

ż1ż1 ?

abcd

` 2 ` dqpax2 ` cy2 ` b ` dq

dxdy

0 0 pcy

def

“ I1 ` I2

By symmetry, it suffices to evaluate I1 . By simple calculation,

ż1ż1 ?

abcd

I1 “ 2 2 2

dydx

0 0 pax ` bqpax ` cy ` b ` dq

ż1 ? ˆ ˙

abcd c

“ 2 2

B dx

0 pax ` bqpax ` b ` dq ax2 ` b ` d

ż1 ? ?

π

ˆ ˆ 2 ˙˙

abcd c ax ` b ` d

“ 2

? ´B dx

0 cpax ` bq 2 ax2 ` b ` d c

˜ ? c ˙¸

π

ż1 ˆ 2

abd ad 1 ax ` b ` d

“ ? ´ B dx

0 2 pax2 ` bq ax2 ` b ` d bc pa{bqx2 ` 1 c

? c

π 1

ż ˆ ˙

abd ad a b`d d

“ ? dx ´ A , , .

2 0 pax2 ` bq ax2 ` b ` d bc b`d c b

Then the integral in the last line is evaluated as follows: By the substitution x ÞÑ t´1 ,

? ?

π 1 π 8

ż ż

abd abd t

? dx “ a dt

2 0 pax2 ` bq ax2 ` b ` d 2 1 pbt2 ` aq pb ` dqt2 ` a

« c ff8

π b

“ arctan ppb ` dqt2 ` aq

2 ad

1

d

π ad

“ arctan .

2 bpa ` b ` dq

COXETER’S INTEGRALS 5

Therefore we have

d

π

ˆ ˙

ad a b ` d ad

I1 “ arctan ´A , , ,

2 bpa ` b ` dq c c bc

and likewise d

π

ˆ ˙

bc c b ` d bc

I2 “ arctan ´A , , .

2 dpb ` c ` dq a a ad

Combining these results yields (1.9).

ˆ ˙

? 1 1 1 1

pqr App, q, rq ` ? A , ,

pqr q p r

˜ d ¸ d

π

c

1 pr r`1

b

“ arctan ` arctan ´ arctan ppr ` 1q ¨ arctan .

2 rpq ` 1q p`1 qr

(1.10)

As a special case of (1.10) with pq “ 1 and r “ 1, we have

c ˜ c ¸2

π

ˆ ˙

1 1 1 2

A , α, 1 “ arctan ´ arctan ,

α 2 α`1 2 α

hence in conjunction with (1.5), we obtain

ż1 ? ˆ ˙

tan´1 x2 ` 2 1 5π2

? dx “ A , 2, 1 “ , (1.11)

0 px2 ` 1q x2 ` 2 2 96

which is the original result of Ahmed in [Ahm02].

tegral of the form

ż θ0 c

cos θ ` 1

arctan dθ. (2.1)

0 a cos θ ` b

We impose additional condition a ą |b| and min0ďθďθ0 pa cos θ ` bq ě 0. Our aim in this

chapter is to show that any Coxeter’s integral is reduced to an Ahmed integral.

We make use of simple change of variable to obtain

ż θ0 c ż θ0 d

cos θ ` 1 2 cos2 pθ{2q

arctan dθ “ arctan dθ

0 a cos θ ` b 0 a ` b ´ 2a sin2 pθ{2q

ż θ0 {2 ˜ ¸

cos θ

“2 arctan a dθ,

0 pa ` bq{2 ´ a sin2 θ

where the substitution θ ÞÑ 2θ is used in the last line. This shows that it suffices to consider

the integral of the form

żφ ˜ ¸

cos θ

Ipα, β, φq “ arctan a dθ, (2.2)

0 α β2 ´ sin2 θ

6 SOS440

where α ą 0, φ P r0, π{2s and sin φ ă β ă 1. With this notation we readily identify (2.1)

as

ż θ0 c ˜ c ¸

cos θ ` 1 ? a ` b θ0

arctan dθ “ 2I a, , .

0 a cos θ ` b 2a 2

Then the substitution sin θ ÞÑ β sin θ with φ̃ “ arcsinpsin φ{βq, followed by the substitution

tan θ ÞÑ t tan φ̃ gives

Ipα, β, φq

ż φ̃ ˜a ¸˜ ¸

1 ´ β2 sin2 θ β cos θ

“ arctan dθ

αβ cos θ

a

0 1 ´ β2 sin2 θ

˜a ¸˜ ¸

1 ` t2 p1 ´ β2 q tan2 φ̃ β tan φ̃ dt

ż1

“ arctan .

αβ t2 tan2 φ̃

a

0 1 ` t p1 ´ β q tan φ̃

2 2 2 1 `

tan φ̃ β2

ˆ ˙

1

Ipα, β, φq “ A p1 ´ β2 q tan2 φ̃, 2 2 , ,

α α β 1 ´ β2

hence after some simple algebraic manipulations, we obtain

ż θ0 c d

cos θ ` 1 1 ´ cos θ0 a ´ b 1 ´ cos θ0

ˆ ˙

2 a`b

arctan dθ “ 2 A , , .

0 a cos θ ` b a cos θ0 ` b 2 a cos θ0 ` b a ` b a ´ b

(2.3)

2.2. Calculation of Classical Coxeter’s Integrals. Now let’s consider the following clas-

sical Coxeter’s integrals:

żπ żπ

cos θ cos θ

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

2 3

I1 “ arccos dθ, I2 “ arccos dθ,

ż0π ˆ 1 ` 2 cos θ ˙ ż0π ˆ 1 ` 2 cos θ ˙

2 1 3 1

I3 “ arccos dθ, I4 “ arccos dθ,

0 1 ` 2 cos θ 0 1 ` 2 cos θ

ż arccosp 1 q żπ

1 ´ cos θ 1 ´ cos θ

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

3 3

I5 “ arccos dθ, I6 “ arccos dθ,

ż0π c 2 cos θ ż0π c 2 cos θ

2 cos θ 3 cos θ

I7 “ arccos dθ, I8 “ arccos dθ.

0 1 ` 2 cos θ 0 1 ` 2 cos θ

By the half-angle formula, for |A| ă 1,

c c

A`1 1´A

arccos A “ 2 arccos “ 2 arctan .

2 1`A

Thus we obtain

ż θ0 ż θ0 c

cos θ 3 cos θ ` 1

ˆ ˙

arccos dθ “ 2 arccos dθ

0 1 ` 2 cos θ 0 4 cos θ ` 2

ż θ0 c

cos θ ` 1

“2 arctan dθ,

0 3 cos θ ` 1

COXETER’S INTEGRALS 7

and likewise

ż θ0 ż θ0 c

cos θ ` 1

ˆ ˙

1

arccos dθ “ 2 arccos dθ

0 1 ` 2 cos θ 0 2 cos θ ` 1

ż θ0 c

cos θ

“2

arctan dθ

0 cos θ`1

ż θ0 ˜ c ¸

π cos θ

“2 ´ arctan dθ

0 2 cos θ ` 1

ż θ0 c

cos θ ` 1

“ πθ0 ´ 2 arctan dθ,

0 cos θ

ż θ0 ż θ0 c

1 ´ cos θ cos θ ` 1

ˆ ˙

arccos dθ “ 2 arccos dθ

0 2 cos θ 0 4 cos θ

ż θ0 ˜ c ¸

π 3 cos θ ´ 1

“2 ´ arccos dθ

0 2 4 cos θ

ż θ0 c

cos θ ` 1

“ πθ0 ´ 2 arctan dθ,

0 3 cos θ ´ 1

ż θ0 c ż θ0 c

cos θ cos θ ` 1

arccos dθ “ arctan dθ,

0 2 cos θ ` 1 0 2 cos θ ` 1

So that

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

1 4 1 1

I1 “ 4 A 1, , 2 , I2 “ ? A , ,2 ,

2 5 5ˆ 2

π π

2 2

˙

? 1

I3 “ ´ 4 28 A p8, 2, 1q , I4 “ ´ 4A , 2, 1 ,

2 3 ˆ2

π

ˆ ˙ 2

˙

1 ? 1 1

I5 “ 2π arctan ? ´ 2 28 A 8, 1, , I6 “ ´ 4 A 2, 1, ,

ˆ 2˙ 2 3ˆ ˙ 2

1 2 1 2

I7 “ 2 A , ,3 , I8 “ A , ,3 .

2 3 8 3

? ?

Here the notation 8 Ap8, q, rq is understood as the limit case of p App, q, rq, hence

by (1.10) with p Ñ 8,

˜ d d ¸

? π 1 ? r`1

8 Ap8, q, rq “ ? arctan ` arctan r ´ arctan . (2.4)

2 qr rpq ` 1q qr

π2

I3 “ I5 “ .

6

Also, with aid of (1.7) and (1.11), we obtain

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

1 13π2 1 5π2

A 2, 1, “ , A 1, , 2 “

2 288 2 96

and we obtain

5π2 π2 11π2

I1 “ , I4 “ , I6 “ .

24 8 72

8 SOS440

References

[Ahm02] Zafar Ahmed. Definitely an integral. American Mathematical Monthly, 109:670–671, 2002.

- junytvc.txtUploaded bySea Man
- integration.docUploaded byNorzulsuriana Binti Yahaya
- pde2010_a2Uploaded byankara271828
- STPM Trials 2009 Math T Paper 1 (SMJK Sam Tet Ipoh)Uploaded byVincent Mok
- 106910224 Arch413 Qualities of Architectural Space Plus Space Analysis Matrix Term ProjectUploaded byEjas Mohammed
- ReferencesUploaded bySunaina Chauhan
- 2001_ What Kind of Space is CyberspaceUploaded byNick Jensen
- STPM 2006Uploaded byShu Nee
- Scientific EssayUploaded by: Dr. EMAD KAYYAM.
- Mathematics Set2 2014Uploaded byprabs20069178
- Mt-2 Maths Solutions %282013 Batch%29Uploaded byVîpzz Vîpûl
- Cgal ManualUploaded byArturo Zanetti
- Emergence of Time and Physical InteractionsUploaded byPinhas Ben-Avraham
- ACSA.Intl.1997.58.pdfUploaded byJazz
- Dynamics Problem printableUploaded byOstwald Garcia
- 9781315661278_preview.pdfUploaded byLee Chinghang
- Credit Secretits Bible by WIZCREDITGURU 2012-2014Uploaded byrodney
- Final DraftUploaded byRik Majumdar
- Cap Like and Star like Complex FunctionsUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Lecture 14Uploaded byMuhammad Rizwan
- HW #6 Angle Addition PostulateUploaded bywjmenard
- Metaphysics and RelativityUploaded bymsngr00
- The Problem of Physical SpaceUploaded byGeorge Mpantes mathematics teacher
- MidTermTest_1_MS.docxUploaded byLoh Angel
- theory of architectureUploaded byHarita Salvi
- axial ex3.9Uploaded bylannz zandre
- LAONAWEBrevised2013Sept212015VersionUploaded byJayden K. Amolli
- LAONAWEBrevised2013Sept212015Version1Uploaded byJayden K. Amolli
- Center of Gravity of Plane RegionsUploaded byAnonymous FZeDzDBKv
- taxist geometry and digital technologies in a proeja touristic guide courseUploaded byFabiana Andrade

- Paper MAT v1Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- Paper1_ENGLISH.pdfUploaded byNaman Gupta
- TTS (2)Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- olimpic physics 2004Uploaded byĐoàn Thái
- Android TutorialUploaded byMohammad Shoeb
- Answerkey-JEE(Main)-2018-Code-A-B-C-D.pdfUploaded byNaman Gupta
- VirusUploaded byNaman Gupta
- TtsUploaded byNaman Gupta
- doc_008_Coxeter_3Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- Table of Acids w Kas and pKasUploaded byKawthar Mokhtar
- exam97.pdfUploaded byNaman Gupta
- Who is Who in Computer Science1Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- zipse_encyclo_2012Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- ExcelUploaded byNaman Gupta
- Chemistry 12Uploaded bymukesh_mlb
- Internet TricksUploaded byNaman Gupta
- OOPS Concept.docxUploaded byNaman Gupta
- STSE 2007.pdfUploaded byNaman Gupta
- Computer Quiz 1Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- 100fiitjeeUploaded byNaman Gupta
- DPPUploaded byNaman Gupta
- Paper-1Uploaded byNikhil Bindal
- DPPUploaded byNaman Gupta
- 10P_NewtonsSecondLaw_1Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- C++ Tutorial for C UsersUploaded byKarthik Tantri
- C++ Tutorial for C UsersUploaded byKarthik Tantri
- Astronomy2015-answer-key.pdfUploaded byNaman Gupta
- ANSKEYCM-II (1719) 25.08.17Uploaded byNaman Gupta
- 02_Set_IX_Chemistry_E_H_9.pdfUploaded byNaman Gupta

- CG10-HMMUploaded byMuaz Gultekin
- Network Topology Cutset LoopUploaded byAjit Kumar Maurya
- AQA 9365 1H W SQP Maths PaperUploaded byAmir Masinissa Meziane
- Calculus-one variable.pdfUploaded bybhulook
- Operation Management Ch01Uploaded byGeorge
- 2008 Maths Methods CAS 3 & 4 Exam 1 solutionsUploaded byJeff Tsai
- Solutions to LEsson 5.7 Finding Equation of Quad (1)Uploaded byKatheeja Musatheek
- numerovUploaded bydiego-cr
- Elements of the Theory of Computation - PapadimitriouUploaded byRajesh Kumar
- Eigenvectors, Eigenvalues and EigenspacesUploaded byRaul
- Test Bank for Calculus for the Life Sciences 1st Edition by SchreiberUploaded bya410896504
- 06) Introductory IntegerUploaded bySalmanShah
- STEM Pre-Calculus Curriculum GuideUploaded byJan Alexis Monsalud
- Fourier Sine Expansion PDFUploaded byseraj ibramem
- HCF and LCMUploaded bytamilanba
- Algebra 1 Ch. 1 Extra PracticeUploaded bywenatchee25
- Scan ConversionUploaded bykaustubh2008satpute
- Integral Definido. Exercicios ResolvidosUploaded byDiego Dos Santos Garcia
- Notations--DLMF--(NIST).pdfUploaded byQuantDev-M
- Jsu Mat Smk Btp 2014Uploaded byfadariah-1
- Addmaths FormulaUploaded bySyaza Izzaty
- Theory.pdfUploaded byMasnun Rahman
- Effect of Windowing Methods on Performance of FIR filter DesignUploaded byijsret
- Inclusion ExclusionUploaded byFantastiqueFesses
- Dorrie Heinrich ProblemsUploaded byRaghuveer Chandra
- indxUploaded bymasterrk
- formula_xm f2Uploaded byNurul Binti Yusof
- Week12 Harder StuffsUploaded byHuda Soliman
- Numerical Simulation of the Couette Flow Using Meshless Weak-strong MethodUploaded byCarlos Dutra Fraga Filho
- Trignometric Functions ExemplerUploaded byami