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You are on page 1of 69

(with 2003 Edition)

The BEST Center

University of Maryland

October 2003

Guide Specifications (1993-2002)

2.3 LOADS

2.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS AND LOAD FACTORS

2.5 DESIGN THEORY

2.6 FATIGUE

2.7 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION

2.8 BEARINGS

2.9 DIAPHRAGMS, CROSS FRAMES, AND

LATERAL BRACING

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

** 2003 New Guide Specifications

Section 3 Loads

Section 4 Structural Analysis

Section 5 Flanges with One Web

Section 6 Webs

Section 7 Shear Connectors

Section 8 Bearings

Section 9 I –Girders

Section 11 Splices and Connections

Section 12 Deflections

Section 13 Constructibility

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 2

(same as 2002; LFD only)

(use modified AASHTO LRFD Art. 6.6.1 with load factor of

0.75 instead; Uncracked section is used as per Art. 9.6.1)

(same as 2002; Deflection and Concrete Crack Control)

(This limit state considers deflection, strength of steel and

concrete and stability during critical stage of construction)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 9

• Deflection

- Max. Preferable Span-to-Depth Ratio

Las 50

= 25

d Fy

- Live Load Deflections

** Effective for the full width and full length of the concrete deck

2.3 LOADS

for multiple lane loading and during

concrete placement

AASHTO 3.17 Check D + 2 (L + I)

and 1.5 (D + L + I)

AASHTO 10.29.6 Anchor bolts

( I = 50 / (L + 125) ≤ 0.3 AASHTO Eq. 3.1 )**

** Revised in 2003.

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 3

! Impact

Art. 3.5.6.1 I-Girders.

Load Effect Impact Factor

Vehicle Lane

Girder bending moment, torsion and deflections 0.25 0.20

Reactions, shear, cross frame and diaphragm actions 0.30 0.25

Load Effect Impact Factor

Vehicle Lane

Girder bending moment, torsion and deflections 0.35 0.30

Reactions, shear, cross frame and diaphragm actions 0.40 0.35

2.3 LOADS (cont.)

! Centrifugal Force same as current AASHTO

( C = 0.00117 S2 D = 6.68 S2 / R AASHTO Eq. 3.2 )

( S = the design speed in miles/hr )

considered if temperature

movements are allowed to

occur (more in Article 1.6 &

1.7)

2.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS AND LOAD

FACTORS

1.3 (Dp + C)

live load deflections)

D + Lr

where

Lr = L + I + CF

L = Basic live load

I = Impact loads

CF = Centrifugal force

(C) Overloads

D + 5/3 Lr

2.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS AND LOAD

FACTORS (cont.)

Group IA: 1.3 [D + 2.2 Lr] (Single lane)

Group II: 1.3 [D + W + F + SF + B + S + T]

(EQ may replace W and ICE may replace SF)

Group III: 1.3 [D + Lr + 0.3W + WL + F + LF]

Group I: 1.3 [D + 5/3 Lr]

1.3 [0.9D + 5/3 Lr]

2.5 DESIGN THEORY

! General

• Analysis should be of entire structure

• However, primary bending moment curvature effects may

be neglected if the following conditions exist:

1 Span 2 or more Spans

2 2o 3o

3 or 4 3o 4o

5 or more 4o 5o

2.5 DESIGN THEORY

! Torsion Diaphragms must be

provided and designed as

primary members

“warping” or “lateral flange

bending,” this effect always

must be taken into account

connectors must be

designed using procedures

that will be discussed at a

later point

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 5

The effects of curvature may be ignored if

! Girders are concentric,

! Bearing lines are not skewed more then 10 degrees from radial,

and

! The arc span divided by the girder radius is less then 0.06

radians where the arc span, Las, shall be taken as follows:

For simple spans:

Las = arc length of the girder,

Las = 0.9 times the arc length of the girder,

Las = 0.8 times the arc length of the girder.

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 4

girder flanges due to curvature.

6 Ml 2

M lat = Eq. (4-1)

5 RD

Where:

M = vertical bending moment (k-ft)

l = unbraced length (ft)

R = Girder radius (ft)

D = web depth (in)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 4

! Approximate Methods:

• V-Load method for I-girder bridges

• M/R Method for Box-girder bridges

! Refined Methods:

• Finite Strip method.

• Finite Element method.

(including gird model considering torsional warping)

DESCUS Alternate Solution for Torsion

and Warping Differential Equations

Equation & M 1

= 2 φ ′ − φ ′′′

Solution for EC ω a

Concentrated Z Z MZ

Torsion M φ = A + B cosh + C sinh +

a a GJ

1 −m

Equation &

2

φ −φ =

′′ ′′′

Solution for a ECω

Uniform

Z Z mZ 2

Torsion m φ = A + BZ + C cosh + D sinh −

a a 2GJ

1 − mZ

Equation & 2

φ ′′ − φ ′′′ =

Solution for a LECω

Z Z mZ 3

Linear Varying φ = A + BZ + C cosh + D sinh −

Torsion m a a 6GJL

DESCUS Alternate Solution for Torsion

and Warping Differential Equations

DESCUS Alternate Solution for Torsion

and Warping Differential Equations

DESCUS Alternate Solution

for Torsion and Warping

Differential Equations

Formula 1 τ t = Gt φ ′

− ES ω s φ ′′′

Formula 2 τ ωs =

t

Formula 3

σ ω s = EW ns φ ′′

DESCUS Alternate Solution for Torsion

and Warping Differential Equations

Stresses induced by Bending

Formula 4

Mby

σb =

I

Formula 5

VQ

τb =

It

2.5 DESIGN THEORY (cont.)

– Overload **

(fb + fw)overload < 0.8 Fy noncomposite

< 0.95 Fy composite

Deflections as

(fb )overload < 0.95 Fy Continuously braced flanges &

partially braced tension flanges

(fb )overload< Fcr1 = Fbs ρw ρs < 0.95 Fy

Partially braced compression flange

0 .9 Ek

Fcr = 2

≤ Fy

(fb,web comp. )overload< D

tw

2.6 FATIGUE

– Same as Straight Bridge except for the contribution of

torsional stress

• AASHTO Standard Spec.

– Allowable Fatigue Stress Range

(Redundant or nonredundant; stress cycles &

stress category)

– Stress cycles

– Stress category

– Infinite fatigue life (ADTT single-lane $ 2000 Trucks/day

Fn = (∆F)threshold

– Finite fatigue life (ADTTsingle-lane < 2000)

Fn = ∆F = ( A/N )1/3

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 4

Design truck only with constant 30' between 32-kip axles.

(LRFD Art. 3.6.1.4 with a load factor of 0.75)

ADTTsingle-lane = p x ADTT

where p = 1.0 for one-lane bridge

= 0.85 for two-lane bridge

= 0.80 for three-lane or more bridge

Rural Interstate 0.2

Urban Interstate 0.15

Other Rural 0.15

Other Urban 0.10

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 4

High traffic volume

16 B

12 BN

10 C

12 CN

7 D

4.5 E

2.6 EN

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 4

•Fatigue Limit State (cont.)

Finite Fatigue Life (ADTTsingle-lane < 2000 trucks/day)

1

N = (365)(75)(n)(ADTT)single−lane A 1

Fn = ∆ F = ≥ (∆ F )TH

3

N 2

Category A ()F)TH n

(ksi)

A 2.5 H 1010 24 R > 40! R < 40!

BN 6.1 H 109 12

2.7 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION

directions radiating from fixed supports

2.8 BEARINGS

radiating from fixed supports

plane

2.9 DIAPHRAGMS, CROSS FRAMES,

AND LATERAL BRACING

Same as current AASHTO except as follows:

! Diaphragms/Crossframes shall be provided at each

support and at intervals between Diaphragms/Crossframes

shall extend in a single plane across full width of bridge

! Diaphragms/Crossframes need not be located along skew

at interior supports

! Diaphragms/Crossframes should be full depth design as

main structural element

! Diaphragms/Crossframes/Lateral Bracing should be

framed to transfer forces to flanges and webs, as

necessary

2.9 DIAPHRAGMS, CROSS FRAMES,

AND LATERAL BRACING (cont.)

Suggested Diaphragm/Crossframe spacing

Centerline Radius Suggested Max.

of Bridge (feet) Spacing (feet)

Below 200 15

200 to 500 17

500 to 1000 20

Over 1000 25

Max. stress of the bottom lateral wind bracing

ƒb = ƒd × (DF)bR

ƒd = Max. Stress in Crossframes from grid analysis

− SD + (016

. L − 10) L L

( DF )bl = 2.5 × + + 0.652

( SG) R 160

4/3

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 9

uniform as practical to ensure that the flange strength

equations are appropriate. Equation (C9-1) may be

used as a guide for preliminary framing.

5

l= rσ Rb f Eq. (C9-1)

36

Where:

l = cross frame spacing (ft)

fl

rσ = desired bending stress ratio,

fb

R = girder radius (ft)

bf = flange width (in)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 5

where:

Fy = specified minimum yield stress (ksi)

The unbraced arc length, l, in feet between brace points at cross frames or

diaphragms shall satisfy the following:

where:

b = minimum flange width in the panel (in)

R = minimum girder radius within the panel (ft)

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(B) Maximum Normal Flange Stress

! Compact Sections

– Compression Flange

Requirement: b 3200

≤ (** New: 18)

t Fy

Allowables:

Fcr 1 = Fbs ρ B ρ w Eq. (5-4)

where

Fbs = Fy (1 - 3 λ2)

1 12l Fy

where λ = ** Revised in 2003

π b E

** 2003 New Guide Specs use the same equation, except l/bf in

all the equations to be consistent with the units used

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(cont.)

1

ρb = ** Revised in 2003

12l 2l l

2

1 +

− 0.01

1+

bf 6b f R

l l

0.3 − 12 .

l

2

f w R bf ** Revised in 2003

ρ w = 0.95 + 18 01

. − +

R fb Fbs

ρ b

Fy

ρ B ρ w ≤ 10

.

– Tension Flange

fb < Fbu = Fy ** Superseded

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 5

Fcr = smaller fl

Fcr 2 = Fy − 3 (Eq. 5-5)

as Fcr for compact compression.

• Fcr for Continuously Braced Tension Flange is Fy

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(cont.)

(B) Maximum Normal Flange Stress (cont.)

! Non-Compact Sections

– Compression Flange

3200 b 4400

Requirement: < ≤ ** Superseded

Fy t Fy

Allowables:

fb # Fby = Fbs ρw ρs

(fb + fw) # Fy

where

Fbs = Fy (1 - 3 λ2)

(Same definition for ρb and ρw)

– Tension Flange

(fb + fw) # Fby = Fy ** Superseded

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 5

bf E

≤ 1.02 ≤ 23 Eq. (5-7)

tf ( fb + fl )

Fcr = smaller

Fcr 2 = Fy − f l Eq. (5-9)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 5

1

ρb =

l 12l ** Revised in 2003

1+

R 75b f

1

ρ w1 =

f l 12l

1− 1− ** Revised in 2003

f b 75b f

12l

bf

0.95 + 2

l

30 + 8,000 0.1 − ** Revised in 2003

R

ρ w2 =

f

1 + 0.6 l

fb

When f l f b ≥ 0 ρw = min(ρw1, ρw2); f l f b < 0 , ρw = ρw1

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 5

Fcr = smaller fl

Fcr 2 = Fy − 3 Eq. (5-11)

(Art. 5.4)

Fcr1 = Fbs ρb ρw

Fcr = smaller fl

Fcr 2 = Fy − 3

Fcr = Fy

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

" Unstiffened Web (Art. 6.2)

for R ≤ 700 feet

D

≤ 100 Eq. (6-1)

tw

for R > 700 feet

D

≤ 100 + 0.038(R − 700) ≤ 150 Eq. (6-2)

tw

Where:

D = distance along the web between flanges (in)

tw = web thickness (in)

R = minimum girder radius in the panel (ft)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

0.9 Ek

Fcr = 2

≤ Fy Eq. (6-3)

D

where: tw

k = bend-duckling coefficient

= 7.2 (D/Dc)2 for unstiffened webs

= 9.0 (D/Dc)2 for transversely stiffened webs

D 2 d

= k = 5.17( ) for s ≥ 0.4 for longitudinally

ds Dc

= D d stiffened webs

k = 11.64( ) 2 for s < 0.4

Dc − d s Dc

ds = distance between long. stiffener and comp. flange (in)

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(cont.)

(C) Web Design

! Webs Without Stiffeners

Vu = C Vp

where

Vp = 0.58 Fy D t

D 6,000 K

for <

tw Fy

C = 1.0

6,000 K D 7,500 K

for ≤ ≤

Fy tw Fy

6,000 K

C=

D

Fy

tw

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(cont.)

D 7,500 K

>

for tw Fy

4.5 × 107 K

C= 2

D

Fy

tw

where buckling coefficient K = 5

** 2003 New Guide Specs use the same equation, except E is included in

all the equations to be consistent with LRFD format.

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

D/tw < 150

For R ≤ 700 feet

do = D Eq. (6-7a)

where:

R = minimum girder radius in the panel (ft)

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(cont.)

! Transversely Stiffened Girders

V u = C Vp

(Calculations for C and Vp are the same as for webs without

stiffeners except 5

K =5+ 2

do

D

I # do t3 J

where

D2

J = 2.5 − 2 X

d o

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

Width-to-Thickness Ratio Requirement

bs E Eq. (6-13)

≤ 0.48

ts Fy

Where:

ts = stiffener thickness (in)

bs = stiffener width (in)

Fy = specified minimum yield stress of stiffener (ksi)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

I ts = d ot w3 J Eq. (6-14)

where: 1.58 2

J = − 2 X ≥ 0.5 Eq. (6-15)

d / D

X = 1.0 for a ≤ 0.78 Eq. (6-16)

a − 0.78 4

X = 1+ Z Eq. (6-17)

1, 775

a = aspect ratio

do

=

D

Z = 0.079d o2 Eq. (6-18)

≤ 10

Rt w

do = actual distance between transverse stiffeners (in)

R = minimum girder radius in the panel (ft)

2.12 NONCOMPOSITE GIRDER DESIGN

(cont.)

! Longitudinally Stiffened Girders

Not required if

D 36,500 o

2

o

d d

≤ 1 − 8.6 + 34

t Fy R R

D 73,000 do do

≤ 1 − 2.9 + 2.2

t Fy R R

Two stiffeners required (D/5 from both flanges) if

D 73,500

≤

t Fy

! Requirements for Longitudinal Stiffeners

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

Moment of inertia Requirement

( )

I ls ≥ Dt w3 2.4a 2 − 0.13 β Eq. (6-19)

where:

Z

β = + 1 when the longitudinal stiffener is on the side

6

of the web away from the center of curvature

Z

β = + 1 when the longitudinal stiffener is on the side

12

of the web toward the center of curvature

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 6

preferably shall be attached to both flanges. When pairs

of transverse stiffeners are used, they shall be fitted

tightly to both flanges.

" Transverse stiffeners used as connection plates shall be

attached to the flanges by welding or bolting with

adequate strength to transfer horizontal force in the cross

members to the flanges.

" Two longitudinal stiffeners may be used on web section

where stress reversal occurs.

" Longitudinal and transverse stiffeners preferably shall be

attached on opposite sides of the web.

" Bearing stiffeners shall be placed in pairs, bolted or

welded to the girder web or diaphragm

CURVED COMPOSITE I-GIRDERS

2.13 GENERAL

2.13 GENERAL

and for nonuniform torsion (also called warping or

lateral flange bending)

bending

torsion

and nonuniform torsion

2.14 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

not to exceed:

– ¼ of the span length of the girder

– the distance center to center of girders

– 12 x the least thickness of the slab

For interior beams, the least of:

– ¼ of the effective span length

– 12 x the average thickness of the slab + greater of

(web thickness, ½ the width of the top flange of the girder)

– the average spacing of adjacent beams

2.15 NONCOMPOSITE DEAD LOAD

STRESSES

b 4400

! ≤

t 13

. f DLI

composite

2.16 COMPOSITE SECTION STRESSES

– braced by cross-frames or diaphragms

fb # Fby

fb + fw # Fy

– braced by concrete

fb + (fw)DL # Fy

composite

2.17 SHEAR CONNECTORS

modified by Article 1.19

(A) Fatigue

(B) Ultimate Strength

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 7

• - Strength

P

N= Eq. (7-1)

φ sc S u

where:

φsc = 0.85

Su = strength of one shear connector according to AASHTO Article

10.38.5.1.2 (kip)

P = force in slab at point of maximum positive live load moment

given by Equation (7-2) (kip)

Eq. (7-2)

P = Pp2 + Fp2

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 7

where:

Pp = longitudinal force in the slab at point of maximum

positive live load moment computed as the smaller of

P1p or P2p from Equations (7-3) and (7-4) (kip)

Fp = radial force in the slab at point of maximum positive live

load moment computed from Equation (7-5) (kip)

P1 p = As Fy Eq. (7-3)

where:

As = area of steel girder (in2)

′

P2 p = 0.85 f c bd t d Eq. (7-4)

where:

′

fc = specified 28-day compressive stress of concrete (ksi)

bd = effective concrete with as specified in Article 4.5.2 (in)

td = average concrete thickness (in)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 7

Lp Eq. (7-5)

Fp = PP

R

where:

Lp = arc length between an end of the girder and an

adjacent point of maximum positive live load

moment (ft)

R = minimum girder radius over the length, Lp (ft)

Eq. (7-6)

P= P +FT

2

T

2

where:

PT = longitudinal force in the concrete slab at point of greatest

negative live load moment computed from Equation (7-7)

(kip)

FT = radial force in the concrete slab at point of greatest

negative live load moment computed from Equation

(7-10) (kip)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 7

PT = Pp + Pn Eq. (7-7)

where:

Pn = the smaller of P1n or P2n (kip)

′

P2 n = 0.45 f c bd t d Eq. (7-9)

Ln Eq. (7-10)

FT = PT

R

where:

Ln = arc length between a point of maximum positive live load

moment and an adjacent point of greatest negative live

load moment (ft)

R = minimum girder radius over the length, Ln (ft)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 7

- Fatigue

where:

Vfat = longitudinal fatigue shear range/unit length (k/in)

Ffat = radial fatigue shear range/unit length (k/in)

Abot σ flg l

Ffat = Eq. (7-12)

wR

where:

Abot = area of bottom flange (in2)

σflg = range of fatigue stress in the bottom flange (ksi)

l = distance between brace points (ft)

R = minimum girder radius within the panel (ft)

w = effective length of deck (in)

** 2003 New Guide Specifications Section 7

FCR

Ffat = Eq. (7-13)

w

where:

FCR = net range of cross frame force at the top flange (kip)

nZ r

p= Eq. (7-14)

Vsr

where:

n = number of shear connectors in a cross section

Zr = shear fatigue strength of an individual shear connector

determined as specified in AASHTO LRFD Article

6.10.7.4.2 (kip)

Vsr = range of horizontal shear for fatigue from Equation

(7-11) (kip)

CURVED HYBRID GIRDERS

2.18 GENERAL

2.18 GENERAL

symmetry through the middle-plane of the web plate

2.19 ALLOWABLE STRESSES

(A) Bending-Noncomposite Girders

! Allowable flange stress

Equal to allowable stress from Article 2.12 multiplied by

reduction factor

BΨ(1 − α ′ ) (3 − Ψ + Ψα ′ )

2

R = 1−

6 + BΨ(3 − Ψ )

where Fy = yield strength of compression flange

web area

B=

tension flange area

C of tension flange

Ψ=

depth of section

2.19 ALLOWABLE STRESSES (Cont.)

α ′ = α (1 + f w / f b t )

web yield strength

α =

tension flange yield strength

f w / fb t

= absolute value of (lateral flange

bending stress / bending stress) for

tension flange

1− α

If f w / f b t ≥ , then R = 1

α

2.19 ALLOWABLE STRESSES (Cont.)

(B) Bending – Composite Girders

Same as for noncomposite girder

Same as for noncomposite girder, except α is defined as

follows:

fw 2Ψ − 1

T when ≤ , α ′ =α

fb c 1 − Ψ

2Ψ − 1 f w Ψ

T when < < −1

1− Ψ f b c α (1 − Ψ )

2.19 ALLOWABLE STRESSES (Cont.)

fw 1− Ψ

α ′ = α 1 +

fb c Ψ

fw fw

where is the same as

fb c

fb t

fw Ψ

if ≥ − 1, then R = 1

f b α (1 − Ψ )

2.19 ALLOWABLE STRESSES (Cont.)

2.12(C)

V u = C Vp

! Fatigue

2.20 PLATE THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS

Same as for non-hybrid curved girders, except that fb in the

formulas is replaced by fb / R

THE END

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