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Pregnancy testing

An early sign of pregnancy is missing an expected menstrual period. Other signs that may
mean pregnancy include enlarged breasts, nausea, frequent urination, tiredness, a need for more
sleep.
When a menstrual period is 2 weeks late, a woman should have a pregnancy test. This test is
simple and inexpensive. Picks are put into a sample of a woman's urine. The sign indicates
whether the woman is pregnant. This test can be done in a doctor's office, a hospital, a clinic or
at home. (A woman using the home test might want to have the results checked by a qualified
specialist.) Someone who is not sure about how much the test costs or where it is available can
telephone the local public health department. Information is also available from "hot lines" Most
communities have set up centers that offer special, often free, health services.
Questions
1. What is an early sign of pregnancy?
2. What are other signs of it?
3. When should a woman have a pregnancy test?
4. How is the test?
5. How is it done?
6. Where can it be done?
7. Who can check a home test?
8. If one wants to know more about the information, what can he do?
The post-operative patient
Read this passage, paying special attention to these topics:
Why a nurse is with a patient constantly after anesthesia
What a nurse does if she notices unusual signs or symptoms
The post-operative patient
Soon after an operation has been performed, the unconscious patient is moved to a recovery
room situated near the operating theatre. He is moved slowly and carefully so that no strain or
pressure is put upon the wound. The recovery room contains all the equipment and drugs which
may be necessary if difficulties occur.
A nurse remains with the patient all the time while he recovers from the effects of
anesthesia. It is her duty to follow these instructions:
Ensure that the patient's respiratory tract is not obstructed.
Carry out orders from the doctor immediately: for example, to administer oxygen or drugs.
Help the patient if he vomits, and note the amount and kind of vomitus.
Notice signs of shock or hemorrhage. This is done by observing the appearance of the skin, the
blood pressure and the temperature. A temperature of above 37.7°C or below 36.1°C must be
reported.
Place the patient in a suitable position in order to keep him safe, quiet and comfortable.
Give post-operative treatment, such as drainage, if prescribed. Inspect dressings in case there is
excessive hemorrhage or drainage.
Report any unusual signs or symptoms.
As the patient regains consciousness he begins to feel pain and to worry about the
operation. This can be relieved by giving analgesics. He may also be given a drink of water at
this stage, especially if he complains of nausea. He should be encouraged to breathe deeply and
to change his position in the bed from time to time.
Now answer these questions:
1) Where does the patient recover from anesthesia? .
2) Why must a nurse be with him constantly while he recovers?
3) What should the nurse do if she notices any unusual or dangerous signs or symptoms in the
patient?
4) How does the patient usually feel when he regains consciousness?