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GURU NANAK INSTITUTIONS TECHNICAL CAMPUS.

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL

INDEX

STUDY EXPERIEMENTS:-
PART A
Expt No. Experiment Name Page No.

1. Identification ,Specifications,Testing Of R,L,C Components (Color


Codes), Potentiometers, Switches (SPDT,DPDT &DIP),
Coils,Gang Condensers, Relays,Bread Board… … … … … … … … … … … .. 03
2. Soldering Practice- Simple Circuits Using Active And Passive
Components… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 11

3. Single Layer And Multi Layer PCBs… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .. 13

4. Study And Operation Of Multimeters, Function Generator, Regulated


Power Supplies… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 15

5. Study & Operation Of CRO… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 19


PART B
Expt No. Experiment Name Page No.

1. Forward and Reverse Bias characteristics of PN diode… … … … … ............ 23


2. Zener Diode characteristics and Zener as voltage Regulator… … … … … .. 27
3. Input and output characteristics of transistor in CB configuration… .. … … 33
4. Input and output characteristics of transistor in CE configuration… .. … … 39
5. Half-wave rectifier with and without filter… … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 45
6. Full-wave rectifier with and without filter… … … … … … … … … … … ............. 51
7. FET Characteristics… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . 56
8. Frequency response of CE amplifier… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ... 62
9. SCR Characteristics… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 67
10. UJT Characteristics… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..... 71
Additional Experiments
11. Measurement of h parameters of transistor in CE configuration… … … … 76
12. Frequency response of CC amplifier… … … … … … … … … … … … … ........... 83
13. Frequency response of Common Source FET amplifier… … … … … … … .. 88

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ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB (9A04302)

List of Experiments
PART A

STUDY EXPERIEMENTS:-

1. Identification , Specifications,Testing Of R,L,C Components (Color


Codes), Potentiometers, Switches (SPDT,DPDT &DIP), Coils,Gang
Condensers, Relays,Bread

2 Soldering Practice- Simple Circuits Using Active And Passive


Components16

3 Single Layer And Multi Layer PCBs

4. Study And Operation Of Multimeters, Function Generator,


Regulated Power Supplies

5. Study & Operation Of CRO

PART B
For Laboratory examination – Minimum of 10 experiments

1. Forward and Reverse bias characteristics of PN junction diode.


Manish
2 Zener diode characteristics and Zener as a regulator
3. Input and Output characteristics of Transistor in CB Configuration.
4. Input and Output characteristics of Transistor in CE Configuration.
5. Half wave Rectifier with and without filters.
6. Full wave Rectifier with and without filters.
7. FET characteristics.
8. Frequency response of CE Amplifier.
9. SCR Characteristics.
10. UJT Characteristics.
Additional Experiments
11. Measurements of h parameters of transistor in CB, CE, CC Configurations
12. Frequency response of CC Amplifier.
13. Frequency response of Common Source FET Amplifier

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PART A:
Expt. 1: IDENTIFICATION, SPECIFICATION & TESTING OF COMPONENTS

AIM: To identify the different component symbols.


APPARATUS: Resistors,
Capacitors
Transformers
Semi conductors
Transistors
THEORY:

RESISTORS: Opposition to flow of currents is called resistance. The elements having resistance
are called resistors. They are of two types
1. Fixed resistor
2. Variable resistor
CAPACITORS:
Capacitors are used to store large amount of static current.
When they are included in circuit it acts open circuit. They are three types
1. Disk capacitor
2. Fixed capacitor
3. Variable capacitor

TRANSFORMERS:
Transformers are used to transfer the current.
They are of two types
1. Step up Transformer
2. Step down Transformer

SEMICONDUCTORS:

Semiconductors are partial conductors which conducts electricity partially through them. They play
major role in electronics.
1 P-N Junction diode
2. Zener diode

Semiconductor is a material for which the width of the forbidden gap between the valence band
conduction is very small. As gap is every small valence electron acquire required energy to go in
to the conduction band. These free electrons constitute of current under the influence of applied
electric field. The energy band is time for semiconductor. They are a class of material whose
electrical conductivity lies between that of a conductor and an insulator. The conductivity of a
semiconductor lies in a range of10^5 and 10^-4siemens/meter.

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INDUCTOR SPECIFICATIONS :
1. Inductance Value
2. Resistance
3. Capacitance
4. Frequency Value
5. Quality Factor 6. Power Losses
7. Current Ratings
8. Electro Magnetic Radiations
9.Temperature Coefficient

SWITCHES:
SPST: Single pole single through
SPDT: Single pole double through DPST: Double pole single through
DPDT: Double pole double through

DIODES: Diodes have more priority now a days. They are mostly used in developing electronic
systems. They are
1. P-N Junction diode
2. Zener diode
Zener diode is background biasing voltage. So it also called voltage requesting diode.

TRANSISTORS: They are of 4 types


1. BJT: Bi polar junction transistor again 2 types , NPN-BJT, PNP-BJT. Here B-base C-
collector
E-Emitter
2. FET: Field effect transistors again 2 types P-Channel FET N-Cannel FET. Here G-Gate
terminal D-Drain terminal, S-Source terminal.
3. JFET: Junction field effect transistors they similar to FET.
4. MOSFET: Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor

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TRANSFORMERS:

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SWITCHES:

DIODES:

BREAD BOARD: An experimental


version of a circuit generally lay out on a flat
board and assembled with temporary connections so that circuit elements may be easily
substituted or changed. The name originates from the fact that early electrical circuits were
actually wired on wood bread boards. It is used to connect an electronic circuit temporarily for
testing and experimentation.

A typical bread board is shown in fig

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RESISTOR COLOR CODE:

The resistance value and tolerance of carbon resistor is usually indicated by color coding. Color
bands are printed on insulating body. They consist of four color bands or 5 color bands & they
are read from left to right.

A typical resistor with color bands is shown in figure

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The above resistor has 4 color bands.


The first band represents first digit
The second band represent second digit
The third band represent multiplier (this gives the no. of zeros after the 2 digits )
The 4th band represents tolerance in %

The color codes are presented in below table

I
f third band is gold the first two digit are multiplied by 10^-1
If the third band is silver the first two digits are multiplied by 10^-2
If the 4th band is gold the tolerance is –5%
If the 4th band is silver is the tolerance is –10%

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If the 4th band is no color the tolerance is –20%


The numerical value associated with each color
EXAMPLES: The resistor has a color band sequence green, blue, brown and silver identify the

resistance value.

The resistance value=56x10^1–10%


=560Ω–10%
Therefore the resistance should be with in the range of 555Ω to 565Ω

SECIFICATIONS FO RLC COMPONENTS


RESISTOR:

1. Resistance value:
This is the value of the resistance expressed in ohms.
Ex: 10Ω, 1MΩ
2. Tolerance: This is the variation in the value of the resistance i.e. expected from exact
indicated value usually tolerance is represented in % ex: 1%,2%,20%...
2. Power rating: The power rating is very important in the sense that it determines the maximum
correct that a resistor can withstand without being destroyed. The power rating of resistor is
specified as so many watts at a specific temperature such as one or two watts at 70 degree.

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CAPACITOR:
1. Value of capacitance 2. Tolerance
3. Voltage rating 4. Temperature coefficient
5. Leakage resistance 6. Frequency range
7. Dielectric constant 8. dielectric strength
9. power factor 10. Stability

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INDUCTORS: The inductance is defined as the ability of an inductor which opposes the change
in
current. It is denoted by the letter "L" and its unit is
Henry(H).Ex:1H.2H…
Mutual nductance: It is the ability of a varying current in one inductor L1 induced voltage in
another inductor L2 near by . It is represented by Lm and is measured in Henry.
M=K√ (L1XL2) H
COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING:
It is defined as the ratio of flux linkages between L1 and L2. To total flux
produced by L1. It is represented by K and its typical value is 1.
K=Lm/√
(L1XL2)

PERMEABILTY: It is denoted by micro’s" and it is return as =B/H. Where B=flux density


H=Flux intensity.

PROCEDURE: Different components can be identified by using their different symbols.

RESULT: Components should be identified by using their symbols.

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EXPT: 2. SOLDERING PRACTICE- SIMPLE CIRCUITS USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE


COMPONENTS

Soldering is a process for joining metal parts with the aid of molten metal, where the melting
temperature is situated below that of material joined and where by the surface of part are coated
without turn in becoming molten. A soldering connection ensures metal continuity on the other
hand, when two metals are joined, behave like a single solid metal by joining disconnected. (or)
physically attaching to each other.
Types of soldering:
1. Iron soldering 2. Mass soldering
3. Dip soldering
4. Wave soldering

SOLDER ALLOYS:
Tin lead, Tin antimony, Tin lead antimony, Tn silver, Tin Zinc.
Soldering is an alloying process between two metals with which it divides some of the metal,
with which it comes into contact. A flux is used to remove this oxide from the area to be
soldered.

SOLDERING OF SOLDER ALLOY:

Even though the alloy Sb 60/pb 60 is cheaper and still finds a good market, it is advisable to
prefer Sn63/pb 37 for high quality inter connection because

It has a5c higher melting point which means soldering range is 5c higher. The tensile strength as
well as shoal strength of Sn60/pb 37 Is higher in comparison to Sn60/pb 40. Only tin trans the
inter molecular bond with copper of CU3Sn andCU6SN. The specific gravity of Sn63/ pb 37 is
also lesser than that of Sn60/ pb 40. Higher composition of tin increases the electrical as well as
thermal conductivity. I t also gives brightness to the joint flux.

FLUX: To aid the soldering process, a substance called flux is used. Flux has below three
purposes.
Remove the film of turnish from the metal surface to be soldered. To prevent the base metals
from being re exposed to oxygen in the air to be avoid oxidation during heating, which means
rotation of welding by preventing from oxidation. Assist in the transfer of heat to metal being
soldered.
The soldering process involves
1. Melting of the solder which makes the higher flux and brings the impurities suspended in it
to the surface.

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2. Partial dissolution of some metals in the connection by solder.


3. Cooling and fusing solder with the metal quest often for locating a problem in the
functioning of the circuit. It is necessary to remove a component from the printed circuit board
and carryout the requisite tests on it.

The process of repair usually involves


Disassembly of a particular component.
Testing of component
Replacing of the component found defective.
4.In this process of removal and replacement of electronic devices, the process of soldering is
employed. specific gravity of Sn63/ pb 37 is also lesser than that of Sn60/p 40 that makes the
equipment lighter.

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EXPT. 3 : SINGLE LAYER AND MULTI LAYER PCBs

AIM: To study the single layer and multi layer PCBs.

APPARATUS: PCB

The design of PCB is considered as the last step in electronic design as well as the major step in
the production of PCB. It is a board consisting of printed circuit of electronic equipment on it
and is used for the designing of circuit.

THE STEPS FOR DESIGNING PCB are

1. Layout planning
2. Art work
3. Film master production
4. Pattern transfer (photo/screen printing)
5. Plasting 6. Etching
7. Mechanical matching operations

The layout is the work done before the art work in the PCB. It provides all the information
about the circuit, which has to drawn on PCB.Protection of copper tracks is very much essential
Plasting is such a process which forms a thin layer over copper tracks and protect them.
Generally, it is done with gold.

Types of copper plating: Copper plating


Nickel plating
Gold plating
Tin plating
Tin lead plating

Etching means to draw on board by the action of acid, especially by coating the surface with
wax and letting the acid cast into the lines or area laid bar with needle.
Spray etching
Laminate etching
Splash etching (Configured force by rotating in centre).

The double sided PCB’s are made with or without plated through holes. Fabrication of plated
through holes type boards is very expensive.

Two types: Plated through holes


No plated through holes.

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In plated through holes, the total no. of holes is kept minimum for economy and reliability. In no
plated through holes, contacts are made by soldering the component lead on both sides of board
when required and jumper wires are added. There should be minimum solder joints on the
component sides. Replacing of such components is different.

Result: Single Layer and Multilayer PCB’s are studied

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EXPT.4: STUDY AND OPERATION OF MULTIMETERS, FUNCTION


GENERATOR, REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES

AIM: To study and operation of multiimeters, function generator, and regulated power supply.

APPARATUS: Multimeter
Function generator
Regulated power supply.

THEORY:
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

Power supplies provided by a regulated DC voltage facilities fine and coarse adjustments and
monitoring facilities for voltage and current. They will work in constant voltage and current mode
depending on current limit and output load.The current limit has good stability, load and line
regulations. Outputs are protected against overload and short circuit damages. They are available in
single and dual channel models with different voltage and current capacities. Overload protection
circuit of constant self restoring type is provided to prevent the unit as well as the circuit under use.
The power supplies are specially designed and developed for well regulated DC output. These are
useful for high regulation laboratory power supplies, particularly suitable for experimental setup and
circuit development in R&D.

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DESIGNATION

SPECIFICATIONS
Wave form Sine, squares,
triangles, TTL square
waves
Amplitude 0-20V for all the
functions.

Sine distortion Less than 1% from 0.1 HZ to 100 HZ


harmonics
Modulation showed down fundamental for
100K HZ to 1MHG.

Offset Continuously variable


10V
Frequency range 0.1 HZ to 1Μhz in
ranges.

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Output impedance 600 ohms

5%. : 49% to 51%.

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Square wave duty 5%. : 49% to 51%.

cycle

Differential linearity 0.
5%

Range selectors: Decode frequency by multiplying the range selected with the frequency
indicated by dial gives the output frequency, which applies for all functions.
Function selectors: Selected desired output wave form which appears at 600 output.
VCO input: An external input will vary the output frequency. The change in frequency is directly
proportional to input voltage.

TTL output: A TTL square wave is available at this jack. The frequency is determined by the
range selected and the setting of frequency dial. This output is independent of amplitude and D.C
OFFSET controls.
Amplitude control: Control he amplitude of the output signal, which appears at 600ohms.
OFFSET control: Control the DC offset of the output. It is continuously variable for –5V, –100V.
Fine frequency dial: Multiplying the setting of this dial to the frequency range selected gives the
output frequency of the wave forms at the 600ohms.

MULTIMETER:
DIGITAL MULTIMETER

A multimeter is a versatile instrument and is also called Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter (VOM).


It is used to measure the d.c and a.c voltages and
resistance values.

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A digital multimeters essentially consists of an analog to digital converters. It converters


analog values in the input to an equivalent binary forms. These values are processed by digital
circuits to be shown on the visual display with decimal values. The liquid crystal display system is
generally employed. Actually all the functions in DMM depend ion the voltage measurements by
the converter and comparator circuits.

Result: The operation of multiimeters, function generator, and Regulated Power Supply are studied .

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EXPT. 5: STUDY & OPERATION OF CRO


AIM: To observe front panel control knobs and to find amplitude, time period and frequency
for given waveforms and also find phase by using the lissajous figures.

APPARATUS:
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope,
function generator,
connecting wires.

THEORY: C.R.O is a versatile instrument used for display of wave forms and is a fast x-y
plotter. The heart of C.R.O is and the rest is the circuitry to operate C.R.O
The main parts are

1. Electron gun: - it is used to produce sharply focused beam of electron accelerated to very
high velocity.
2. Deflection system: - it deflects the electron both in horizontal and vertical plan.
3. Florescent screen:- the screen which produces, spot of visible light . when beam of electrons
are incident on it the other side of tube is coated with phosphorus material.

FRONT PANNEL:
ON-POWER: toggle switch for switching on power.
INTENCITY: controls trace intensity from zero to maximum.
FOCUS: It controls sharpness of trace a slight adugestement of focus is done after changing
intensity of trace.

AC-DC: GROUND:

It selects coupling of AC-DC ground signal to vertical amplifier.

X-MAG: It expands length of time base from 1-5 times continuously and to maximum time
base to 40 ns/cm.

SQUARE:

This provides square wave 2v (p-P) amplitude and enables to check y calibration of scope.

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SAWTOOTH WAVE FORM:


This provides saw tooth wave form output coincident to sweep speed with an output of saw
tooth wave (p-p) .

VERTICAL SECTION: y position: This enables movement of display along y-axis.


Y-INPUT: It connects input signal to vertical amplifier through AC-DC ground coupling
switch
CALIBRATION: 15mv - 150mv dc signal depending on position selection is applied to
vertical amplifier.

DC BALANCE: It is control on panel electrostatic ally in accordance with waveforms to be


displayed.
VOLTS/CM: Switch adjusts sensitivity.
HORIZANTAL SECTION:
X-POSITION: This control enables movement of display along x-axis.

TRIGGERING LEVEL: It selects mode of triggering.

TIMEBASE: This controls or selects sweep speeds.

VERNUIS: This control the fine adjustments associated with time base sweep.

SIGN SELECTOR: It selects different options of INT/EXT, NORM/TO.

STAB: Present on panel

EXITCAD: It allows time base range to be extended.

HORIZANTAL INPUT: It connects external signal to horizontal amplifier.

Ext SYN: it connects external signal to trigger circuit for synchronization.

OBSERVATIONS:-

Amplitude = no. of vertical divisions * Volts/div.


Time period = no. of horizontal divisions * Time/div.
Frequency=1/T

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Amlitude taken on vertical section (y).

Time period taken on horizontal section(x)

MODEL WAVE FORMS

MESURMENT OF PHASE:

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APPLICATIONS OF CRO:

1. Measurement of current
2. Measurement of voltage 3. Measurement of power
4. Measurement of frequency
5. Measurement of phase angle
6. To see transistor curves
7. To trace and measuring signals of RF, IF and AF in radio and TV. 8. To trace visual display of
sine waves.

RESULT: To calculated the given waveform, frequency, amplitude and phase.

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PART B

Experiment No.:1

FORWARD AND REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS OF PN DIODE

AIM:-To observe and draw the Forward and Reverse bias V-I Characteristics of a P-N
Junction diode.
APPARATUS:-

S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity


1 P-N Diode IN4007 1
2 Resistor 1KO 1
Ammeters 0-200 mA, 1
3
0-500mA 1
4 Voltmeter (0-20 V) 1
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:-
A p-n junction diode conducts only in one direction. The V-I
characteristics of the diode are curve between voltage across the diode and current
through the diode. When external voltage is zero, circuit is open and the potential
barrier does not allow the current to flow. Therefore, the circuit current is zero. When P-
type (Anode is connected to +ve terminal and n- type (cathode) is connected to –ve
terminal of the supply voltage, is known as forward bias. The potential barrier is reduced
when diode is in the forward biased condition. At some forward voltage, the potential
barrier altogether eliminated and current starts flowing through the diode and also in
the circuit. The diode is said to be in ON state. The current increases with increasing
forward voltage.
When n-type (cathode) is connected to +ve terminal and P-type (Anode) is
connected –ve terminal of the supply voltage is known as reverse bias and the potential
barrier across the junction increases. Therefore, the junction resistance becomes very
high and a very small current (reverse saturation current) flows in the circuit. The diode
is said to be in OFF state. The reverse bias current due to minority charge carriers.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

FORWARD BIAS:-

REVERSE BIAS:-

MODEL WAVEFORM:-

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PROCEDURE:-
FORWARD BIAS:-
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For forward bias, the RPS +ve is connected to the anode of the diode and
RPS –ve is connected to the cathode of the diode,
3. Switch on the power supply and increase the input voltage (supply voltage) in
steps.
4. Note down the corresponding current flowing through the diode and voltage
across the diode for each and every step of the input voltage.
5. The reading of voltage and current are tabulated.
6. Graph is plotted between voltage and current.

REVERSE BIAS:-
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2 . For reverse bias, the RPS +ve is connected to the cathode of the diode and
RPS –ve is connected to the anode of the diode.
3. Switch on the power supply and increase the input voltage (supply voltage) in
Steps
4. Note down the corresponding current flowing through the diode voltage
across the diode for each and every step of the input voltage.
5. The readings of voltage and current are tabulated
6. Graph is plotted between voltage and current.

OBSERVATIONS:-

FORWARD BIAS:

Applied Forward Forward Current


S.No. Voltage(v) Voltage Vf(v) If(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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REVERSE BIAS:

Reverse Voltage Reverse Current


S.No. Vr(v) Ir(µA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
PRECAUTIONS:-

1. All the connections should be correct.


2. Parallax error should be avoided while taking the readings from the Analog meters.

RESULT:- Forward and Reverse Bias characteristics for a p-n diode is observed and
the graphs are plotted.

VIVA QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :-

1. What is the resistance of an ideal P-N diode in forward bias condition?


Ans: The resistance of an ideal P-N diode in forward bias condition is zero.

2. What is the equivalent circuit of P-N diode in reverse bias condition?


Ans: The equivalent circuit of P-N diode in reverse bias condition is a short circuit.

3. What are the P-N diode resistances?


Ans: (a) Static resistance in forward bias
(b) Dynamic resistance in forward bias
(c) Static resistance in reverse bias
(d) Dynamic resistance in reverse bias

4. What are the switching times of P-N diode?


Ans: (a) Forward Recovery Time (tf)
(b) Reverse Recovery Time (trr)
(c) Storage Time (ts)
(d) Transition Time (tt)
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5. Define the reverse recovery time?


Ans: Reverse Recovery Time is defined as sum of storage time(ts) and transition time(tt
).
trr= ts + tt
6. Define Static resistance in forward bias?
Ans: Static resistance in forward bias is defined as
Rsf=Vf/If
7. Define Static resistance in reverse bias?
Ans: Static resistance in reverse bias is defined as
Rsr=Vr/Ir
8. Name some applications of P-N diode.
Ans: The P-N diode can be used
(a) As Switch
(b) In Rectifier circuits
(c) In regulator circuits
(d) Clipping and clamping circuits etc

9. Define cut-in voltage?


Ans: Cut-in voltage is defined as a voltage across the diode in the forward bias below
which no current flows. It is represented as V. The value of V may vary depending on
the type of material used for the construction of the diode.
V=0.2V for Germanium
V=0.6V for Silicon
10. Define Break-down?
Ans: The phenomenon by which the device becomes short or open circuit is known as
break down.

Experiment No.:2

ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AND ZENER AS VOLTAGE REGULATOR

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AIM: - To plot the volt-ampere (or) V-I characteristics of Zener Diode in forward and
reverse bias conditions and calculate the static and dynamic resistance of the Zener
Diode.

APPARATUS: -

S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity


1 Zener Diode IZ12 1
2 Resistor 1KO 1
3 Ammeter (0-100mA) 1
4 Voltmeter (0-20 V) 1
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

Theory:-
A zener diode is heavily doped p-n junction diode, specially made to operate in
the break down region. A p-n junction diode normally does not conduct when reverse
biased. But if the reverse bias is increased, at a particular voltage it starts conducting
heavily. This voltage is called Break down Voltage. High current through the diode can
permanently damage the device
To avoid high current, we connect a resistor in series with zener diode. Once the
diode starts conducting it maintains almost constant voltage across the terminals what
ever may be the current through it, i.e., it has very low dynamic resistance. It is used in
voltage regulators.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

FORWARD BIAS:

REVERSE BIAS:

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MODEL WAVEFORMS:-

PROCEDURE:-

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1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.


2. The RPS Regulated Power Supply) is switched on and the voltage is varied in steps.
3. The values of voltmeter and ammeter in the reverse bias condition are noted in the
tabular column.
4. Plot the graph between the voltage (Vz) and current (Iz), considering voltage along X-
axis and current along Y-axis.
5. Calculate the static and dynamic resistance from the graph.

OBSERVATIONS:-

FORWARD BIAS:

Forward Forward Current


S.No.
Voltage Vf(v) If(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

REVERSE BIAS:

Reverse Voltage Reverse Current


S.No.
Vr(v) Ir(µA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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8
9
10

PRECAUTIONS:-
1. The terminals of the zener diode should be properly identified
2. While determined the load regulation, load should not be immediately shorted.
3. Should be ensured that the applied voltages & currents do not exceed the ratings
of the diode.

RESULT:-
The V-I characteristics of Zener Diode is plotted and the static and dynamic resistance
of the Zener Diode is calculated.

VIVA QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :-

1. What is Zener diode?


Ans: It is P-N junction diode with high doping concentration on each side of the junction.

2. Define Zener break down?


Ans: The zener break down is the phenomenon by which a large current is produced at
a constant reverse bias voltage due to generation of large number of charge carriers.

3. Draw the symbol of Zener Diode?


Ans:

4. Draw the zener equivalent circuit?


Ans:

5. If the impurity concentration is increased, how the depletion width effected?


Ans: If the impurity concentration is increased, depletion width will be small due to
heavy doping.

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6. In which region zener diode can be used as a regulator?


Ans: In breakdown region zener diode can be used as a regulator.

7. Give some applications of Zener diode?


Ans: It is used
(a) To regulate the voltage against the variations in supply voltage or load current.
(b) In linear wave shaping circuits.
(c) In non-linear wave shaping circuits like clipping and clamping circuits.

Experiment No.:3

INPUT AND OUTPUT CHARACERISTICS OF TRANSISTOR IN COMMON-BASE


(CB) CONFIGURATION

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AIM: To observe and draw the input and output characteristics of a transistor connected
in common base configuration.

APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor 1KO 2
3 Ammeter (0-100mA) 1
4 Voltmeter (0-10 V) 2
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 2
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:

A transistor is a three terminal active device. T he terminals are emitter, base, collector.
In CB configuration, the base is common to both input (emitter) and output (collector).
For normal operation, the E-B junction is forward biased and C-B junction is reverse
biased.
In CB configuration, IE is +ve, IC is –ve and IB is –ve. So,
VEB=f1 (VCB,IE) and
IC=f2 (VCB,IB)
With an increasing the reverse collector voltage, the space-charge width at the output
junction increases and the effective base width ‘ W’decreases. This phenomenon is
known as “Early effect”. Then, there will be less chance for recombination within the
base region. With increase of charge gradient with in the base region, the current of
minority carriers injected across the emitter junction increases.The current amplification
factor of CB configuration is given by,
a= I C/ I E
PIN ASSIGNMENT OF TRANSISTOR:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

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OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

MODEL GRAPHS:

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

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OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

OBSERVATIONS:

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
VCB=1V

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S.No.

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VBE(V) IE(mA) VBE(V) IE(mA)


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

IE=1mA IE=2mA
S.No.
VCB(V) IC(mA) VCB(V) IC(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

PROCEDURE:

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For plotting the input characteristics, the output voltage VCE is kept constant at 0V
and for different values of VEB note down the values of IE.
3. Repeat the above step keeping VCB at 2V, 4V, and 6V.All the readings are tabulated.
4. A graph is drawn between VEB and IE for constant VCB.

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OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For plotting the output characteristics, the input IE iskept constant at 10m A and
for different values of VCB, note down the values of IC.
3. Repeat the above step for the values of IE at 20 mA, 40 mA, and 60 mA, all the
readings are tabulated.
4. A graph is drawn between VCB and Ic for constant IE
PRECAUTIONS:

1. The supply voltages should not exceed the rating of the transistor.
2. Meters should be connected properly according to their polarities.

RESULT:
The input and output characteristics of the transistor are observed and the graphs were
plotted.

VIVA QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:-

1. What are the terminals of transistor?


Ans: The terminals of the transistor are Emitter, Base and Collector.

2. What does the arrow on emitter of the transistor indicate?


Ans: The arrow on emitter of the transistor indicates the direction of the current in the
emitter.

3. What are the different configurations of the transistor?


Ans: The configurations of the transistor are Common Emitter, Common Base and
Common Collector.

4. Define the different operating regions of the transistor?


Ans: The transistor can be operated in cut-off region, active region and saturation
region.

5. Define the common base configuration of the transistor?


Ans: In common base configuration, base is common to input and output. E-B
represents input port and C-B represents output port.

6. Define input characteristics of common base configuration?


Ans: Input characteristics of common base configuration are defined as the variation of
VEB with IE for constant VCB.

7. Define output characteristics of common base configuration?


Ans: Output characteristics of common base configuration are defined as the variation

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of VCB with IC for constant IE.

8. Define a(alpha)?
Ans: In Common Base Configuration the current amplication factor is defined as a.
adc= output current/input current=IC/IE
aac=small incremental output current/small incremental input current=(I C/I E) at VCB
=constant
9. What is the application of CB configuration?
Ans: In CB configuration is used for medium voltage amplication.

10. What are the input and output impedances of CB configuration?


Ans: The input impedance of CB configuration is low (˜0.020K) and the output
impedance is very high (˜2M).

Experiment No.:4

INPUT AND OUTPUT CHARACERISTICS OF TRANSISTOR IN COMMON-EMITTER


(CE) CONFIGURATION
AIM: To observe and plot the input and output characteristics of transistor connected
in CE configuration.

APPARATUS:

S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity


1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor 1KO 2

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3 Ammeter (0-200µA) 1
4 Voltmeter (0-10 V) 2
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 2
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:
A transistor is a three terminal device. The terminals are emitter, base,
collector. In common emitter configuration, input voltage is applied between base and
emitter terminals and out put is taken across the collector and emitter terminals.
Therefore the emitter terminal is common to both input and output.
The input characteristics resemble that of a forward biased diode curve. This
is expected since the Base-Emitter junction of the transistor is forward biased. As
compared to CB arrangement IB increases less rapidly with VBE . Therefore input
resistance of CE circuit is higher than that of CB circuit.
The output characteristics are drawn between Ic and VCE at constant IB. the
collector current varies with VCE unto few volts only. After this the collector current
becomes almost constant, and independent of VCE. The value of VCE up to which the
collector current changes with V CE is known as Knee voltage. The transistor always
operated in the region above Knee voltage, IC is always constant and is approximately
equal to IB.
The current amplification factor of CE configuration is given by
= I C/I B

PIN ASSIGNMENT OF TRANSISTOR:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

INPUT CHARACTERSTICS:

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OUTPUT CHARECTERSTICS:

MODEL GRAPHS:

INPUT CHARACTERSTICS:

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OUTPUT CHARECTERSTICS:

OBSERVATIONS:

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

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VCE=1V VCE=2V
S.No.
VBE(V) IB(µA) VBE(V) IB(µA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

OUTPUT CHARECTERSTICS:

IB=10 µA IB=20 µA
S.No.
VCE(V) IC(mA) VCE(V) IC(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

PROCEDURE:

INPUT CHARECTERSTICS:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. For plotting the input characteristics the output voltage VCE is kept constant at 1V

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and for different values of VBE . Note down the values of IC


3. Repeat the above step by keeping VCE at 2V and 4V.
4. Tabulate all the readings.
5. plot the graph between VBE and IB for constant VCE
OUTPUT CHARACTERSTICS:
1.Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram
2.For plotting the output characteristics the input current IB is kept constant at 10µA
and for different values of VCE note down the values of IC
3.Repeat the above step by keeping IB at 75 µA 100 µA
4.Tabulate the all the readings
5. Plot the graph between VCE and IC for constant IB.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The supply voltage should not exceed the rating of the transistor
2. Meters should be connected properly according to their polarities

RESULT:
The input and output characteristics of a transistor in CE configuration were observed
and graphs were plotted.

VIVA QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS :-

1. What are the terminals of transistor?


Ans: The terminals of the transistor are Emitter, Base and Collector.

2. What does the arrow on emitter of the transistor indicate?


Ans: The arrow on emitter of the transistor indicates the direction of the current in the
emitter.

3. What are the different configurations of the transistor?


Ans: The configurations of the transistor are Common Emitter, Common Base and
Common Collector.

4. Define the different operating regions of the transistor?


Ans: The transistor can be operated in cut-off region, active region and saturation
region.
5. Define the common emitter configuration of the transistor?
Ans: In common emitter configuration, emitter is common to input and output. B-E
represents input port and C-E represents output port.

6. Define input characteristics of common emitter configuration?


Ans: Input characteristics of common emitter configuration are defined as the variation

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of VBE with IB for constant VCE.

7. Define output characteristics of common emitter configuration?


Ans: Output characteristics of common emitter configuration are defined as the variation
of VCE with IC for constant IB.

8. Define ß(beta)?
Ans: In Common Emitter Configuration the current amplication factor is defined as ß.
ßdc= output current/input current=IC/IB
ßac=small incremental output current/small incremental input current=(I C/I B) at VCE
=constant

9. What is the application of CE amplifier?


Ans: CE amplifier is used as voltage and current amplifiers.

10. What are the input and output impedances of CE configuration?


Ans: The input impedance of CE configuration is medium(˜1K) and the output
impedance is high(˜45K).

11. What is the relation between a and ß?


Ans: The relation between a and ß is
= a/ (1-a)

12. What is the bandwidth of CE configuration?


Ans: The bandwidth of CE configuration is low.

Experiment No.:5
HALF – WAVE RECTIFIER WITH AND WITHOUT FILTER

AIM: - To obtain the load regulation and ripple factor of a half-rectifier.

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1. With Filter
2. Without Filter
APPARATUS:-

S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity


1 Diode IN 4007 2
2 Resistor 1KO 1
3 Capacitor 100µf 1
4 Transformer (6-0-6v) 1
5 Multimeter - 1
6 Function Generator - 1
7 CRO - 1
8 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
9 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY: -
During positive half-cycle of the input voltage, the diode D1 is in forward bias
and conducts through the load resistor R1. Hence the current produces an output
voltage across the load resistor R1, which has the same shape as the +ve half cycle of
the input voltage.
During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage, the diode is reverse biased and
there is no current through the circuit. i.e, the voltage across R1 is zero. The net result
is that only the +ve half cycle of the input voltage appears across the load. The average
value of the half wave rectified o/p voltage is the value measured on dc voltmeter.
For practical circuits, transformer coupling is usually provided for two reasons.
1. The voltage can be stepped-up or stepped-down, as needed.
2. The ac source is electrically isolated from the rectifier. Thus preventing shock
hazards in the secondary circuit.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

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MODEL WAVEFORMS:

HALF-WAVE WITHOUT AND WITH FILTER:

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LOAD REGULATION CHARACTERISTICS:

LOAD RESISTANCE Vs RIPPLE FACTOR :

PROCEDURE:-
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Connect the primary side of the transformer to ac mains and the secondary side to
the rectifier input.
3. By the multimeter, measure the ac input voltage of the rectifier and, ac and dc voltage
at the output of the rectifier.
4. Find the theoretical of dc voltage by using the formula,

Vdc=Vm/

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Where, Vm=2Vrms, (Vrms=output ac voltage.)


The Ripple factor is calculated by using the formula
r=ac output voltage/dc output voltage.

REGULATION CHARACTERSTICS:-
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. By increasing the value of the rheostat, the voltage across the load and current
flowing through the load are measured.
3. The reading is tabulated.
4. Draw a graph between load voltage (VL and load current ( IL ) taking VL on X-axis
and IL on y-axis
5. From the value of no-load voltages, the %regulation is calculated using the
formula,

Theoretical calculations for Ripple factor:-

Without Filter:-
Vrms=Vm/2
Vm=2Vrms
Vdc=Vm/
Ripple factor r=v (Vrms/ Vdc )2 -1 =1.21
With Filter:-
Ripple factor, r=1/ (2v3 f C R)
Where f =50Hz
C =100µF
RL=1K

OBSERVATIONS:-

WITHOUT FILTER:
Idc Ripple
Load
S.No Factor
Resistance Vac(V) Vdc(V) %Regulation=
. V=Vac/Vd
RL(K)
c
1 4.7k
2 10k
3 1k

WITH FILTER:
Idc

S.No Load Vac(V) AND


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Factor
Resistance
. V=Vac/Vd %Regulation=
RL(K)
c

1 4.7k
2 10k
3 1k

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The primary and secondary sides of the transformer should be carefully identified.
2. The polarities of the diode should be carefully identified.
3. While determining the % regulation, first Full load should be applied and then it
should be decremented in steps.

RESULT:-

1. The Ripple factor for the Half-Wave Rectifier with and without filters is measured.
2. The % regulation of the Half-Wave rectifier is calculated.

VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:

1. What is the rectifier?


Ans: A rectifier is a device which allows current in only one direction. (Or)
It is a device which recitifies alternating current and gives unidirectional current. (Or)
A rectifier is a device which conducts only in forward direction. It is used to convert ac
into dc.
2. Define the types of rectifiers?
Ans: Types of rectifiers are:
(a) Half-Wave rectifiers
(b) Full-Wave rectifiers
3. Define Peak Inverse Voltage PIV?
Ans: PIV is defined as the maximum voltage to which a diode is subjected in the reverse
bias. It is equal to Vm for half-wave rectifier.
4. Define Ripple Factor(r)?
Ans: The ripple factor is defined as the ratio of RMS value of ac output to the average
output voltage or current.
Ripple Factor r=IRMS/Idc=VRMS/Vdc
5. Define Regulation?
Ans: Regulation is defined as the variation of dc output voltage with dc current in the
load. It is defined as

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VNL= No Load Voltage


VFL= Full Load Voltage

6. What is the %regulation of an ideal device?


Ans: The %regulation of an ideal device is zero because ideally, full load voltage is
equal to no load voltage.

7. What is the ripple factor for half wave rectifier?


Ans: The ripple factor for half wave rectifier is 1.21.

8. What is the rectification efficiency of half wave rectifier?


Ans: The rectification efficiency of half wave rectifier is 40.52%.

Experiment No.:6

FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER WITH AND WITHOUT FILTER


AIM:-To find the Ripple factor and regulation of a Full-wave Rectifier with and without
filter.
APPARATUS:-
S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity
1 Diode IN 4007 2

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2 Resistor 1KO 1
3 Capacitor 100µf 1
4 Transformer (6-0-6v) 1
5 Multimeter - 1
6 Function Generator - 1
7 CRO - 1
8 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
9 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:-
The circuit of a center-tapped full wave rectifier uses two diodes D1&D2.
During positive half cycle of secondary voltage (input voltage), the diode D1 is forward
biased and D2is reverse biased.
The diode D1 conducts and current flows through load resistor RL. During negative half
cycle, diode
D2 becomes forward biased and D1 reverse biased. Now, D2 conducts and current
flows through the load resistor RL in the same direction. There is a continuous current
flow through the load resistor RL, during both the half cycles and will get unidirectional
current as show in the model graph. The difference between full wave and half wave
rectification is that a full wave rectifier allows unidirectional (one way) current to the load
during the entire 360 degrees of the input signal and half-wave rectifier allows this only
during one half cycle (180 degree).
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

MODEL WAVEFORMS:

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FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER WITHOUT AND WITH FILTER:

LOAD REGULATION CHARACTERISTICS:

RIPPLE FACTOR Vs LOAD RESISTANCE:

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PROCEDURE:

1.Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2.Connect the ac mains to the primary side of the transformer and the secondary side to
the rectifier.
3.Measure the ac voltage at the input side of the rectifier.
4.Measure both ac and dc voltages at the output side the rectifier.
5.Find the theoretical value of the dc voltage by using the formula Vdc=2Vm/
6.Connect the filter capacitor across the load resistor and measure the values of Vac
and Vdc at the output.
7.The theoretical values of Ripple factors with and without capacitor are calculated.
8.From the values of Vac and Vdc practical values of Ripple factors are calculated. The
practical values are compared with theoretical values.
OBSERVATIONS:
WITH FILTER:
Idc
Load Ripple
S.No
Resistance RL Vac(V) Vdc(V) Factor %Regulation=
.
(K) V=Vac/Vdc
1 4.7k
2 1k
3 10k

WITHOUT FILTER:
Idc
Load Ripple
S.No
Resistance Vac(V) Vdc(V) Factor %Regulation=
.
RL(K) V=Vac/Vd
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c %Regulation=

1 4.7k
2 1k
3 10k

THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS:-

Vrms = Vm/ v2
Vm =Vrmsv2
Vdc=2Vm/
(i)Without filter:
Ripple factor, r = v ( Vrms/ Vdc )2 -1 = 0.482
(ii)With filter:

Ripple factor, r = 1/ (4v3 f C RL) where f =50Hz


C =100µF
RL=1K

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The primary and secondary side of the transformer should be carefully identified
2. The polarities of all the diodes should be carefully identified.

RESULT:-
The ripple factor of the Full-wave rectifier (with filter and without filter) is calculated.

VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:-

1. Define Peak Inverse Voltage PIV?


Ans: PIV is defined as the maximum voltage to which a diode is subjected in the reverse
bias. It is equal to Vm for half-wave rectifier.
2. Define Ripple Factor(r)?
Ans: The ripple factor is defined as the ratio of RMS value of ac output to the average
output voltage or current.
Ripple Factor r=IRMS/Idc=VRMS/Vdc
3. Define Regulation?
Ans: Regulation is defined as the variation of dc output voltage with dc current in the
load. It is defined as

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VNL= No Load Voltage, VFL= Full Load Voltage


4. What is the Peak Inverse Voltage PIV of a Full wave rectifier?
Ans: Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of a Full wave rectifier is 2Vm.

5. What is the ripple factor for full wave rectifier?


Ans: The ripple factor for full wave rectifier is 0.483.

6. What is the Vrms value of a full wave rectifier?


Ans: The Vrms value of a full wave rectifier is

7. What is the rectification efficiency of full wave rectifier?


Ans: The rectification efficiency of full wave rectifier is 81.2%.

8. What is the Transformer Utilisation Factor value of full wave rectifier?


Ans: Transformer Utilisation Factor value of full wave rectifier is 0.693.

Experiment No : 7

FET CHARACTERISTICS

AIM: a) To draw the drain and transfer characteristics of a given FET.


b) To find the drain resistance (rd) amplification factor (µ) and
Tranconductance (gm) of the given FET.

APPARATUS:
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S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity


1 FET BFW-11 1
2 Resistor 1KO 2
3 Ammeter (0-200µA) 1
4 Voltmeter (0-20 V) 2
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 2
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:
A FET is a three terminal device, having the characteristics of high input impedance
and less noise, the Gate to Source junction of the FET s always reverse biased. In
response to small applied voltage from drain to source, the n-type bar acts as sample
resistor, and the drain current increases linearly with VDS. With increase in ID the ohmic
voltage drop between the source and the channel region reverse biases the junction
and the conducting position of the channel begins to remain constant. The VDS at this
instant is called “pinch of voltage”.
If the gate to source voltage (VGS) is applied in the direction to provide
additional reverse bias, the pinch off voltage ill is decreased.
In amplifier application, the FET is always used in the region beyond the
pinch-off.
FDS=IDSS(1-VGS/VP)^2
FET PIN DESCRIPTION:

CIRCUITDIAGRAM:

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MODEL GRAPH:
DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:

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OBSERVATIONS:
DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS:
VGS=0V VGS=-1V
S.NO
VDS(V) ID(mA) VDS(V) ID(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:

VDS =5V
S.NO
VGS (V) ID(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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PROCEDURE:
1. All the connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. To plot the drain characteristics, keep VGS constant at 0V.
3. Vary the VDD and observe the values of VDS and ID.
4. Repeat the above steps 2, 3 for different values of VGS at
0.1V and 0.2V.
5. All the readings are tabulated.
6. To plot the transfer characteristics, keep VDS constant at
1V.
7. Vary VGG and observe the values of VGS and ID.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for different values of VDS at 1.5 V
and 2V.
9. The readings are tabulated.
10. From drain characteristics, calculate the values of dynamic
resistance (rd) by using the formula
rd = V DS/I D
11. From transfer characteristics, calculate the value of
transconductace (gm) By using the formula
Gm=I D/V DS
12. Amplification factor (µ) = dynamic resistance. Tran
conductance
µ = V DS/V GS

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The three terminals of the FET must be care fully identified


2. Practically FET contains four terminals, which are called
source, drain, Gate, substrate.
3. Source and case should be short circuited.
4. Voltages exceeding the ratings of the FET should not be
applied.

RESULT :

1.The drain and transfer characteristics of a given FET are drawn.


2.The dynamic resistance (rd), amplification factor (µ) and Tran conductance (gm) of the
given FET are calculated.

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VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:


1. What are the advantages of FET?
Ans: (a) It has high input impedance
(b) It is less noisy.
(c) It is thermally stable etc.

2. Different between FET and BJT?


Ans: (a) FET is unipolar device and BJT is bipolar.
(b) FET is a voltage controlled device and BJT is current controlled device.
(c) FET is less noisy device and BJT is a noisy device. Etc.,

3. Explain different regions of V-I characteristics of FET?


Ans: Different regions of V-I characteristics of FET are
(a) Ohmic region(b) Saturation region (c) Breakdown region

4. What are the applications of FET?


Ans: Applications of FET are:
(a) It can be used as an amplifier.
(b) It can be used as a symmetrical bilateral switch etc.

5. What are the types of FET?’


Ans: The types of FET are:
(a) n-channel FET
(b) p-channel FET

6. Draw the symbol of FET.


Ans:

7. What are the disadvantages of FET?


Ans: (a) It’
s voltage gain is small.
(b) It’
s gain-bandwidth product is small.

8. What are the parameters of FET?


Ans: The parameters of FET are:

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(a) Drain Resistance (rd)


(b) Mutual Conductance (gm)
(c) Amplification Factor (µ)
(d) Power Dissipation (Pd)

Experiment No.:8

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF COMMON EMITTER (CE) AMPLIFIER

AIM: 1. To Measure the voltage gain of a CE amplifier


2. To draw the frequency response curve of the CE amplifier

APPARATUS:

S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity

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1 Transistor BC107 1
Resistor 1kO 1
2 5K 1
22KO 1
Capacitor 10µf 1
3
100µf 1
4 Function Generator - 1
5 CRO - 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:
The CE amplifier provides high gain & wide frequency response. The emitter
lead is common to both input & output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit
is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by the base current rather than
emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across collector terminal. A very small change in base current
produces a much larger change in collector current. When +VE half-cycle is fed to the
input circuit, it opposes the forward bias of the circuit which causes the collector current
to decrease, it decreases the voltage more –VE. Thus when input cycle varies through a
-VE half-cycle, increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes the collector
current to increases thus the output signal is common emitter amplifier is in out of
phase with the input signal.
PIN ASSIGNMENT OF TRANSISTOR:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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Vo in CRO
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+Vcc=+12V

R2 R3
22K 1KO 10uf

R1 C1 Q1
1kO 10uf C3
BC

R6
C2 1KO
R4 R5
Vi= 10mv, 5KHz 100uf
5KO 1KO

MODELWAVE FORMS:

INPUT WAVE FORM:

OUTPUT WAVE FORM

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram


2. Apply the input of 20mV peak-to-peak and 1 KHz frequency using Function
Generator
3. Measure the Output Voltage Vo (p-p) for various load resistors
4. Tabulate the readings in the tabular form.
5. The voltage gain can be calculated by using the expression Av
= (V0/Vi)
6. For plotting the frequency response the input voltage is kept Constant at 20mV
peak-to-peak and the frequency is varied from 100Hz to 1MHz Using function generator
7. Note down the value of output voltage for each frequency.

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8. All the readings are tabulated and voltage gain in dB is calculated by Using The
expression Av=20 log10 (V0/Vi)
9. A graph is drawn by taking frequency on x-axis and gain in dB on y-axis
On Semi-log graph.
The band width of the amplifier is calculated from the graph
Using the expression,
Bandwidth, BW=f2-f1
Where f1 lower cut-off frequency of CE amplifier, and
Where f2 upper cut-off frequency of CE amplifier
The bandwidth product of the amplifier is calculated using the Expression
Gain Bandwidth product=3-dBmidband gain X Bandwidth

OBSERVATIONS:
Input voltage Vi=40mV
Output
Frequency(Hz Gain= Gain in dB=
S.No. Voltage Vo
) Vo/Vi 20logV0/VI)
(V)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

RESULT: The voltage gain and frequency response of the CE amplifier are obtained.
Also gain bandwidth product of the amplifier is calculate

VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:


1. What is an amplifier?
Ans: An amplifier is an electronic circuit which is used to increase the strength of the
signal i.e., to get a large signal output from a small signal input.

2. How a transistor works as an amplifier?


Ans: To make a transistor work as an amplifier, it is to be biased to operate in the
active region, i.e., base-emitter junction is to be forward biased, while base-collector
junction is to be reverse biased.

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3. Which type of biasing is used in CE amplifier?


Ans: In CE amplifier self biasing or voltage divider biasing can be used.

4. Why the output is linearly proportional to input in amplifiers?


Ans: Since the transistor is biased to operate in the active region, the output is linearly
proportional to the input.

5. Is there any frequency difference in the applied input signal and obtained output
signal of the amplifier?
Ans: No, there will be no frequency difference in the applied input signal and obtained
output signal of the amplifier because when one cycle of input is completed, one cycle
of output will be completed.

6. What is phase difference between input and output waveforms of CE amplifier?


Ans: The phase difference between input and output waveforms of CE amplifier is 900.

7. Where the load capacitance will be connected in the CE amplifier?


Ans: The load capacitor will be connected to the collector transistor in CE amplifier.

8. What is the use of input capacitor in CE amplifier?


Ans: The input capacitor couples the signal to the base of transistor and blocks the dc
component present in the signal and passes only ac signal.

9. What is the use of input capacitor in CE amplifier?


Ans: The output capacitor couples the output of the amplifier to the load or to the next
stage of the amplifier and blocks the dc component present in the signal and passes
only ac signal.

10. What happens if emitter bypass capacitor is not used in the circuit?
Ans: If emitter bypass capacitor is not used in the circuit, the output voltage will be
reduced, which inturn reduces the gain of the amplifier.

Experiment No.:9

SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR) CHARACTERISTICS

AIM: To study the characteristics of Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) and to plot its V-I
characteristics.
APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity
1 SCR TYN616 1
2 Resistor 10KO 1

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1kO 1
3 Ammeter (0-50)µA 1
4 Voltmeter (0-10 V) 1
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODEL WAVEFORM:

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THEORY:

It is a four layer semiconductor device being alternate of P-type and N-type silicon. It
consists os 3 junctions J1, J2, J3 the J1 and J3 operate in forward direction and J2
operates in reverse direction and three terminals called anode A, cathode K , and a gate
G. The operation of SCR can be studied when the gate is open and when the gate is
positive with respect to cathode.

When gate is open, no voltage is applied at the gate due to reverse bias of
the junction J2 no current flows through R2 and hence SCR is at cutt off. When anode
voltage is increased J2 tends to breakdown.

When the gate positive,with respect to cathode J3 junction is forward biased


and J2 is reverse biased .Electrons from N-type material move across junction J3
towards gate while holes from P-type material moves across junction J3 towards

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cathode. So gate current starts flowing,anode current increaase is in extremely small


current junction J2 break down and SCR conducts heavily.

When gate is open thee breakover voltage is determined on the minimum


forward voltage at which SCR conducts heavily.Now most of the supply voltage appears
across the load resistance.The holding current is the maximum anode current gate
being open , when break over occurs.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram.

2. Keep the gate supply voltage at some constant value

3. Vary the anode to cathode supply voltage and note down the readings of
voltmeter and ammeter.Keep the gate voltage at standard value.

4. A graph is drawn between VAK and IAK .

OBSERVATION:IG=CONSTANT

S.No. VAK(V) IAK ( µA)

RESULT: The charateristics of Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is studies and the
waveforms were plotted.

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VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:


1. Draw the symbol of SCR?
Ans:

2. What are the applications of SCR?


Ans: It is used
(a) As a static switch
(b) In phase control systems
(c) For temperature control
(d) To supply rectified current
3. What is holding current?
Ans: The holding current (IH) is the current below which SCR changes to forward
blocking region from conduction state.
4. What are the important type’ s thyristors?
Ans: The types of thyristors are:
(a) SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)
(b) LASCR (Light Activated SCR)
(c) TRIAC (Triode AC Switch)
(d) DIAC (Diode AC Switch

5. When gate is open, what happens when anode voltage is increased?


Ans: The SCR will act as a switch when the gate is open.

Experiment No.:10
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UJT CHARACTERISTICS

AIM: To observe the characteristics of UJT and to calculate the Intrinsic Stand-Off Ratio
().

APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity
1 UJT 2n2646 1
2 Resistor 1K 1
3 Ammeter (0-30)mA 1
4 Voltmeter (0-20)V 2
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30)V 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:
A Unijunction Transistor (UJT) is an electronic semiconductor device that
has only one junction. The UJT Uni Junction Transistor (UJT) has three terminals an
emitter (E) and two bases (B1 and B2). The base is formed by lightly doped n-type bar
of silicon. Two ohmic contacts B1 and B2 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p-
type and it is heavily doped. The resistance between B1 and B2, when the emitter is
open-circuit is called interbase resistance.The original unijunction transistor, or UJT, is a
simple device that is essentially a bar of N type semiconductor material into which P
type material has been diffused somewhere along its length. The 2N2646 is the most
commonly used version of the UJT.

Circuit symbol
The UJT is biased with a positive voltage between the two bases. This causes a
potential drop along the length of the device. When the emitter voltage is driven
approximately one diode voltage above the voltage at the point where the P diffusion
(emitter) is, current will begin to flow from the emitter into the base region. Because the
base region is very lightly doped, the additional current (actually charges in the base
region) causes (conductivity modulation) which reduces the resistance of the portion of

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the base between the emitter junction and the B2 terminal. This reduction in resistance
means that the emitter junction is more forward biased, and so even more current is
injected. Overall, the effect is a negative resistance at the emitter terminal. This is what
makes the UJT useful, especially in simple oscillator circuits.When the emitter voltage
reaches Vp, the current startsto increase and the emitter voltage starts to decrease.This
is represented by negative slope of the characteristics which is reffered to as the
negative resistance region,beyond the valleypoint ,RB1 reaches minimum value and this
region,VEB propotional to IE.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

R2
1KO

R1
1KO IE
_ + (0-20)V
+
2N2646
VBB +
(0-30)mA _
RPS
+ (0-30)V
RPS +
(0-20)V
(0-30)V
- VBE
_

MODEL GRAPH:

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PROCEDURE:
1. Connection is made as per circuit diagram.
2. Output voltage is fixed at a constant level and by varying input voltage
corresponding emitter current values are noted down.
3. This procedure is repeated for different values of output voltages.
4. All the readings are tabulated and Intrinsic Stand-Off ratio is calculated using
= (V p-VD) / VBB
5. A graph is plotted between VEE and IE for different values of VBE.
OBSEVATIONS:
VBB =5V
S.NO
VE(V) IE(mA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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10
CALCULATIONS:
VP = V BB + VD

= (V P-VD) / VBB

= ( 1+ 2+ 3) /3

RESULT: The characteristics of UJT are observed and the values of Intrinsic Stand-Off
Ratio is calculated.

VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:

1. What is the symbol of UJT?


Ans:

2. What are the applications of UJT?


Ans: UJT is used in
(a) Non-sinusoidal oscillator circuits
(b) Trigging circuits
(c) In relaxation oscillators
(d) Sawtooth generators etc
3. Formula for the intrinsic standoff ratio?
Ans: The instrinsic stand off ratio is given as
=R B1/RBB at IE=0

4. What does it indicates the direction of arrow in the UJT?


Ans: The arrow on the emitter indicates the direction of conventional current flow in the
forward bias.

5. Is UJT is used an oscillator?


Ans: Yes, it is used as an oscillator to generate non-sinusoidal waveform.

6. What is its value of resistance between B1 and B2?


Ans: The value of resistance between B1 and B2 is RBB= RB1+RB2

7. Draw the equivalent circuit of UJT?

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Ans:

Experiment No.:11

MEASUREMENT OF h-PARAMETERS OF TRANSISTOR IN CE CONFIGURATION


AIM: To calculate the h-parameters of transistor in CE configuration.
APPRATUS:
S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor 100kO 1

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100O 1
Ammeter (0-200µA) 1
3
(0-200mA) 1
4 Voltmeter (0-20 V) 2
5 Regulated Power supply (0-30v) 2
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required
THEORY:
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
The two sets of characteristics are necessary to describe the behavior of
the CE configuration one for input or base emitter circuit and other for the output or
collector emitter circuit.
In input characteristics the emitter base junction forward biased by a
very small voltage VBB where as collector base junction reverse biased by a very large
voltage VCC. The input characteristics are a plot of input current IB Vs the input voltage V
BE for a range of values of output voltage VCE . The following important points can be
observed from these characteristics curves.
1. The characteristics resemble that of CE configuration.
2. Input resistance is high as IB increases less rapidly with VBE
3. The input resistance of the transistor is the ratio of change in base emitter
voltage V BE to change in base current I B at constant collector emitter voltage ( VCE)
i.e... Input resistance or input impedance hie = V BE / I B at VCE constant.

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
A set of output characteristics or collector characteristics are a plot of out
put current IC VS output voltage VCE for a range of values of input current IB .The
following important points can be observed from these characteristics curves:-
1. The transistor always operates in the active region. I.e. the collector current
IC increases with VCE very slowly. For low values of the VCE the IC increases
rapidly with a small increase in VCE .The transistor is said to be working in saturation
region.
Output resistance is the ratio of change of collector emitter voltage V CE , to
change in collector current I C with constant IB. Output resistance or Output impedance
hoe = V CE / I C at IB constant.
Input Impedance hie = V BE / I B at VCE constant
Output impedance hoe = V CE / I C at IB constant

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Reverse Transfer Voltage Gain hre = V BE / V CE at IB constant


Forward Transfer Current Gain hfe = I C / I B at constant VCE
PIN ASSIGNMENT OF TRANSISTOR:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect a transistor in CE configuration circuit for plotting its input and output
characteristics.

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2. Take a set of readings for the variations in IB with VBE at different fixed values of
output voltage VCE .
3. Plot the input characteristics of CE configuration from the above readings.
4. From the graph calculate the input resistance hie and reverse transfer ratio hre
by taking the slopes of the curves.
5. Take the family of readings for the variations of IC with VCE at different values of
fixed IB.
6. Plot the output characteristics from the above readings.
7. From the graphs calculate hfe ands hoe by taking the slope of the curves.
OBSERVATIONS:
Input Characteristics

VCE=0V VCE=6V
S.NO
VBE(V) IB(µA) VBE(V) IB(µA)

Output Characteristics
IB = 20 µA IB = 40 µA IB = 60 µA
S.NO
VCE (V) IC(mA) VCE (V) IC(mA) VCE (V) IC(mA) MODEL
WAVEFORM:
Input Characteristics

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Output Characteristics:

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RESULT: The H-Parameters for a transistor in CE configuration are calculated from the
input and output characteristics.
1. Input Impedance hie =
2. Reverse Transfer Voltage Gain hre =
3. Forward Transfer Current Gain hfe =
4. Output conductance hoe =

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VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:


1. Define h-parameter?
Ans: The h-Parameter means hybrid parameters. Their units are different and hence
they are called as hybrid parameters.

2. What are types of h-parameters?


Ans: The h-parameters are of four types:
(a) h11 : It is represented by hi
(b) h12 : It is represented by hr
(c) h21: It is represented by hf
(d) h22: it is represented by ho

3. What is the general formula for input impedance?


Ans: The general formula for input impedance is
Input impedance = input voltage/input current=v1/i1.

4. What is the general formula for Current Gain?


Ans: The general formula for current gain is
Current gain= output current/input current= i2/i1.

5. What is the general formula for Voltage gain?


Ans: The general formula for Voltage gain is
Voltage Gain= input voltage/output voltage= v1/v2.

6. What is the general formula for output admittance?


Ans: The general formula for output admittance is
Output admittance= output current/ ouput voltage= i2/v2.
7. Draw the Equivalent circuit diagram of h parameters?
Ans:

8. What are the advantages of h-parameters?

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Ans: Advantages of h- parameters:


1. Real numbers at audio frequencies.
2. Easy to measure
3. Can be obtained from the transistor static characteristic curves.
4. Convenient to use in circuit analysis and design.
9. How the reverse h-parameters of a transistor in any configuration are defined?
Ans: Reverse h-parameters of a transistor in any configuration are defined with
Input open circuited.

10. On what factor does h-parameters of an ideal transistor are dependent?


Ans: h-parameters of an ideal transistor are dependent on temperature of operation.

Experiment No.:12

FREQUENCY RESPONSE COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER

AIM: 1. To measure the voltage gain of a CC amplifier


2. To draw the frequency response of the CC amplifier

APPRATUS:
S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
11kO 1
22K 1
2 Resistor
82K 1
220O 1
3 Capacitor 10µf 2
4 Function Generator - 1
5 CRO - 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:
In common-collector amplifier the input is given at the base and the output is
taken at the emitter. In this amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and
output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very high and output impedance is
low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation.
This amplifier is used for impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This
circuit is also known as emitter follower.

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PIN ASSIGNMENT OF TRANSISTOR:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

+Vcc=+12v

R2 22kO

10uf
11kO Q1
BC 107
10uf
R1 C1

C2
Vi= 10mv, 5KHz
R3 82kO R4 220O
Vo in CRO

MODEL WAVEFORM:

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. For calculating the voltage gain the input voltage of 20mV peak-to-peak and 1
KHz frequency is applied and output voltage is taken for various load resistors.
3. The readings are tabulated.
The voltage gain calculated by using the expression, Av=V0/Vi
4. For plotting the frequency response the input voltage is kept constant a

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20mV peak-to- peak and the frequency is varied from 100Hzto 1MHz.
5. Note down the values of output voltage for each frequency.
All the readings are tabulated the voltage gain in dB is calculated by using the
expression, Av=20log 10(V0/Vi)
6. A graph is drawn by taking frequency on X-axis and gain in dB on y-axis on
Semi-log graph sheet.
7. The Bandwidth of the amplifier is calculated from the graph using the
Expression,
Bandwidth BW=f2-f1
Where f1 is lower cut-off frequency of CE amplifier
f2 is upper cut-off frequency of CE amplifier
8. The gain Bandwidth product of the amplifier is calculated using the
Expression,
Gain -Bandwidth product=3-dB midband gain X Bandwidth

OBSERVATIONS:
Input voltage Vi=40mV

Frequency(Hz Output Gain in db=


S.No.
) Voltage Vo (V) 20log( Vo/Vi)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The input voltage must be kept constant while taking frequency response.
2. Proper biasing voltages should be applied.

RESULT:
The voltage gain and frequency response of the CC amplifier are obtained.
Also gain Bandwidth product is calculated.

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VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:


1. What is an amplifier?
Ans: An amplifier is an electronic circuit which is used to increase the strength of the
signal i.e., to get a large signal output from a small signal input.

2. How a transistor works as an amplifier?


Ans: To make a transistor work as an amplifier, it is to be biased to operate in the
active region, i.e., base-emitter junction is to be forward biased, while base-collector
junction is to be reverse biased.

3. Which type of biasing is used in CC amplifier?


Ans: In CC amplifier DC biasing can be used.

4. Why the output is linearly proportional to input in amplifiers?


Ans: Since the transistor is biased to operate in the active region, the output is linearly
proportional to the input.

5. Is there any frequency difference in the applied input signal and obtained output
signal of the amplifier?
Ans: No, there will be no frequency difference in the applied input signal and obtained
output signal of the amplifier because when one cycle of input is completed, one cycle
of output will be completed.

6. What is phase difference between input and output waveforms of CC amplifier?


Ans: The phase difference between input and output waveforms of CC amplifier is 00.

7. Where the load capacitance will be connected in the CC amplifier?


Ans: The load capacitor will be connected to the emitter transistor in CC amplifier.

8. What is the use of input capacitor in CC amplifier?


Ans: The input capacitor couples the signal to the base of transistor and blocks the dc
component present in the signal and passes only ac signal.

9. What is the use of input capacitor in CC amplifier?


Ans: The output capacitor couples the output of the amplifier to the load or to the next
stage of the amplifier and blocks the dc component present in the signal and passes
only ac signal.

10. Why CC amplifier is also known as Emitter Follower?


Ans: Since the emitter is output terminal, the output voltage from a common collector
circuit is the same as its input voltage or we can say that the emitter terminal follows the
signal voltage applied to the base, so it is called as emitter follower.

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Experiment No.:13

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF COMMON SOURCE FET AMPLIFIER

AIM: 1. To obtain the frequency response of the common source FET


Amplifier
2. To find the Bandwidth.
APPRATUS:

S.No. Name of the Component Range Quantity


1 N-Channel FET BFW11 1
1MO 1
6.8K 1
2 Resistor
8.2K 1

3 Capacitor 10µf 3
4 Function Generator - 1
5 CRO - 1
6 RPS (0-30)V 1
6 Semiconductor Trainer Kit - 1
7 Connecting Wires - As required

THEORY:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-
signal amplification (for example, for amplifying wireless (signals). The device can
amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the
FET, current flows along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the
channel, there is an electrode called the source. At the other end of the channel, there
is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the channel is fixed, but its
effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications.
These are known as the junction FET (JFET) and the metal-oxide- semiconductor FET
(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-
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channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made of the


opposite semiconductor type. In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in
the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-type material, the charge carriers are
primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the channel and the
gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that
no current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions
there is a small current through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The
FET has some advantages and some disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor.
Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for example in wireless,
communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and
systems requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power
amplification, such as is required in large wireless communications and broadcast
transmitters.
Field-effect transistors are fabricated onto silicon integrated circuit (IC) chips. A single
IC can contain many thousands of FETs, along with other components such as
+Vcc=+12V
resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
+ -
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R3
6.8KO C2

D 10uf
R4
C1 G
8.2KO BFW11

S
10uf
+ R1 C3
Vi=200mV, 1MO 10uO
R2
-- 1KHz
6.8KO Vo in CRO

MODEL GRAPH:

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

OBSERVATIONS:

Input voltage Vi=50mV

Frequency(Hz Gain in dB=


S.No.
) 20log(VO /Vi)

1
2
3
4
5
6
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7
8
9
10

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. A signal of 1 KHz frequency and 50mV peak-to-peak is applied at the
Input of amplifier.
3. Output is taken at drain and gain is calculated by using the expression,
Av=V0/Vi

4. Voltage gain in dB is calculated by using the expression,


Av=20log 10(V0/Vi)
5. Repeat the above steps for various input voltages.
6. Plot Av vs. Frequency

7. The Bandwidth of the amplifier is calculated from the graph using the
Expression,
Bandwidth BW=f2-f1
Where f1 is lower 3 dB frequency
f2 is upper 3 dB frequency

PRECAUTIONS:

1. All the connections should be tight.


2. Transistor terminals must be identified properly
.
RESULT: The frequency response of the common source FET Amplifier and Bandwidth
is obtained.

VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:

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1. What is the difference between FET and BJT?


Ans: (a) FET is unipolar device and BJT is bipolar.
(b) FET is a voltage controlled device and BJT is current controlled device.
(c) FET is less noisy device and BJT is a noisy device. Etc.,

2. FET is unipolar or bipolar?


Ans: FET is unipolar device

3. Draw the symbol of FET?


4. What are the applications of FET?
Ans: Applications of FET are:
(a) It can be used as an amplifier.
(b) It can be used as a symmetrical bilateral switch etc.

5. FET is voltage controlled or current controlled?


Ans: FET is a voltage controlled device.

6. Draw the equivalent circuit of common source FET amplifier?


Ans:

7. What is the voltage gain of the FET amplifier?


Ans: voltage gain of the FET amplifier is poor.

8. What is the input impedance of FET amplifier?


Ans: Input impedance of FET amplifier is very high.

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9. What are the FET parameters?


Ans: The parameters of FET are:
(a) Drain Resistance (rd)
(b) Mutual Conductance (gm)
(c) Amplification Factor (µ)
(d) Power Dissipation (Pd)

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