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Table of contents

Table of contents
Chapter 1 Safety precautions..................................................................................................................[1]
Chapter 2 Diagrams and parameters of complete-loader............................................................... [3]
Chapter 3 Maintenance points of complete-loader........................................................................... [7]
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet............................................................................................................ [12]
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting....................................................................................................................[21]
5-1 Torque converter and gearbox system.........................................................................................[22]
5-2 Drive axle system.............................................................................................................................[39]
5-3 Working hydraulic system...............................................................................................................[42]
5-4 Pilot control system................................................................................................................................... [48]
5-5 Steering hydraulic system.............................................................................................................. [54]
5-6 Foot brake system........................................................................................................................... [58]
5-7 Electric system................................................................................................................................. [61]
Chapter 6 Main Parts..................................................................................................................................[67]
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter................................................................................................ [68]
6-1-1 Structure and Functions.................................................................................................... [68]
6-1-2 Testing and Adjustment.....................................................................................................[71]
6-1-3 Dismounting and Installation............................................................................................ [72]
6-1-4 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................... [73]
Section 2 Gearbox .............................................................................................................................. [86]
6-2-1 Structure and Functions.................................................................................................... [86]
6-2-2 Testing and Adjustment.....................................................................................................[87]
6-2-3 Dismounting and Installation............................................................................................ [88]
6-2-4 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................... [94]
Section 3 Drive axle........................................................................................................................... [120]
6-3-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[120]
6-3-2 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [121]
6-3-3 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................. [123]
Section 4 Air brake valve assembly.................................................................................................[144]
6-4-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[144]
6-4-2 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [145]
6-4-3 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................. [146]
Section 5 Combination valve of oil-water separator (SH380D) .................................................[155]
6-5-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[155]
6-5-2 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [156]

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Table of contents

Section 6 Booster pump.................................................................................................................... [157]


6-6-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[157]
6-6-2 Testing and Adjustment.................................................................................................. [157]
6-6-3 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [158]
6-6-4 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................. [159]
Section 7 Brake caliper (brake system).......................................................................................... [171]
6-7-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[171]
6-7-2 Testing and Adjustment.................................................................................................. [171]
6-7-3 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [171]
6-7-4 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................. [171]
Section 8 Working pump................................................................................................................... [178]
6-8-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[178]
6-8-2 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [178]
6-8-3 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................. [179]
Section 9 Distribution valve...............................................................................................................[192]
6-9-1 Structure and Functions..................................................................................................[192]
6-9-2 Testing and Adjustment.................................................................................................. [193]
6-9-3 Dismounting and Installation.......................................................................................... [195]
6-9-4 Disassembly and Repair................................................................................................. [196]
Section 10 Lift arm cylinder...............................................................................................................[206]
6-10-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[206]
6-10-2 Dismounting and Installation........................................................................................ [206]
6-10-3 Disassembly and Repair...............................................................................................[207]
Section 11 Bucket cylinder................................................................................................................[214]
6-11-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[214]
6-11-2 Dismounting and Installation........................................................................................ [214]
6-11-3 Disassembly and Repair...............................................................................................[215]
Section 12 Priority valve.................................................................................................................... [222]
6-12-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[222]
6-12-2 Dismounting and Installation........................................................................................ [222]
6-12-3 Disassembly and Repair...............................................................................................[224]
Section 13 Steering gear................................................................................................................... [229]
6-13-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[229]
6-13-2 Dismounting and Installation........................................................................................ [229]
6-13-3 Disassembly and Repair...............................................................................................[231]
Section 14 Steering cylinder ........................................................................................................... [247]

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Table of contents

6-14-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[247]


6-14-2 Dismounting and Installation........................................................................................ [247]
6-14-3 Disassembly and Repair...............................................................................................[248]
Section 15 Working hydraulic oil cooler.......................................................................................... [249]
6-15-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[249]
6-15-2 Testing and Adjustment................................................................................................ [249]
6-15-3 Dismounting and Installation........................................................................................ [251]
Section 16 Air conditioning system..................................................................................................[253]
6-16-1 Structure and Functions................................................................................................[253]
6-16-2 Testing and Adjustment................................................................................................ [254]
6-16-3 Dismounting and Installation............................................................................................... [258]
Chapter 7 Hydraulic Schematic Diagram........................................................................................... [261]
Chapter 8 Electrical Schematic Diagram............................................................................................[263]

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Table of contents

4
Preface

Preface

In order to enable distributors and repair service centers to know more about Lonking CDM835E I.00I
loader, we have compiled this Repair Manual for CDM835E I.00I Wheel Loader and provide it to Lonking’s
overseas agents and repair service centers.

This Manual emphasizes the introduction of structure and functions, test and adjustment, installation and
disassembly, dismounting and repair, troubleshooting, etc., and aims to provide the basic knowledge
about repair service.

The factors like difference of product sales regions, different environmental conditions, working conditions
and operating skills and timeliness of daily maintenance will affect the operating status of loader. This
Manual is based on the information available at the time of compilation, so it may not cover all the
possible situations. We hope that during the use of this Manual, distributors and repair service centers
may feed back their opinions and suggestions on a timely basis so that we will be able to make
improvement in the next edition.

Prior to repairing a loader, please carefully read and understand the safety precautions and make repairs
in full accordance with safety instructions. Incorrect disassembly, installation and repairing are dangerous
and may lead to injury or death.

The pressures of some hydraulic components requiring parameters setting have been set at the time
when the loader is shipped out of Lonking’s factory. If such components need repairing, in principle, the
entire assembly shall be replaced (whether this Manual has introduced the dismounting and
commissioning process or not) If an assembly is not available, only after the written consent of Lonking
and component manufacturers has been obtained can these components be dismounted and repaired,
and repairing entities shall be responsible for the quality and safety of these components after
disassembly, installation and adjustment.

We are making continuous effort to improve our products. We reserve the right to change the parameters
and configurations of the loader. In addition, the contents of this Manual are subject to change without
notice. The technical parameters mentioned in this Manual shall not be used as the basis for delivery and
acceptance.

This Manual is its first edition.

Lonking Holdings Limited


April 30, 2013

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6
Chapter 1 Safety precautions

Chapter 1 Safety precautions


I. Safety precautions before repair/maintenance
1. Flat and solid ground or special site shall be selected as the repair/maintenance site, which shall be
far away from operating machines and personnel;
2. Unauthorized personnel are not allowed to stay close to machines;
3. When the gear is at neutral position, the bucket shall be placed on the ground horizontally. The pilot
control rod shall be returned to its original position, and the hand brake shall be pulled up;
4. The electric lock on the direction pillar shall be turned to the “OFF” position and the startup key shall
be removed.
5. The master power switch shall be cut off. In order to prevent short circuit, the storage battery shall be
removed if necessary;
6. A plate of “do not operate” shall be placed next to the master power switch to inform others that the
machine is under maintenance;
7. The parking brake shall be pushed down and a wedge block shall be placed before the front wheel or
the rear wheel;
8. The brake pedal shall be stepped down repeatedly to release all the pressure in the braking system;
9. The pilot control rod shall be moved in full range to release all the pressure in the working device
hydraulic system. The lift arm control lever and bucket control lever shall be placed at the “HOLD”
position.
10. The steering wheel shall be turned left and right for several times to release the pressure in the
steering system.
11. The wheel rims of four tires shall be fixed tightly in the grooves and the tire pressure shall be within
the specified scope;
12. The water or antifreeze fluid in the water tank shall be released if necessary, and it shall be done
carefully not to burn hand, face or skin of other parts;
13. In case any oil storage container or relevant oil-way is to be disassembled, the hydraulic oil or fuel oil
shall be released first and contained in proper containers;
14. All the fluid shall be disposed according to local laws and regulations;
15. The front and rear chassis fixing rods shall be assembled properly to avoid injury or death caused by
sway of machine.
16. Upon the completion of repair/maintenance, the front and rear chassis fixing rods shall be released
before the startup of machine. The rods shall be fixed at their storage places, otherwise the steering
of machine will be affected.

II. Safety precautions during repair/maintenance


1. During the complete-machine repair/maintenance, a maintenance sign shall be set to prevent
irrelevant personnel from staying close to the repair/maintenance site;
2. The oil temperature shall be confirmed to be cool before any components or pipes are to be
disassembled. Only after the engine is shut down and the oil filing cover is cooled to be touchable
can the oil filling cover be removed.
3. Failure around the engine shall be repaired after water and gas pipes, silencers, exhaust pipes,
engine body, etc. cool down to prevent the hand or skin from being burnt;
4. Special tools shall be used during disassembly of screws or fastening of components. Utilization of
self-made tools is prohibited. The repairer shall start to conduct repair after steadying his body to
prevent slipping.
5. Large scope repair shall be conducted according to the following disassembly sequence: pipe, line –
hood – cab – hydraulic component and pipe – bucket – lift arm – water tank – transmission
shaft–gearbox-torque converter assembly of engine – frame assembly – drive axle – tire;
6. Slings for lifting loads and lifting equipment with safety parameter higher than 1.5 shall be selected
according to the component weight reference table
7. During lifting, the hang-point shall be chosen first, and then the assembly hole on the component
shall be chosen. The lifting shall be conducted on the front-rear and left-right symmetric basis. The
lifting hook shall have separation prevention device. Standing under lifted goods is prohibited. The
disassembled components shall be placed steadily.
8. During the repair of tire assembly or replacement of inner tube, the internal pressure inside the tire
shall be released first and protection frame shall be prepared.

1
Chapter I Safety precautions

9. Protection frame or protection net shall be used when retainer is being disassembled to prevent
injury due to release of retainer elasticity.
10. Protection frame shall be used during tire inflation to prevent the ejection of retainer and retainer ring
or tire burst, etc. due to excess air pressure.
11. After tire inflation, barometer shall be used to check the tire pressure and excess pressure shall be
released.
12. When operation is conducted under lift arm, the lift arm shall be placed on the protection bracket or
installed with special cylinder protection bracket;
13. When pneumatic or electric tools are used, operation shall be conducted strictly according to
stipulations.
14. When engine and gearbox-torque converter assembly are being disassembled, the core components
of converter may drop and cause injury, so protection measures shall be adopted.
15. When transmission shaft is disassembled, the spline shaft in the middle may disengage and cause
injury, so protection measures shall be adopted.
16. When components with residual oil are gripped by hand, they may slip and cause injury, so protection
measures shall be adopted.
17. When oil is sprinkled on the ground, people may slip and get injured, so protection measures shall be
adopted.
18. When welding is conducted directly on the machine, proper grounding near the welding point shall be
ensured, otherwise the electric line throughout the machine, tire or other non-metal components may
be burnt or fire hazard may occur.
19. High-pressure fluid leakage, even leakage as small as a pinhole, may penetrate human tissue and
cause serious injury or even death. If fluid permeates skin, the injury must be treated immediately by
a doctor who is familiar with such kind of injury.
20. During check of leakage, a wood board or thick board shall be used as shield.

III. Safety precautions for commissioning


1. Prior to the start of the complete-loader, the gear shall be at the neutral position, the hand brake shall
be released, various oil, lubrication grease, water or antifreeze fluid shall be filled, irrelevant
personnel are not allowed to be around the machine, and horn shall be blown for warning;
2. Various control cable shall be commissioned to be accurate and reliable, and the service brake and
parking brake system shall be the first priority to be commissioned;
3. The over-pressure protection switch of air reservior shall be checked to operate properly;
4. Various instrument display and back-up alarm devices shall be checked to operate properly;
5. The turn light and work light shall be checked to operate properly;
6. The back-up mirror shall be adjusted to the right angle;
7. The original safety signs on the loader shall be checked; any missing sign shall be supplemented;
8. The loader shall be kept at idle speed before running till the braking pressure reaches standard.

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Chapter 2 Picture and parameters of complete-loader

Chapter 2 Picture and parameters of complete-loader

Figure 2-1
Overall Dimensions
Code Description Dimension
A Overall length 7390 mm
B Wheel base 2850 mm
C Minimum ground clearance 347 mm
D Maximum total height of main unit 3180 mm
E Pin height at maximum lifting 3710 mm
F Dumping height 2890 mm
Distance between bucket tooth and
G 2747 mm
ground at dumping
H Dumping reach 1083 mm
Distance between rear shaft and
I 1425 mm
hinge joint
J Length of rear suspension 2045 mm
K Height of delivery location 400 mm
L Overall height at maximum lift 4720 mm
a2 Dumping angle 450

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Chapter 2 Picture and parameters of complete-loader

Standard specifications
Item Specs
Bucket capacity 1.7 m3
Rated load 3500kg
Lift arm lifting time ≤5.5s
Total time ≤10.5s
Forward gear I 6.5km/h

Reverse gear I 6.8km/h

Maximum speeds at Forward gear II 12.0km/h


various gears Reverse gear II 12.5km/h

Forward gear III 32.0km/h

Reverse gear III 33.5km/h

Traction force 106±3kN

Maximum breakout force (rotating bucket) 103±3kN

Performance Maximum grade ability 28 ゜


Minimum turning Tire center 6240 mm
radius Outside of bucket 5445 mm
Length of loader (while the bucket is put on
7390±100mm
the ground horizontally)
Width of loader (outside of wheel) 2320±50mm
Bucket width 2600±30mm

Height of loader (top of the cab) 3180±30mm


Geometric dimension
Wheel base 2850±30mm
Wheel tread 1850±10mm
Minimum ground clearance (at the hinge joint) 347±20mm
Dumping height 2890±50mm
Dumping distance at maximum lifting 1083±50mm
Weight of loader 11620±300kg

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Chapter 2 Picture and parameters of complete-loader

Item Specification
Engine Type Weichai WP6G140E22
Rated rotating speed 2200r/min
Maximum torque 560N·m /1400-1600r/min
Rated fuel consumption ≤225g/kW·h
Consumption rate (bench test)
Fuel oil (customers may choose the type of fuel oil Light diesel oil No.0
according to the local ambient temperature)
Diameter of fan (backward air exhaust) Φ600mm
Hydraulic Type Single-stage three-elements (single
torque turbine)
converter Torque coefficient 3.45±5%
Cooling method Water-cooling pressure circulating
Transmission Gearbox Type Fixed shaft power gear shift
system Shifts of gearbox Three forward gears
Three reverse gears
Transmission oil pump Gear pump
Working pressure 1.1~1.5MPa
Main drive and Main drive type Helical bevel gear
hub reduction One-stage reduction
Wheel hub reducer type Straight-toothed cylinder gear
Planetary gear reducer
Reduction ratio 20.521
Main drive reduction ratio 5.286
Hub reduction ratio 3.882
Drive axle and Type One-stage bevel gear reduction
wheel Tire 17.5-25 tire E-3/L-3PR
Air pressure of tire Front wheel 0.32±0.01MPa
Rear wheel 0.28±0.01MPa
Braking Drive Braking type Single-line dry type brake
system Braking Diameter of brake disc 450mm
Diameter of brake cylinder Φ75mm (8pcs X 2)
Effective area of friction plate 176.3 mm2 (4pcs X2)
Parking & Braking type Soft shaft control clamp plate type brake
emergency Opening pressure of brake 04Mpa
braking caliper

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Chapter 2 Picture and parameters of complete-loader

Steering Item Specification


system
Type Hinged frame,
Fully hydraulic steering system
Number of steering cylinders – inside 2-φ80×315mm
diameter × travel
Steering pump CBAK3112 (shared with working system)
System working pressure 14MPa
Steering angle 35° to the left or right
Working Number of lift arm cylinders -- inside diameter 2-φ125×784mm
hydraulic × travel
system Number of rotating bucket cylinders -- inside 1-φ140×553mm
diameter × travel
Distribution valve Hydraulic pilot double valve
Type DF32.2C
Working pump displacement 112ml/r
Flow/rotating speed 246L/2200r/min
system working pressure 16MPa
Control type Hydraulic pilot control
Electric System voltage 24V
system
Capacity of storage battery 2-N105
Voltage of bulb 24V
Start of diesel engine 24V electric start
Name of oil Fuel oil tank: total volume is 200L Customers shall fill the oil to the upper oil
(Oil filling) mark of 140L (the actual oil filling volume is
subject to the scale of oil level gauge)
Hydraulic oil tank: the total volume is 200L Customers shall fill the oil to the upper oil
mark of 140L (the actual oil filling volume is
subject to the scale of oil level gauge)
Crank case: engine oil 17L (the actual oil filling volume is subject to
the scale of oil level gauge)
Gearbox system: hydraulic transmission oil 36L (the actual oil filling volume is subject to
the scale of oil level gauge)
Axle (main drive Front axle gear oil 18.5L (the actual oil filling volume is subject to
reducer and hub the scale of oil level gauge)
reducer) Rear axle gear oil 18.5L (the actual oil filling volume is subject to
the scale of oil level gauge)
Front and rear booster pumps 6L
Air Warm air Working medium Diesel engine coolant
conditioning Heating capacity (W) 5000 (an error within 10%)
system Cool air Working medium (W) R134a
3500 (an error within 10%)
System voltage 24V

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Chapter 3 Maintenance point of complete-loader
Chapter 3 Maintenance points of complete-loader
I. Diagram of lubrication points

Points of grease injection are at various sliding bearings or rolling bearings, including:
1. Bearing at the joint spider of transmission shaft.
2. Pin bushes at both sides of all oil cylinders.
3. Pin bushes that connect front and rear car frames; swing pin pushes of subframe
4. Various pin bushes of operating devices.
Grease shall be injected to the aforesaid positions according to the requirements in the diagram. The
injection shall be conducted in time according to operating conditions.

II. Maintenance cycle table


Instruction for using maintenance cycle table:
Before any operation or maintenance, instructions for complete-loader safety information, warning
information and descriptions in the instruction manual and this Manual shall be read carefully and fully
understood. Users are responsible for maintaining the loader. The maintenance includes adjustment
during use, adding of lubricant during use, supplement of operating fluid of complete-loader,
replacement of filter, and replacement of accessories caused by normal wearing and aging. In case
maintenance is not conducted according to correct interval and steps, performance of product may be
reduced and wearing of components may be accelerated.
Notes:
1. Before every new maintenance cycle, all the previous maintenance cycles must be completed;
2. A maintenance cycle shall be determined according to working time. If a maintenance plan is carried
out more conveniently according to calendar time, and the numerical readings are close to the working
time, then the calendar time cycle (every day, every year, etc.) may replace the working time cycle. No
matter the maintenance is calculated according to working time or calendar time, the closer maintenance
cycle will have priority, and the maintenance shall be conducted according to the closer cycle;
3. Under extreme, dusty and humid working conditions, the specified time in the maintenance cycle table
must be shortened, and the complete-machine maintenance must be conducted more frequently;
4. During maintenance, the maintenance items of shorter cycles shall be conducted simultaneously. For
example, while the maintenance for every 500 working hours or every three months is conducted, the
maintenance items for every 250 working hours or every month, for every 100 working hours or every
half month, and for every 10 working hours or every day shall be conducted simultaneously,

7
Chapter 3 Maintenance point of complete-loader

I. Daily maintenance items for every 10 hours or every day


1. The coolant of engine shall be checked to ensure that it has been filled up;
2. The engine oil level of the engine shall be checked to ensure that the height of oil is within the normal
working scope
3. The fixing bolts and nuts of the engine, gear box, drive axle and wheel rim shall be checked to ensure
that they are not loose;
4. The air pressure of front and rear tires shall be checked to ensure that the pressure is normal; at the
same time, the tires shall be ensured to have no abnormal wearing;
5. As for an air-pressure braking loader, all the air reservoirs shall be tested with water discharge
operation; as for a hydraulic braking loader, such test is not necessary;
6. The oil level of hydraulic oil tank and gear box shall be checked;
7. Water shall be discharged from the coarse strainer (oil water separator) of the fuel oil system of the
engine;
8. According to the requirements of Lubrication Points Indication, grease shall be injected into various
hinge joints and shaft sleeves.
9. The oil, water and gas in various systems shall be checked to ensure that there is no leakage; engine
fan and drive belt shall be visually inspected to ensure that they are not loose or damaged; the bucket
teeth and main cutting-board of the bucket shall be checked and replaced if necessary.
10. The following components shall be checked to ensure that they operate properly: instruments of
complete-loader, working lamps of complete-loader, safety belt of chair, reverse warning system, braking
system of complete-loader, and steering system of complete-loader;
11. The starting performance, color of exhaust, and operating sound shall be checked to ensure that they
are normal;
12. Various switches, fast connectors, control rods, pedals, joysticks, buttons shall be ensured to work
properly;
13. The operation of the complete-machine shall be closely observed for 10 minutes to see whether
there is abnormal sound or alarm due to local overheating, etc.

II. Maintenance items for every 50 hours or every week


1. The fixing bolt and nets of all the transmission shafts shall be fastened to ensure there are no loose
bolts and nuts.
2. The braking fluid of the complete-load shall be checked and supplemented; (note: the supplemented
braking fluid must be the same type as the original fluid, otherwise the original fluid must be completely
discharged at the position of the wheel braking clamp before new braking fluid is added)
3. The gap between the brake shoe and the brake disc of the parking brake shall be checked and
adjusted in case the gap is not appropriate.
4. After one or two operating cycle of the complete-loader, the oil level of hydraulic oil tank and gearbox
shall be checked after the engine is shut down; The oil shall be supplemented if necessary (note: the
supplemented oil shall be same type as the original oil, otherwise the service life the oil will be affected.)
5. If it is the maintenance of the complete-loader after the first 50-hour operation, the following operation
shall be conducted, otherwise the following shall be neglected; the engine oil and engine oil filter shall be
replaced.
6. The oil level of the wheel gears at both sides of the drive axle and the oil level of the main drive gear at
the middle of the axle housing shall be checked; the oil shall be supplemented if necessary; (note: the
supplemented oil shall be the same type as the original oil, otherwise the service life of oil will be
affected.)

8
Chapter 3 Maintenance point of complete-loader
III. Maintenance items for every 100 hours or every half month
1. All the sundries on the wind radiator shall be cleaned to ensure that the radiator system of the
complete-loader is able to radiate heat properly;
2. The oil filling filter screen and clean breather of the air filter on the fuel oil tank and hydraulic oil tank
shall be cleaned;
3. If it is the maintenance of the complete-loader after the first 100-hour operation, the following
operation shall be conducted, otherwise the following shall be neglected:
(1) The transmission oil of gearbox, and the oil filter and oil strainer of the gearbox-torque converter
assembly (the filter is an optional component, not every loader has such component) shall be replaced;
the gearbox sump shall be opened and reinstalled after the filter screen and magnet have been
conscientiously cleaned.

IV. Maintenance items for every 250 hours or every month


1. The air intake system of the engine shall be checked. The service indicator of air filter shall be visually
inspected. If the yellow piston of the indicator rises to the red area, the filter element of the air filter shall
be cleaned or replaced.
2. The tightening torque of the fixing bolts of the wheel rims shall be checked.
3. The stressed weld joints and fixing bolts of the working devices and front and rear frames shall be
checked to ensure that there are no cracks and looseness.
4. The tension and damage of drive pulley of engine, belt of compressor of air conditioner, belt of
generator shall be checked;
5. The gap between the brake shoe and the brake disc of the parking brake shall be checked and
adjusted in case the gap is not appropriate;
6. All the fixing bolts of the storage battery shall be tightened and the top of storage battery shall be
cleaned.
7. The engine oil and the engine oil filter shall be replaced; and water shall be removed from the oil-water
separator connected to the engine (the filter is an optional component, not every loader has such
component);
8. If it is the maintenance of the complete-loader after the first 250-hour operation, the following
operation shall be conducted, otherwise the following shall be neglected: operating hydraulic oil shall be
collected and filtered, oil suction filter element of hydraulic oil tank shall be replaced, return oil filter
element shall be replaced, the interior of hydraulic oil tank shall be cleaned, the filtered hydraulic oil shall
be refilled into the hydraulic oil tank and the oil shall be supplemented and kept at an appropriate level.
(Note: when the filter element of hydraulic oil is replaced, the original hydraulic oil must be filtered or
replaced)

V. Maintenance items for every 500 hours or every three months


1. The bolts that connect the front and rear axles and the frame shall be fastened;
2. The engine oil, the engine oil filter, the fuel oil filter and the filter element of the oil-water separator
shall be replaced (the filter is an optional component, not every loader has such component);
3. The hinge bearing plate bolts of the front and rear frames shall be checked to ensure that they are not
loose.
4. The brake pads and brake discs shall be checked, and the thinner-than-14mm brake pads and
damaged brake discs shall be replaced.
5. The operating hydraulic oil shall be collected and filtered, the oil suction filter element of hydraulic oil
tank shall be replaced, the hydraulic oil tank shall be cleaned, the filtered hydraulic oil shall be refilled
into the hydraulic oil tank and the oil shall be supplemented and kept at an appropriate level. (Note:
when the filter element of hydraulic oil is replaced, the original hydraulic oil must be filtered or replaced)

9
Chapter 3 Maintenance point of complete-loader
6. The transmission oil of gearbox, and the return oil filter of the gearbox-torque converter assembly shall
be replaced. The gearbox sump shall be opened and reinstalled after the filter screen and magnet have
been conscientiously cleaned.
7. The oil level of the wheel gears at both sides of the drive axle and the oil level of the main drive gear at
the middle of the axle housing shall be checked; if the operating time has not exceeded 500 hours, the
gear oil of the drive axle shall be replaced at least once a year.

VI. Maintenance items for every 1000 hours or every half year
1. Hydraulic oil, return oil filter element and oil suction filter element shall be replaced, and the hydraulic
oil tank shall be cleaned.
2. The brake system shall be checked, the booster pump shall be cleaned and brake oil shall be
replaced;
3. The diesel oil tank and diesel oil filter shall be cleaned;
4. The diesel oil filter of the engine shall be replaced;
5. The roll over protection structure shall be checked; (equipped with an roll over protection bracket)
6. The dryer of the braking system shall be replaced. (This is an optional component and shall be
replaced according to loader models)

Note:
As a part of the maintenance plan, the maintenance of diesel engine (e.g. replacement of engine oil,
maintenance of air filter, etc.) shall be conducted in compliance with the attached document: Instruction
for Usage and Maintenance of Diesel Engine. In case there are discrepancies between the aforesaid
and the Instruction, the attached Instruction for Usage and Maintenance of Diesel Engine shall prevail.
The following Registration Form of Stage Examination and Maintenance of Loader shall be filled in by
local agents after the sales of a complete-loader is completed; if the product malfunctions later, the Form
shall be provided while the customer claims compensation from Lonking.

10
Chapter 3 Maintenance point of complete-loader

Registration Form of Stage Examination and Maintenance of Loader

Maintenance
Date of Brief description of
item 50h 100h 250h 500h 1000h Examiner
examination defect
Operating time
50h ●
100h ● ●
150h ●
200h ● ●
250h ● ●
300h ● ●
350h ●
400h ● ●
450h ●
500h ● ● ● ●
550h ●
600 h ● ●
650h ●
700h ● ●
750h ● ●
800h ● ●
850h ●
900h ● ●
950h ●
1000h ● ● ● ● ●
1050h ●
1100h ● ●
1150h ●
1200h ● ●
1250h ● ●
1300h ● ●
1350h ●
1400h ● ●
1450h ●
1500h ● ● ● ●
1550h ●

11
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet


1. Standard tightening torque of bolts and nuts
(1) Standard tightening torque

a. Table of tightening torque of ordinary bolts

Strength Nominal Nominal diameter of bolt (mm)


grade of diameter 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
bolt of bolt Tightening torque (N.m)
(mm)

4.6 240 4~5 10~12 20~25 36~45 55~70 90~110 120~150 170~210
5.6 300 5~7 12~15 25~32 45~55 70~90 110~140 150~190 210~270
6.8 480 7~9 17~23 33~45 58~78 93~124 145~193 199~264 282~376
8.8 640 9~12 22~30 45~59 78~104 124~165 193~257 264~354 376~502
10.9 900 13~16 30~36 65~78 110~130 180~210 280~330 380~450 540~650
12.9 1080 16~21 38~51 75~100 131~175 209~278 326~434 448~597 635~847

Strengt Nominal Nominal diameter of bolt (mm)


h grade diamete 22 24 27 30 33 36 39
of bolt r of bolt Tightening torque (N.m)
(mm)
4.6 240 230~290 300~377 450~530 540~680 670~880 900~1100 928~1273
5.6 300 290~350 370~450 550~700 680~850 825~1100 1120~140 1160~154
0 6
6.8 480 384~512 488~650 714~952 969~1932 1319~175 1694~225 1559~207
9 9 9
8.8 640 512~683 651~868 952~1269 1293~172 1759~234 2259~301 2932~389
3 5 2 8
10.9 900 740~880 940~1120 1400~165 1700~200 2743~329 2800~335 4111~548
0 0 8 0 1
12.9 1080 864~115 1089~146 1606~214 2181~290 2968~395 3812~508 4933~657
2 4 2 8 8 4 7

b. Table of tightening torque of ordinary rubber pipe (specification of open-end spanner and Table of
Recommended Thread Torque)

1. Metric Thread Specification of spanner opening


Thread N.M NUT TORQUE mm
M12X1.5 10-20 17
M14X1.5 20-35 19
M16X1.5 25-40 22
M18X1.5 30-45 22 or 24
M20X1.5 35-50 27
M22X1.5 40-70 27
M24X1.5 40-70
M26X1.5 60-100 32
M27X1.5 32
M30X2 80-120 36
M36X2 100-150 41
M42X2 150-220 50
M45X2 180-250 55
M52X2 200-300 60

12
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

2. Thread adhesive
No. Name and Dosage for Usage Remark
specification (Aotai 100 units
series)
1 AT598 2 canisters Thread sealing for drive axle plug, Or Debang
(300ml) 2577
2 AT515 5 canisters Plane sealing for articulated interface between Or Debang
(300ml) diesel and torque converter 2515
3 AT577 5 barrels Thread sealing for joint of fan heater, joint of Or Debang
(300ml) unloading valve and air reservoir joint 2577
4 AT262 3 bottles Thread sealing for pin bolt of oscillating axle Or Debang
(250ml) 2243
5 AT243 Thread sealing for steering shaft. Thread sealing Or Debang
8 bottles for oil drain plug of hydraulic oil tank and fuel oil 2243
(250ml) tank.

3. Code of electric wire

Electric circuit Code Color Diameter of wire


Function
1 Red 1.5-5.0
1C Red 6.0
Battery charging
3 Grey 1.5
3a Grey 1.0
1a Red 1.5
Start 4 Brown 1.5
2c White 1.5
0 Black 1.1-4.0
Grounding 0A Black 1.5
0B Black 2.5

42 White 2.5
Flameout
42a Yellow 1.5-2.5
27 Red 1.0-1.5
Fan heater
58 Yellow 2.5
2 Purple 1.5-2.5
Power supply of main
2a Red 2.5
circuit
2b Red 2.5-5.0
33 Red 1.0
59 Green 1.0
62 Yellow 1.0
Wiper
75 Red 1.0
78 Purple 0.85
79 Purple 0.85

13
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

Electric circuit Code Color Diameter of wire


Function
6 Orange 1.0-2.5
7 Brown 2.5
11 Orange 2.5
16 Pink 1.5
24 Green 1.0
Load power supply 32 Purple 1.5
40 Brown 1.5
66 Yellow 1.5
69 Blue 1.5
83 Grey 1.5
97 Blue 2.5
8 Pink 1.5
9 White 1.5
14 Orange 1.5
Illumination
15 Red 1.5
29 Brown 1.5
56 Purple 1.5
34 Pink 1.0
Instrument 51 Purple 1.0
53 Brown 1.0
Warning 75 Red 1.0

Electric circuit Code Color Diameter of wire


Function
12 White 1.0
17 Purple 1.0
22 Green 1.0
23 Blue 1.0
Signal
93 Yellow 1.0
25 Grey 1.0
26 Red 1.0
61 Red 1.0
19 Brown 1.0
21 Purple 1.5
Others
35 Green 1.0
40 Brown 1.5

14
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

4. The grade, specified volume and additive volume (adopt international label and measurement unit) of
engine oil, gearbox oil, hydraulic oil, drive axle oil, hinge pin grease, diesel oil and antifreeze
recommended for various temperature ranges between -30 to +50℃.

Type of oil Ambient temperature Capacity


Filling quantity

API CF-4 and above


Engine oil
17L

36L
Hydraulic transmission
oil

173L

Hydraulic oil

18.5L

Drive axle gear oil

Lubrication grease

Diesel oil

25L

Anti-freezing fluid

15
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

5. Conversion table
Conversion from millimeter to inch · ···················· 1mm=0.03973 inch

Conversion from kilogram to pound ·····················1kg=2.2046Ib

16
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

5. Conversion table
Conversion from kilogram to US gallon ·····················1liter = 0.2642 US gallon

Conversion from liter to UK gallon ·····················1liter = 0.21997 UK gallon

17
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

5. Conversion table
Conversion from kilogram·meter to foot·pound ·····················1kgm=7.232ft·Ib

18
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

5. Conversion table

Conversion from kilogram/centimeter2 to pound/inch2 •••••••••••••••••••••1kg/cm2=14.2233Ib/in2

Temperature
Conversion between Fahrenheit and Celsius
A simple way to convert Fahrenheit readings to Celsius readings (or vise versa) is to refer to the numbers
in the middle or boldface column of the attached table. These numbers represent Fahrenheit or Celsius
readings

If you want to convert Fahrenheit readings to Celsius readings, you shall consider the middle column as
the column of Fahrenheit readings, and the column at the left side of the middle column is the column of
Celsius readings

If you want to convert Celsius readings to Fahrenheit readings, you shall consider the middle column as
the column of Celsius readings, and the column at the right side of the middle column is the column of
Fahrenheit readings

19
Chapter 4 Standard Data Sheet

Table of conversion between Celsius and Fahrenheit ················ 1℃=33.8℉

20
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Table of Contents

Chapter 5 Troubleshooting

Table of Contents
5-1 Torque converter and gearbox system.........................................................................................[22]
5-2 Drive axle system.............................................................................................................................[39]
5-3 Working hydraulic system...............................................................................................................[42]
5-4 Pilot control system................................................................................................................................... [48]
5-5 Steering hydraulic system.............................................................................................................. [54]
5-6 Foot brake system........................................................................................................................... [58]
5-7 Electric system................................................................................................................................. [61]

21
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Table of Contents

22
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Precautions for the installation, maintenance and repair of torque converter and gearbox are
as follows:

1. Pressure control:
The oil inlet pressure of torque converter shall be controlled at 0.45-0.65MPa.
The outlet pressure of torque converter shall be controlled at 0.25-0.35MPa.
The pressure of lubrication oil shall be 0.1-0.2MPa,
The speed-changing working pressure shall be1.5-1.7MPa.

5-1.Malfunction cases of torque converter and gearbox:

5-1-01. Excessively rapid rise of oil temperature of gearbox and water temperature of engine .....[23]
5-1-02. When the loader is shifted to gear I or III, the loader cannot run until a few minutes later.r[25]
5-1-03. After Gear II is shifted, the loader will not run until several minutes later .............................[26]
5-1-04. After gear shift, the pressure cannot reach the normal value .................................................[27]
5-1-05. Insufficient pressure of various gears, and insufficient driving and operating power ..........[28]
5-1-06. When the loader is under normal operation,the oil temperature of the gearbox will exceed
120℃ in short time ......................................................................................................................................[29]
5-1-07. A loader does not run at cold start, but after the engine is heated for a while, the loader starts
to run (after the loader is started and the gear is shifted, the loader does not run. However, after the
engine is heated for a while, the loader starts to run)..............................................................................[29]
5-1-08. The loader runs at cold start, but when the engine temperature rises, the loader stops
running (runs for a while and stops for a while)........................................................................................ [30]
5-1-09. During the operation, the loader may suddenly stop, which is similar to automatic emergent
braking ........................................................................................................................................................... [31]
5-1-10. The pressure is normal at any gear, but the loader cannot run ..............................................[33]
5-1-11. No matter which gear is shifted, there is no pressure and the loader cannot run. Meanwhile,
the steering and lifting of lift arm do not work ..........................................................................................[33]
5-1-12. The oil level of the gearbox rises rapidly ....................................................................................[34]
5-1-13. The oil level of the gearbox declines rapidly ..............................................................................[35]
5-1-14. The pressure of various gears is normal, but the cut of the bucket is powerless and there is a
“drumming” sound form the gearbox ........................................................................................................ [35]
5-1-15. the pressure of gear I is not sufficient
[35]
5-1-16. Gearbox releases abnormal sound .............................................................................................[36]
5-1-17. Common Malfunctions and Troubleshooting Methods of Troque Converter ........................[38]

23
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Malfunction case 5-1-01:


Excessively rapid rise of oil temperature of gearbox and water temperature of engine

Description of malfunction
Under the normal operation of loader, the oil temperature of gearbox rises above 120℃ in very short time.
The water temperature of engine rises above 95℃. After the engine is shut down and cooled down, it may
continue to operate again.

Possible reasons:
This is a rare phenomenon. Generally speaking, the main factors include: working condition, usage
method, altitude, heat dissipation effect, malfunction of the loader itself, etc.

The engine:
1. Special working condition
2. Improper usage
3. Damage of instruments and electric devices
4. Coolant is not enough and the return water pipe is blocked.
5. Thermostat is damaged or the working efficiency of water pump decreases.
6. The throttle control cable or flameout cable of the engine get stuck and are not in the right position.
7. The fan belt is too loose, the water tank is too dirty or the installation distance of the wind scooper does
not comply with requirements.
8. The air filter element is too dirty.
9. The dissipation effect of the engine oil radiator is not good or the cylinder cover leaks gas or water.
10. The pressure of oil injector is adjusted too high.

Gearbox-torque converter assembly


1. Damage of sensor and instrument.
2. Improper oil use or deterioration of oil or blocking of filter screen.
3. The dissipation effect of cooler of gearbox-torque converter assembly is not good or the pressure of
return oil is too high.
4. The oil suction pipe of variable speed pump is flat or the variable speed pump leaks internally.
Inspection steps or actions
Precondition 1: the working condition shall be confirmed. Special working environment such as paper mill.
Precondition 2. The operating method shall be confirmed. The loader shall not be operated under heavy
load for a long time or climb long slope continuously and the slope gradient shall not be higher than 30
degree. During operation, the loader shall be operated at gear I, and the throttle control shall be adjusted
reasonably according to the work load.
Precondition 3. The area where the heat comes from shall be identified, is it the engine or the gearbox?, if
the heat of engine makes the temperature of gearbox higher, the steps for checking high water
temperature of engine shall be followed; if the heat of gearbox makes the temperature of engine higher,
the steps for checking high oil temperature of gearbox shall be followed.

24
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Steps for checking high water temperature of the engine:


1. The water temperature sensor and instrument shall be checked to see if they are damaged.
2. The coolant shall be checked to see if it is sufficient, and the return water pipe of the water tank shall be
checked to see if it is blocked.
The water tank cover shall be checked to see if it is damaged. For ordinary regions, the opening pressure
of water tank cover shall be set at 0.05MPa; for plateau regions, the pressure shall be set at 0.07MPa.
3. The thermostat of the engine shall be checked to see if it has been turned on.
4. The water pump shall be checked to see if it works properly. At the same time, the water suction pipe of
the pump shall be checked to see if its inner layer falls off or it becomes flat or the caliber becomes
smaller.
5. The throttle control cable or flameout cable of the engine shall be checked to see if they are stuck
6. The tightness of fan belt shall be checked and the water tank shall be cleaned.
7. The distance between the fan and the wind scooper shall be checked.
8. The air filter element shall be checked.
9. The engine cooler shall be checked to see if it is blocked.
10. The cylinder cover shall be checked to see if there is leakage of water or gas.
11. The opening pressure of oil injector shall be checked to see if the pressure is too high.

Steps for checking the gearbox


1. The oil temperature meter and oil temperature sensor shall be checked to see if they are accurate.
2. The oil (filling amount and oil quality) used by the torque converter shall be checked to see if the oil
complies with the requirements.
3. The oil bottom filter screen and oil filter of the gearbox shall be checked. (See Figure 5-01)

Filter screen

Figure 5-01

25
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

4. The gearbox oil radiator shall be checked.


5. The return oil pressure of torque converter shall be checked to see if the pressure is too high, which
may cause the fluidic resistor of the return oil system to be high and the oil temperature to rise rapidly.
6. The oil suction pipe of the variable speed pump shall be checked to see if the pipe is sucked flat or
blocked.
7. The internal leakage volume of the variable speed pump shall be checked to see if it is within the
normal scope.
8. The speed changer - torque converter assembly shall be checked to see if there is internal malfunction.

Malfunction case 5-1-02:


When the loader is shifted to gear I or III, the loader cannot run until a few minutes
later.

Description of malfunction. After gear shift, the pressure of gearbox rises slowly, the oil temperature rises
rapidly, and the pressure goes down after the engine is heated. However, gear II operates properly.

Possible reasons:
1. Different gears of the gearbox use the same oil. The proper operation of gear II indicates that the oil
itself is not the main reason that causes the shift delay of gears I and III.
2. Gear I and gear III are used more frequently, so the main reason is the gear I’s clutch.
3. The speed-changing control valve leaks internally or valve core or spring gets stuck.
4. Bolts of end cover are loose or sealing members of the clutch of gear I are damaged.
5. Fixing locking plates of the separating frame is bent or deformed or the piston travel of gear I is too
long.
6. There are cracks on the oil pipe of gear I or the gap of end cover is not adjusted properly.

Inspection steps or actions:


1. The speed-changing control system shall be checked to see if the connection is appropriate. A bad
connection may lead to inaccurate shifting or slight deviation of gear from the right position.
2. The oil consumption of the gearbox shall be checked to provide convenience to the diagnosis of
malfunction. The additive amount and oil specification shall be checked to see if they comply with
requirements.
3. The oil bottom filter screen and the oil filter of the gearbox shall be disassembled to see if they are
blocked. Meanwhile, the oil and filter screen shall be closed observed to see if the oil has deteriorated.
Deteriorated oil will become black and stinky. The oil shall be checked to see if it contains aluminum
powder, copper powder or other impurities. Among them, copper powder can be easily observed under
the light (copper powder inside the oil cannot be easily identified inside the workshop) Under the sunshine,
copper powder inside the oil can be clearly identified. This step is conducive to the initially identification of
the malfunction position inside the gearbox.

4. The speed-changing control valve shall be disassembled to see if the inclined holes on the pressure
reducing valve rod is blocked. (See Figure 5-02)

26
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Speed-changing control valve

Figure 5-02 Speed-changing control valve

5. After the clutch is removed, the bolts of the end cover shall be checked to see if they are loose. Then
the gear II clutch shall be dismounted to check if the piston is able to return. If the return is not complete, it
will lead to serious shift delay of gear I and gear III.
6. The middle cover of gearbox shall be disassembled to check if the O-shaped ring between the oil inlet
of gear I cylinder and the gearbox housing is misplaced or damaged. The misplacement or damage of this
O-ring will cause the leakage of the oil that enters the gear I cylinder, which will lead to the delay of gear I
engagement.
7.The piston travel shall be checked. The travel shall be controlled between 3.63mm and 5.5mm. If the
wearing of friction plate is serous, the piston travel will become longer, which will lead to longer piston
engagement time, and then cause shift delay. The piston travel control is usually calculated via the
thickness of friction plate. The requirements for the thickness of the friction plates are: the cumulative
thickness of 6 driving discs and 6 driven discs shall be controlled between 25.5mm and 26.1mm, and the
maximum thickness shall not exceed 26.3mm.
8. The bearings, bolts, etc. shall be checked to see if they are damaged or loose.
9. The oil channels on the gear I and gear III housings shall be carefully checked to see if there are
cracks.

Malfunction case: 5-1-03


After Gear II is shifted, the loader will not run until several minutes later

Description of malfunction:
After every gear shift, the pressure of gearbox increases slowly. After the engine is heated, the pressure
will go down to an extent, but gear I and gear III operate properly.
Possible reasons:
The oil is shared by various gears of clutches. The proper operation of gear I and gear III indicates that oil

27
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

is not the main reason that causes the shift delay of gear II.

1. Idle speed of engine is too slow.


2. There is dislocation after the speed-changing control rod becomes loose.
3. There are many impurities in the oil.
4. Seals on the transmission end cover are damaged.
5. The sealing members on gear II clutch piston are damaged.
6. There are sand holes are on the piston body or the piston is broken.

Check steps or disposal measures:


1. The engine shall be checked to see if the idle speed is too slow and if the driver’s operation is correct.
2. The speed-changing system shall be checked to see if there is improper connection, which may cause
inaccurate shifting or incomplete positioning of gears.
3. The oil-way system shall be checked. The bottom filter screen and oil filer of the gearbox shall be
disassembled to see if they are blocked. Meanwhile, the oil and filter screen shall be closed observed to
see if there are abnormal impurities in the oil or oil bottom filter screen, such as seals, bolts, etc.
4. The speed-changing control valve shall be assembled to check if the gear II oil-way is blocked or the
paper gasket is damaged.
5. The gearbox end cover shall be disassembled to check if the O-ring and oil seal of the end cover are
damaged.
6. The gear II clutch shall be dismounted to check if the piston guide pin is broken, the wearing of friction
disc and if the piston rings get stuck.

Malfunction case 5-1-04:


After gear shift, the pressure cannot reach the normal value

Malfunction description:
After the loader is started, the pressure of various gears of the gearbox cannot reach the normal value
(1.2MPa) Though the pressure of various gears is abnormal, the driving and operation are normal.
Possible reasons:
The pressure of various gears of the gearbox cannot reach normal value, but the driving and operation is
normal. According to such characteristic, it can initially diagnosed that the torque converter and gearbox
does not malfunction internally, but the malfunction exists between the speed-changing controller and the
pressure meter, so the malfunction can be rapidly removed according to the following steps.

Check steps and disposal measures:


1. The pressure meter shall be checked to see if it operates properly. If it is damaged, it shall be replaced
by new meter. If the pressure meter is normal, please refer to the step 2.
2. The connecting pipes and joints of the pressure meter shall be checked to see if they are blocked. If
they are blocked, diesel oil or gasoline can be used to clean the blocked position.
3. The pressure regulating spring of the speed-changing control value shall be checked to see if it is
deformed (shortened, bent or broken)

28
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Malfunction case 5-1-05:


Insufficient pressure of various gears, and insufficient driving and operating power.

Malfunction description: after the loader is started, the pressure of various gears of the gearbox cannot
reach 1.2MPa. Meanwhile, the driving and operation are not normal.
Possible reasons:
According to the initial analysis of the malfunction, insufficient oil supply of the oil supply system causes
insufficient pressure of various gears and the abnormal driving and operation.
1. Insufficient oil usage or improper oil usage.
2. The speed-changing control rod is loose or dislocated.
3. The pressure regulating spring of the speed-changing control valve is broken or the decompression
lever is stuck.
4. The return of the stop valve rod of the speed-changing control valve is not in the right position.
5. The speed-changing control valve leaks internally.
6. The oil suction pipe of the variable-speed pump is blocked or the operating efficiency of the
variable-speed pump declines.

Inspection steps or actions:


1. The gearbox oil shall be checked to see if it is sufficient. If the oil is not sufficient, please add the
hydraulic transmission oil of the same brand and same model. If the oil quantity is normal, please check
the next step.
2. The speed-changing control rod shall be checked to see if it is dislocated. If it is dislocated, the oil inlets
of various gears will not open completely, which will lead to insufficient gear pressure. After adjustment,
the malfunction will be removed. If the speed-changing control rod is not dislocated, please check the
next step.

3. The pressure regulating spring of the speed-change control valve shall be checked to see if it is broken.
If it is broken, please replace the pressure regulating spring. If the pressure regulating spring is normal,
please check the next step.
4. The pressure regulating valve rod of the speed-changing control valve shall be checked to see if they
are stuck. If they are stuck and unable to return, diesel oil or gasoline can be used to clean them. If they
are normal, please check the next step.
5. The stop valve rod of the speed-changing control valve shall be checked to see if it is stuck. If it is stuck,
some pressure oil will directly flow back to the oil pool, which will cause insufficient pressure of various
gears and insufficient driving and operating power. If the stop valve rod is not stuck, please check the next
step.
6. The paper gasket at the main oil-way of the speed-changing control valve shall be checked to see if it is
broken. When it is broken, the oil inside the speed-changing control valve will flow through the lubrication
oil outlet back to the oil pool. Therefore, the malfunction will be removed if the paper gasket is replaced. If
the paper gasket is normal, please check the next step.
7. The oil bottom filter screen shall be checked to see if it is blocked. If it is blocked, please replace the
filter screen, filter element and gearbox oil. If the oil and filter screen is clean, please check the next step.
8. The oil sanction rubber pipe of the variable-speed pump shall be checked to see if the inner layer falls
off or the pipe is blocked. When the inner layer falls off or the pipe is blocked, the oil suction will become
difficult. The malfunction can be removed if the oil suction rubber pipe is replaced. If the rubber pipe is

29
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

normal, please check the next step.


9. The speed-changing pump shall be checked to see if it leaks internally or it is burnt. If there is internal
leakage or burn, the oil supply of the speed changer - torque converter assembly will be insufficient, and
the speed-changing pump shall be replaced. If the oil supply of the speed-changing pump is normal,
please check the next step.
10. The joint surface between the gearbox housing and the speed-changing control valve shall be
checked to see if there are sand holes or cracks. If there are cracks, the large amount of pressure oil from
the speed-changing pump will directly flow back to the oil pool, which will cause insufficient pressure of
the system.

Malfunction case 5-1-06:


When the loader is under normal operation ,the oil temperature of the gearbox will
exceed 120℃ in short time.

Description of malfunction: the oil temperature rises rapidly, but the pressure, driving and operation of the
gearbox are normal, and the water temperature of the engine is also normal.

Possible reasons:
The reasons for causing the rise of oil temperature mainly include: influence of working condition,
improper use such as long time overload operation, insufficient oil supply of the oil supply system,
improper heat dissipation, etc.
1. Special working condition or application method (such as paper mill, upslope operation, etc.)
2. Damage of instruments or electric devices.
3. Improper use of oil.
4. The throttle or flameout cable of the engine is stuck.
5. The return oil pressure of the torque converter is too high.

Inspection steps or actions:


1. The working condition and application methods shall be checked (long time heavy-load push operation
or continuous upslope operation shall be avoided, and gradient shall not be higher than 30 degrees) The
operation methods shall be checked to see if it is correct. During operation, the loader shall work at gear I
and the throttle control shall match the work load.
2. The oil temperature sensor and the oil temperature meter shall be check to see if they are damaged.
3. The oil consumption of the speed changer - torque converter assembly shall be checked to see if it
complies with the requirement. The filter element of the gearbox shall be replaced and the oil radiator of
the gearbox shall be cleaned.
4. The throttle control cable or flameout cable of the engine shall be checked to see if they are stuck
5. The return oil pressure of the torque converter shall be checked to see if pressure is high, which will
cause excessively high fluidic resistor and then lead to rapid rise of oil temperature.

Malfunction case 5-1-07:


A loader does not run at cold start, but after the engine is heated for a while, the
loader starts to run (after the loader is started and the gear is shifted, the loader does

30
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

not run. However, after the engine is heated for a while, the loader starts to run)

Description of malfunction:
After cold-start, no matter which gear is shifted, the loader does not run. However, when the oil
temperature of the gearbox exceeds 50℃, the loader starts to run normally under any gear.
Possible reasons:
1. The pipe joint is loose.
2. Improper use of oil.
3. The air does not circulate.
4. Oil inlet valve of torque converter is damaged or adjustment pressure is too high.
5. The stop valve of the speed-changing control valve does not return to the right position.
6. The speed-changing pump leaks internally.
7. The gap between the valve cartridge and the valve body of the speed-changing control valve is too
wide, and the tightening torque of the fixing bolts of the control valve is not even.

Inspection steps or actions:


1. All the pipe joints of the oil supply system of the gearbox shall be checked to see if they are loose. If
pipe joints become loose, a great amount of air will enter the system (grease or soapy water may be used
to conduct check)
2. The oil shall be checked to see if it is too thick. If the oil is too thick, the speed-changing pump will have
difficulty in oil suction during cold start.
3. The air holes of the gearbox shall be checked to see if they are blocked.
4. Check, replace or adjust spring pressure.
5. The stop valve rod of the speed-changing control valve shall be checked to see if it is stuck. During
winter, the freezing moisture brought by compressed air may occur at such position.
6. The speed-changing pump shall be assembled to check if the pump leaks internally. Meanwhile, the
wearing of the spline of the speed-changing pump shall also be checked.

Malfunction case 5-1-08:


The loader runs at cold start, but when the engine temperature rises, the loader stops
running (runs for a while and stops for a while)

Description of malfunction:
After the loader is started, it is able to run normally at any gear. After the engine is heated, the running
ability declines with the rise of the oil temperature, and the pressure of various gears goes down
accordingly. In case of serious situations, the pressure goes down to zero and the loader stops running.
However, after the engine is shut down for a while and restarted, the loader starts to run again, and such
situation will go on repeatedly. What is noteworthy is that the pressure goes down as well at neutral
position.

Possible reasons:
The malfunction symptoms and characteristics indicate that the running ability declines with the drop of
pressure following the rise of oil temperature. There are a lot of reasons that may cause the rise of oil

31
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

temperature, but the main reason for pressure drop lies in the oil supply system. In addition, when the oil
supply system malfunctions, the oil temperature will inevitably rise. Therefore, the main reason still lies in
the oil supply system.
1. Improper maintenance
2. The oil suction pipe of the speed-changing pump is sucked flat or blocked.

Check step or disposal methods:


1. The cleanness of the oil of the speed-changing box shall be checked. If there are too many
contaminants in the oil, the contaminants will concentrate at the oil outlet of the oil pan and block the oil
outlet during oil suction, so the oil suction of the speed-changing pump is affected, and the pressure goes
down and causes the declining of the running ability. However, after the loader is shut down for a while,
the contaminants will scatter into the oil, the loader will be able to run again after starting, and such
phenomenon will repeat.
2. The oil suction pipe of the speed-changing pump shall be checked. The inner layer of the oil suction
rubber pipe of the speed-changing pump will become softer with the rise of the oil temperature, and then
the oil suction rubber pipe may be blocked under the oil suction effect, so the oil suction of the
speed-changing pump becomes difficult. When the peeling-off area is large, the oil suction pipe may be
completely blocked, and the consequent insufficient oil supply may lead to low system pressure or even
zero system pressure.

Malfunction case 5-1-09:


During the operation, the loader may suddenly stop, which is similar to automatic
emergent braking
Description of malfunction:
No matter the engine is hot or cold, the loader stops randomly and the gear positions are not clearly
identifiable during shifting. However, the oil temperature and pressure are normal.
Possible reasons:
1. The bolts of cab are loose or the speed-changing control rod is loose or dislocated.
2. The locating spring or locating slot of the speed-changing valve rod on the speed-changing control
valve is damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The fastening bolts of the cab shall be checked to see if they become loose. The loosened cab will
move forward, backward, up and down under gravity and inertia, which will cause the speed-changing rod
to move accordingly with cab, so the gears will not stabilize in the desired gears, but gear skipping or gear
disorder will occur.
(See Figure 5-04)

32
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Figure 5-04 Position of the fastening bolts of the cab


2. Check the variable-speed joysticks. Adjust the control handle to the related joint level between
variable speed control valves.
(See Figure 5-05)

Figure 5-05 Diagram of the speed-changing control rod system


3. The speed-changing control valve shall be disassembled to check if the guide spring of the
speed-changing valve rod is broken. Meanwhile, the guide ring groove of the speed-changing valve shall
be checked to see if it is worn out.

33
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Malfunction case 5-1-10:


The pressure is normal at any gear, but the loader cannot run.
Description of malfunction: though the loader cannot run, the oil temperature will rise rapidly and the
steering and lifting of lift arm are normal.
Possible reasons:
1. Inappropriate oil is used or maintenance is not conducted properly.
2. The valve rod of the speed-changing control valve is blocked.
3. The torque converter leaks internally or there are sand holes on wheel cover and pump impeller or the
spring of the oil inlet overflow valve is broken.
4. The components of worm wheel are damaged.
5. The output shaft (fourth shaft) is twisted off.

Inspection steps or actions:


1. The added volume of the gearbox oil and the oil specification shall be checked to see if they comply
with the requirements (No.8 hydraulic transmission oil)
2. The speed-changing control valve shall be disassembled to see if the pressure-relief valve rod is
blocked. After the pressure oil discharged by a blocked speed-changing pump meets the oil consumption
requirements of the gearbox, a great amount of the remaining pressure oil cannot enter the torque
converter, so the power is the torque converter is not sufficient.
3. The sump shall be disassembled to see if there is abnormal aluminum powder in the oil. Usually there
is a great amount of aluminum powder in the oil after the torque converter is damaged.
4. The loader shall stop on a flat road surface. Meanwhile, the four tires shall be choked with hard objects.
The access panel at the side of the torque converter shall be disassembled, and the speed-changing
control rod shall be shifted the neutral position. Then the engine shall be started to see if oil is thrown
away from the outer rim of the torque converter movement. If oil is thrown away, it indicates that the
torque converter leaks seriously. If no oil is thrown away, the engine shall be shut down and other checks
shall be conducted.
5.The oil return rubber pipe at the bottom of the torque converter shall be checked and then the engine
shall be started to see if a great amount oil leaks while oil returns to the torque converter (while the torque
converter operates properly, only a small amount of oil leaks from the torque converter)
6. The front output flange of the gearbox shall be disassembled to see if the fourth shaft is twist off.
7. The housing of the torque converter shall be disassembled to check if the valve core and spring of the
overflow valve and back pressure valve are stuck or damaged.
8. The torque converter shall be disassembled to check the worm wheel components of the torque
converter.

Malfunction case 5-1-11:


No matter which gear is shifted, there is no pressure and the loader cannot run.
Meanwhile, the steering and lifting of lift arm do not work.

Description of malfunction: after the malfunction occurs, the engine operates properly, but the running of
the complete-loader, steering and hydraulic system stop operating immediately.
Possible reasons:
1. The spring plate, wheel cover or pump impeller breaks completely.
Inspection steps or actions:

34
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

This malfunction is typical, but the reason is specific. The torque converter shall be disassembled, the
broken components (in most cases, the elastic bolts or wheel cover is broken) shall be replaced, and then
the loader will operate properly.

Malfunction case 5-1-12:


The oil level of the gearbox rises rapidly
Malfunction description: cooling water enters the oil of the gearbox.
Possible reasons:
When the oil return pressure of the gearbox is adjusted to a relatively low level and the water pressure
inside the water tank is relatively high, if the core pipe of the radiator is broken or has a loose weld, the
cooling water will enter the oil the gearbox.
Inspection steps or actions:
The radiator shall be replaced. (See Figure 5-06)

Radiator

Figure 5-06 Radiator

35
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Malfunction case 5-1-13:


The oil level of the gearbox declines rapidly
Malfunction description: hydraulic transmission oil enters the water tank.
Possible reasons:
When the oil return pressure of the gearbox is adjusted to a relatively high level, if the core pipe of the
radiator is broken or has a loose weld, oil will enter the water tank.
Inspection steps or actions;
The radiator shall be replaced and the oil return pressure of the gearbox shall be re-adjusted
(0.18-0.3MPa)

Malfunction case 5-1-14:


The pressure of various gears is normal, but the cut of the bucket is powerless and
there is a “drumming” sound form the gearbox.
Malfunction characteristics:
The pressure and response of various gears are normal (which indicates that there is no shift delay)
Possible reasons:
1. The speed-changing control gears are not stable.
2. The components of the worm wheel are damaged.
3. The clutch slips.
4. The bearings are damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The speed-changing control rod system shall be checked to see if it is accurate.
2. The sump shall be disassembled and the impurities in the oil shall be checked to determine the
malfunction position.
3. If there is aluminum power in the oil, then the torque converter shall be disassembled to repair the
components of the worm wheel.
4. If the oil turns black or there are small springs in the oil, then the gearbox shall be opened to check the
second shaft and bearings.

Malfunction case 5-1-15: the pressure of gear I is not sufficient


Description of malfunction:
The pressure of gear II cannot reach the specified value (1.2-1.5MPa), but the pressure of gear I and gear
III is normal.
Possible reasons:
1. The position of gear II is not accurate.
2. End cover bolt is loose or sealing member on gear II cylinder is damaged.
3. Gear II cylinder or piston has cracks or other defects.
4. End cover gap is adjusted inappropriately.

36
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Inspection steps or actions:


1. The gear positions of the speed-changing control rod system shall be checked to see if they are
accurate.
2. The speed-changing control valve shall be disassembled to extensively check if the paper gasket of
gear I of the control valve is broken or the oil-way of gear I is blocked.
3. The clutch of gear II of the gearbox shall be disassembled to check if the O-ring at the oil inlet of the
cylinder body of gear II is damaged. If the ring is damaged, a great amount of pressure oil from the
speed-changing control valve will leak from the damaged position to the oil pool, which will lead to
insufficient pressure and shift delay of gear I.
4. The cylinder body and piston body of gear II shall be checked to see if they have cracks or sand holes.
If there are cracks or sand holes, a great amount of pressure oil entering the cylinder body will leak out,
which will cause insufficient pressure or even no pressure under serious situations.
5. When the fluororubber sealing members are taken out, the stuck phenomenon needs special attention.
Then the fluororubber sealing members shall be checked to see if they are worn out or damaged.
Meanwhile the thickness of the sealing members shall be checked to see it is even. If the thickness is not
even, the position with thinner sealing members will be more likely to leak internally.

Malfunction 5-1-16:
Gearbox releases abnormal sound
Malfunction description:

The noise is small during cold engine operation, but during hot engine operation, the noise becomes large.
However, the pressure and operation of various gears are normal.

Possible reasons:

1. Too little or too much oil consumption

2. The oil suction pipe of the speed-changing pump is blocked or filter screen is blocked.

3. Bearings are damaged or the meshing clearance between gears is too large.

4. The elastic pins or retainer rings of torque converter fall off.

5. The meshing of gears is not regular.

6. Noise from the driving shaft of drive axle

Inspection steps or actions:

The first test run: when the gear is at neutral position, the engine shall be started to check if there is
abnormal noise at neutral position. If there is no abnormal noise at neutral position, it can be ensured that
there is no speed-changing malfunction. Then the oil supply system and the torque converter shall be
extensively checked.

Check steps are as follows:

1. The oil bottom filter screen shall be disassembled to check the oil consumption situation, including

37
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

added oil volume, oil specification and quality and oil cleanness. The oil shall be carefully checked to see
if there are any impurities in the oil. Meanwhile, the tightness of the joints of the oil suction rubber pipe of
the speed-changing pump and other pipes shall be checked and the oil shall be replaced.

2. After the oil is replaced, the second test run shall be started: if the abnormal noise at the neutral
position still exists, the speed-changing pump shall be disassembled and the engine shall be started
again (the engine running time shall be short) If the abnormal noise disappears, then the malfunction is
caused by the speed-changing pump or a flat rubber pipe. If the abnormal noise still exists, then the
malfunction is caused the torque converter. There are three reasons: 1. the bearings of the torque
converter are damaged; 2. The friction between the pump impeller and the worm wheel or the fall-off of
elastic pin; 3. The meshing between the transfer gear and the driving gear of the working pump or the
driving gearing of the speed-changing pump is not regular. Among them, the check shall be focused on if
the flat key between the pump driving gear and the driving shaft is worn out.

The third test run: the front and rear driving shaft shall be disassembled, and then the test run shall be
started at gear I, gear II and gear III. There are two kinds of test run results:

1. The abnormal noise disappears, so the noise comes from the driving shaft. The driving shaft shall be
replaced.

2. The abnormal noise exists at gear I, gear II and gear III. Therefore, the gearbox shall be opened to
check the speed-changing bearings.

38
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Torque Converter and Gearbox System

Malfunction Case 5-1-17:


Common Malfunctions and Troubleshooting Methods of Troque Converter

Malfunction S/
Cause Troubleshooting method
No. N
1 Low output speed of engine Check and adjust the engine
Low output Low oil supply pressure of torque
2 See the item on low oil supply pressure
torque converter
3 High oil temperature See the item on high oil temperature
4 Use of unsuitable oil Replace it with the required oil
1 Insufficient oil charge Replenish it to the required value
2 Excessively high oil level Drain the oil to an appropriate level
3 Clogged oil filter Check and clean the oil filter
Check and clean the radiator and check and
High oil 4 Clogged radiator and pipeline
fasten the pipeline
temperature 5 Problem with cooling system Check the cooling system
Loose connection of oil suction Adjust the operating cycle, reduce the
6
line operating load
High throttle, long-time slow Damaged inlet valve or excessively low
7
operation pressure setting
Low oil supply
1 Insufficient oil Replenish it to the required value
pressure
Insufficient oil supply or damage
2 Check the wear and tear of oil pump
to variable speed pump
Check the wear and tear of matching parts of
3 Excessively big internal leakage
seal ring, replace the seal ring
Damaged inlet valve or
4 Check, replace or adjust the spring
excessively low pressure setting
Obstructed or unsealed oil suction
5 Check the piping system
line
Damaged oil seal, paper gasket,
1 Check, replace
Oil leak O-ring
2 Loosened thread connection Check, fasten
1 Bearing failure Check, replace
Wear and tear of gear wheel and
High noise 2 Check, replace
spline
level
Broken retaining ring on
3 Check, replace
turboshaft or guide impeller seat

39
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Drive Axle System

5-2.Malfunction cases of drive axle:

5-2-01.Insufficient driving force................................................................................................................... [39]


5-2-02.Wheel edges make a large noise during running ...................................................................... [39]
5-2-03.Main drive device makes an abnormal noise............................................................................... [39]
5-2-04.Loader makes abnormal noise during turning.............................................................................. [40]

Malfunction case 5-2-01: Insufficient driving force


Malfunction characteristics: the pressure and response of various gears of the loader is normal. The
loader may lose power suddenly during operation, but road running is normal.
Possible reasons:
The semi-axle of the front axle or the rear axle is twisted off, which causes the insufficient driving force.
Check measures and disposal methods:
1. First the rear transmission shaft shall be disassembled, and then the engine shall be started and shifted
to gear I. If the loader cannot run, then the semi-axle of front axle has already been twisted off.
2. If the loader can still run after the rear transmission axle is disassembled, then the rear transmission
axle shall be installed and the front transmission axle shall be disassembled. If the loader cannot run, then
the semi-axle of the real axle has already been twisted off.
3. As an alternative and direct way, the wheel edge covers of the front and rear axles can be
disassembled to check if the semi-axles have been twisted off.
Remark: if semi-axles are twisted off, the interior of the drive axles shall be cleaned before the semi-axles
are replaced.

Malfunction case 5-2-02:


Wheel edges make a large noise during running
Malfunction characteristics: during running, the wheels swing noticeably left and right. Under serious
circumstances, loader shakes or even is not able to run.
Possible reasons:
1. The gap between wheel edge bearings is too large or the bearings are burnt.
2. Wheel edge gears are broken.
3. Round nuts at the wheel edge are loose.
Inspection steps or actions:
The wheel edge shall be dismounted for examination and repairing.

Malfunction case 5-2-03: Main drive device makes an abnormal noise


Malfunction characteristics: the noise is more noticeable when the loader slows down during high speed
straight line running.
Possible reasons:

40
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Drive Axle System

Bearings are loose;


The gap between driving gears and driven gears is too large or the meshing is not regular.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. After the transmission shaft is disassembled, the input flange of the main drive device shall be held by
both hands and pushed upward and pulled downward or pushed inward and pulled outward to see if it
swings noticeably. At such time, if there is no obvious travel, we are able to confirm which main drive
device (the front or the rear main drive device) malfunctions.
2. The main drive device shall be disassembled to check to the gap between the bearings of the driving
spin chute gears and the gap between the supporting bearings of the left and right shell shaft journals.
3. The meshing surface and gap between the driving spin chute gears and driven spin chute gears.
4. The difference velocity device shall be disassembled to check the gap between bevel gears.

Note: The installation shall be conducted strictly in compliance with the requirements for driving axle
corresponding to various loader models.

Malfunction case: 5-2-04


Loader makes abnormal noise during turning

Malfunction characteristics: the noise is more noticeable during turning, and the steering wheel feels
heavy.
Possible reason: the difference velocity device is damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
The main drive device shall be dismounted to be repaired.

Forward stress surface Larger end Backward stress surface

The contract surface is near the middle (slightly The contact surface is near the gear top
deviating to the flank at the larger end) of the larger end, but the stress is not
concentrated on the gear top

Correct meshing of the driven spin chute gear


Figure 5-06
The installation and adjustment methods of the main drive device are shown in the following table:

Position of contact mark on driven gear face Adjustment method Gear


movement
Drive forward Drive back direction
Make driven gear move close to driving
gear. If gear clearance thus becomes
too small, move the driving gear
outward.

41
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Drive Axle System

Make driven gear move away from


driving gear. If gear clearance thus
becomes too big, move the driving gear
inward.

Make driving gear move close to driven


gear. If gear clearance thus becomes
too small, move the driven gear outward.

Make driving gear move away from


driven gear. If gear clearance thus
becomes too big, move the driven gear
inward.

42
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Working hydraulic system

5-3.Malfunction cases of working hydraulic system:

5-3-01.During the loading operation, suddenly the boom and the bucket are not able to work....... [42]
5-3-02.During loading, the bucket automatically turns upward.............................................................. [43]
5-3-03.During loading, the bucket is able to operate normally. However, after the bucket is taken
back, it automatically turns downward........................................................................................................[44]
5-3-04.During loading, the bucket automatically turns upward when it hits a hard object, and after the
bucket is taken back, it automatically turns downward............................................................................[44]
5-3-05.The bucket automatically turns downward when it is taken back, and the boom also
automatically lowers after it is lifted............................................................................................................ [44]
5-3-06.he boom automatically lowers after it is lifted...............................................................................[45]
5-3-07.Lifting of bucket and boom is powerless....................................................................................... [46]

Malfunction case 5-3-01:


During the loading operation, suddenly the boom and the bucket are not able to work
Malfunction characteristics: When the malfunction occurs, the control rod, boom and bucket do not
respond, but the steering is normal.
Possible reasons:
1. The oil suction rubber pipe of the working pump is blocked.
2. The shaft of the working pump is twisted off.
3. The safety valve of the distribution valve is damaged.
4. The oil supply valve is damaged.
5. The pilot valve is damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The suction pipe of the working pump shall be checked to see if the fall-off of inner layer causes the
difficulty of oil suction. (See Figure 5-11)

43
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Working hydraulic system

Working
pump

Figure 5-11 Installation position of working pump

2. The oil outlet pipe of the working pump shall be disassembled, and the motor shall be clicked at idle
speed (the engine shall not be completely started, otherwise oil liquidation will waste too much oil). At
such time, if no oil emerges from the oil outlet of the working pump, then the shaft of working pump has
already been twisted off or seriously worn out.
3. According to the second step test, if oil emerges from the oil outlet, a pressure meter shall be installed
to measure the pressure of the system. Then the safety valve spring or O-ring of the distribution valve
shall be checked to see if they are broken.
4. Pressure meter shall be installed to measure the oil outlet pressure of the oil supply valve.
5. Pressure meter shall be installed to measure the outlet pressure of the pilot valve. If the pressure of the
oil supply valve is normal but the pressure of the pilot valve is abnormal, then the pilot valve is damaged.

Malfunction case 5-3-02:


During loading, the bucket automatically turns upward
Malfunction characteristics: when the bucket hits a hard object, it will automatically turn upward at a
certain angle, but will not turn downward.
Possible reasons:
According to the malfunction characteristics, the bucket turns upward automatically but does not turn
downward, which indicates that the cylinder sealing members of bucket are not damaged. If the cylinder
sealing members of bucket are damaged, the bucket will turn upward and downward automatically, so the
internal leakage of the cylinder can be eliminated at the first step.
1. The pressure of the small chamber overload valve is too low.
2. The sealing members of the small chamber overload valve are damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. A pressure meter shall be installed to measure if the small chamber overload pressure of the bucket
cylinder is too low. Usually the small chamber overload pressure shall be set at 12MPa.
2. The small chamber overload valve shall be disassembled to check if the sealing members are
damaged.

44
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Working hydraulic system

Malfunction case 5-3-03:


During loading, the bucket is able to operate normally. However, after the bucket is
taken back, it automatically turns downward.
Malfunction characteristics: during loading, the bucket does not automatically turn upward. However, after
the bucket is taken back, it automatically turns downward.
Possible reasons:
According to the malfunction characteristics, the bucket does not automatically turn upward, but after the
bucket is taken back, it automatically turns downward, which indicates that the sealing members of the
bucket cylinder are not damaged. If the sealing members of the cylinder are damaged, usually the bucket
will turn upward and downward automatically, so the internal leakage of the cylinder can be eliminated at
the first step
1. The pressure of the large chamber overload valve is too low.
2. Sealing members of the large chamber overload valve are damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. A pressure meter shall be installed to measure if the large chamber overload pressure of the bucket
cylinder is too low. Usually the large chamber overload pressure shall be set at 18MPa.
2. The large chamber overload valve shall be disassembled to check if the sealing members are
damaged.

Malfunction case 5-3-04:


During loading, the bucket automatically turns upward when it hits a hard object, and
after the bucket is taken back, it automatically turns downward.
Malfunction characteristics:, the bucket not only automatically turns upward during loading, but also
automatically turns downward after the bucket is taken back.
Possible reasons:
According the malfunction characteristics, the bucket automatically turns upward during loading and
automatically turns downward when the bucket is taken back. Such phenomenon indicates that the
sealing members of the bucket cylinder may be damaged, which causes the pressure oil to circulate
between the large and small chambers.
1. The overload pressure of the large and small chambers is adjusted too low.
2. The sealing members of the overload valves of the large and small chambers are damaged.
3. The sealing members and piston of the bucket cylinder are loose.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. A pressure meter shall be installed to measure if the overload pressure of the large and small chambers
of the bucket cylinder is adjusted too low. The requirements for the overload pressure of large and small
chambers are: 18Mpa for large chamber and 12Mpa for small chamber.
2. The overload valves of the large and small chambers of the distribution valve shall be disassembled to
check if the sealing members are damaged.
3. The sealing members and piston of the bucket cylinder shall be checked to see if they are loose.

Malfunction case 5-3-05:


The bucket automatically turns downward when it is taken back, and the boom also

45
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Working hydraulic system

automatically lowers after it is lifted


Malfunction characteristics: both the bucket cylinder and boom cylinder have internal leakage.
Possible reasons:
Usually the bucket cylinder and boom cylinder do not have damaged sealing members simultaneously.
However, there is possibility that damaged components may lead to damage of multiple cylinders, but in
most cases, the malfunction is caused by improper use of oil or internal leakage.
1. Improper use of oil
2. Oil inlet pipes of working pump and steering pump are loose.
3. Distribution valve has internal leakage.
4. Sealing members of the hydraulic cylinder are damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The hydraulic oil usage shall be checked, including usage time, oil specification, etc.
2. The hydraulic system shall be checked to see if a great amount of air enters the system.
3. The fit clearance between the slide valve bore and the slide valve rod of the distribution valve shall be
checked to see if it is too large.
4. The bucket cylinder and boom cylinder shall be checked to see if the sealing members are damaged
and if the piston is loose.

Malfunction case 5-3-06: the boom automatically lowers after it is lifted


Malfunction characteristics: the boom automatically lowers at a high speed after it is
lifted, but the bucket cylinder is normal.
Possible reasons:
The bucket cylinder and boom cylinder share the same oil. The bucket cylinder never leaks internally, so
probably the malfunction does not stem from oil, but other reasons of the distribution valve and boom
cylinder shall be extensively checked.
1. The sealing members of the distribution valve leaks internally after being damaged.
2. The fit tolerance between the slide valve bore and the slide valve rod of the distribution valve is too
large. (Usually new valves may leak internally)
3. The sealing members of the boom cylinder are damaged or the piston is loose.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The sealing members of the slide valve link of the distribution valve shall be checked to see if they are
damaged.
(See Figure 5-12)

46
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Working hydraulic system

Distribution
valve

Figure 5-12: distribution valve and its installation position

2. The fit clearance between the slide valve bore and slide valve rod of the distribution valve shall be
checked to see if it is too large.
3. The boom cylinder shall be checked to see if the sealing members are damaged or the piston and the
piston rod are damaged by pulling.

Malfunction case 5-3-07:


Lifting of bucket and boom is powerless
Malfunction characteristics: no matter how much the oil temperature is, the lifting of bucket and boom is
power and the lifting speed is low.
Possible reasons:
1. The oil deteriorates or the added oil does not comply with the specified requirements or oil of different
specifications is mixed together. (If the oil does not comply with requirements, usually it will lead to high
temperature of the hydraulic oil)
2. The air filter element is blocked.
3. The oil-suction filter screen is blocked or the oil-suction rubber pipe becomes flat, which affects the oil
suction during operation.
4. The distribution valve leaks internally.
5. The pressure of working pump or distribution valve is too low.
6. The sealing members of the bucket cylinder or boom cylinder are worn out or damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The cleanness of oil shall be checked to see if it deteriorates or complies with the requirements. Usually
No.46 hydraulic oil shall be used. However, at cold regions, No.40 low-freezing hydraulic oil shall be used.
2. The air filter element (hydraulic oil tank cover) shall be checked to see if it is blocked.
3. The oil suction and oil return filter screen of the hydraulic oil tank shall be checked to see if they are
blocked, and at the same time, the oil suction rubber pipe of working pump shall be checked to see if it
becomes flat.
4. The valve core of distribution valve shall be disassembled to check if the valve core and valve body
have sand holes, etc., which may cause internal leakage.
5. The bucket cylinder and boom cylinder shall be checked to see if they have internal leakage. If there is

47
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Working hydraulic system

internal leakage, the bucket cylinder, boom cylinder shall be dismounted to check if the sealing members,
piston and piston rod are damaged.
6. A pressure meter shall be installed to check if the pressure of distribution valve is adjusted improperly
or the safety valve is damaged so as to confirm if the working pump leaks internally.

48
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Pilot control system

5-4.Malfunction cases of the pilot control system:


5-4-01.Lifting of boom is powerless (I).................................................................................................................[48]
5-4-02.Lifting of boom is powerless (II) ....................................................................................................... [48]
5-4-03.Lifting of boom is powerless (IIII)....................................................................................................... [49]
5-4-04.Lifting of boom is powerless (IV)........................................................................................................[49]
5-4-05.Lifting of boom is powerless (V).........................................................................................................[49]
5-4-06.Lifting of boom is powerless (VI)........................................................................................................[50]
5-4-07.Lifting of boom is powerless (VII).......................................................................................................[50]
5-4-08.Boom cylinder automatically moves downward rapidly................................................................... [50]
5-4-09.Bucket cylinder automatically lowers too rapidly (I)......................................................................... [51]
5-4-10.Bucket sometimes automatically turns upward .............................................................................. [52]
5-4-11.Bucket cylinder automatically lowers too rapidly (II)........................................................................ [52]
5-4-12.Unable to realize floating function..................................................................................................... [52]
5-4-13.Control joystick of the pilot valve cannot be gripped properly at the extreme position ............. [53]

Malfunction case 5-4-01: lifting of boom is powerless (I)


Malfunction characteristics: the working pump releases big noise and there are a great amount of bubbles
in the oil.
Possible reasons:
The oil inlet pipe of the working pump is loose, so air enters into the system.
Inspection steps or actions:
The oil inlet rubber pipe of the working pump shall be checked to see if it is loose.
(See Figure 5-13: working pump and its installation position)

Working pump

Figure 5-13

Malfunction case 5-4-02: lifting of boom is powerless (II)


Malfunction characteristics: the oil temperature rises rapidly; while the throttle becomes bigger, the boom
is elevated more slowly.
Possible reasons:

49
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Pilot control system

The oil-inlet rubber pipe or the oil-suction filter element of the working pump is blocked, which causes
unsmooth oil supply.
Inspection steps or actions:
The filter screen of the hydraulic oil tank and the oil suction rubber pipe of the working pump shall be
replaced or cleaned.

Malfunction case 5-4-03: lifting of boom is powerless (III)


Malfunction characteristics: the hydraulic oil temperature rises rapidly. Under serious circumstances, the
oil turns black.
Possible reasons:
1. Oil is used improperly, oil is too thick or air filter element is blocked, which causes oil suction difficulty.
2. The safety valve of distribution valve is stuck.
3. The engine does not provide sufficient power, the air filter element of the engine is blocked or the fuel
oil has quality problems.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The air filter element shall be cleaned, or the oil shall be replaced with oil that complies with
requirements.
(At ordinary regions, No.46 hydraulic oil shall be used. At cold regions, No.46 low-freezing hydraulic oil
shall be used.)
2. The safety valve of distribution valve shall be cleaned or replaced.

Malfunction case 5-4-04: lifting of boom is powerless (IV)


Malfunction characteristic: the system pressure is not sufficient, and the working pump releases big noise.
Possible reasons:
1. The working pump leaks internally and is not able to provide the pressure oil needed for normal
operation.
2. The sealing members of the main safety valve of the distribution valve are damaged, which causes
insufficient system pressure.
3. The hydraulic oil quantity is not sufficient or the oil suction rubber pipe becomes flat, which causes the
large noise, or the distribution valve rod is adjusted to an incorrect position.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The system pressure shall be re-adjusted or the main safety valve shall be replaced.
2. The working pump shall be replaced.
3. The system shall be re-adjusted.

Malfunction case 5-4-05: lifting of boom is powerless (V)


Malfunction characteristics: with the rise of oil temperature, the lifting capacity continues to decline, and
the automatic downward movement of boom cylinder and bucket cylinder is obvious.
Possible reasons:
1. Oil is used improperly, or oil is used for too long, so the oil deteriorates and causes the oil to be too thin.
2. The distribution valve leaks internally or the cylinder leak internally.
3. The sealing members of the bucket cylinder are damaged, which causes the pressure oil to circulate

50
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Pilot control system

between the large and small chambers.


Inspection steps or actions:
1. The oil usage shall be checked and the oil shall be replaced if necessary. (Under normal circumstances,
the hydraulic oil shall not be used over 1,200 hours)
2. The sealing members of the distribution valve shall be replaced.
3. The sealing members of the hydraulic oil cylinder shall be replaced.

Malfunction case 5-4-06: lifting of boom is powerless (VI)


Malfunction characteristics: the pressure of the hydraulic system is normal, but the steering feels heavy.
Possible reasons:
1. The working pump leaks internally or the valve core of the priority valve is stuck, which causes the oil
interflowing to the hydraulic system to decline significantly.
2. The oil supply valve malfunctions.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The priority valve shall be cleaned or the working pump shall be replaced.
2. A pressure meter shall be installed to measure the oil outlet pressure of the oil supply valve when the
boom moves. An excess low pressure indicates that the oil supply valve malfunctions.

Malfunction case 5-4-07: lifting of boom is powerless (VII)


Malfunction characteristics: system pressure is normal but lifting is powerless
Possible reasons:
1. Oil is not used properly, oil is too thick, or oil tank filter screen is blocked.
2. The valve core of pilot valve is stuck by contaminants or the internal discharge is too large, which
causes that the pilot valve is unable to provide normal pressure oil to push the slide valve rod of the
distribution valve.
3. The slide valve rod of the distribution valve is stuck, so the normal corresponding opening cannot be
opened according to requirements.
4. The boom cylinder leaks internally.
5. The efficiency of the working pump declines.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The filter element of the hydraulic oil tank shall be cleaned and the hydraulic oil shall be replaced.
2. The pilot valve shall be cleaned and the relevant damaged components such as sealing members, etc.
shall be replaced.
3. The slide valve rod of the hydraulic-control multiple unit valve shall be checked to see if it is stuck by
contaminants.
4. The boom cylinder shall be checked to see if the piston and cylinder barrel are damaged by pulling or
the sealing members are damaged.
5. The working pump shall be replaced.

Malfunction case 5-4-08: the boom cylinder automatically moves downward rapidly
Malfunction characteristics: the bucket cylinder does not have obvious automatic downward movement

51
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Pilot control system

Possible reasons:
1. The valve core of the lowering valve that links the pilot valve and the boom is stuck.
2. The slide vale rod that links the distribution valve and the boom is stuck.
3. The boom cylinder leaks internally.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The control rod that links pilot valve and boom shall be checked to see if it is stuck and cannot return to
the middle position. The stuck will cause the large chamber that links hydraulic-control multiple unit valve
and boom to be slightly opened, so the oil of the large chamber of the boom cylinder leaks back to the oil
tank.
2. The control rod that links pilot valve and boom is able to return to the middle position, but the slide valve
rod that links hydraulic-control multiple unit valve and boom is stuck by contaminants and cannot be
closed completely, so the oil of the large chamber of the boom cylinder leaks through the oil inlet of the
multiple unit valve back to the oil tank
3. The sealing members of the boom cylinder are damaged, so the internal leakage is too large. The
sealing members shall be replaced.

Malfunction case 5-4-09:


The bucket cylinder automatically lowers too rapidly (I)
Malfunction characteristics: during operation, when the bucket contacts hard objects, it will not
automatically turns upward, and the boom cylinder will not automatically move downward obviously.
Possible reasons:
1. The valve core that links pilot valve and bucket is stuck.
2. The large chamber overload valve that links the multiple unit valve and bucket is stuck or the pressure
is set too low.
(See Figure 5-14: multiple unit valve and its installation position)

Multiple unit valve

Figure 5-14

3. The slide valve rod that links multiple unit valve and bucket is stuck.
Inspection steps or actions:

52
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Pilot control system

1. The pilot valve is cleaned.


2. The pressure of the large chamber overload valve of the multiple unit valve shall be re-adjusted, or the
sealing members shall be replaced.
3. The multiple unit valve shall be cleaned.

Malfunction case 5-4-10: the bucket sometimes automatically turns upward


Malfunction characteristics:
During operation, the bucket automatically turns upward when it contacts hard objects, but the bucket
does not automatically turns downward after it is taken back, and the boom cylinder does not
automatically lowers obviously.
Possible reasons:
1. The valve core that links pilot valve and bucket is stuck.
2. The small chamber overload valve that links the multiple unit valve and bucket is stuck or the pressure
is set too low.
3. The slide valve rod that links multiple unit valve and bucket is stuck.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The pilot valve shall be cleaned.
2. The pressure of the large chamber overload valve of the multiple unit valve shall be re-adjusted, or the
sealing members shall be replaced.
3. The multiple unit valve shall be cleaned.

Malfunction case 5-4-11:


The bucket cylinder automatically lowers rapidly (II)
Malfunction characteristics:
During operation, the bucket automatically turns upward when it contacts hard objects, but the bucket
does not automatically turns downward after it is taken back, and the boom cylinder does not
automatically lowers obviously.
Possible reasons:
1. The large chamber and small chamber overload valves that link the multiple unit valve and bucket are
stuck or the pressure is set too low.
2. The clearance between the slide valve rod (that links multiple unit valve and bucket) and the valve body
is too large, which causes internal leakage.
3. The oil seal of the bucket cylinder is worn out or damaged, which causes the pressure oil to circulate
between the large chamber and small chamber.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The multiple unit valve and overload valve shall be cleaned and the pressure shall be re-adjusted.
(18MPa for large chamber and 12MPa for small chamber)
2. The multiple unit valve shall be replaced.
3. The sealing members of the bucket cylinder shall be replaced.

Malfunction case 5-4-12: unable to realize floating function


Malfunction characteristics: when the control joystick is used to place floating devices, the devices cannot

53
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Pilot control system

realize the floating function, but other functions are not affected.
Possible reasons:
1. After the K-opening cone valve at the bottom of the small chamber that links multiple unit valve and
boom is blocked, the small chamber oil of the boom cylinder cannot flow through the pilot valve to the oil
tank.
2. The sequence valve inside the pilot valve is stuck, so the small chamber oil of the boom cylinder cannot
flow to the oil return chamber after entering the pilot valve (sequence valve).
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The K-opening cone valve at the bottom of the small chamber that links multiple unit valve and boom
shall be cleaned.
2. The sequence valve (inside 2C opening) inside the pilot valve shall be cleaned.

Malfunction case 5-4-13:


The control joystick of the pilot valve cannot be gripped properly at the extreme
position.
Malfunction characteristics: When the control joystick is at its maximum angle during the lifting and
lowering of boom and the upward turning of bucket, it cannot be gripped by the electromagnet, but will
rebound back to the middle position automatically.
Possible reasons:
1. The power is not turned on or has poor contact.
2. The components of the electromagnet coil of the pilot valve are damaged.
Inspection steps or actions:
1. The contact of the electric system shall be checked.
2. The components of electromagnet coil shall be replaced.

54
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Steering hydraulic system

5-5. Malfunction cases of the steering hydraulic system:


5-5-01. Steering seeming sluggish (I).................................................................................................................. [54]
5-5-02. Steering seeming sluggish (II) ..................................................................................................... [54]
5-5-03. Steering seeming heavy................................................................................................................. [54]
5-5-04. Steering failure or no steering........................................................................................................[55]
5-5-05. Idle stroke in steering, and a free swing at an angle in the direction.......................................[55]
5-5-06. Steering wheel kickback................................................................................................................. [56]
5-5-07. Steering wheel swinging................................................................................................................. [56]
5-5-08. Steering wheel shaking...................................................................................................................[57]
5-5-09. Steering endless and idling............................................................................................................ [57]

Malfunction case 5-5-01: Steering seeming sluggish (I)


Malfunction characteristics: Steering sometimes sluggish and sometimes not sluggish, without regularity.
Possible reasons:
1. The monostable valve is sluggish, leading to inadequate fluid to the steering gear, causing instant
heaviness and sluggishness of steering.
2. Oil pollution, causing the steering spool and sleeve or the stator and rotor to be sluggish.

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1. Clean.
2. Replace the fluid and clean the hydraulic system.

Malfunction case 5-5-02: Steering seeming sluggish (II)


Malfunction characteristics: Steering sometimes sluggish, but regular, and sluggish each time rotating to
the same angle.
Possible reasons:
1. The steering shaft deformed.
2. The steering shaft bearing damaged.
3. Friction between the steering shaft and the steering gear front cover.
4. Friction between the steering spool and sleeve or the stator and rotor has friction.
Inspection steps or treatment methods:
1. Replace the steering shaft.
2. Replace the bearing.
3. Re-install.
4. Replace the steering gear.

Malfunction case 5-5-03: Steering seeming heavy

55
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Steering hydraulic system

Malfunction characteristics: When the engine has a higher speed, steering will be lighter, and when the
engine rotates at low speed, steering will be heavier.
Possible reasons:
1. The engine idle speed is too low.
2. The drive axle differential damage results in the decrease of differential function of the left and right
wheels during steering.
3. The oil is dirty.
4. Steering pressure adjusted too low.
5. Internal leakage from the steering gear is excessive.
6. Steering pump leaking or spline damage causes decline of steering pump efficiency. (The factors are
usually affects lift arm lifting speed will decrease.)
7. Internal leakage of the steering cylinder.
Inspection steps or treatment methods:
1. Adjust the engine idle speed.
2. Check the drive axle differential damage.
3. Replace the oil and clean or replace the filter.
4. Re-adjust the steering pressure. When the pressure cannot be increased, the reason can be judged
preliminary to lie in the steering pump or relief valve. According to the actual situation, replace the
steering pump or relief valve.
5. Check the clearance between the steering gear spool and the valve body, and If necessary, replace the
steering gear.
6. Replace the steering cylinder seals, and check the piston for looseness.

Malfunction case 5-5-04: Steering failure or no steering


Malfunction characteristics: Sudden steering failure or no steering, but the work hydraulic system working
properly.
Possible reasons:
1. The spring in the steering gear is broken.
2. Serious leakage from the stator and rotor in the steering gear.
3. The steering cylinder piston seals severely damaged or the piston fallen off.

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1. Dismount the steering gear and check the spring leaf, stator and rotor for meshing.
2. Check the steering cylinder.

Malfunction case 5-5-05:


Idle stroke in steering, and a free swing at an angle in the direction

Malfunction characteristics: During steering, some idle stroke may occur suddenly, or when the road is
uneven, it will automatically deflect towards the direction of gravity.

56
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Steering hydraulic system

Possible reasons:
1. There is a lot of oil in the air.
2. The steering gear check valve (small ball) has not been completely closed.
3. More serious internal leakage in steering gear stator and rotor.
4. The steering cylinder piston seals are damaged or loose.
5. Steering gear overload valve pressure is below the pressure of the relief valve, or the seals and springs
of the overload valve are damaged.
6. The return oil back pressure of the steering system is slightly low.

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1. Put the direction to the maximum angle (with the hands pulling the steering wheel), increase the engine
throttle up to about 800 rpm for 5 seconds, repeat the operation two or three times at the maximum left
and right angle so that oil bubbles and air in oil discharges the air into the oil tank through high pressure
unloading.
2. Clean the steering gear.
3. Replace the steering gear.
4. Replace the steering cylinder piston seals and check the piston for tightness.
5. Re-adjust the steering system operating pressure and overload valve pressure.
6. Improve the oil return back pressure of the steering system.

Malfunction case 5-5-06: Steering wheel kickback.


Malfunction characteristics: Steering wheel kickback during steering.
Possible reasons:
1. The steering gear and the steering shaft installed and adjusted improperly.
2. The steering system oil flowing back.

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1. Reinstall the steering gear.
2. Replace or re-tighten the inlet check valve at the steering gear oil inlet.

Malfunction case 5-5-07: Steering wheel swinging.


Malfunction characteristics: The steering wheel swinging during steering.
Possible reasons:
1. The steering cylinder seal damaged;
2. Steering gear spool sluggish;
3. The steering gear damaged;

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1. Check the steering cylinder seal for damage, and replace any damaged one.
2. Check the steering gear for damage or the steering spool for sluggishness. In the event of damage or

57
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Steering hydraulic system

sluggishness, replace the steering gear.

Malfunction case 5-5-08: Steering wheel shaking.


Malfunction characteristics: The steering wheel shaking during steering.
Possible reasons:
1. Steering gear damage causing uneven oil circulation.

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1.Check the steering gear and if damaged, replace it.

Malfunction case 5-5-09: Steering endless and idling.


Malfunction characteristics: Steering wheel idling and endless during steering
Possible reasons:
1. Steering gear damaged.

Inspection steps or treatment methods:


1. Check the steering gear and replace it if damaged.

58
Chapter V Troubleshooting
Foot Brake System

5-6. Some failure symptoms of foot brake system:


5-6-01.Brake failure (I).................................................................................................................................. [58]
5-6-02.Brake failure (II)................................................................................................................................. [58]
5-6-03.Brake sluggish................................................................................................................................... [59]

Malfunction case 5-6-01: Brake failure (I)


Malfunction characteristics: Insufficient atmospheric pressure.
Possible reasons:
1. After the system air connection is loosened, a large mount of compressed gas leaks, resulting in brake
failure.
2. The pressure it is set too low, and after frequent braking operations, pressure is difficult to achieve a
normal brake pressure, resulting in brake failure.
3. The brake air pressure should be adjusted to 0.7-0.78MPa, and during braking, air pressure shall not
be less than 0.4MPa.
4. Caused by decrease in the air pump efficiency.
Inspection steps or treatment methods:
1. Check the air pump, unloading valve, gas cylinder, foot brake valve and booster pump set for inlet and
outlet pipe fittings.
2. Re-adjust the air pressure, with the brake pressure adjusted between 0.7-0.78MPa.
3. Check the pump and replace the air pump if necessary.

Malfunction case 5-6-02: Brake failure (II)


Malfunction characteristics: Brake air pressure is normal, but braking effect is poor, and usually more
pronounced after heating, with brake fluid ejected from the booster pump.
Possible reasons:
1. The booster pump spring sluggish or broken.
2. Booster pump seal damaged.
3. Brake fluid brake failing or not in line with braking requirements.
4. The brake pads do not meet the requirements or there is grease on the surface, causing skidding of
brake pads and brake discs.
5. The brake fluid contains a large amount of air, resulting in the decreased braking performance.
6. The brake piston sluggish.
7. The brake system oil circuit jammed.
8. The brake disc having too high hardness.
Inspection steps or treatment methods:
1. Disassemble the booster pump, clean the booster pump and replace the seals and springs. (As shown
in Figure 5-08: pictures for booster pump and its installation location)

59
Chapter V Troubleshooting
Foot Brake System

Booster pump

Figure 5-08

2. Replace the brake fluid, which shall be plant synthetic brake fluid, with Longking special 719 synthetic
brake fluid required. (Brake fluids of different grades and specifications can not be mixed)
3. Confirm whether the brake pads comply with brake requirements, and replace them if not.
4. Clean the brake system, and as required, empty the air in the system.
5. Check the brake caliper piston for return flexibility. If necessary, dismount the corresponding brake
calipers to ensure their flexible return.
6. Carry out a comprehensive inspection of brake lines.
7. Check whether the brake disc hardness is too hard. If yes, replace brake discs meeting the
requirements.

Malfunction case 5-6-03: Brake sluggish


Malfunction characteristics: Brake air pressure is normal, but after braking, the loader starts more
difficultly and becomes sluggish, easily making the brake system to produce heat.
Possible reasons:
1. The foot brake valve does not return.
2. The booster pump does not return.
3. The brake caliper piston does not return.
4. There is oil in the air.
Inspection steps or treatment methods:
1. Generally, cleaning the foot brake valve can resume normal braking. (See Figure 5-09: Picture for foot
brake valve and its installation location)

60
Chapter V Troubleshooting
Foot Brake System

Foot brake valve

Figure 5-09
2. Disassemble the booster pump, and clean and replace the seals.
3. Disassemble the brake caliper, clean the brake the system, replace the piston seal and replace
damaged pistons and brake fluid.
4. Discharge air from the brake caliper bolts.

61
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Electrical system

5-7. Malfunction cases of the electrical system:

5-7-01.Machine failing to start (I)................................................................................................................ [61]


5-7-02.Machine failing to start (II)......................................................................................................................... [61]
5-7-03.Starting immediately after power-on ............................................................................................ [62]
5-7-04.Not charging.......................................................................................................................................[62]
5-7-05.Excessive charging...........................................................................................................................[62]
5-7-06.Insufficient charge or over-discharge.............................................................................................[63]
5-7-07.Thermometer not functioning.......................................................................................................... [63]
5-7-08.Thermometer pointer rising to the maximum................................................................................[63]
5-7-09.The horn not ringing..........................................................................................................................[64]
5-7-10.Wiper not working............................................................................................................................. [64]
5-7-11.Poor air-conditioning cooling effect................................................................................................ [64]
5-7-12.Table of electric wires of loaders and routing...............................................................................[65]

Malfunction case 5-7-01: Machine failing to start (I)


Fault Feature: Starter not responding
Possible reasons:
1. The fuse is blown.
2. Poor contacts of buttons, harnesses and connectors.
3. Insufficiency of battery voltage.
4. The motor magnetic switch coil burned out, or the start circuit faulted.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Replace the fuse.
2. Check switches, harnesses and connectors for condition (4 # line)
3. Replace the battery (when the battery voltage is lower than 12V, recharging shall be considered; when
the battery voltage is lower than 10V, replace the battery, and recharge the removed battery with a special
charger.)
4. Check the starting circuit or motor, and replace the magnetic switch.

Malfunction case 5-7-02: Machine failing to start (II)


Malfunction characteristics: After the start button is pressed, a “click” sound can be heard from the motor,
the engine will not run or can only turn one or two circles.
Possible reasons:
1. The battery voltage insufficient.
2. The motor coil burned out.

62
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Electrical system

3. The motor or engine flywheel ring gear damaged.


Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. With a special discharge tester, measure the voltage of each battery, and remove and recharge the
battery whose voltage is lower than 12V.
2. Short the motor terminal with the magnetic switch terminal, and If failing to start, replace the starter
motor.
3. Replace the motor or engine flywheel ring gear.

Malfunction case 5-7-03: Starting immediately after power-on


Malfunction characteristics: The engine will start when the start electric lock is not yet placed on “start”
position.
Possible reasons:
1. The ignition switch contacts stuck.
2. The motor magnetic switch contacts stuck.
3. Short circuit.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Replace the ignition switch.
2. Replace magnetic switch.
3. Check whether 4#, 8# and 82a# lines are shorted with other power cord.
Note: If the circuit and the motor operate normally, and the diesel engine fan can also turn, check the
engine oil and the mechanical system for failure.

Malfunction case 5-7-04: Not charging.


Malfunction characteristics: Insufficiency of battery voltage.
Possible reasons:
1. Poor contact of lines and connectors.
2. The generator belt slack.
3. The generator damaged.
4. The battery damaged.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Check whether the charge indicator is off after completion of startup, and if it is bright, check whether
the connecting circuit from the generator to the battery is in good condition.
2. Check the generator belt for looseness and adjust the belt.
3. Replace the generator.
4. Replace the battery.

Malfunction case 5-7-05: Excessive charging.


Malfunction characteristics: Voltmeter pointer up to the highest point.
Possible reasons:

63
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Electrical system

1. The generator voltage too high.


2. The voltage regulator damaged.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Replace the generator voltage regulator.

Malfunction case 5-7-06: Insufficient charge or over-discharge.


Malfunction characteristics: Battery voltage is low, and the electric appliance cannot work properly.
Possible reasons:
1. The engine belt too loose;
2. Generator excitation coil and its mechanism fail;
3. Starting frequently and the engine working for a short time;
4. The night working too long or the vehicle electrical load too large;
5. At shutdown, the power switch not turned off.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Adjust the belt tension;
2. Replace generator or its excitation coil and resistance;
3. Minimize the number of starts;
4. At night work, minimize the number of starting the electrical equipment;
5. Be sure to turn off the main power switch when you shut down.

Malfunction case 5-7-07: Thermometer not functioning


Malfunction characteristics: After power-on, the thermometer does not respond, regardless of cold or hot
machines.
Possible reasons:
1. The circuit broken.
2. The thermometer damaged.
3. The sensor thermistor damaged.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Check the 51 # line (for oil temperature) and 53 # line (for water temperature) for connection. Check 0 #
line (for grounding) and 83 # line (for power supply)
2. Replace the thermometer.
3. Replace the sensor.

Malfunction case 5-7-08: Thermometer pointer rising to the maximum.


Malfunction characteristics: After power-on, the thermometer pointer will directly rise to the maximum.
Possible reasons:
1. Short circuit.
2. The sensor thermistor damaged.
3. Thermometer grounding wire broken.

64
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Electrical system

Inspection and troubleshooting:


1. Check 51 # line (for oil temperature) and 53 # line (for water temperature) for shorting or grounding with
0 # line (for ground wire)
2. Replace the sensor.
3. Check the thermometer ground wire for disconnection.

Malfunction case 5-7-09: The horn not ringing.


Malfunction characteristics: The horn not ringing after the electric key turned on and the horn pressed.
Analysis:
1. The fuse blown.
2. The horn relay bad or the coil burned out.
3. Poor contact of buttons, harnesses, connectors and ground wires.
4. Horn contacts bad or coils burned out.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Replace the fuse.
2. Replace the horn relay.
3. Check buttons, harnesses, connectors and ground wires for connection (power 16 # line, button 19 #
line)
4. Replace the horn assembly.

Malfunction case 5-7-10: Wiper not working.


Malfunction characteristics: After the wiper switch is turned on, the wiper does not work.
Possible reasons:
1. The fuse blown.
2. Poor contact of switches, harnesses and connectors.
3. Wiper motor coils burned out.
4. The wiper lever not locked firmly.
5. The wiper’s main shaft is distorted or stuck or wiper lever is deformed.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Replace the fuse.
2. Check the switches, harnesses, connectors and ground wire for connection.
3. Replace the wiper motor assembly.
4. Lock the wiper lever nut.
5. Regulate main shaft motor or replace wiper motor and regulate wiper rod and transmission mechanism.

Malfunction case 5-7-11: Poor air-conditioning cooling effect.


Malfunction characteristics: Air conditioning not working or not cooling.
Possible reasons:
1. The fuse blown.

65
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Electrical system

2. Poor contact of harnesses and connectors.


3. The air conditioning compressor not working
(1) The belt too loose
(2) The pressure switch wire on the drying bottle not connected properly or damaged
(3) System pressure too low (high) For the normal pressure parameters, please see table below
(4) The pipe damaged
(5) The compressor damaged.
(6) Refrigerant charged inadequately.
4. Failure of drying bottle.
Inspection and troubleshooting:
1. Replace the fuse.
2. Check the wiring harness and connector for contact. (Total power 58 #, compressor power 38 #)
3.
(1) Tension the belt
(2) Check the wire on the pressure switch for connection or replace the drying bottle
(3) (appropriately discharged) refrigerant
(4) Detect the leakage location and replace the leaking part
(5) Replace the compressor.
4. Replace the drying bottle and empty the system, and re-fill refrigerant (refrigerant type: R134a, filling
amount: 950-1000g)

Normal pressure of air-conditioning system

Ambient temperature Value of low pressure gauge Value of high pressure gauge
25℃ 0.2MPa±0.02MPa 1.4MPa±0.2MPa
30℃ 0.21MPa±0.02MPa 1.6MPa±0.2MPa
35℃ 0.23MPa±0.02MPa 1.8MPa±0.2MPa
40℃ 0.27MPa±0.02MPa 2.2MPa±0.2MPa
Conditions: compressor speed of 2000rpm; maximum air volume; humidity of 60%

5-7-12. Table of electric wires of loaders and routing


When repairing the failure of electrical system, refer to the following table to find a relevant line number:
Table:

Electric device Relevant line Circuit routing


name number
Combination 7#.14#.15# Fuse box 7 # → Six-hole jack → Combination switch (low beam
headlight 14 #, high beam 15 #) → Six-hole jack → Eight-hole socket (to
wiring harness of the front frame) → Combination headlight
Work light 6#.9#.56# Fuse box 6 # → Rocker switch (low beam 9 #, high beam 56 #)
→ Four-hole jack → Cab work light →
Rear headlight 11#.8#.29# Fuse box 11 # → Rocker switch (low beam 8 #, high beam 29 #)
→ Eight-hole jack → Connected to harness of rear frame) → Rear

66
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting
Electrical system

headlight
Turn light 21#.22#.23# (Fuse box 66 # → Flasher 21 # → Nine-hole jack → Turn signal
switch (left 22 #, right 23 #) → Nine-hole jack
Eight-hole jack (Connected to harness of rear frame) →Front turn
light
Eight-hole jack (Connected to harness of rear frame) → Rear turn
light
Small light, 7#.12#.34# Fuse box 7 # → Six-hole jack → Combination switch → Six-hole
instrument light jack → Twelve-hole jack → Instrument light (34 #)
Rocker switch indicator (34 #) → Eight-hole jack (Connected to
harness of front and rear frames 12 #) → Small light
Brake light 16#.17# Fuse 16 # → Eight-hole jack → Brake light switch (17 #) → Brake
light
Horn 16#.19# Fuse box 16 # → Eight-hole jack → Horn relay → Horn → 19 #
Eight-hole jack → Twelve-hole Jack → Combination
switch → Horn button → Grounding
Wiper 32#.59#.62# Return circuit: 32 # → Wiper return device 62 #
(Return line) Fuse box 32 # → Twelve-hole jack → Wiper switch (59 #)
→ Twelve-hole jack → Four-hole wiper jack → Wiper
motor twelve-hole jack
Heater (air 11#.58# Fuse box 11 # → Rocker switch 58 # → Eight-hole jack (Connected
conditioning) to harness of rear frame) → Heater jack → Heater (air conditioning)
Cooler 11#.27# Crisper 11 # → Rocker switch 27 # → Fan jack → Fan

67
Chapter 6 Main Parts

Chapter 6 Main Parts

Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter (YJ31502GA)....................................................................................[68]


Section 2 Gearbox...................................................................................................................................................[86]
Section 3 Drive axle .................................................................................................................................. [120]
Section 4 Air brake valve assembly..........................................................................................................[144]
Section 5 Combination valve of oil-water separator (SH380D) ..........................................................[155]
Section 6 Booster pump............................................................................................................................. [157]
Section 7 Brake caliper (brake system)................................................................................................... [171]
Section 8 Working pump............................................................................................................................ [178]
Section 9 Distribution valve........................................................................................................................[192]
Section 10 Lift arm cylinder........................................................................................................................[206]
Section 11 Bucket cylinder.........................................................................................................................[214]
Section 12 Priority valve............................................................................................................................. [222]
Section 13 Steering gear............................................................................................................................[229]
Section 14 Steering cylinder...................................................................................................................... [247]
Section 15 Working hydraulic oil cooler...................................................................................................[249]
Section 16 Air conditioning system.................................................................................................................... [253]

68
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter (YJ31502GA)

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions.......................................................................................................... [68]
2 Testing and Adjustment...........................................................................................................[71]
3 Dismounting and Installation.................................................................................................. [72]
4 Disassembly and Repair......................................................................................................... [73]

1. Structure and functions


Linked to the diesel engine, the torque converter automatically adjusts output torque and speed so that
the loader can automatically change the speed and traction force depending on road conditions and
resistance to adapt to different working conditions. After being putting into gear, the loader can realize
automatic stepless speed change from starting gear to the highest speed of the top gear and ensure
steady start and good acceleration performance. In case of a slope or unexpected barricade, the loader
can automatically decelerate, increase traction force and drive past the barricade at any low speed
without the need for gear shift. After reduction of external resistance, the loader can quickly accelerate for
an increased working efficiency. During skimming operation, the loader can cut into material pile at a high
speed and automatically decelerate with increasing resistance to improve the wheel-side traction force
and ensure cut-in.
Hydraulic torque converter is a non-rigid connected transmission device which is composed of several
blade wheels. Using liquid as the transmission media, it features good vibration isolation and reduction
performance, stabilizes transmission and improves service life of equipment; it transmits power via
changing hydraulic momentum moment and automatically adapts to rotating speed and torque. It can
improve the operating efficiency of machines and enhance the passing capacity of vehicles.
The hydraulic torque converter is directly fixed on the flywheel cover of engine. The power input mode is
spring disc input and the output mode is concentric output. The output terminal is flange.

Figure 6-1-01
The torque converter chiefly comprises three working wheels, namely pump impeller, turbine wheel and
guide impeller, and its working chamber is filled with working oil. Pump impeller is designed to convert the
mechanical energy of the engine into the kinetic energy of the liquid. Powered by the engine, the pump
impeller rotates at the same speed, forcing the oil in the chamber to impact the turbine wheel at a huge
speed and pressure. The turbine wheel absorbs and reverts the kinetic energy of liquid flow into
mechanical energy, thus transmitting the dynamic force to output flange; the guide impeller is fixed and
does not rotate. While impacting guide impeller blades, the liquid flow gives a torque to the guide impeller.

69
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Since the guide impeller is fixed, it generates a counter torque that has an equal force in the opposite
direction and transfers it to the turbine wheel via liquid flow, thus changing the output torque of the guide
impeller. The blades of the three working wheels have given shapes and inlet/outlet angles so that the
liquid can pass through different blade wheels according to the required flow passages and directions.

Items
Type of hydraulic torque converter Single-stage single-phase centrifugal turbine
Direction of rotation (seen at the input end) Clockwise
Maximum input speed 2400r/min
Input power 38~105kW
Working fluid 6# or 8# hydraulic transmission oil
Outlet oil Normal 80~100℃
pressure Short time 120℃
Inlet oil pressure 0.45~0.65Mpa
Outlet oil pressure 0.25~0.5Mpa
Performance parameters
Effective diameter D 315mm
Maximum efficiency ηmax ≥0.82
Zero-speed torque ratio K0 3.45±5%
Nominal torque MBgη 69.16±5% N.m

Inside the hydraulic torque converter, the flow channels of pump impeller 14, turbine 5 and guide wheel
11 make up the space for liquid circulation, and the aforesaid three components and pump impeller cover
6 form a closed container together.
The power of engine is transmitted to pump impeller 14 via spring disc 3 and pump impeller cover. Under
the effect of centrifugal force, the pump impeller transforms the mechanical energy of engine to the kinetic
energy and pressure energy of working fluid to drive the turbine to rotate. Then the turbine transforms the
liquid energy to mechanical energy again.
Via the fixed guide wheel, the fluid that flows out of the turbine transforms part of the pressure energy to
kinetic energy, increases the rotation degree of fluid and flows back to the entrance of the pump impeller.
Such circulation forms the normal operation of hydraulic torque converter.
The guide wheel increases the velocity circulation of the fluid at the entrance of the pump impeller, and
consequently increases the output torque of the hydraulic torque converter and completes the “torque
conversion”. The increasing degree of output torque depends on the condition at the exit of turbine, i.e.
such change automatically adapts to the change of load. When the load increases, the output rotating
speed automatically decreases, and the velocity circulation of fluid at the exit of turbine decreases, the
velocity circulation of fluid at the entry of pump impeller increases, and the torque outputted by turbine
increases simultaneously. On the contrary, when the load decreases, the output rotating speed
automatically increases, and consequently the output torque decreases. This feature is the
auto-adaptation of rotating speed and torque to external load.
The guide wheel is fixed with guide wheel base 47 on shell 45. Pump impeller is fixed with pump impeller
hub 49. On the pump impeller hub, there is a pump-driving gear 28 that meshes two pump-driven gears
26. The driven gears drive working pump and variable speed pump via two pump-driving shafts 20 and 23.
The variable speed pump provides oil to shift valve and hydraulic torque converter of gearbox.
The oil that enters hydraulic torque converter flows through the oil inlet chamber of the guide wheel base
and the gap between bearing balls and enters the circulating circle of hydraulic torque converter from the
exit of pump impeller, and then flows through the gap between the exit of turbine and the exit of guide
wheel as well as the gap between turbine shaft 39 and guide wheel base, finally flows out of the shell
through the oil outlet chamber of guide wheel base.

70
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Figure 6-1-02

List of parts
No. No. of diagram Name
1 YJ31502GA-01 Cover
2 YJ31502GA-03 Transition disc
3 YJ31505X-01 Spring disc
4 YJ31505X.02 Spring disc assembly
5 YJ31502A.02 Turbine assembly
6 YJ31502GA-02 Pump impeller cover
9 YJ31505X-06 Pressure plate of spring disc
11 YJ31502A-04 Guide wheel
12 YJ31502GA-04 Cover plate
14 YJ31502F-06 Pump impeller
17 YJ31502D-08 Upper cover plate
18 YJ31502D-09 Paper gasket
19 Vent plug 15276
20 YJ31502D.01 Pump-driving shaft assembly (I)
22 YJ31502A-14 Spigot ring
23 YJ31502F.01 Pump-driving shaft assembly (II)
24 YJ31502D-11 Secondary separating plate
25 YJ31502D-12 Primary separating plate

List of parts
No. No. of diagram Name
26 YJ31502D-13 Pump-driven gear
28 YJ31502D-14 Pump-driving gear
35 YJ31502C-09 Shaft sleeve
37 YJ31502C-07 Retainer ring
38 YJ31502D-15 Output flange
39 YJ31502C-05 Turbine shaft
41 YJ31505C.04 Back-pressure valve
42 YJ31502B-04 Paper gasket
44 YJ31502C-10 End cover
45 YJ31502G-02 Shell
46 YJ31502A-13 Sealing ring
47 YJ31502D-16 Guide wheel base
48 YJ31502A-09 Sealing ring

71
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

49 YJ31502D-17 Pump impeller hub


51 YJ31502A-10 Oil separation sleeve
53 YJ31502A-17 Baffle plate
54 YJ31502F-05 Cover plate

All the bearings and wearing parts


Quan
Name Code Specification Installation position
tity
6012(60×95×1
4 End of pump-driving shaft
8)
GB/T2 6312-RS(60×1
1 Output end of turbine shaft
76-1994 30×31)
Bearing
6013(65×100×
1 Turbine assembly
18)
GB/T296-19 3212M(60×110
1 Pump impeller hub
94 ×36.5)
YJ31502A-1
φ70×φ64.2×3 1 Turbine shaft
3
Sealing ring
YJ31502A-0
φ80×φ73.6×2.4 2 Guide wheel base
9

YJ31502A-1 Pump impeller, primary


320×3.55 2
5 separating plate

O-shaped sealing ring 140×2.65 1 Pump impeller hub


185×3.55 1 Guide wheel base
GB/T3452.1-
190×3.55 1 Guide wheel base
1992
140×3.55 1 Guide wheel base
40×2.65 1 Output end of turbine shaft
JB/T2600-19
SD70×95×12 1 Output flange end
Framework oil seal of 80
rotating shaft GB/T9877.1- Primary and secondary
B115×140×12D 2
1988 separating plate

2. Test and Adjustment


1. Management of working oil
a. The torque converter shall use 6# or 8# hydraulic transmission oil, which is working oil and lubricating
oil as well. During use, the oil shall be kept clean and separate from other types of oil.
b. For first use of the new machine, the engine must be kept running at a low speed for several minutes in
order that oil fills up all ducts and accessories. Before daily work, check the oil level of the speed changer.
Insufficient oil level will cause oil pressure drop, low output power or overheated working oil.
c. During initial use, oil filter shall be checked and cleaned each day. New oil shall be all used 60 hours
after first use. After that, make oil replacement using new oil every 1000 hours and check the oil filter
every 100 hours. If oil is found to contain water, metal dust or large quantities of impurities, it shall be
replaced with new oil.
d.Before oil replacement, all oil filters and pipes in the system shall be cleaned and any ineffective filters
and pipes shall be replaced.
2. Oil pressure check
When the engine operates under the braking condition at a speed of 1800r/min and oil temperature
ranges 80~100℃, the outlet pressure of the torque converter shall be 0.25~0.31MPa.
3. Check the oil seals, pipe connections and valve fitting surfaces of torque converter and rule out any
external leakage.

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Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

4. Use of oil temperature


During normal operation, the outlet oil temperature of torque converter is 80~100℃ and may reach 120℃
for a short period of time. If the oil temperature remains above 120℃ for long, it is advisable to stop
operation and make the engine run idle. Stop the engine for an inspection when the oil temperature falls
below 80℃.
(5) Overhaul
a. It is recommended that a major interval should be conducted every 3000 hours or one year (whichever
comes earlier).
b. Before repair, carefully read the disassembly and assembly procedure.
c. Wearing parts including oil seals, O-rings and seal rings, though no damage is found after inspection,
they must be replaced with new parts. Replacement parts shall be gotten ready before disassembly.
3. Dismounting and Installation
1. The connection between torque converter and engine adopts the hoisting method. First, hoist the
torque converter by mounting No.2 transition disc onto the flywheel of engine
, aim the core shaft head on the left side of pump impeller cover at the center hole of the flywheel of the
engine, slowly push the shaft head into the hole, and then fix it with the spigot on wheel cover. Use 12
bolts to fasten the wheel cover to the wheel cover of flywheel of the engine. Then fasten the elastic plate
to the transition disc through the window on the wheel cover. It is noted that no impurities shall be allowed
to enter the shell during installation. Once any impurity enters the shell, the shell shall be disassembled to
have the impurity cleared away before reinstallation.
2. Join all accessories and pipes according to the machine’s hydraulic system. (Lubrication pipe shall be
connected at No.15) (see Figure 6-1-02).
3.Fill the torque converter with the required quantity of 6# or 8# hydraulic transmission oil. These two
types of oil cannot be mixed up.
4. Start the engine and check its oil level under idle run. Make replenishment timely in case of
insufficiency.
5. Check if the oil pressure is normal or if oil leakage exists.
6. Cleaning, check and replacement
a. All metal parts shall be cleaned with gasoline or volatile industrial alcohol. No caustic soda solution
may be used.
b. Dry up the cleaned metal parts. Then smear them immediately with actually used hydraulic
transmission oil.
c. Check and make sure the mounting surface is free of gap, burr, scratch or impurities. Remove burrs or
foreign matters with sand cloth or grind stone, and replace any parts found with big damage and
noticeable scratch.
d. Replace any cracked casting.
e. Check if bearing race has any nick, indentation, crack, debris or excessive wear and tear of ball
bearings. Make replacement for any identified defect.
f. Check if bearings move freely. Make replacement if any bearing jams despite enough lubrication.
g. Check if tooth profile of gear wheel is worn and distorted. Replace gear wheels if any such defect is
found.
h. Check if tooth face of gear wheel has any streak, burr or breakage. Replace the gear wheel if such
defect cannot be removed with grind stone.
i. Check if the spline has any flaking, scar, distortion or burr. Remove burrs with grind stone. Make
replacement for any other damage.
j. Check the wear and tear of contact area between pump impeller rim 49 and seal ring 48. Replace the
pump impeller rim if groove wear is more than 0.15mm deep. (See Figure 6-1-02).

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Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

k. Check the wear and tear of contact area between guide impeller seat 47 and seal ring 46. Replace the
guide impeller seat or bushing if groove wear is more than 0.15mm deep.
l. The dimension of wear limit for contact area of seal lip is nominal dimension 100 plus 0.2mm.
4. Disassembly and repair
During disassembly and assembly, spare parts must be kept clean and the operation shall be performed
on work benches at the worksite free of dust and sand soil.

(1) Disassembly of torque converter


A-1 Dismount the bolts that connect the spring disc, and dismount the spring disc.
(See Figure 6-1-03)

Spring disc

Figure 6-1-03

A-2 Dismount the bolts that connect cover and shell, and use the jackscrew hole on the cover to dismount
the cover. (See Figure 6-1-04)

Shell
Cover

Figure 6-1-04

A-3 Dismount the bolts that connect pump impeller cover and pump impeller, and use the jackscrew hole
to dismount pump impeller cover. (See Figure 6-1-05)

74
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Pump
Pump impeller cover impeller

Figure 6-1-05
A-4 (see Figure 6-1-06)
a. Dismount the bearing snap ring on the left side of turbine shaft, and dismount the support bearing of
pump impeller cover.
b. Dismount the bolts that fix the retainer ring on the left side of turbine shaft, and dismount the retainer
ring.
c. Dismount the turbine assembly from the turbine shaft.

Turbine
shaft

Turbine
assembly

Retainer
ring

Figure 6-1-06

A-5 Dismount retainer ring and guide wheel. (See Figure 6-1-07)

75
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Guide
wheel
Retainer
ring

Figure 6-1-07
A-6 Dismount the bolts that connect the pump impeller and pump impeller hub, dismount baffle plate, and
then dismount pump impeller. (See Figure 6-1-08)

Pump
impeller
Baffle plate

Pump impeller
hub

Figure 6-1-08
A-7 (see Figure 6-1-09)
a. Dismount the bolts that connect primary separating plate and shell, and use the jackscrew to separate
the primary separating plate and shell.
b. Dismount the components such as primary separating plate, secondary separating plate, pump
impeller hub, bearing, oil seal, pump-driving gear, etc. from the shell.
c. Dismount the aforesaid components.

76
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Primary Shell
separating plate Secondary
separating
plate
Oil seal
Pump impeller hub

Bearing Pump-driving gear

Figure 6-1-09
A-8 Dismount nut, and then dismount retainer ring, output flange and shaft sleeve.
(See Figure 6-1-10)

Output flange

Retainer ring Nut

Shaft sleeve

Figure 6-1-10

A-9 Dismount the bolts that connect upper end cover and shell, and then dismount end cover together
with oil seal 43 from the shell. (See Figure 6-1-11)

77
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Shell

End cover

Figure 6-1-11
A-10 Dismount retainer ring and O-shaped ring. Use a copper bar to knock the turbine shaft from the left
side, and then dismount the turbine shaft together with bearing from the guide wheel base hole. (See
Figure 6-1-12)

Turbine shaft

Bearing Retainer ring

Guide wheel base

Figure 6-1-12

A-11 (see Figure 6-1-13)


a. Dismount guide wheel base from shell.
b. Dismount upper cover plate.

78
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Upper cover plate

Guide wheel base

Figure 6-1-13

A-12 (see Figure 6-1-14)


A.Dismount retainer ring. Use the M12 screw hole in the middle of pump-driving shaft assembly to
dismount the pump-driving shaft assembly together with bearing from the shell.
b. Dismount back-pressure valve from the shell.
Shell
Bearing
Pump-driving shaft

Shell

Bearing

Pump-driving
shaft

Figure 6-1-14

A-12 Dismount the pump-driven gear together with bearing from the shell.
(See Figure 6-1-15)

79
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Shell

Pump-driven gear

Figure 6-1-15
(Disassembly is completed)

(2) Repair the torque converter


B-1 (see Figure 6-1-16)
a. Install the bearing onto the pump-driven gear, and then install the retainer ring to fix the bearing.
b. Install the components of Step (a) onto the corresponding positions of the shell.
c. Install the bearing and spacer onto the pump-driving shaft assembly.
d. Install the components of Step (c) onto the shell, and then install the retainer ring and spigot ring.

Shell Bearing

Spigot ring
Bearing

Pump-driven gear Retainer ring


Pump-
driving
shaft

Figure 6-1-16

80
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

B-2 After installing the bearing and sealing ring (see Figure 6-1-02) onto the turbine shaft, install the
turbine shaft onto the guide wheel base, and then install retainer ring, O-shaped ring and sealing ring (see
Figure 6-1-02). Install the aforesaid components onto the shell, and then install O-shaped ring. (See
Figure 6-1-17)

Guide wheel base


Bearing Retainer ring

Turbine shaft

Figure 6-1-17

B-3 (see Figure 6-1-18)


a. Install oil seal onto the end cover, and then install the end cover together with guide wheel base on the
shell.
b. Install shaft sleeve, output flange, retainer ring and fixing bolt.

End cover Shaft sleeve Output flange

Guide wheel Retainer


base ring

Shell Retaining nut

Figure 6-1-18

B-4. (see Figure 6-1-19)


a. Install the oil seals into the holes at the corresponding positions on the primary separating plate and
secondary separating plate, and then fix the primary separating plate and secondary separating plate
together.
b. Install bearing and O-shaped ring onto the pump impeller hub, install the pump impeller onto the

81
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

bearing, and then connect pump impeller and pump impeller hub.
c. Fix the components of Step (b) and Step (a) together, install the pump-driving gear onto the pump
impeller hub, and then install the retainer ring.

Secondary
separating
plplate
Primary
separating
Bearing plate

Retainer
ring

Pump impeller Pump impeller hub Pump-driving gear

Figure 6-1-19

B-5 (see Figure 6-1-20)


a. Install the components of Step (c) of B-4 onto the shell and guide wheel base. (Note: prevent the
sealing members from being damaged).
b. Install the guide wheel onto guide wheel base, and then install the retainer ring.

Guide
Guide wheel
wheel base

Retainer ring
Shell

Figure 6-1-20

B-6. Install the support bearing of pump impeller cover onto the turbine assembly, install the fixing retainer
ring, install the turbine assembly onto the turbine shaft, and then install the retainer ring and fixing bolt.

82
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

(See Figure 6-1-21)

Turbine
assembly
Support bearing

Fixing bolt

Retainer
ring
Fixing
retainer
ring

Figure 6-1-21

B-7 Install the O-shaped ring onto the pump impeller, and fix the pump impeller cover and pump impeller
together. (See Figure 6-1-22)
Pump impeller
Pump impeller cover Pump
impeller

Pump impeller cover

Figure 6-1-22

B-8 Install the cover onto the shell. (See Figure 6-1-23)

83
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Cover

Cover

Shell

Figure 6-1-23

B-9. Install the spring disc assembly. (See Figure 6-1-24)


Shell

Spring disc

Shell

Figure 6-1-24

B-10. Install paper gasket 18 (see Figure 6-1-02) and upper cover plate, and then install vent plug and
lifting ring. (See Figure 6-1-24)

84
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Lifting
ring

Upper
cover
plate

Figure 6-1-25

B-11. Install paper gasket 42 (see Figure 6-1-02), back-pressure valve and pipe close. (See Figure
6-1-26)

Back-pressure
valve

Figure 6-1-26

85
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 1 Hydraulic torque converter

Note: the list of needed tools, suppliers and equipment is as follows:


(1) Internal hexagonal wrench;
(2) Socket wrench;
(3) Air wrench;
(4) Internal and external snap ring plier;
(5) Puller;
(6) Crow bar;
(7) Hammer;
(8) Iron bar (diameter=8mm, length=150mm);
(9) Container, brush and cleaning fluid for cleaning parts;
(10) Copper bar (diameter=10mm, length=400mm);
(11) Grease.

86
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Section 2 Gearbox

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions.......................................................................................................... [86]
2 Testing and Adjustment...........................................................................................................[87]
3 Dismounting and Installation.................................................................................................. [88]
4 Disassembly and Repair......................................................................................................... [94]

1. Structure and Functions


The gearbox comprises Main Parts including box body, box cover, forward-reverse gear clutch assembly,
I & III gear clutch assembly, II gear clutch assembly, output shaft assembly, filter assembly and control
valve, and each gear clutch assembly comprises a number of driven clutch discs and driving clutch discs,
piston assembly, gear wheels, shafts, seal rings, and retracting springs. To put the machine into a
particular gear, the operator shall cause the two clutches of the corresponding direction and speed gears
to form a gear ratio to transmit torque. During gear shift, driven and driving clutch discs of the
corresponding gear is compacted by piston under the influence of working oil pressure in an axial
direction. Driven and driving clutch discs loosen when the piston returns under the influence of retracting
spring.

Figure 6-2-01

Transmission route of each gear is shown below (See Figure 6-2-02):


Forward gear I: Engage F and I clutches
Input→Z1→Z7→Z4→Z10→Z11→Z12→Front/rear axle output
Forward gear II: Engage F, II clutches
Input→Z1→Z7→Z5→Z9→Z11→Z12→ Front/rear axle output
Forward gear III: Engage F, III clutches
Input→Z1→Z7→Z6→Z8→Z11→Z12→Front/rear axle output
Reverse gear I: Engage R, I clutches
Input →Z2→Z13→Z3→Z4→Z10→Z11→Z12→Front/rear axle output
Reverse gear II: Engage R, II clutches
Input →Z2→Z13→Z3→Z5→Z9→Z11→Z12→Front/rear axle output
Reverse gear III: Engage R, II clutches
Input →Z2→Z13→Z3→Z6→Z8→Z11→Z12→Front/rear axle output

87
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Schematic diagram of ZL30E.5G gearbox

Figure 6-2-02

2. Testing and Adjustment


Since torque converter and gearbox are two interrelated assemblies as power transmission and output,
the content of “gearbox test and adjustment” as described in this section includes torque converter.
The variable speed pump gets oil from the oil suction opening of the gearbox, and the said oil suction
opening has a coarse filter. Oil obtained from oil pump is treated by the coarse filter before being sent to
the control valve. When oil pressure reaches a particular value, open the pressure regulating valve. Some
of oil flows into the torque converter, and some flows into the gear shift control valve. The gear shift
control valve conducts gear shift by controlling the oil charge and drain of each gear shift clutch, namely
the engagement and disengagement of such clutches. When the oil pressure of the torque converter
reaches a particular value, open the output pressure valve of the torque converter to cause oil to pass
through the cooler and flow into the lubricating system of the gearbox.
① During operation, check the connection of each oil line for closeness every day, and if oil leakage is
found, repair it in time.
②The arrow shown above is a sight glass for torque converter. During shutdown, you can open the sight
glass cover to check inside condition or looseness of the fasteners, without allowing the ingress of any
foreign matter into the machine. The machine cannot be started until the sight glass cover and gaskets
are replaced and there is no abnormal condition.
③ Oil filter 1 is equipped with a signal sender, which may give out an alarm automatically once the
internal filter is jammed, and when there is any alarm prompt, the machine should be stopped to
replace accessories or assemblies.

88
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

④The torque converter oil pressure and oil temperature are monitored through instruments. If abnormal
condition is discovered, first check the oil filter 2, replace the filter screen or assembly. If failure remains,
check other locations.
⑤Before starting the engine, adjust the working oil level of the torque converter and the gearbox. Check
the two drain plugs on the right of the gearbox, with the upper plug representing the maximum oil level
and the lower plug representing the minimum oil level. Under normal conditions, oil should be between
the upper and lower oil levels. If oil is too much, some oil shall be released from the oil pan of the gearbox,
if too little, some oil shall be added from the oil filler of gearbox.
⑥ Monitoring and adjustment of the working oil pressure of the torque converter and gearbox. The
pressure at the inlet and outlet of monitoring and adjusting torque converter has been adjusted in the
manufacturer; for the working oil pressure of the gearbox, after operation of the engine, the pressure
meter shall point the range of 1.5~1.7MPa, and in case of abnormal condition, inspection shall be
conducted.
⑦ Adjustment of working oil temperature of torque converter and gearbox The maximum oil
temperature for general tasks and driving must not exceed 120 ℃ , and if this figure is exceeded, the
machine shall be stopped for cooling and inspection. After the gearbox passes the breaking-in period, oil
replacement shall be made generally after 600 hours; however, if oil is deteriorated or mixed with impurity,
it shall be cleaned, checked and replaced with new oil of required grade.

Sight window

Pipeline from
Pipeline from control oil filter to Oil filter
valve to torque converter control valve

Return oil pipe Pipeline from Pipeline from Oil outlet pipe of
variable torque converter cooler
Oil suction pipe speed pump to cooler
of variable to oil filter
speed pump

Figure 6-2-03

3. Dismounting and Installation


The disassembly and installation of the gearbox is detailed below:
(I)) Position of gearbox on the product

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Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Gearbox Torque
converter

Figure 6-2-04

As shown in Figure 6-2-04, torque converter assembly is connected to gearbox assembly through upper
transmission shaft; front and rear output flanges of the gearbox are connected to front and rear drive
axles through transmission shaft; torque converter is connected to the diesel engine through internal and
external reaming.
(II) Disassembly steps
(1) Disassemble the cab in the following steps:

Figure 6-2-05

90
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-06

Figure 6-2-07

a. Hoist up the cab with a traveling crane and hoisting device. Ropes shall be straightened up but not
tightly stretched;
b. Dismount nylon lock nut, pin and gasket;
c. Hoist the cab and put it at a safe place;
d. Remove the shock pad assembly;

①Hoisting safety precautions:


While hoisting the cab, the hoisting device must be hung at a reasonable position to prevent overturn;
②Conduct the hoisting operation steadily and make sure personnel nearby stay within a safe range.
(2) Disassemble the gearbox assembly in the following steps:

91
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-08
a. Use the wrench to dismount bolts and gaskets connecting the bracket of oil filling pipe assembly to the
frame.
b. Use the wrench to dismount hoses and steel pipes connected to the variable speed pump (Note:
Before dismounting, open the oil drain plug at the bottom of gearbox to drain off transmission oil. Then
loosen the joints of steel pipe and hose to be dismounted. Put cotton cloth at the dismounting joint and
strike lightly the joint of steel pipe or hose to be dismounted. After releasing all pressure, remove the steel
pipe or hose).

Bolt M16×110

Figure 6-2-09
c. As shown in Figure 6-02-09, use pneumatic wrench and supporting sleeve to dismount four (4)
M16×110 bolts, nuts and washers (M16 flat washer and self-locking nut) connecting the gearbox to
the mounting base of the gearbox on the rear frame.

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Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Bolt M12×1.5×35,
M12×1.5 self-locking nut
Gearbox Middle transmission shaft

Intermediate support

Rear transmission shaft

Front transmission shaft

Bolt M14×1.5×42, Bolt M14×1.5×60,


M14×1.5 self-locking nut M14×1.5 self-locking nut

Figure 6-2-10
e. As shown in Figure 6-2-10, use pneumatic wrench and supporting sleeve to dismount four (4)
M14×1.5×60 bolts and self-locking nuts connecting the gearbox to the central transmission shaft; to
dismount four (4) M14×1.5×42 bolts and self-locking nuts connecting the gearbox to the rear transmission
shaft.
f. Use pneumatic wrench and supporting sleeve to dismount M12×1.5×35 bolts and self-locking nuts
connecting the gearbox to the upper transmission shaft.
g. Use the specialized hoisting device to lift the gearbox assembly to the given bracket.
(III) Commissioning requirement
Commissioning, if needed, shall be conducted by designated personnel;
(IV) Installation
(1) Install the gearbox in the following steps:
a. Use the specialized lifting device to hoist the gearbox to the frame;
b. Mount bolts and nut connecting upper transmission shaft, front and rear transmission shafts to the
gearbox;
c. Use bolts to fix the gearbox on the gearbox mounting base.
Note: Keep clean during installation.
(2) Install the cab in the following steps:
a. Before hoisting, check if all interior trims of cab assembly are intact;
b. Preassemble back plate and shock pad. Mount the shock pad assembly (upper components) on the
pedestal of the cab, with hole sites aligned, as shown in Figure 6-2-11;

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Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-11

Figure 6-2-12

c. As shown in Figure 6-2-12, use a special lifting device and traveling crane to lift the cab at a uniform
velocity to the top of the frame and slowly adjust the height of the frame. Put the gasket and rubber pad
assembly on the position as shown in Figure 6-2-13 and let the cab steadily fall on the cab mounting base.
Align holes and join them with pins.

94
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-13

d. Spare parts used for installation of the cab

S/N. Name of material Material code Quantity of material Remark

1 Cab system 1
30812900102

2 Rubber pad 4
30812000118
3 Pin 51512091801 4
4 Nylon self-locking nut 4
51331001120
M18×1.2
5 Washer 51420170121 4
6 Base plate 4
30812100843

Used equipment and tools


1 One 10-ton traveling crane;
2 Special lifting tools;
③ Bracket;
④ 5044 jackhammer;
⑤ 12 sleeve;
⑥ 1”, 2” adjustable wrenches;
⑦ 16” open-end wrench, 18” open-end wrench.

Safety prompt for lifting:


(1) During lifting, the sling must be hung on a reasonable position to avoid overturn;
(2) Lift it evenly and notice whether any person around is within the safety range.
4. Disassembly and Repair
The list of tools, supplies and equipment:

95
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

(1) Wrench (for dismounting the oil level check valve, etc.)
(2) Impact wrench (for dismounting oil pan bolts, variable speed distribution valve mounting bolts,
transmission oil pump bolts, rear end cover screws, etc.)
(3) Hammer
(4)Copper rod
(5)Pliers (for dismounting cotter pins)
(6) Socket wrench
(7)Puller
(8)Snap ring pliers
(9)Jackscrew (for pushing out the rear end cover)
(10) Slings (for lifting the second gear assembly, reverse planet carrier assembly, rear output shaft,
gearbox assembly, etc.)
(11)Special gripper (for dismounting the bearings on the the second gear assembly)
(12)Ring spanner (for dismounting the second gear friction plate screws, reverse planet pinion shaft
screws, etc.)
(13)Screwdriver (for dismounting the second gear rotating bearings, dismounting framework oil seals and
bearings on the intermediate output shaft)
(14) Lifting bolts and iron wire (for lifting reverse gear planet carrier assembly)
(15) Hex socket (for dismounting the rear output flange fastening nuts)
(16) Special tool (for mounting the second gear piston jacket)
(17) Gauge block (for checking the second gear piston bearing holes)
(18) Front and rear output shaft jackets (not required if a new gearbox has no separate front and rear
output shafts)
(19) Mounting bracket for gearbox assembly
(20) Lifting screw (used for lifting reverse pistons)
(21)Dial indicator (for checking the perpendicularity of box end surface to the output shaft of variable
speed pump)
(22) Scraper (for trimming the variable speed pump mounting surface on the box)
I. Disassembly of gearbox
(1)Disassembling of gearbox assembly
A-1. Put the gearbox assembly flat on the mounting jig. Use the wrench to take down 6 fastening bolts of
control valve. (See Figure 6-2-14)

96
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-14
A-2. Disassemble oil pipes of all gears and lubricating pipes of all shafts with the wrench and pay
attention to worn thread of bolts. (See Figure 6-2-15)

Figure 6-2-15)
A-3. Dismount the oil filling pipe assembly with the wrench and check if O-ring is in good condition. (See
Figure 6-2-16)

97
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-16
A-4. Unscrew 4 bolts with the wrench and take down the brake. (See Figure 6-2-17)

Figure 6-2-17
A-5. Use pneumatic wrench to dismount nylon nut M33×1.5 of the front output flange, and remove clamp
plate, O-ring, washer and front output flange assembly in order. (See Figure 6-2-18)

Figure 6-2-18
A-6. Use the wrench to unscrew bolt M10. Use four (4) M10 bolts and screw them into screwed holes in
box cover to take down the box cover assembly. (See Figure 6-2-19)

98
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-19
A-7. Remove bearing 6312 with a pulling tool and then take out adjusting washer, output driven gear and
shaft sleeve. (See Figure 6-2-20)

Figure 6-2-20
A-8. Use pneumatic wrench to take out nut M24×1.5 and then take out gasket, rubber pad and input
flange (See Figure 6-2-21)

Figure 6-2-21
A-9. Use pneumatic wrench to take out nut M33×1.5 and then take out clamp plate and rear output flange.
(See Figure 6-2-22)

99
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-22
A-10. Take down the gear III clutch assembly before dismounting the gear I clutch assembly and the gear
II clutch assembly; (Alternatively, take down two-shaft NF308 bearing and conduct step-by-step
dismounting) (See Figure 6-2-23)

Figure 6-2-23
A-11. Take down output shaft by striking it with copper bar and try to protect output shaft from damage
due to falling off. (See Figure 6-2-24)

Figure 6-2-24
A-12. Use the wrench to unscrew all clamp plates, end covers and flange bolts. (See Figure 6-2-25)

100
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-25
A-13. Take out filter screen assembly, front bearing cover assembly, end cover, oil seal cover assembly,
etc. (See Figure 6-2-26)

Figure 6-2-26
A-14. Turn on return oil control valve with the jig. (See Figure 6-2-27)

Figure 6-2-27
(2) Disassembling of gear I clutch assembly
B-1. Remove two seal rings and check if they are worn or damaged. (See Figure 6-2-28)

101
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-28
B-2. Use the pulling tool to take out bearing NF308, and take down adjusting washer and shaft sleeve
separately. (See Figure 6-2-29)

Figure 6-2-29
B-3. Use the puller to take down the reverse gear I assembly, and then use jig to remove 2 bearings 6209,
and use circlip pliers to take out 2 retaining rings 85 and one shaft sleeve. (See Figure 6-2-30 and Figure
6-2-31)

Figure 6-2-30

102
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-31
B-4. Use circlip pliers to take out retaining ring150 and take down clutch piston clamp plate, driving clutch
disc and driven clutch disc separately. (See Figure 6-2-32)

Figure 6-2-32
B-5. Use circlip pliers to take out retaining ring 52, take out clamp plate, spring and piston assembly, and
check if seal ring has such damage as 切边, wear and tear. (See Figure 6-2-33)

Figure 6-2-33
B-6. Disassemble the other side in the steps stated in A-5. (See Figure 6-2-34)

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Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-34
(3) Disassembling of gear II clutch assembly
The disassembling steps are similar to those of gear I clutch assembly.

(4) Disassembling of gear III clutch assembly


The disassembling steps are similar to those of gear I clutch assembly.

II. Repair of gearbox


(1) Repair of gear I clutch assembly
C-1. Fit together the piston assembly by putting in steel ball 5 and then knocking in oil duct spacer ring
with copper bar. (See Figure 6-2-35)

Figure 6-2-35
C-2. Check and make sure external seal ring (new) and internal seal ring are in good condition and have
no quality defects as cut edge, wear and tear. During fitting, pay attention to the facing direction of the lip
of internal seal ring. (See Figure 6-2-36)

Figure 6-2-36
C-3. Mount piston assembly, spring and clamp plate in order, and then use circlip pliers to mount retaining
ring52. (See Figure 6-2-37)

104
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-37
C-4. Mount 6 driven clutch discs and 6 driving clutch disc and clutch piston clamp plate in order, and then
use circlip pliers to mount retaining ring150.
(Note: Depending on actual condition of friction disc, determine if new friction discs are used) (See Figure
6-2-38)

Figure 6-2-38
C-5. Use the jig to knock in bearing 6209, mount 2 retaining rings 85 into circlip groove of reverse gear I,
and then mount shaft sleeve and bearing 6209 separately. (See Figure 6-2-39)

Figure 6-2-39
C-6. Mount shaft sleeve and bearing NF308 (Thermal assembling at a temperature of100℃ is
recommended for bearing). (See Figure 6-2-40)

105
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-40
C-8. Mount the following components in order according to fitting method as stated in A-6: piston
assembly, spring, clamp plate, retaining ring 52, driven clutch disc (6 pcs), driving clutch disc (6 pcs),
clutch piston clamp plate, retaining ring 150, bearing 6209 (2 pcs), retaining ring85 (2 pcs), shaft sleeve,
forward gear I and bearing NF308. (See Figure 6-2-41)

Figure 6-2-41
(2) Repair of gear II clutch assembly
D-1. Mount piston assembly and prevent cut edge of internal and external seal rings. Mount spring and
use circlip pliers to put retaining ring 52 in place. (See Figure 6-2-42)

Figure 6-2-42
D-2. Mount 6 driven clutch discs and 6 driving clutch discs, clamp plate and retaining ring150 in order.
(Note: Depending on actual condition of friction disc, determine if new friction discs are used) (See Figure
6-2-43)

106
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-43
D-3. Use the jig to mount bearing 6209. (See Figure 6-2-44)

Figure 6-2-44

D-4. Then mount shaft sleeve, retaining ring 85 (2 pcs); drive home No.2 axle shaft gear assembly slowly
with copper bar. (See Figure 6-2-45)

Figure 6-2-45
D-5. Drive home bearing 6209 slowly with the jig. (See Figure 6-2-46)

107
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-46
D-6. Mount shaft sleeve and No.2 axle forward gear. (See Figure 6-2-47)

Figure 6-2-47
D-7. Mount gasket and bearing NF308 (bearing adopts thermal assembling at temperatures 90~100℃).
(See Figure 6-2-48)

Figure 6-2-48
D-8. Fit the other side by repeating the methods as stated in D-1 ~ D-3;

D-9. Use the jig to mount bearing 6209 and shaft sleeve, fit retaining ring 85 onto No.2 axle first gear, and
then drive home No.2 axle first gear assembly slowly with copper bars. (See Figure 6-2-49)

108
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-49
D-10. Drive home bearing 6209 with the jig. (See Figure 6-2-50)

Figure 6-2-50
D-11 Mount shaft sleeve and No.3 axle reverse gear. (See Figure 6-2-51)

Figure 6-2-51
D-12. Mount gasket and bearing NF308 (bearing adopts thermal assembling at temperatures 90~100℃).
(See Figure 6-2-52)

109
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-52
(3) Repair of No.3 axle clutch assembly
E-1. Mount the piston assembly and prevent cut edge of internal and external seal rings. Mount the spring
and use circlip pliers to put retaining ring 52 in place. (See Figure 6-2-53)

Figure 6-2-53
E-2. Mount 6 driven clutch discs and 6 driving clutch discs, clamp plate and retaining ring150 in order.
(See Figure 6-2-54)

Figure 6-2-54
E-3. Use the jig to mount bearing 6209 and shaft sleeve, fit retaining ring 85 onto No.3 axle second gear,
and then drive home the No.3 axle second gear assembly slowly with copper bar. (See Figure 6-2-55)

110
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-55
E-4. Drive home bearing 6209 with the jig. (See Figure 6-2-56)

Figure 6-2-56
E-5. Mount shaft sleeve, No.3 axle third gear, shaft sleeve and bearing NF308 (bearing adopts thermal
assembling at temperatures 90~100℃). (See Figure 6-2-57)

Figure 6-2-57
E-6. Fit the other side and mount shaft sleeve, No.3 axle output gear and bearing NF309 in order (bearing
adopts thermal assembling at temperatures 90~100℃). (See Figure 6-2-58)

111
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-58
(4) Repair of gearbox assembly
F-1. Fit together the control valve assembly and make sure fitting surface must be free of particles,
foreign matters or scar. Apply force (100Nm twisting force) on bolt M12×110 with torque wrench. (See
Figure 6-2-59)

Figure 6-2-59
F-2. Fit together oil seal cover assembly, end cover, rear output flange assembly (Note: Adjust the gap
behind oil seal cover and end cover before fitting paper gasket and adjusting washer). Afterwards, install
the rear bearing end cover and tighten bolt M12×35 using torque wrench with a 100Nm torque. (See
Figure 6-2-60)

Figure 6-2-60
F-3. Use jig to mount the output shaft assembly. (See Figure 6-2-61)

112
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-61
F-4. Remount the repaired No.1 axle clutch assembly into No.2 axle clutch assembly, and then fit the
No.3 axle assembly. Afterwards, rotate all shafts to see that they engage well. (See Figure 6-2-62)

Figure 6-2-62
F-5. Mount shaft sleeve, output driven gear, shaft sleeve and bearing 6312. (See Figure 6-2-63)

Figure 6-2-63
F-6. d and kept clean, and fit together box cover assembly (including new paper gasket for box cover),
spring pad 10 and bolts 10×30 (after tightening, apply a 55Nm torque on bolts with torque wrench)
(Before fitting, check if outer race of bearing for check box cover assembly NF308/NF309 has any scar.
Make bearing replacement if there is scar on outer race). (See Figure 6-2-64)

113
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-64
F-7. Check and make sure seal ring is in good condition and has no quality defects as cut edge,
expiration, wear and tear. Fit seal ring of each shaft. (See Figure 6-2-65)

Figure 6-2-65
F-8. Mount sealing gasket, end cover assembly of each shaft and bolts M12×35 (after tightening, apply a
100Nm torque using torque wrench). (See Figure 6-2-66)

Figure 6-2-66
F-9. Mount adjusting washer, sealing gasket (new), front bearing end cover assembly (including seal ring,
check if seal ring is in good condition) in order, and tighten the bolts (after tightening, apply a 100Nm
torque using torque wrench). (See Figure 6-2-67)

Figure 6-2-67

114
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

F-10. Fit joints on first gear, second gear, third gear, R gear, F gear and oil inlet end covers in order; apply
567 sealant on screw thread before fitting. (See Figure 6-2-68)

Figure 6-2-68
F-11. Fit the joints. Apply 567 sealant at 2~3 threads of the joints before fitting. (See Figure 6-2-69)

Figure 6-2-69
F-12. Mount joints A8 and A10 and then use a special jig to tighten the joints. (See Figure 6-2-70)

Figure 6-2-70
F-13. Mount lubrication joint of reverse shaft. (See Figure 6-2-71)

115
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-71
F-14. Use the wrench to mount first gear oil pipe, second gear oil pipe (with O-ring 11×1.9 mounted inside
the joint), third gear oil pipe, reverse oil pipe, forward oil pipe, reverse lubricating oil pipe, No.1 axle
lubricating oil pipe, No.3 axle lubricating oil pipe in order. Conduct reliable thread connection of each oil
pipe and rule out oil leakage. (See Figure 6-2-72)

Figure 6-2-72
F-15. Install the upright pedestal of the brake and 4 bolts M12×35. (See Figure 6-2-73)

Figure 6-2-73
F-16. Mount front output flange assembly, brake, washer, O-ring and clamp plate in order, and tighten
nuts with pneumatic wrench. (See Figure 6-2-74)

116
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-74
F-17. Mount 4 bolts M12×35, pull up the handle on brake caliper assembly by hand to press two friction
discs close to brake disc. Then tighten the 4 bolts with pneumatic wrench. (See Figure 6-2-75)

Figure 6-2-75
F-18. Mount rear output flange and gasket in order and install nylon self-locking nuts M33×1.5. Tighten
the nuts with pneumatic wrench. (See Figure 6-2-76)

Figure 6-2-76
F-19. After repair of filter assembly, check if sealing gasket is in good condition. After removal of
impurities including oil sludge, mount sealing gasket, filter screen assembly, sealing gasket, flange
assembly and bolts in order. (See Figure 6-2-77)

117
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-77
F-20. After repair of clearance adjustment, fit adjusting washer onto corresponding shafts and do not mix
them up. (See Figure 6-2-78)

Figure 6-2-78
F-21. Mount sealing gasket, end cover and oil seal cover. (See Figure 6-2-79)

Figure 6-2-79
F-22. Tighten bolts M10×30 (after tightening, apply a 100Nm torque using the torque wrench). (See
Figure 6-2-80)

118
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-80

F-23. Mount input flange, mount rubber pad and gasket, and tighten nuts M24×1.5 with pneumatic wrench.
(See Figure 6-2-81)

Figure 6-2-81
F-24. Install valve body assembly, mount spring, valve body and valve cap, and then fit copper backing
27 and pipe joint. (See Figure 6-2-82)

Figure 6-2-82
F-25. Install the oil filling pipe assembly, check if screws for oil filling pipe are in good condition and if
screw threads are damaged, and tighten screws with pneumatic wrench.
(See Figure 6-2-83)

119
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

Figure 6-2-83
(Repair is complete)

120
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 2 Gearbox

121
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Section 3 Drive Axle


Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ............................................................................................................... [120]
2 Dismounting and Installation ........................................................................................................ [121]
3 Disassembly and Repair .............................................................................................................. [123]

1. Structure and Functions

Main drive 4
Brake 6 Differential 5 Wheel hub reducer 1

Half shaft 2 Axle case 3

Figure 6-3-1

(I) Functions of Drive Axle:


1. Transmission of power: After the power inputted via driving shaft of the gearbox goes through speed
reduction and torque multiplication, the driving direction is changed (via driving and driven gear) Through
semiaxle driving the rotation of left and right tires, the vehicle moves forward or backward and left and
right driving wheels are able to rotate at different speeds.
2. Supporting vehicle weight: Front and rear axles support the weight of the whole vehicle via frame.
3. Turning: It performs the turning of the whole vehicle (except whole-axle integral turning)
4. Differential speed: It offers such functions as vehicle swerving.
(II) Structure of Drive Axle:
Drive axle of wheel loader includes front axle and rear axle, whose difference lies in different directions of
spiral of the spiral bevel gear pair in main drive. Front and rear axles share the same structure except that
the diving spiral bevel gear pair of front axle and rear axle adopts right-handed rotation and left-handed
rotation respectively. The drive axle primarily comprises axle housing, main drive (including differentials),
semiaxle, wheel hub reducer and brake 6. Through drive components, the power from the engine is
inputted into main drive 4 for single stage reduction, and then is transmitted via semiaxle to wheel hub
reducer for speed reduction before power is outputted via hubs and tires.
(III) Structure and Principle of Wheel Hub Reducer:

122
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Flat shaft

Rim

Figure 6-3-2

The wheel hub reducer mainly comprises sun wheel, planetary wheel, planetary carrier and gear ring. The
planetary transmission principle of wheel hub reducer is illustrated as the figure. The semiaxle drives the
sun wheel integrated with spline to rotate at the speed of nsun in a certain direction, while the planetary
wheel engaged with the sun wheel rotates in the reverse direction. Due to stationary gear ring, the
planetary carrier rotates at the speed of n carrier in the direction contrary to the rotation direction of the sun
wheel. Since n carrier is below nsun, speed reduction is thus achieved.
(IV) Structure and Principle of Differential:

Figure 6-3-3

A differential generally comprises 4 cone planetary gears, criss-cross shaft, 2 axle shaft gears and left &
right differential housings. Operating principle of the differential is as follows: When the driving wheel is
running on the ground, the resisting moment of the contact between left/right wheel and the ground acting
on semiaxle line is not equal. If the difference between resisting moment of the two wheels exceeds the
moment required for the rotation of planetary gear to overcome internal resistance, the planetary gear will
rotate around its own axis, thus causing the left semiaxle gear and the right semiaxle gear to rotate in
contrary directions. As long as the difference between resisting moment of left and right wheels exceeds
the moment enough to overcome the friction against internal rotation of the differential, the left and right
semiaxles rotate at their different speeds, thus realizing speed reduction.
2. Dismounting and Installation
Tools needed:
1. Two 10t travelling cranes
2. Special lifting tools
3. Special carrier for front and rear axles
4. Special lengthened sleeve
5. K50 air blasting machine
6. 46 anti-reverse wrench
7. 46 sleeve
8. 1”, 2” adjustable wrench
9. 16-18 open end wrench

123
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

10. 19-22 open end wrench


11. 27-30 open end wrench
12. 700N·m, 1200N·m torque wrench

(1) Schematic diagram for location of drive axle in the product

Front
transmi Rear drive axle
Front ssion Intermediate Middle/rear
drive support transmission shaft assembly
shaft
axle assembl assembly assembly
y

Tire
Rim assembly

Figure 6-3-4

①As shown in Figure 6-3-4, drive axle consists of front and rear axles, with front axle directly fixed on
front frame and rear axle connected to rear frame via swing frame; front and rear axles are installed with 4
tires; flange face of front axle is linked to front transmission shaft; front axle is provided with protection
plate and steel oil pipe; flange face of rear axle is linked to rear driving shaft; rear axle is equipped with
steel oil pipe.
②Mounting bolts M24×280 (8 pcs) and lock nuts M24 (8 pcs) are used for connecting front axle to front
frame; bolts M24×240 (8 pcs) and lock nuts M24 (8 pcs) are used for connecting rear axle to rear frame;
bolts M14×1.5×42 (4 pcs) and lock nuts M14×1.5 (4 pcs) are used for the connection between front axle
and front transmission shaft and the connection between rear axle and rear transmission shaft; lock nuts
M20 (48 pcs) are used for connecting front/rear axle to front/rear rims.
(2) Dismounting steps
①Remove connecting bolts between front/rear axle and front/rear driving shaft to separate front/rear axle
from front/rear driving shaft;
②Remove steel pipe assembly and tee joint connecting front and rear axles;
③ Remove connecting bolts M24×280 (8 pcs) and lock nuts M24 (8 pcs) between front axle and front
frame; remove connecting bolts M24×240 (8 pcs) and lock nuts M24 (8 pcs) between rear axle and rear
frame; use two 10t travelling cranes to lift the frame system and push out front & rear axles;
④Hoist front and rear axles onto the fixed support and remove connecting nuts between front/rear axle
and front/rear tire (12 M20 nuts per tire) Loosen nuts at the position of symmetry via 2-3 operations, lift
down the tires with a special lifting device and properly mark them before placing them on tire rack;
(3) Debugging requirement

124
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

If necessary, debugging shall be performed by designated personnel.


(4) Installation
①Installation sequence: install front and rear axles on the frame system; connect tee joints to steel pipe
assembly on front and rear axles; connect flange face of front/rear axle to front/rear driving shaft; finally
install front and rear tires on front and rear axles respectively;
② Ensure cleanliness during assembly; pay attention to flange direction of front and rear axles in the
course of lifting front and rear axles;
3 Take mounting torque according to the requirement of torque meter.
3. Disassembly and Repair
Ⅰ.Disassembly of Drive Axle
(I) Disassembly of wheel-side device
1. Place the drive axle horizontally on the assembly jig;
2. Remove fastening bolts from wheel-side end cover with a wrench, insert two long bolts into the bolt
holes of the end cover, and hold the long bolts to remove the wheel-side end cover (see Figure 6-3-5);

Figure 6-3-5
3. Strike the end of the semiaxle with copper bar to eject the semiaxle (see Figure 6-3-6);

Figure 6-3-6

3. Remove semiaxle circlip and the sun wheel (see Figure 6-3-7);

125
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-7

5. Draw out the semiaxle carefully by hand (see Figure 6-3-8);

Figure 6-3-8

6. Take down the cushion from outer end face of planetary carrier and check if the cushion is damaged
(see Figure 6-3-9);

Figure 6-3-9

7. Screw out bolts on the perimeter of planetary carrier; (NOTE: bolts screwed out shall be properly kept
by fitting them with corresponding nuts, washers and elastic cushions) (see Figure 6-3-10);

126
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-10

8. Let an iron bar go through bolt holes at both ends of the junction surface of planetary carrier, pry the
planetary carrier gently to separate the junction plane (see Figure 6-3-11) Then turn the bolt holes with the
iron bar inside to face downward, hook on the two bolt holes in planetary carrier with two hooks of the
lifting device, pull out the iron rod, and remove and dismount the planetary carrier;

Figure 6-3-11

9. Use a slotted screwdriver to pry up the thrust washer (see Figure 6-3-12), strike gently in the loosening
direction of circular nut with a hammer and chisel (or thin iron bar) to loosen the nut (see Figure 6-3-13),
and then screw off the circular nut by hand;

Figure 6-3-12

127
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-13

10. Remove the annular gear (see Figure 6-3-14)

Figure 6-3-14
11. Twist off fixing bolts of brake caliper with a wrench and then remove the brake caliper (see Figure
6-3-15);

Figure 6-3-15

12. Take down bearing inner race (see Figure 6-3-16);

128
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-16
13. Hook on the bolthole of hub assembly with the lifting device to cause the assembly to move outward a
little. Then fix the hub with iron chain and dismount the hub assembly (see Figure 6-3-17);

Figure 6-3-17

14. Take down oil baffle plate, oil seal seat, wheelside oil seal and dust guard from the support shaft (see
Figure 6-3-18);

Figure 6-3-18
(II) Disassembly of Main drive

15. Take down main drive bolts with the wrench and lift out the main drive with the lifting device (see
Figure 6-3-19);

129
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-19

II. Repair of Drive Axle


NOTE: Before mounting, all parts shall be cleaned; any worn or damaged parts shall be replaced with
new ones.
(I) Repair of rim components
A-1. Use the oil press to press outer race of bearing32024 and outer race of bearing sleeve 32024 into
the rim (see Figure 6-3-20);

Figure 6-3-20
A-2. Press oil baffle and 2 seal rings (FB150×180×15) in order (or knock into with a jig) into the rim. After
pressing oil seal in, apply certain grease to avoid dry friction (see Figure 6-3-21)

Figure 6-3-21
A-3. Mount brake disc on the rim using sixteen (16) M18×2 bolts for brake disc. Elastic gasket must be
provided (see Figure 6-3-22).

130
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-22
(II) Repair of planetary carrier assembly
B-1. Divide 42 roller pins into two groups, which are separated by spacers. During the mounting of
planetary wheel, lubricate roller pins with grease. (See Figure 6-3-23)

Figure 6-3-23
B-2. Put three fitted planetary wheel assemblies inside the planetary carrier, and align axle holes of
planetary wheels; (See Figure 6-3-30)

Figure 6-3-30
B-3. Divide 6 planetary wheel washers into three groups, with one such washer laid on and under each
planetary wheel assembly. (See Figure 6-3-31)

131
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-31
B-4. Strike 3 planetary wheel axles lightly into planetary wheel axle hole with iron bar until axle end step is
level with the surface of planetary carrier; (See Figure 6-3-32)

1. Axle end step shall


be level with the end
face of planetary
carrier;
2. Gaps on the steps of
3 planetary wheel axles
face outward to avoid
interference with limit
step of wheel-side end
cover.

Figure 6-3-32
(III) Repair of planetary wheel and planetary carrier assembly
C-1. Use oil press to fit the single row cylindrical roller bearing on driving spiral bevel gear, and make sure
that the bearing is pressed close to the end face of driving spiral bevel gear. (See Figure 6-3-33)

132
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-33
C-2. Use the jig to fit outer race of 30310 bearing and outer race of 30311bearing via oil press into bearing
seat. (See Figure 6-3-34)
Bearing 30310
Bearing 30311

Bearing 30310

Bearing 30311

Figure 6-3-34
C-3. Use the jig and oil press to fit bearing seat on driving spiral bevel gear. (See Figure 6-3-35)

Figure 6-3-35
C-4. Use oil press to press two FB65×90×10 oil seals into gland bonnet. Flatten oil seal and then apply
grease to avoid dry friction of oil seal at an early stage; (See Figure 6-3-36)

Figure 6-3-36
C-5. Fit together sealing paper gasket, gland bonnet (with oil seal flattened) and mount them on bearing
seat. Make sure bearing oil sump is aligned with oil sump of sealing paper gasket; (See Figure 6-3-37)

133
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-37
C-6. Fit the already welded flange assembly via spline engagement on driving spiral bevel gear; (See
Figure 6-3-38)

See Figure 6-3-38


C-7. Mount gasket and tighten M30×1.5 nylon self-locking nut. With a torque of self-locking nut is
500-600N.m. Before gasket mounting, 598 sealant is applied; (See Figure 6-3-39)

Figure 6-3-39
(IV) Repair of differential gear assembly
D-1. Purge the right shell of differential gear and put in semi-axle gear washer, semi-axle gear. Manually
rotate semi-axle gear and check if there is any jamming during the fitting between semi-axle gear and
right shell. (See Figure 6-3-40)

134
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-40
D-2. Purge the left shell of differential gear and put in semi-axle gear washer, semi-axle gear. Manually
rotate semi-axle gear and check if there is any jamming during the fitting between semi-axle gear and left
shell. (See Figure 6-3-41)

Figure 6-3-41
D-3. Check and put the cleaned crisscross shaft on semi-axle gear, and mount bevel gear and bevel gear
washer in order on the vertical shaft. After overturn, mount bevel gear and bevel gear washer in order on
other 3 shafts. (See Figure 6-3-42)

Figure 6-3-42
D-4. Put the crisscross shaft assembly on crisscross hole of the right shell of differential gear, and strike
lightly the center of crisscross shaft with soft iron bar to make sure crisscross shaft integrates closely into
crisscross hole of the right shell of differential gear. (See Figure 6-3-43)

135
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-43
D-5. Integrate the left and right shells of differential gear through alignment. Strike the ribbed plate of left
shell lightly with soft iron bar to ensure close integration of left and right shells. (See Figure 6-3-44)

Figure 6-3-44
D-6. Use eight (8) M14×139×1.5 flange bolts to connect left and right shells, and use eight (8)
M14×1.5-10 nuts for tightening. Twisting torque of bolts is 200~230N.m. (See Figure 6-3-45)

Figure 6-3-45
D-7. After force application, use eight (8) 3.2×26 cotter pins for loosening prevention. Two heated
bearings 30215 (heating temperature: 90°C~100°C) are mounted at bearing position of the left and right
shell of differential gear. Do remember not to strike the bearings directly with iron bar. Instead, use the jig
to jack up the inner race of bearing and strike lightly for fitting. (See Figure 6-3-46)

136
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-46
D-8. Install the driven spiral bevel gear and make sure the fitting surface is clean. After mounting
12-M14×1.5×52 bolts, put the gear on the jig. Screw in 12-M14×1.5 slotted nuts and pretighten them with
80% torque before applying a 200~230N.m torque with torque wrench (see Figure 6-3-47). Finally use
twelve (12) 3×25 cotter pins to prevent loosening. (See Figure 6-3-48)

Figure 6-3-47

Figure 6-3-48

(V) Repair of main reducing gear assembly


E-1. The fitting surface between carrier assembly and bearing seat is applied with 598 surface sealant.
After one round of 598 surface sealant applied, it shall be applied once along the circle of each oil groove.
The inner wall of bearing seat used together with the carrier shall be also applied with 598 surface sealant,
and 598 surface sealant shall be also applied once around the circle of each oil groove. The fitted driving
gear assembly shall be fastened with seven (7) M14×1.5×50 bolts and one (1) M12×1.5×45 bolt, and
such bolts must be equipped with elastic washer of corresponding specifications. Twisting torque of
M14×1.5×50 is 130N.mm, while the twisting torque of M12×1.5×45 is 120N.m. (See Figure 6-3-49)

137
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-49
E-2. Turn over the carrier and put the differential gear assembly on the carrier as shown in the diagram.
Screw in 2 adjusting nuts, cover them with two bearing caps, screw in four (4) M22 ×2.5×105 bolts and
pretighten them with 80% torque using pneumatic wrench. The torque of M22×2.5 ×105 is 500~600N.m
(See Figure 6-3-50);

Figure 6-3-50
E-3. For the purpose of backlash adjustment between driving and driven spiral bevel gears, first use red
lead on tooth face of driven spiral bevel gear and observe mesh mark. Mesh mark shall be ≥40% in the
tooth depth direction and ≥50% in the tooth length direction (See Figure 6-3-51).

Position of contact mark on driven gear face Adjustment method Gear


movement
Drive forward Drive back direction
Make driven gear move close to
driving gear. If gear clearance thus
becomes too small, move the driving
gear outward.

138
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Make driven gear move away from


driving gear. If gear clearance thus
becomes too big, move the driving
gear inward.

Make driving gear move close to


driven gear. If gear clearance thus
becomes too small, move the driven
gear outward.

Make driving gear move away from


driven gear. If gear clearance thus
becomes too big, move the driven
gear inward.

E-4. Tighten M10 bolts tighten, fasten adjusting nuts, and wind up M10 bolts with intertwined iron wires for
loosening prevention (See Figure 6-3-52).

Figure 6-3-52
E-5. Install thrust bolts, apply 598 surface sealant to thrust bolts with copper bush, lock washer and nuts
already mounted, and screw those bolts into the carrier. Use the pneumatic tool to drive them to required
positions (Screw in thrust bolt to contact the driven spiral bevel gear before loosening about 1/4), fasten
them with nuts and tighten them with lock washers (See Figure 6-3-53).

139
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-53
(VI) Repair of drive axle assembly
F-1. Mount oil baffle and oil seal seat on wheel-side support shaft through thermal assembling, and
ensure uniform contact between end face of oil seal seat and dust shield; dust shield shall have uniform
contact with end face of end axle φ130, and spacer shall be installed at the end of wheel-side support
shaft. Such spacer shall be flattened through light strike (See Figure 6-3-54).
Spacer installation and maintenance

Spacer installation &


maintenance

Figure 6-3-54

F-2. Fit the already installed rim assembly onto wheel-side support shaft. While fitting the bearing, apply
grease evenly along inner race of the bearing; while fitting the rim, use the special jig on wheel-side
support shaft to protect oil seal (See Figure 6-3-55).

Figure 6-3-55
F-3. Mount inner ring before putting it into taper sleeve. Flatten taper sleeve with the jig. (See Figure
6-3-56)

140
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-56
F-4. Mount round nut, gasket 85and round nut in order. It is noted that gasket 85 should have two claws
planted on round nuts, with one claw grasping the gap of inner round net and with the other claw grasping
the gap of outer round nut (See Figure 6-3-57).

Figure 6-3-57
F-5. Fit the planetary carrier assembly. Check if the interior of planetary carrier is clean and free of foreign
matters. Align rim bolt holes using an iron bar to go through rim bolt holes of planetary carrier and the rim
(See Figure 6-3-58).

Figure 6-3-58
F-6. Mount 12 rim bolts, and mount twelve (12) 20 spring pads and 12-M20×1.5 nuts. Turn the wheel
carrier and check if it has such problem as jamming. Screw in 12-M20 nuts by 3-4 threads and pretigthen
M20nut diagonally with a 80% pretightening force using a pneumatic tool. The required torque is
370~450N.m, and make sure rim nuts are mounted on the outside. (See Figure 6-3-59)

Rim
Nut

141
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Rim,
nut

Figure 6-3-59
F-7. Fitting of brake caliper: put two brake discs into brake caliper with friction surface facing inward, and
brake discs are supported by copper column of brake caliper (See Figure 6-3-66).

Figure 6-3-66
F-8. Tighten the fitted brake caliper using six (6) M20×65 bolts and six (6) M20 elastic gaskets, and
tightening torque of bolt is 370~450N.m. Pre-tighten the bolt with 80% force using a pneumatic wrench,
and then apply the required torque with a torque wrench. (See Figure 6-3-67)

Figure 6-3-67
F-9. Check if internal chamber of axle housing has any foreign matter. Use a caulking gun to apply 598
surface sealant evenly on the big flange surface of axle housing to form a closed loop without any gap.
Use 2-M12×50 bolts, 9-M12×40 and 3 M12 stud bolts to fasten the fitted main reducing gear assembly on
axle housing, and the torque of M12 bolt is 100N.m. After application of force on bolts, check if elastic
gasket is damaged. (See Figure 6-3-68)

142
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-68
F-10. Install semi axle with its side with circlip groove facing outward. Put in sun wheel and turn the
planetary carrier to see if there is any jam during engagement between planetary wheel and sun wheel.
(See Figure 6-3-69)

Figure 6-3-69
F-11. Mount elastic retaining ring 50 and plug. (See Figure 6-3-70)

Figure 6-3-70
F-12. Knock stop block into wheel-side end cover. (See Figure 6-3-71)

143
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Figure 6-3-71
F-13. Mount sealing gasket and wheel-side end cover and fasten them with six (6) M12×1.25×30 bolts
and six (6) gaskets 12. Tightening torque of bolt is 80~100N.m (See Figure 6-3-72)

Figure 6-3-72
F-14. After installation, conduct air pressure test on axle housing with test pressure of 0.2~0.3Mpa; after
charging of gear oil, conduct test run in accordance with running test program. (See Figure 6-3-73)

Figure 6-3-73

144
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 3 Drive Axle

Appendix: Tools, devices and appliances used for disassembly and repair of drive axle
1. Carrier for drive axle assembly;
2. Pneumatic wrench;
3. Iron bar (its diameter is slightly smaller than that of screw hole in the planetary carrier and its length is
about 300mm);
4. Crane, hooks and iron chain;
5. Hex wrench (used for disassembling and assembling circular nuts and fixing bolts);
6. Hammer and chisel;
7. Socket wrench (used for disassembling and assembling fixing bolts of brake caliper);
8. Jig fixed on the workbench and matched with inner diameter of 32224 bearing outer race;
9. Press machine;
10. Flat and round iron bar capable of pressing 32024 bearing outer race below end face;
11. Copper bar (its diameter is some 50mm and its length is some 300mm)
12. 0# crocus cloth;
13. Weight for installation of 32215 bearing inner race;
14. Weight for installation of 31310 bearing outer race;
15. Weight for installation of NUR2306E bearing inner race;
16. Circlip pliers;
17. Weight for installation of 31311 bearing inner race;
18. Fixing jig for driving spiral bevel gear;
19. Dial gauge;
20. Red lead;
21. Mounting jig for input flange;
22. Sealant;
23. Iron wire;
24. Socket wrench.

145
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[144]


2 Dismounting and Installation ..........................................................................................................................[145]
3 Disassembly and Repair .................................................................................................................................[146]

1. Structure and Functions

Figure 6-4-1

146
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

(I) Functions
It serves as the control element of service brake which enables the whole vehicle to decelerate and stop.
(II) Working principle
When the brake pedal is stepped on, certain pressure is exerted on balancing spring via post rod and the
piston is forced to move down. As a result, the passage between air outlet and the air is closed, and the
air inlet valve is pushed open. Compressed air inflates the braking element via air outlet, thus effecting
the braking. When the brake pedal is released, the balancing spring pushes all valves back to original
position. Air inlet is closed, and the air outlet is connected to the exhaust opening. Compressed air is
discharged into the air through exhaust opening, thus releasing the braking.
2. Dismounting and Installation
Tools:
1. 22-24 open end wrench;
2. 5044 air blasting machine;
3. M8 sleeve.
I. Location of air brake valve assembly on the product
The air brake valve is fitted in the cab by fixing it on cab chassis with four M8×25 bolts. Foot pedal is on
cab chassis, see Figure 6-4-2; other parts are below cab chassis, see Figure 6-4-3;
II. Dismounting steps
①Before dismounting, step on the foot pedal several times to make sure all pressure is released. Check
and make sure the loader’s power switch is disconnected;
②Unscrew the connecting nuts of 4 flexible hoses and 2 electric wires connected to the air brake valve,
and separate 4 flexible hoses and 2 electric wires from the air brake valve;
③Loosen the M8×25 bolts linking the air brake valve to cab chassis with the wrench, and take out the air
brake valve;
III. Installation
①Fix the air brake valve on cab chassis; join the dismounted 4 flexible hoses and 2 electric wires to
corresponding joints of the foot brake valve;
②Check sealing surface and sealing elements of pipes and ensure their cleanliness during the fitting
process.

147
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-2

Figure 6-4-3

3. Disassembly and Repair


Tools: a) Pincers;
b) Open end wrench;
c) Double offset ring spanner;
d) Socket wrench;
e) Circlip pliers.
(I) Disassembling process
1.Take out cotter pins on pedal pin (see Figure 6-4-4), draw out pedal pin, and remove the pedal (see
Figure 6-4-5);

148
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Cotter pin

Figure 6-4-4

Pedal pin

Figure 6-4-5

2.Screw off 3 bolts on cab connecting plate (see Figure 6-4-6), and take down dust hood and cab
connecting plate (see Figure 6-4-7);

Figure 6-4-6

149
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-7

3. Press the piston down by hand, take out the circlip fixing the piston with circlip pliers (see Figure 6-4-8),
and remove the piston and spring (see Figure 6-4-9);

Figure 6-4-8

Figure 6-4-9

150
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

NOTE: If piston ring and the bottom of piston rod are worn or damaged, they shall be replaced.

4. Screw out pressure switch (see Figure 6-4-10) and take out closing ring and diaphragm (see Figure
6-4-11);

Figure 6-4-10

Figure 6-4-11

5. Keep the piston hole of valve body downward (see Figure 6-4-12) One person holds down the outer
cover of air return port, and the other person takes out the retainer ring out of the port using the circlip
pliers. After relaxing the hands slowly, remove the outer cover and take out inner cover, spring and
copper bush (see Figure 6-4-13); by this time, the disassembly of the air brake valve is completed.

Figure 6-4-12

151
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-13

(II) Repair process


(1)Clean all parts with special cleaning fluid before putting them on the clean assembling stand in the
dust-free room (see Figure 6-4-14); replace any worn or damaged part;

Figure 6-4-14

(2)Keep the big role of valve body (i.e., piston hole) downward, put copper bush in air return hole (see
Figure 6-4-15), and then put in the spring (see Figure 6-4-16), inner cover and outer cover (see Figure
6-4-17) Press against the outer cover with an iron rod or socket and install the circlip (see Figure 6-4-18);

152
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-15

Figure 6-4-16

Outer cover

Inner cover

Figure 6-4-17

153
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-18
(3)Turn the valve body by 180 degrees, keep piston hole upward, put in the spring and piston, and then
install the circlip; (see Figure 6-4-19 ~ Figure 6-4-21)

Figure 6-4-19

Figure 6-4-20

154
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-21

(4) Put the diaphragm and circlip in the hole of pressure switch (see Figure 6-4-22), and then screw on
the pressure switch (see Figure 6-4-23);

Figure 6-4-22

Figure 6-4-23

5. Install the cab connecting plate and 3 bolts (see Figure 6-4-24), and tighten up with the wrench;

155
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-24

6. Mount the dust hood (see Figure 6-4-25);

Figure 6-4-25
7. Put the pedal in place and install the pedal pin (see Figure 6-4-26) Then push cotter pins through the
hole at the end of pedal pin and use the pincers to split cotter pins at the ends (see Figure 6-4-27) to
prevent pedal pin from slipping out; by this time, the repair of the air brake valve is complete.

Figure 6-4-26

156
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

Figure 6-4-27

157
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 4 Air Brake Valve Assembly

158
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 5 Combination valve of oil-water separator (Model SH380D)

Section 5 Combination valve of oil-water separator (Model SH380D)


Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions....................................................................................................................................[155]
2 Dismounting and Installation............................................................................................................................[156]

Automatically adjust the working pressure of the pneumatic brake system, and automatically discharge
the filtered-out oil, water and dust via load-removal.
1. Structure and function
(I) Functions
1. Separate the oil and water inside the compressed air and automatically discharge the separated oil and
water.
2. Control the pressure of the air circuit system within the scope of rated pressure.
3. Safety protection of system pressure. Automatically release pressure when the system pressure
exceeds the pressure limit.
(II) Structure

1. Adjusting screw
2. Pressure adjusting spring
3. Upper regulating valve
4. Control piston
5. Lower regulating valve
6. Oil and water release valve
7. Oil collector

159
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 5 Combination valve of oil-water separator (Model SH380D)

8. Air bleed piston


9. Filter cartridge
10. One-way valve
11. Orifice plug
12. Safety valve
13. Wing nut

(III) Working principle


Adjustment and control of system pressure: The valve takes effect when the pressure inside the pressure
control chamber (Chamber A) changes. The air pressure inside Chamber A is linked to the system via
orifice plug 11. When the inflation pressure of the system gradually increases and approaches the
adjusting pressure value of 784±20kPa, the air pressure inside Chamber A is enough to overcome the
counterforce of the spring and pushes the diaphragm to drive Piston 4 to move upward and drive Upper
Regulating Valve 3 to close and Lower Regulating Valve 5 to open.
When the Lower Regulating Valve 5 opens, Chamber B is linked to Chamber A. At such time, the
compressed air entering Chamber B pushes the Air Bleed Piston 8 to move downward to open Oil and
Water Release Valve 6, so that the oil and water inside chamber C and the air inside the oil-water
separation chamber are released, and air supply to the system is stopped until the air pressure inside
Chamber A and Chamber B drops and Control Piston 4 and Air Lease Piston 8 return to their original
positions. The resume of air supply starts when the system air pressure is lower than the adjusting
pressure of 50-100kPa, i.e. when air consumption of the system causes the system air pressure to drop
to 700-750kPa, the counterforce of the spring of Control Piston 4 and Air Release Piston 8 is enough to
drive them back to their original positions and start the new circulation. After screwing off Wing Nut 13,
you may use the air and puncture tire with the air from the system.

2. Dismounting and installation


I. Introduction of the position of combination valve of oil-water separator (hereinafter referred to as the
Valve) on the product
① The Valve is installed at the lower right position of the engine and connected with the engine via the
holder on the Valve, and two steel wire hoses are connected with the two joints on the Valve;
② Install two bolts (M8×25), spring washer and flat washer;

II. Steps of dismounting


1 Before dismounting, step on the brake pedal for several times to ensure that the pressure inside the
braking system has been completely released;
2 Loosen the nuts that connect the two steel wire hoses, and the separate the steel wire hoses from the
Valve;
3 Use a wrench to loosen the blot (M8×25) that connects the holder and the engine, and then separate
the Valve, the holder assembly and the engine;
4 Use a wrench to loosen the bolt (M8×85) that connects the Valve and the holder, and then separate
the Valve and the holder;
III. Installation
1 Use the bolt (M8×85) to install the Valve onto the holder;
2 Use two bolts (M8×25), spring washer and flat washer to install the Valve and holder assembly onto
the engine;
3 Screw on the nuts that connect the two steel wire hoses, and then install the two steel wire hoses onto
the Valve.
Note: during the installation process, keep the pipe sealing surface and sealing components clean.

160
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[157]
2 Testing and Adjustment .................................................................................................................................. [157]
3 Dismounting and Installation ..........................................................................................................................[158]
4 Disassembly and Repair .................................................................................................................................[159]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
When the brake pressure required for the vehicle is 11MPa but air pressure fails to meet this requirement,
booster pump is needed for pressure boost.
(II) Working principle
Booster pump is air over hydraulic booster, which comprises air cylinder and hydraulic master cylinder.
During operation, air inlet conducts air admission and pushes the pushrod-piston assembly to move
forward. The pushrod pushes the pushrod seat assembly, while the oil filling valve blocks up the oil
refilling hole in the hydraulic piston. Hydraulic pressure occurs inside the hydraulic cylinder body, and the
outputted hydraulic pressure is 18×90% times the inputted air pressure. When air pressure is released,
under the influence of return spring, the oil refilling hole is opened and fluid oil returns from oil refilling hole
to oil cup.
2. Testing and Adjustment
After installation on the vehicle, the booster pump works together with the brake caliper. Therefore, this
section “testing and adjustment of booster pump” contains relevant content of brake caliper.
(I) Exhaust operation of braking system
①Install the booster pump and the brake caliper entirely on the machine according to the working
instruction “Dismounting and Installation”;
②First of all, the driver starts the engine, which drives the operation of inflation pump and causes the air
to enter the air reservoir via pipeline 4;
③Before exhaust, open the brake caliper and air bleeder of brake caliper with 14# open end wrench;
④The driver steps on the brake pedal to transmit high pressure air in air reservoir to the first branch
pipeline and the second branch pipeline respectively;
⑤High pressure air in the first and second branch pipeline pushes front booster pump and rear booster
pump respectively, thus sending brake oil in oil cup into the brake caliper;
⑥The other person removes the lid of oil cup for front booster pump and rear booster pump and fills
brake oil into the oil cup of booster pump;
⑦The driver steps on the brake pedal back and forth to force brake oil into front brake caliper and rear
brake 3 and discharge air from the air bleeder. When brake oil bursts off in a columnar shape from the air
bleeder and no air bubble appears, the air is fully discharged;
⑧Before discharge of air is completed, repeat steps ⑤ and ⑥ until the refilling of brake oil is finished
and the air is discharged in 6 minutes or so. Afterwards, close the brake caliper and air bleeder of brake
caliper;
⑨Finally screw up the lid of oil cup of front booster pump and rear booster pump.

161
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

(II) Inspection notices


①Check if there is any foreign matter in any inner chamber of each oil port;
②Before exhaust, screw off the brake caliper and its air bleeder with 14# open end wrench and close
them after full discharge of air;
③The said operation involves at least two persons.
(III) Dismounting tools
① 14-16 open end wrench;
②Brake oil.

Front Front Pneumatic No.1 No.2 Rear Rear Unloa Air


Main line
brake booster brake valve branch branch booster brake ding reservoir
caliper pump assembly line line pump caliper valve

3. Dismounting and Installation


①Fit the front booster pump on the distribution valve bracket of front frame by connecting the air pipe of
foot brake valve to brake oil pipe via hollow bolt;
②Fit the rear booster pump on the bracket of rear frame (close to hydraulic reservoir) by connecting the
air pipe of foot brake valve to brake oil pipe via hollow bolt;
③Install four M10×30 fixing bolts with elastic and flat washers;
(1) Dismounting steps
①Dismount air pipe, brake oil pipe (hollow bolts) and fixing bolts separately;
②In case of oil leak during dismounting, oil drip pan is put in place; oil ports are protected with refilling
mark;
③Dismount the rear booster pump in the engine cover (it is required to open the door of engine cover
before dismounting) Remove hollow bolts and air pipe separately before removing two M10×30 fixing
bolts. After dismounting, carry down the booster pump with assistance from another person;
④Dismount the front booster pump inside the front frame (Before operation, it is necessary to lift the
movable arm so that the operator is able to enter the front of the front frame (NOTE: Before entry, the
movable arm must be reliably supported to prevent any fall) Afterwards, open the closing plate of the front
frame) Remove hollow bolts and air pipes separately before taking down two M10×30 fixing bolts. After
dismounting, carry down the booster pump with assistance from another person;
(2) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in any inner chamber of each oil port;
②Screw plugs and the pressure regulating and tightening end of booster pump may not be loosened

162
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

without authorization; any debugging shall be performed by designated personnel;

(3) Installation
①In the course of installation, pay attention to the mounting direction of booster pump;
②Check if red light paper spacer linking hollow bolts is damaged; make replacement in case of damage;
③Conduct other operations in the sequence contrary to the dismounting sequence;
④Install the front booster pump inside the front frame (Before operation, it is necessary to lift the movable
arm so that the operator is able to enter the front of the front frame (NOTE: Before entry, the movable arm
must be reliably supported to prevent any fall) Afterwards, open the closing plate of the front frame)
Mount two M10×30 fixing bolts before mounting air pipes and hollow bolts.
⑤Install the rear booster pump in the engine cover (it is required to open the door of engine cover before
dismounting) Mount two M10×30 fixing bolts before mounting air pipes and hollow bolts;
⑥Install air pipes, brake oil pipe (hollow bolts) and fixing bolts separately;
⑦Check sealing surface and sealing elements of pipes and ensure their cleanliness during the fitting
process;
⑧Take mounting torque according to the requirement of torque meter;
(4) Dismounting tools
①16-18 open end wrench, 16-18 open end torque wrench;
②1”, 2” monkey wrench; 27-30 open end wrench, 350N·m torque wrench;
(5) Keep dismounting record.
4. Disassembly and Repair
I. Disassembling process
(1)Grasp the flat position of the oil return port of booster pump with a bench clamp, use a wrench to clamp
and turn the fixed plate in the loosening direction to loosen the oil outlet (see Figure 6-6-01);

Figure 6-6-01

(2)Then place the booster pump on the disassembly stand and screw off the oil outlet (see Figure 6-6-02);

163
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-02

(3)Screw off 6 fixing bolts of air chamber of booster pump and strike the air chamber gently with a
hammer to loosen the chamber (see Figure 6-6-03) Then remove the air chamber of the booster pump
(see Figure 6-6-04 and Figure 6-6-05);

Figure 6-6-03

Figure 6-6-04

164
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-05
(4)Take the piston out of the air chamber of booster pump, and check the integrity of the seal ring of the
piston and make replacement in case of any damage (see Figure 6-6-06);

Figure 6-6-06

(5)Keep the spring clamp downward, press the cover plate down with both hands, screw off the fixing
bolts of the spring and take out spring clamp and the spring (see Figure 6-6-07);

Figure 6-6-07
(6)Screw off the lid of oil cup and take out the filter screen out of the oil cup (see Figure 6-6-08);

Figure 6-6-08

(7)Take out 3 seal rings and 2 support rings from the cylinder body (see Figure 6-6-09 and Figure 6-6-10);

165
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-09

Figure 6-6-10

(8)Hold the cylinder body with a bench clamp, loosen the circular nut on the lid of booster pump by
striking the nut with a chisel and hammer, and then screw off the nut (see Figure 6-6-11);

Figure 6-6-11
(9) Strike the cover plate gently with a hammer and remove it (see Figure 6-6-13);

166
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-13

(10)Hold the cylinder body with the bench clamp and loosen the fixing bolt of the oil cup with a socket
wrench (see Figure 6-6-13) Screw off the nut and remove the oil cup (see Figure 6-6-13);

Figure 6-6-13

Figure 6-6-13

(11)Screw off the transition joint on cylinder body (see Figure 6-6-15);

167
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-15

(12)Screw off the fixing bolt of the respirator and remove the dust hood (see Figure 6-6-16);

Figure 6-6-16

(13)Screw off the respirator (see Figure 6-6-15);

Figure 6-6-15
(14)Screw off the fixing bolt of the supporting rack of cover plate (see Figure 6-6-18);

168
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-18

II. Repair process


(1) Clean all parts with special cleaning fluid before putting them on the clean assembling stand in the
dust-free room (see Figure 6-6-19); replace any worn or damaged part;

Figure 6-6-19
(2) Install 3 seal rings and 2 support rings in the cylinder body (see Figure 6-6-20);

Figure 6-6-20
(3) Mount the cover plate and ensure the alignment of locating key (see Figure 6-6-21);

169
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-21

(4) Screw on circular nut (see Figure 6-6-22);

Figure 6-6-22

(5) Mount the spring and spring clamp (see Figure 6-6-23), and then turn it by 180 degrees and keep
spring clamp downward. Press the cover plate down with both hands and another person puts in fixing
bolt of the spring and tighten the bolt (see Figure 6-6-24);

Figure 6-6-23

170
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-24

(6) Mount the piston at the bottom of air chamber of booster pump (see Figure 6-6-25);

Figure 6-6-25

(7) Join the air chamber of booster pump to the cover plate, mount 6 bolts on the perimeter of the air
chamber of booster pump and tighten such bolts (see Figure 6-6-26);

Figure 6-6-26

(8) Install the respirator on the cover plate (see Figure 6-6-27) and mount the dust cover and screws (see
Figure 6-6-28)

171
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-27

Figure 6-6-28
(9) Mount the fixed seat on the cover plate and tighten the bolts (see Figure 6-6-29);

Figure 6-6-29

(10) Screw on the oil outlet and the oil inlet joint (see Figure 6-6-30 and Figure 6-6-31);

172
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-30

Figure 6-6-31

(12) Mount the oil cup and fasten it with nuts (see Figure 6-6-32);

Figure 6-6-32

(13) Mount the filter screen (see Figure 6-6-33) and screw on the lid of oil cup (see Figure 6-6-34);

Figure 6-6-33

173
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 6 Booster Pump (Braking System)

Figure 6-6-34

Attachment: List of tools and devices required for disassembly and repair of booster pump
1. Bench clamp;
2. Monkey wrench;
3. Chisel;
4. Hex wrench;
5. Hammer;
6. Screwdriver.

174
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

Section 7 Brake Caliper

1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[171]


2 Testing and Adjustment .................................................................................................................................. [171]
3 Dismounting and Installation ..........................................................................................................................[171]
4 Disassembly and Repair .................................................................................................................................[171]

1. Structure and Functions


Functions:
As the actuating mechanism for service braking, the brake caliper clamps or releases the brake disc to
apply and release the braking.
Structural principles:
The brake is of twin-cylinder fixing caliper type, whose calipers are fixed on axle housing and whose
brake discs are fixed on wheel housing and rotate with wheels. Each wheel has one pair of calipers (with
four pairs of calipers on one vehicle), and each pair of calipers has two pairs of opposed cylinder pistons.
At the time of braking, high pressure oil from intensifier pump output flows into each piston cylinder via oil
pipes and oil ducts of internal and external calipers, thus pushing pistons and brake pads to press close to
the brake disc and force the wheels connected to the brake disc to decelerate to full stop. After release of
brake, brake pads return to their original positions through the minor deflection plane of brake disc. There
exists contact friction (without pressure) between brake friction linings and brake disc during vehicle
operation. Heat quantity resulting from longtime driving will increase the temperature of brake fluid and
even cause “air resistance”. The brake shall be periodically deflated to ensure its service performance.

Brake caliper

2. Testing and Adjustment


After mounting on the vehicle, the brake caliper works together with the booster pump. Therefore, the
testing and adjustment of brake caliper after installation will be included in the section “testing and
adjustment of booster pump”.

3. Dismounting and Installation


Since the brake caliper and drive axle are installed as a whole on the vehicle, the section on the
disassembly and repair of drive axle includes the instructions concerning the installation of brake caliper
on drive axle. For details, refer to the section “disassembly and repair of drive axle”.

4. Disassembly and Repair

175
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

I. Disassembling process
(1) Take down brake pads from brake caliper (see Figure 6-7-01);

Figure 6-7-01
(2) Screw out 2 deflating valves and deflating seats at both ends of internal caliper (see Figure 6-7-02)

Figure 6-7-02
(3)Remove bolts and take down end cover (see Figure 6-7-03).

Figure 6-7-03
(4) Take out piston on brake caliper and dust hood circlip and dust hood on the piston in order. (See

176
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

Figure 6-7-04 and Figure 6-7-05)

Figure 6-7-04

Figure 6-7-05
(6) Take out seal ring in piston hole of caliper body (see Figure 6-7-06);

Figure 6-7-06
(7) Take out fixing pins (see Figure 6-7-07).

177
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

Figure 6-7-07

II. Repair process


(1)Clean all parts with specialized cleaning liquid and put them on the clean assembling stand in a
dust-free room (see Figure 6-7-08); make replacement for any worn or damaged part;

Figure 6-7-08
(2)Mount fixing pins (see Figure 6-7-09)

Figure 6-7-09
(3) Install the end cover and fasten it with bolts (see Figure 6-7-10)

178
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

Figure 6-7-10
(4) Wipe piston surface and piston hole on caliper body, and mount O-ring (see Figure 6-7-11)

Figure 6-7-11
(5) Press the piston into piston hole (see Figure 6-7-12)

Figure 6-7-12
(6) Mount the dust hood on piston (see Figure 6-7-13)

179
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

Figure 6-7-13
(7) Mount circlips of dust hood and install other seal rings, pistons, dust hood and circlips by repeating the
foregoing steps (see Figure 6-7-14)

Figure 6-7-14
(8) Mount 2 deflating valves and deflating seats at both ends of internal caliper (see Figure 6-7-15)

Figure 6-7-15
(9) Mount brake pads on brake caliper (see Figure 6-7-16)

180
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 7 Brake Caliper

Figure 6-7-16
(10) The assembly is complete (see Figure 6-7-17)

Figure 6-7-17

181
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Section 8 Working Pump

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[178]
2 Dismounting and installation .......................................................................................................................... [178]
3 Dismounting and repair ...................................................................................................................................[179]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
As the power source for hydraulic system, gear pump converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy
to power the hydraulic system.
(II) Working principle
Working pump is joined to variable speed pump before they are fastened on the body of the gearbox. It is
driven by the engine via gear pair. CBG pump is an external gear pump, which comprises an engaged
pair of driving and driving gear, pump body, side plate, bearings and sealing elements. The rotation of
driving gear also causes the rotation of driven gear. The place where gear teeth begin to exit from the
engagement is suction chamber, while the place where gear teeth enter the engagement is pumping
chamber. Suction chamber and pumping chamber are separated by the line of engagement of driven gear
and by radial clearance and end clearance. With the rotation of the two gears, fluid oil is brought from
suction chamber to pumping chamber, thus realizing oil suction and pumping of gear pump.

2. Dismounting and Installation


(1).Position of working pump on the product

Working pump
Figure 6-8-01

①Working pump and steering pump are directly fitted at power take-off of torque converter (see Figure
6-8-01);

182
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

②Working pump is mounted on 4 double end bolts of the power take-off through 4 M12 nuts and elastic
washers. Pump body is taken out only after the nuts and elastic washers are removed; Since operating
space is quite limited to due to the pump located below the cab and large oil inlet and outlet pipes, the
working pump is generally dismounted only after removing the entire cab from the vehicle;

(2) Dismounting steps


① The cab is dismounted according to relevant requirement (see the content of the section gearbox
“dismounting and installation” on cab dismounting). Interconnected lines and pipelines shall not be
yanked and work safety shall be ensured during hoisting operation;
②In case of oil leak during pipeline dismounting, oil receiver and oil drums are ready for use; oil ports are
protected with reassembly mark;
③Remove the oil inlet steel pipe of working pump, four M12×85 bolts and elastic washers, protect sealing
elements of oil port and recycle fluid oil;
④ Remove flange gland for steel oil inlet pipe of working pump, four fixing bolts M10×35 and elastic
washers, protect sealing elements of oil port and recycle fluid oil;
⑤Take the working pump out of power take-off with a special tool (e.g., crowbar). Guard against personal
injury resulting from the slippage of pump from oil-stained hands;
(3) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in inner chamber of each oil port; if splines and sealing gaskets are
intact;
②Fastening end on pump body (e.g., bolts) cannot be loosened without authorization; any commissioning
is performed by professionals only;
(4) Installation
①Pay attention to direction during installation and the direction of oil inlet is on the inside;
②Check and clean the mounting surface. If sealing gaskets on pump body or at the power take-off end
are damaged, replace them with sealing gaskets of the same model number or apply 515 plane sealant;
③Perform other operations in the sequence contrary to the dismounting sequence:
④Install the working pump in the power take-off with a special tool (e.g., crowbar).
⑤Install flange gland for steel oil inlet pipe of working pump, four fixing bolts M10×35 and elastic washers;
⑥Install steel oil inlet pipe of working pump, four bolts M12×85 and elastic washers;
⑦Check sealing elements in the pipeline during assembly. Replace any damaged sealing element with
new one and ensure cleanliness; pay attention to reassembly marks to avoid wrong connection;
⑧Locking torque meets the requirement of torque meter;
(5) Dismounting tools
① 16-18 open end wrench, 16, 18 sleeve and plate stem;
② 200N•m torque wrench; crowbar.
(6) Keep dismounting record.
3. Disassembly and Repair
I. Disassembling process
(1) Screw off 4 king bolts (see Figure 6-8-02) and 2 secondary bolts on rear cover (see Figure 6-8-03);
Note: Secondary bolts may be screwed out after main gear shaft and pinion are taken out.

183
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-02

Figure 6-8-03

(2) Take down the front cover (see Figure 6-8-04) and take out oil seal and retainer ring;

Figure 6-8-04
(3) Take out the seal ring, 2 bearings and shaft sleeves (see Figure 6-8-05) and one 8-shaped side plate
(see Figure 6-8-06);

184
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-05

Figure 6-8-06
(4) Take out main gear shaft and pinion (see Figure 6-8-07);

Figure 6-8-07
(5) Take up the pump body to detach the bottom end cover from the body (see Figure 6-8-08). Take off the
seal ring;

185
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-08
(6) Take out two bearings and shaft sleeves (see Figure 6-8-09);

Figure 6-8-09

(7) Check wear and tear of bearings, 8-shaped side plate and gear face (see Figure 6-8-010 and Figure
6-8-11). Generally speaking, debris from bearing wear often leads to the wear and tear of side plate and
gear face, thus causing internal leakage; make replacement in case of wear or damage.

Figure 6-8-10

186
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-11

II. Repair Process


(1) Clean all parts with special cleaning fluid before putting them on the clean assembling stand in the
dust-free room (see Figure 6-8-12); replace any worn or damaged part.

Figure 6-8-12

(2) Put in an 8-shaped sealing side from the bottom of pump body (i.e., end face with 6 screw holes)
(Figure 6-8-13);

187
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-13
(3) Put bearings on the shaft sleeves and then, press them into the side plate (see Figure 6-8-14) to keep
their perimeters slightly below the end face of pump body;

Figure 6-8-14
(4) Put the seal ring in the end face of pump body (see Figure 6-8-15);

Figure 6-8-15
(5) Mount the bottom end cover on the end face of pump body, fit and tighten secondary bolts (see Figure
6-8-16) (tightening torque: 50N·m);

188
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-16
(6) Turn the pump body by 180 degrees (see Figure 6-8-17);

Figure 6-8-17
(7) Put in the main gear shaft (see Figure 6-8-18);

189
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-19

(8) Put in the pinion (see Figure 6-8-19);

Figure 6-8-19
(9) Hold the main gear shaft with hand to see if it rotates freely (see Figure 6-8-20);

190
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-20
(10) Mount another 8-shaped side plate (see Figure 6-8-21);

Figure 6-8-21

191
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

(11) Install two bearings into shaft sleeves and then, press them into the side plate holes (see Figure
6-8-22);

Figure 6-8-22
(12) Install the seal ring (see Figure 6-8-23);

Figure 6-8-23

192
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-24
(13) Install retainer ring and oil seal. (See Figure 6-8-25);

Figure 6-8-25
(14) Clean the mounting surface of pump body and install the upper cover plate (see Figure 6-8-26);

193
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

Figure 6-8-26

(15) Mount four king bolts and tighten them in the diagonal sequence (see Figure 6-8-27);

Figure 6-8-27

194
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 8 Working Pump

(16) Turn the gear shaft by hand to see if it rotates freely (see Figure 6-8-28); If necessary, adjust the
tightening torque of king bolts and secondary bolts.

Figure 6-8-28

195
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Section 9 Distribution Valve

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[192]
2 Testing and adjustment ...................................................................................................................................[193]
3 Dismounting and installation .......................................................................................................................... [195]
4 Dismounting and repair ...................................................................................................................................[196]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
A distribution valve is the control element of the vehicle for the action of the working mechanism, including
the lifting, lowering and floating of the boom and the retraction and unloading of the bucket.
(II) Structural performance of main components of the hydraulic system:
(1) Neutral position
When the distribution valve is at the neutral position, oil from main pump directly returns to oil tank via the
distribution valve.
(2) Working position
When the pilot valve is at the working position, hydraulic oil enters the control chamber at the end of a
certain valve stem of distribution valve, thus pushing the valve stem to move leftward or rightward to the
work device. Pressure oil resulting from the confluence of main pump and priority valve opens the
one-way valve inside the distribution valve to enter a certain chamber of bucket cylinder or boom cylinder,
and pressure oil in another chamber of the oil cylinder returns to the oil tank through another oil port of the
selector valve. Pilot oil in another control chamber at the end of the valve stem returns to the oil tank via
the pilot valve.
(3) Floating position
At this time, the position of valve stem of the boom is the same as during the lowering. However, because
the control lever of the pilot valve is at the floating position, the sequence valve inside the pilot valve is
opened and the oil from drainage duct in the selector valve flows to the oil tank through drainage port in
the pilot valve. The hydraulic one-way valve between small chamber and big chamber of boom cylinder in
the selector is opened, and four ports P, A2, B2 and T are interconnected. The piston rod of boom cylinder
floats freely under the influence of applied force.
(4) Function of overload valve and oil recharging valve
When the bucket meets with impact load or interferes with other structure, the overload valve is opened
for the purpose of safety protection. The oil recharging valve provides oil replenishment to prevent air
suction of a certain chamber of oil cylinder.

Figure 6-9-1

196
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-2

2. Testing and Adjustment


Note: Since the distribution valve is debugged by the manufacturer before shipment, adjustment by the
distributor or maintenance station is generally disallowed to ensure reliability. This section deals with the
replacement and adjustment of overload valve inside the distribution valve in special cases. Before such
replacement or adjustment, the distributor or maintenance station must obtain prior written consent from
Lonking and the part manufacturer, and subsequent safety and quality responsibility shall be undertaken
by personnel implementing such replacement and adjustment.
(I) Tools required:
M8 Hex wrench, wrench;
(II) Location of distribution valve and overload valve on the product

Main safety valve

Distribution valve

Overload valve

Overload valve

Figure 6-9-3
(III) Exploded view of distribution valve

197
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-4

1. Allen screw M10×45


2. O ring 50×3.1(×2)
3. Valve body
4. Safety valve
5. Screw plug (×3)
6. Bucket valve stem
7. Boom valve stem
8. Rear end cover (×2)
9. One-way valve (×3)
10. Oil recharging valve
11. Overload valve (high pressure)
12. Overload valve (low pressure)
13. Front end cover (×2)
(IV) Notes on replacement and adjustment of overload valve (See Figure 6-9-4)
1. Two circumstances requiring replacement of overload valve:
a. Reduced performance in bucket curl-out during bucket retraction and boom lifting under load;
b. Slow boom lifting.
2. Adjustment process
①Start the loader and lift the boom cylinder and bucket cylinder to the highest point. Then flame out the
engine lower the boom and bucket in the no-load mode. After they are lowered to the horizontal position,
shake the control handle to realize full pressure relief of the pipeline. Get ready the oil drip pan to collect
leaking hydraulic oil in the course of dismounting the overload valve;
② Break the aluminum seal, remove plastic protective casing at the top of overload valve to find the
pressure regulating Allen screw inside the overload valve, and make adjustment using the Hex wrench.
Tighten the screw to increase the pipeline’s unloading pressure, and loosen it to decrease the pipeline’s
unloading pressure (Note: The pressure regulating bolt is set as per standard pressure before shipment,
and it cannot be adjusted arbitrarily. Excessively tight adjustment will result in too high pipeline pressure
and even pipe burst, while excessively loose adjustment will result in excessive internal leakage and
weak boom lifting. Recommended adjustment is ±0.5 circle);

198
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

③ If the adjustable bolt proves ineffective in pressure regulation, it is necessary to screw off the valve
body and replace the entire overload valve.
(V) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in any inner chamber of each oil port;
②Adjusting the pressure regulating bolt is not recommended. It is advisable to replace the entire overload
valve.
3. Dismounting and Installation
(1) Location of distribution valve on the product

Figure 6-9-5
①Distribution valve is fitted in the center of the interior of front frame, as shown in the figure;
② Three bolts M12×180 together with flat washers and elastic washers are fitted on valve body and
front frame;
(2) Preparations before dismounting
① Dismounting method: Select a dedicated maintenance site where maintenance personnel can work
underneath the vehicle conveniently;
② Shut down the vehicle, set level the bucket and remove pipe joints connected to the selector valve;
make reassembly marks for similar pipes;
③ Given oil leak during dismounting, oil drip pan and oil drum are ready for use; exposed oil ports are
protected.
(3) Dismounting steps
①Remove pilot control group-5 pipeline and make reassembly marks;
②Remove in turn 4 fixing bolts M12×35 and elastic washers for steel oil return pipe clamp of the valve, 4
fixing bolts M12×45 and elastic washers for steel oil inlet pipe clamp of the valve, 8 fixing bolts M12×42
and elastic washers for steel oil inlet & outlet pipe clamp of tilt cylinder, and 8 fixing bolts M12×42 and
elastic washers for steel oil inlet & outlet pipe clamp of boom cylinder; make reassembly marks;
③After arranging all pipelines, remove 3 mounting bolts M12×180 and flat washers & elastic washers for
valve body.
④ Lift the valve body out of the front frame using >100kg lifting rope and crane. If the valve body is
manually carried, guard against any personal injury resulting from the slippage of the valve body from
oil-stained hands.
(4) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in inner chamber of each oil port;

199
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

②Screw plugs and the pressure regulating and tightening end of valve body may not be loosened without
authorization; any commissioning shall be performed by professionals;
(5) Installation
①Pay attention to directions during installation;
②Conduct other operations in the sequence contrary to the dismounting sequence;
③Lift the valve body to the mounting position on the front frame using >100kg lifting rope and crane;
④Install 3 mounting bolts M12×180 and flat washers & elastic washers on valve body.
⑤After arranging all pipelines, install in turn 8 fixing bolts M12×42 and elastic washers for steel oil inlet &
outlet pipe clamp of boom cylinder, 8 fixing bolts M12×42 and elastic washers for steel oil inlet & outlet
pipe clamp of tilt cylinder, 4 fixing bolts M12×45 and elastic washers for steel oil inlet pipe clamp of the
valve, and 4 fixing bolts M12×35 and elastic washers for steel oil return pipe clamp of the valve;
⑥Install pilot control group-5 pipeline;
⑦During assembly, check sealing elements in the pipelines, make replacement in case of damage and
ensure cleanliness; conduct assembly according to reassembly marks and avoid wrong pipeline
connection;
⑧Locking torque meets the requirement of torque meter;
(6) Dismounting tools
①16-18, open end trench, 19, 21 socket and crowbar;
②200N·m torque wrench;
(7) Keep dismounting record.

4. Disassembly and Repair


I. Disassembling process
(1) Place the selector valve on the teardown stand (see Figure 6-9-6)

Figure 6-9-6
(2) Remove the sequence valve by loosening it with the wrench (see Figure 6-9-7);

200
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-7
(3) Screw off the bolts on end cover of bucket valve core (see Figure 6-9-8) and remove the end cover
(see Figure 6-9-9);

Figure 6-9-8

Figure 6-9-9
(4) Draw out bucket valve core, screw off fixing bolts on front cover of bucket valve core hole in the valve
body, and remove spring seat, washer, spring, screw rod and valve rod (see Figure 6-9-10);

Figure 6-9-10
(5) Screw off fixing bolts on end cover of boom valve core (see Figure 6-9-11) and take out the end cover

201
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

(see Figure 6-9-12);

Figure 6-9-11

Figure 6-9-12
(6) Draw the boom valve core out of the valve body (see Figure 6-9-13);
NOTE: Because the boom valve core controls more gears, its rear end has one more spring and two more
steel balls than the bucket valve core. Draw out the boom valve core with a little more force.

Figure 6-9-13
(7) Screw off fixing bolts on front cover of boom valve core hole and remove spring seat, washer, spring,
screw rod and valve rod (see Figure 6-9-14);

202
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-14
(8) Take off the main safety valve (see Figure 6-9-15);

Figure 6-9-15
(9) Take off two overload and oil recharging valves (see Figure 6-9-16);

Figure 6-9-16
(10) Take off four screws on rear cover (see Figure 6-9-17) and remove the rear cover and seal ring (see
Figure 6-9-18);

203
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-17

Figure 6-9-18
(11) Screw off three pressure measuring end caps (see Figure 6-9-19);

Figure 6-9-19
(12) Take off three one-way valve assemblies (see Figure 6-9-20); break down each one-way valve (see
Figure 6-9-21). The disassembly is completed (see Figure 6-9-22).

204
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-20

Figure 6-9-21

Figure 6-9-22

II. Repair process


(1) Clean all parts with special cleaning fluid before putting them on the clean assembling stand in the
dust-free room (see Figure 6-9-23); replace any worn or damaged part;

205
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-23
(2) Assemble one-way valves (see Figure 6-9-24) and install them on the valve body (see Figure 6-9-25);

Figure 6-9-24

Figure 6-9-25
(3) Mount three pressure measuring end caps (see Figure 6-9-26);

Figure 6-9-26
(4) Install the rear cover and fit the screws (see Figure 6-9-27);

206
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-27
(5) Install two overload and oil recharging valves (see Figure 6-9-28);

Figure 6-9-28

(6) Install the main safety valve (see Figure 6-9-29);

Figure 6-9-29

(7) Assemble the boom valve core and insert it into the valve body (see Figure 6-9-30); mount the front
end cover of the boom valve core and tighten the fixing bolts (see Figure 6-9-31);

207
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-30

Figure 6-9-31
(8) Assemble the bucket valve core and insert it into the valve body (see Figure 6-9-32); mount the rear
end cover of the bucket valve core and tighten the fixing bolts (see Figure 6-9-33);

Figure 6-9-32

Figure 6-9-33
(9) Install the sequence valve (see Figure 6-9-34); the repair is completed (see Figure 6-9-35).

208
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 9 Distribution Valve

Figure 6-9-34

Figure 6-9-35

209
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder


Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[206]
2 Dismounting and Installation ..........................................................................................................................[206]
3 Disassembly and Repair .................................................................................................................................[207]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
As an actuating element of hydraulic system, lift arm cylinder lifts and lowers the lift arm by controlling oil
feed into small and big chambers of the cylinder.
(II) Working principle
The cylinder generally comprises cylinder barrel and piston rod, and the cylinder barrel has two oil inlets
with one connected to big chamber of the cylinder (i.e., non-rod chamber) and the other connected to
small chamber of the cylinder (i.e., rod end chamber) When oil is fed into big chamber of the cylinder, the
piston rod is pushed out; when oil is fed into small chamber of the cylinder, the piston rod is taken back.
Through the said actions, the action of the mechanical device is controlled.
2. Dismounting and Installation
(1) Location of lift arm cylinder on the product

Lift arm cylinder


Figure 6-10-1

①This vehicle has two lift arm cylinders (including left and right cylinders) fitted between the lift arm and
the front frame (shown in Figure 6-10-1); steel oil inlet & outlet pipes for external connection are
non-interchangeable symmetrical parts;
②Each lift arm cylinder is mounted between front frame and the lift arm using two hinge pins; each hinge
pin is provided with one fixing bolt M20×40 and elastic washer and flat washer;
(2) Dismounting steps
① Lift and put the lift arm on a special lift arm holder horizontally or at an appropriate angle, and then
release the oil pressure of the pipeline by operating the hydraulic control handle; consequently, fluid oil in
the cylinder and oil pipe flows back to the oil tank; alternatively, the lift arm may be hoisted using a ≥5T
crane. Shut down the vehicle.
②In case of oil leak during pipeline dismounting, oil drip pans and oil drums are ready for use; oil ports
are protected with reassembly mark;
③Remove the connection between steel oil inlet & outlet pipes and rubber oil inlet & outlet hoses for the
left lift arm cylinder before taking off two fixing bolts M20×40 and elastic and flat washers for hinge pins of

210
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

the cylinder linking the lift arm to the front frame.


④It is advisable to dismount the cylinder wholly before removing the steel oil inlet & outlet pipes on the
cylinder (if necessary);
⑤ Avoid any bruise to oil nipple; in case of interference, remove the oil nipple before taking down the
hinge pin;
⑥ Tie up the cylinder in the center using a hoisting sling with >200kg load bearing and suspend the
cylinder on the crane hook. Use a special steel bar (DN: <50mm) to point at the end face inside the hinge
pin and the hole and strike the steel bar from inside to outside with a hand hammer to force the hinge pins
out; and steady the cylinder and then hoist and remove the left cylinder; meanwhile arrange the pipelines.
⑦Remove the right lift arm cylinder in the same manner.
(3) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in the internal chamber of each oil port;
②Whenever necessary, commissioning, pressure measurement or disassembly of cylinder components
shall be performed by designated personnel;
(4) Installation
①Pay attention to the mounting direction (front, back, left, right) direction of oil cylinder during installation,
and pay attention to the mounting direction of steel oil inlet & outlet pipes of the left and right cylinders;
② Confirm the integrity of shaft sleeves, knuckle bearings, sealing sockets and sealing elements inside
the cylinders and replace any damaged parts;
③Mount the lift arm cylinder in the sequence contrary to the dismoutning sequence and point at the pilot
hole of hinge pin by hoisting and moving the lift arm up and down with the use of a crane (≥5T) or
presetting the displacement of piston rod;
④After confirming the integrity of hinge pins and applying some lubricating oil to their surface, fit the hinge
pins into corresponding pilot holes;
⑤Install the oil nipple if it is removed in the dismounting process;
⑥Mount two fixing bolts M20×40 and elastic & flat washers of the hinge pin linking the cylinder to the lift
arm and front frame before joining steel oil inlet & outlet pipes (if previously removed) and rubber oil inlet
& outlet hoses for the left lift arm cylinder. Install the right lift arm cylinder in the same manner.
⑦Check sealing surfaces and elements in the pipeline during assembly, and ensure cleanliness;
⑧Mounting torque meets the requirement of torque meter;

(5) Dismounting tools


①Circlip plier, slotted screwdriver, hexagonal wrenches;
② 350N·m torque wrench;
(6) Keep dismounting record.
3. Disassembly and Repair
I. Disassembling process
(1) Place the lift arm cylinder on the workbench (see Figure 6-10-2)

211
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Figure 6-10-2
(2) Take down the front circlip with circlip plier and take out ring and spring collar (see Figure 6-10-3)

Figure 6-10-3
(3) Draw out the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-10-4)

Figure 6-10-4
(4) Pull out the guide sleeve & piston rod assembly (see Figure 6-10-5)

212
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Figure 6-10-5
(5) Remove the seal assembly on the piston (see Figure 6-10-6)

Figure 6-10-6
(6) Remove two fixing bolts and steel balls from the piston (see Figure 6-10-7)

Figure 6-10-7
(7) Remove the piston (see Figure 6-10-8)

Figure 6-10-8
(8) Remove the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-10-9)

213
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Figure 6-10-9
(9) Remove the seal ring assembly from the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-10-10)

Figure 6-10-10
II. Repair process
(1) Clean all parts and check and replace damaged parts with new ones. For rubber sealing elements,
whether damaged or not, they shall be replaced with new ones after disassembly.
(2) Fit the seal ring assembly on the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-10-11)

Figure 6-10-11
(3) Fit the guide sleeve on the piston rod (see Figure 6-10-12)

214
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Figure 6-10-12
(4) Mount the piston (see Figure 6-10-13)

Figure 6-10-13
(5) Fit steel balls and two fixing bolts on the piston (see Figure 6-10-14)

Figure 6-10-14
(6) Fit the seal assembly on the piston (see Figure 6-10-15)

215
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Figure 6-10-15
(7) Install the guide sleeve & piston rod assembly into the cylinder body (see Figure 6-10-16)

Figure 6-10-16

(8) Mount the guide sleeve assembly into the cylinder (see Figure 6-10-17)

Figure 6-10-17
(9) Mount the flexible retainer ring and ring assembly into the cylinder (see Figure 6-10-18)

Figure 6-10-18

(10)Mount the spring with circlip plier. (See Figure 6-10-19)

216
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

Figure 6-10-19)
(11) The assembly is completed. (see Figure 6-10-20)

Figure 6-10-20

217
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 10 Lift arm Cylinder

218
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

Section 11 Bucket Cylinder


Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[214]
2 Dismounting and Installation ..........................................................................................................................[214]
3 Disassembly and Repair .................................................................................................................................[215]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
As an actuating element of hydraulic system, bucket cylinder lifts and lowers the bucket by controlling oil
feed into small and big chambers of the cylinder.
(II) Working principle
The cylinder generally comprises cylinder barrel and piston rod, and the cylinder barrel has two oil inlets
with one connected to big chamber of the cylinder (i.e., non-rod chamber) and the other connected to
small chamber of the cylinder (i.e., rod end chamber) When oil is fed into big chamber of the cylinder, the
piston rod is pushed out; when oil is fed into small chamber of the cylinder, the piston rod is taken back.
Through the said actions, the action of the mechanical device is controlled.
2. Dismounting and Installation
Tools required:
①.32 open end torque wrench (for assembling and disassembling rubber hoses);
②.27 torque wrench (for assembling and disassembling hinge pin bolts);
③.Lifting device with minimum load bearing of 1T.
The dismounting and installation of bucket cylinder are detailed below:
(1) Before dismounting the bucket cylinder, place the bucket on the ground and then drain off hydraulic oil
in the cylinder.
(2) Dismounting steps
①Remove two fixing bolts M20×40 and elastic washers for the hinge pins as shown in Figure 6-11-1 and
Figure 6-11-2;
②Remove the joint between rubber hose and steel pipe of bucket cylinder, and oil drip pans are readied
to collect leaking oil during removal; protect oil ports with clean plastic bags and make reassembly marks;
③Suspend the bucket cylinder using a lifting device with minimum load bearing of 1T, use a tool to force
out two hinge pins, and remove the bucket cylinder from the vehicle and transport it to the maintenance
site;
(3) Inspection notes
① Check if oil seal and cylinder rod are severely worn. If necessary, replace the oil seal or further
disassemble the cylinder for repair;
(4) Installation
①Hoist the cylinder above the lift arm and adjust its position. Mount the hinge pin linking the cylinder to
the moving arm before mounting the hinge pin linking the cylinder to the rocking arm;
②Install hinge pin fixing bolts M20×40 together with elastic washers;
③Join rubber hose of bucket cylinder to steel pipe and check the integrity of O ring (replacement of O ring
is recommended);
④ Check sealing surfaces and sealing elements of the pipeline and ensure their cleanliness in the

219
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

mounting process;
2 Mounting torque meets the requirement of torque meter.

Figure 6-11-1

Figure 6-11-2

3. Disassembly and Repair


(1) Put the cylinder of rotating bucket on the workbench (see Figure 6-11-3).

Figure 6-11-3
(2) Dismount the 8 bolts on the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-11-4)

220
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

Figure 6-11-4
(3) Pull out the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-11-5)

Figure 6-11-5
(4) Pull out the guide sleeve and piston rod assembly (see Figure 6-11-6).

Figure 6-11-6
(5) Remove the sealing assembly on the piston (see Figure 6-11-7)

221
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

Figure 6-11-7
(6) Remove two fixing bolts and steel balls on the piston (see Figure 6-11-8)

Figure 6-11-8
(7) Remove the piston (see Figure 6-11-9).

Figure 6-11-9

222
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

(8) Remove guide sleeve (see Figure 6-11-10).

Figure 6-11-10
(9) Remove the sealing ring assembly on the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-11-11).

Figure 6-11-11

II. Process of repair


(1) Clean all the parts and check if the parts are damaged. In case of damaged parts, replace them with
new ones. However, no matter rubber sealing members are damage or not, replace them with new ones
after dismounting.
(2) Install sealing ring assembly on the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-11-12).

Figure 6-11-12

223
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

(3) Install guide sleeve onto the piston rod (see Figure 6-11-13).

Figure 6-11-13
(4) Install piston (see Figure 6-11-14).

Figure 6-11-14
(5) Install steel balls and two fixing bolts onto the piston (see Figure 6-11-15)

Figure 6-11-15
(6) Install sealing assembly onto the piston (see Figure 6-11-16).

224
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

Figure 6-11-16
(7) Install the guide sleeve and piston rod assembly into the cylinder (see Figure 6-11-17).

Figure 6-11-17
(8) Align the thread hole position on the guide sleeve with the hole position on the cylinder (see Figure
6-11-18).

225
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 11 Bucket Cylinder

Figure 6-11-18
(9) Install 8 bolts on the guide sleeve (see Figure 6-11-19).

Figure 6-11-19
(10) Finish the assembly (see Figure 6-11-20).

Figure 6-11-20

226
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

Section 12 Priority valve

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[222]
2 Dismounting and installation .......................................................................................................................... [222]
3 Dismounting and repair ...................................................................................................................................[224]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
The priority valve is intended to ensure adequate oil supply for steering system and cause surplus oil to
flow together to the hydraulic system.
(II) Working principle
When the flow amplifying and steering unit is at the neutral position, oil released from the priority valve is
transmitted to LS opening via throttle hole inside the flow amplifying and steering unit and acts on one
side of priority valve core. Meanwhile, its oil release also acts on another side (i.e., CF opening) via
control opening inside the priority valve core. The pressure at CF opening of priority valve is greater than
the pressure at LS opening and spring force. Under the pressure at CF opening, small amount of oil left in
the priority valve flows via CF opening to the flow amplifying and steering unit, and the remaining oil
supply for steering pump flows via EF opening to the hydraulic system of the work device. When the flow
amplifying and steering unit deviates from the neutral position, the pressure at LS opening rises and the
priority valve core moves toward P opening under the influence of spring force.
As a result, oil released from EF opening decreases and oil released from CF opening increases, thus
meeting the steering requirement.
EF opening

P opening

LS opening

CF opening

Figuer 6-12-1

2. Dismounting and Installation


Tools required:
①.16-18 open end wrench;
②.350N·m torque wrench;

227
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

③.1”, 2” monkey wrench.


(1) Location of priority valve on the product Priority valve

Figure 6-12-2
①Priority valve is fitted on the left side of hinged panel on the rear frame (see Figure 6-12-2);
② It is fitted with two bolts M10×100 bolts and corresponding flat and elastic washers;
(2) Dismounting steps
①Before dismounting, flame out the engine without oil drain;
② Dismounting method 1 is dismounting the cab entirely according to cab dismounting requirement.
Method 2 is removing the left chassis from the cab inside the cab without dismounting the cab; taking
down connecting pipes of 5 joints as and then dismounting the priority valve;
③Fluid oil will leak in the dismounting process and total oil leak does not exceed 1L; oil pans are readied
for use; protect oil ports and make reassembly marks;
④Remove two bolts M10×100 and flat & elastic washers;

(3) Inspection notes


①Check if there is any foreign matter in the internal chamber of each oil port;
② Screw plugs and pressure regulating & fastening ends on valve body may not be loosened without
authorization; any adjustment shall be done by professionals only;
(4) Installation
① Pay attention to mounting directions. Oil returns port points to the inside of vehicle body; confluence
port points upward;
②Mount two bolts M10×100 and flat & elastic washers;
③Install the priority valve in place;
④Install connecting pipes of 5 joints as shown in Figure 6-12-2;
⑤Install the cab (method 1) or the left chassis in the cab (method 2) according to method 1 or method 2
adopted in the dismounting process.
NOTE:
(1) Check sealing elements in the pipeline during assembly. Replace any damaged sealing element with

228
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

new one and ensure cleanliness; pay attention to reassembly marks to avoid wrong connection;
(2) Locking torque shall meet the requirement of torque meter;

3. Disassembly and Repair


I. Disassembly
(1) Put the priority valve horizontally on the disassembly stand (see Figure 6-12-3);

Figure 6-12-3
(2) Screw off the transition joint (see Figure 6-12-4)

Figure 6-12-4
(3) Screw off the pressure valve core (see Figure 6-12-5);

Figure 6-12-5
(4) Screw off the pressure valve core seat (see Figure 6-12-6);

229
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

Figure 6-12-6
(5) Take out the spring (see Figure 6-12-7);

Figure 6-12-7
(6) Turn the valve body by 180 degrees and take off pipe plug on the other end (see Figure 6-12-8);

Figure 6-12-8
(7) Take out valve core (see Figure 6-12-9). After disassembly, parts are shown in Figure 6-12-10.

Figure 6-12-9

230
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

Figure 6-12-10
II. Repair
(1) Clean all parts with special cleaning fluid before putting them on the clean assembling stand in the
dust-free room; replace any worn or damaged part;
(2) Put valve core in the hole of valve body (see Figure 6-12-11);

Figure 6-12-11
(3) Mount and tighten pipe plug (see Figure 6-12-12);

Figure 6-12-12
(4) Put in the spring from the hole on the other end (see Figure 6-12-13);

231
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

Figure 6-12-13

(5) Put the valve body vertically and screw in the pressure valve core seat (Figure 6-12-14);

Figure 6-12-14
(6) Screw in the pressure valve core (see Figure 6-12-15);

Figure 6-12-15
(7) Mount the transition joint (see Figure 6-12-16)

232
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

Figure 6-12-16

233
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 12 Priority Valve

234
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Section 13 Steering Gear


Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[229]
2 Dismounting and installation .......................................................................................................................... [229]
3 Dismounting and repair ...................................................................................................................................[231]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
As the control element for the vehicle’s steering system, the steering gear realizes the vehicle’s
steering function through the steering wheel.
(II) Working principle
The control/amplifying valve rotator, which comprises valve core, valve bush and valve body, plays
the double role of controlling oil flow direction and amplifying the flow quantity; the cycloidal pin wheel
gear pair, which comprises rotator and stator, plays the role of measuring motor and ensures that oil
quantity of the outlet is directly proportion to the turning angle of the steering wheel; release pin and
the rotor of connected shaft linking the control/amplifying valve rotator to the cycloidal pin wheel gear
pair constitutes the mechanical feedback link; retracting spring enables the valve core and valve
bush of the control/amplifying valve rotator to override the dead band and realize precise centering.
When the steering gear is at the neutral position, oil from the priority valve returns directly from the oil
return port to the oil tank. When the steering gear deviates from the neutral position with the turning
of the steering wheel, oil from the priority valve is divided into two routes: some oil (in small quantities)
flows to the cycloidal pin wheel gear pair via the control/amplifying valve rotator, thus pushing the
rotator to turn with the steering wheel. The rate of oil flow through the cycloidal pin wheel gear pair is
proportional to the speed of the steering wheel. The faster the steering wheel turns, the higher the
rate of oil flow through the cycloidal pin wheel gear pair is, and vice versa. Other oil directly flows to
the steering cylinder via the control/amplifying valve rotator, thus pushing the vehicle frame to steer.
Flow rate is controlled by the mechanical feedback link, which comprises release pin and the rotor of
connected shaft linking the control/amplifying valve rotator to the cycloidal pin wheel gear pair. In
other words, the flow rate is proportional to the speed of the steering wheel. The faster the steering
wheel turns, the higher the flow rate is and the quicker the steering is, and vice versa.

2. Dismounting and Installation


(1) Location of steering gear on the product
Oil inlet, oil return,
Steering gear working oil pipe

Figure 6-13-1

235
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Steering column

Fixing bolts for


steering gear

Figure 6-13-2

Oil inlet, oil return,


working oil pipe joint

Mounting hole

Spider bushing

Figure 6-13-3

①Steering gear is mounted below cab chassis and joined to steering column inside the cab through pipe
saddle fitted on cab chassis (see Figure 6-13-1);
②Mount four bolts M10×85 and corresponding elastic washers;
(2) Dismounting steps
①Release the pressure before dismounting. Dismount the connecting pipelines of the 5 joints as shown
in Figure 6-13-1, and the pipeline with the smallest diameter is the feedback pipeline on the flank of the
steering gear;
② Oil leak is possible during dismounting and oil pans are readied for use; protect oil ports and make
reassembly marks;
③ The following operations are done inside the cab: remove the housing of the steering column before
taking down four M10×85 fasteners as shown in Figure 6-13-2; meanwhile, personnel outside the cab are
required to hold the steering gear to prevent the steering gear from being overturned or placed upside
down and stop the spider bushing from falling off (see Figure 6-13-3);
(3) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in internal chamber of each oil port;

236
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

②Screw plugs and pressure regulating & fastening ends of the steering gear may not be loosened without
authorization; any adjustment shall be performed by designated personnel only;
4) Installation
①Pay attention to the mounting direction of the steering gear during installation with 4 groups of oil ports
pointing to the rear side of vehicle body;
②Check if connecting paper gaskets are intact and make replacement if necessary;
③Check if the spider bushing is installed, and make sure that it is mounted in correspondence with the
flat side below the steering shaft;
④Mount four M10×85 bolts (with elastic washers) as shown in Figure 6-13-2;
⑤Mount the housing of steering column;
⑥ The following operations are done outside the cab: install the connecting pipelines of the 5 joints as
shown in Figure 6-13-1, and the pipeline with the smallest diameter is the feedback pipeline on the flank
of the steering gear.
NOTE:
①In the mounting process, check the sealing surfaces and sealing elements of the pipeline and ensure
cleanliness;
②Mounting torque meets the requirement of torque meter.
Tools required:
①.16-18 open end wrench;
②.16-18 open end torque wrench;
③.1”, 2” monkey wrench;
④.27-30 open end wrench;
⑤.350N·m torque wrench.
3. Disassembly and Repair
I. Disassembling process
(1) Put the steering gear on the workbench (see Figure 6-13-4);

Figure 6-13-4
(2)Take off two bolts from joint seat (see Figure 6-13-5);

237
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-5
3) Remove the joint seat (see Figure 6-13-6)

Figure 6-13-6
(4) Remove four seal rings from the joint seat (see Figure 6-13-7);

Figure 6-13-7
(5) Remove external end plug, copper backing and internal end plug (see Figure 6-13-8);

238
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-8
(6) Remove end plug and copper backing on the other side (see Figure 6-13-9)

Figure 6-13-9
(7) Remove four bolts on the upper end cover (see Figure 6-13-10)

Figure 6-13-10
(8) Remove the upper end cover (see Figure 6-13-11)

Figure 6-13-11
(9) Remove the joint inside the end cover linked to the steering rod (see Figure 6-13-12);

239
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-12
(10) Remove two seal rings on the upper end cover (see Figure 6-13-13)

Figure 6-13-13
(11) Remove 7 bolts on the lower end cover (see Figure 6-13-14)

Figure 6-13-14
(12) Remove the lower end cover, seal ring and gear washer (see Figure 6-13-15)

240
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-15
(13) Remove gear ring and seal ring (see Figure 6-13-16);

Figure 6-13-16
(14) Remove the gear wheel and push pipe inside the gear wheel (see Figure 6-13-17)

Figure 6-13-17
(15) Remove the seal ring assembly from the gear wheel (see Figure 6-13-18);

241
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-18
(16) Remove universal joint shaft, oil distribution disc and steel balls on the oil distribution disc (see Figure
6-13-19);

Figure 6-13-19
(17) Remove the seal ring (see Figure 6-13-20)

Figure 6-13-20
(18) Take small tubes out of the valve body (see Figure 6-13-21)

242
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-21
(19) Take the valve core assembly out of the valve body (see Figure 6-13-22)

Figure 6-13-22
(20) Take down the seal ring assembly, axial bearing and its two spacers from valve core (see Figure
6-13-23);

Figure 6-13-23
(21) Remove the neutral-position spring assembly (6 pieces) (see Figure 6-13-24);

243
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-24
(22) Remove the cross bolt from valve core (see Figure 6-13-25)

Figure 6-13-25
(23) Separate valve core from valve bush (see Figure 6-13-26)

Figure 6-13-26
II. Repair process
Clean all parts and check and replace damaged parts with new ones. For rubber sealing elements,
whether damaged or not, they shall be replaced with new ones after disassembly.
(1) Mount the valve core and valve bush (see Figure 6-13-27)

244
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-27
(2) Align the hole site of valve bush with the hole site of cross bolt on valve core, and insert the cross bolt
(see Figure 6-13-28);

Figure 6-13-28
(3) Install the neutral-position spring assembly (see Figure 6-13-29)

Figure 6-13-29
(4) Install the seal ring assembly, axial bearing and its two spacers on valve core (see Figure 6-13-30)

245
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-30
(5) Install the valve core assembly into the valve body (see Figure 6-13-31)

Figure 6-13-31
(6) Install small tubes into the valve body (see Figure 6-13-32)

Figure 6-13-32
(7) Mount the seal ring (see Figure 6-13-33)

246
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-33
(8) Install universal joint shaft, oil distribution disc and steel balls on the oil distribution disc (see Figure
6-13-34);

Figure 6-13-34
(9) Install the seal ring assembly on the gear wheel (see Figure 6-13-35)

Figure 6-13-35
(10) Install the gear wheel and push pipe in the gear wheel (see Figure 6-13-36)

247
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-36
(11) Install the gear ring and seal ring (see Figure 6-13-37)

Figure 6-13-37
(12) Install the lower end cover, seal ring and gear washer (see Figure 6-13-38)

Figure 6-13-38
(13) Install 7 bolts on the lower end cover (see Figure 6-13-39)

248
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-39
(14) Install 2 seal rings on the upper end cover (see Figure 6-13-40)

Figure 6-13-40
(15) Install the joint linked to the steering rod (see Figure 6-13-41)

Figure 6-13-41
(16) Install the upper end cover (see Figure 6-13-42)

249
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-42
(17) Install 4 bolts on the upper end cover (see Figure 6-13-43)

Figure 6-13-43
(18) Install end plug and copper backing on one side of joint seat (see Figure 6-13-44);

Figure 6-13-44

(19) Install external end plug, copper backing and internal end plug on the other side of joint seat (see
Figure 6-13-45).

250
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-45
(20) Install 4 seal rings on the joint seat (see Figure 6-13-46);

Figure 6-13-46
(21) Install the joint seat (see Figure 6-13-47);

Figure 6-13-47
(22) Install 2 bolts on the joint seat (see Figure 6-13-48)

251
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 13 Steering Gear

Figure 6-13-48
(23) The assembly is completed (see Figure 6-13-49).

Figure 6-13-49

252
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 14 Steering cylinder

Section 14 Steering Cylinder


Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[247]
2 Dismounting and Installation ..........................................................................................................................[247]
3 Disassembly and Repair .................................................................................................................................[248]

1. Structure and Functions


(I) Functions
As a control element for hydraulic system, the steering cylinder realizes left and right turn of the vehicle by
controlling oil supply to big and small chambers of the cylinder.
(II) Working principle
The cylinder generally comprises cylinder barrel and piston rod, and the cylinder barrel has two oil inlets
with one connected to big chamber of the cylinder (i.e., non-rod chamber) and the other connected to
small chamber of the cylinder (i.e., rod end chamber). When oil is fed into big chamber of the cylinder, the
piston rod is pushed out; when oil is fed into small chamber of the cylinder, the piston rod is taken back.
Through the said actions, the action of the mechanical device is controlled.

2. Dismounting and Installation


Tools required:
①.16-18 open end wrench;
②.1”, 2” monkey wrench;
③.27-30 open end wrench;
④.350N·m torque wrench;
⑤.1T crane and hoisting sling.
The dismounting and installation of steering cylinder is detailed below:
(1) Location of steering cylinder on the product

Figure 6-14-1
①This model has two symmetrical and non-interchangeable steering cylinders mounted on the left and
right side of the linkage point respectively, which both connect the front and rear frames (see Figure
6-15-1);

253
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 14 Steering cylinder

②Each steering cylinder is fitted on the front and rear frames using two hinge pins.
(2)Dismounting steps
①Before dismounting, flame out the engine without oil drain;
②Remove the pipes of the left and right steering cylinders;
③ Fluid oil will leak from the pipeline during dismounting, and oil drip pan is readied for use for oil leak
from the pipeline of each cylinder does not exceed 0.5L; protect oil ports and make reassembly marks;
④ Remove hollow bolts M10×1.5×30 fixing the lubricating pipe for steering hinge pin of the front frame,
and each link bolt has 2 spacers;
⑤Use a special steel bar (DN: <40mm) to point at the lower end face of the hinge pin and the hole and
strike with a hand hammer to force the hinge pin out;
⑥Carry down the cylinder by two persons or remove the cylinder using 1T crane with hoisting sling;
(3) Inspection notes
①Check if there is any foreign matter in the internal chamber of each oil port;
② If necessary, commissioning, pressure measurement or disassembly of steering cylinder shall be
performed by designated personnel;
(4) Installation
① Pay attention to the mounting direction of left and right steering cylinders during installation, and pay
attention to the mounting direction of steel oil inlet & outlet pipes; pay attention to different methods of
oiling of 4 groups of hinge pin for steering cylinders;
② Confirm the integrity of shaft sleeves, knuckle bearings, sealing sockets and sealing elements inside
the cylinders and replace any damaged parts;
③Hoist the cylinders to the place between front and rear frames (as shown in Figure 16-5-1) and align
mounting holes according to the requirement of symmetrical parts;
④After confirming that the hinge pin linking the front frame takes the form of hollow bolt and the hinge pin
linking the rear frame takes the form of oil cup and slightly lubricating hinge pin surface, mount the hinge
pins into shaft holes and drive them in through gentle strike; meanwhile align the pin’s position;
⑤Install hollow bolts M10×1.5×30 fixing the lubricating pipe for steering hinge pin of the front frame, and
each link bolt has 2 spaces.
NOTE:
①Check sealing surfaces and elements in the pipeline during assembly, and ensure cleanliness;
②Mounting torque meets the requirement of torque meter.
3. Disassembly and Repair
Due to high structural similarity between the steering cylinder and the lift arm cylinder, their disassembling
and repair processes are also similar. Please refer to the disassembling and repair process of the lift arm
cylinder. (see P123)

254
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 15 Hydraulic oil cooler

Section 15 Hydraulic Oil Cooler

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions ..................................................................................................................................[249]
2 Testing and adjustment ...................................................................................................................................[249]
3 Dismounting and installation .......................................................................................................................... [251]

1. Structure and Functions


The hydraulic cooler is mainly composed of oil inlet pipe, oil outlet pipe and radiator core. The hydraulic
cooler is arranged in a parallel pattern with intercooler and water tank, and the hydraulic oil is cooled via
the thermal convection of the engine fan. High-temperature hydraulic oil flows inside the pipe and
transmits the heat to the cooling fin of hydraulic oil cooler, and air flow takes away the heat to reduce the
temperature of hydraulic oil..
2. Testing and Adjustment
(I) Location of water tank and fan on the product

Fan

Water tank

Figure 6-15-1

(II) Layout plan of water tank and fan

255
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 15 Hydraulic oil cooler

Figure 6-15-2
1. Protective hood 2. Bolt for protective hood 3. Wind scooper
4. Fan 5. Water tank 6. Bolt 7. Water tank support plate

256
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 15 Hydraulic oil cooler

(III) If necessary, make the following adjustments to water tank and fan with reference to Figure 6-15-2:
①Hoist the engine to the rear frame and complete the assembly according to the section “Dismounting
and Installation”;
② Hoist the water tank 5 to the rear frame according to the section “Dismounting and Installation” and
make sure that the bolt hole in water tank support plate is aligned with the bolt hole in water tank
supporting plate 7 on vehicle frame;
③Join the water tank to the engine via water tank pull bar and at this time there is no need to tighten the
bolt on the pull bar of water tank;
④Adjust the position of water tank 5 by moving it back and forth and make sure that approximately 1/3 of
each blade of fan 4 is inside wind scooper 3;
⑤Tighten bolts on water tank pull bar and bolts 6 on water tank support plate separately;
⑥Assemble fan protective hood 1 with wind scooper wind scooper 3 via protective hood bolts 2, and pay
attention to the spacing between protective hood and motor pulley.
(IV) Inspection notes
①About 1/3 of each fan blade is inside wind scooper;
②Protective hood and motor pulley do not interfere with each other.
(V) Dismounting tools
①Monkey wrench
3. Dismounting and Installation

257
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 15 Hydraulic oil cooler

Hydraulic oil cooler

(I) Dismounting
① Prepare an oil pan and loose the bolt that tightens the rubber pipe of torque converter to release part
of the hydraulic oil, (prepare to contain the oil in the oil pan and protect the rubber pipe to prevent
pollution);
② Dismount the fixing bolt on the frame that tightens the radiator, and then dismount the radiator;
③ Dismount the bolt between the holder and core of the radiator.
(II) Instruction for examination
If oil leaks from the oil pipe, examine the thread and sealing gasket to see if they are damaged.
(III) Installation
① Install the bolt between the holder and core of the radiator;
② Lift the radiator onto the frame and then install the fixing bolt on the frame that tightens the radiator;
③ Install the bolt that tightens the rubber pipe;
④ You can choose to disassemble certain parts according to your own needs, and be sure to put the
components appropriately and keep them clean during the dismounting and installation process;
(IV) Dismounting and installation tools
① 32 open-end torque wrench;
② Straight screwdriver.

258
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

Section 16 Air Conditioning System

Table of Contents
1 Structure and Functions....................................................................................................................................[253]
2 Testing and Adjustment.................................................................................................................................... [254]
3 Dismounting and Installation............................................................................................................................ [258]

I. Structure and Functions


(I) Structure of air conditioning system assembly
(1) Compressor

Figure 6-15-1

(2) Condenser

Figure 6-15-2

(3) Evaporator

259
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

Figure 6-15-3

(II) Working principle

(1) Refrigeration

Low temperature and low pressure refrigerator gas is inhaled and compressed by the compressor into
high temperature high pressure gas, which then enters into the condenser via pipeline and is condensed
into high temperature high pressure liquid. After drying and filtration within the receiver dryer and throttling
and pressure reduction through throttling element (expansion valve), the said liquid becomes low
temperature low pressure liquid before flowing into the evaporator. After absorbing heat from the air in the
cab, the foregoing liquid evaporates into gas, which is sucked in by the compressor to enter the next
working cycle. With the repetition of such operations, the evaporator continuously absorbs heat from air in
the cab, thus achieving the refrigeration and cooling effect.

(2) Heating

The high and low pressure end of circulating cooling water of the engine are joined to inlet and outlet hose
of the radiator respectively. Whenever heating is required, open the hot water valve and turn on the air
rate switch of the air conditioning system. Circulating water from the engine is continuously circulated via
the radiator to heat the air flowing through the radiator. The fan continually offers hot air to heat the cab.

2. Testing and Adjustment

(1) Locations of air conditioning components on the product

260
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

Figure 6-15-4

Figure 6-15-5
(2) Schematic diagram of air conditioning system

261
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

5. receiver
4. condenser dryer
assembly 6. air 7. compressor
conditioning
pipeline assembly

3. evaporator
1. complete machine assembly
2. engine

Figure 6-15-6

(3) Look at Figure 6-15-6 to learn about the location of each part of air conditioning system on complete
machine

a. The air conditioning system comprises compressor, evaporator assembly, condenser assembly,
receiver dryer, throttling element, refrigeration hose, etc. The compressor is driven by vehicle engine via
belt. It is powered by the vehicle’s power supply system. Panel switch controls the temperature and air
rate of the air conditioning system. First of all, install the air conditioning system according to the
installation process described in the section “dismounting and installation of air conditioning system” of
this Manual;

b. Examine the air tightness of all air conditioning pipes and the reliability of power connection; vacuumize
the air conditioning system in the following steps;

①Connect low and high pressure joints between vacuum machine and the compressor;

②Connect the vacuum pump to power receptacle;

③Turn on the switch of vacuum pump to draw off the air from the air conditioning system (working time:
approx. 5 minutes);

④After vacuumization, remove the pipe joining the vacuum pump to the compressor and then turn off the
vacuum pump;

262
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

c. Put the control handle at neutral position, apply the hand brake, and turn off the switch of water pipe
from the engine to the air conditioning system;

d. Add refrigerant to the air conditioning system:

① Turn on complete machine, turn on the air conditioning system, and turn the switch to the maximum
position (turn the refrigeration knob also to the maximum position);

②Join the mouth of refrigerant bottle to the Freon filling machine;

③ Connect the high pressure pipe of the Freon filling machine to the high pressure joint on the
compressor, and exhaust the air from the filling machine through air vents below the high-pressure and
low-pressure gauges on the Freon filling machine; then turn on the switch of high pressure joint to add
refrigerant to the air conditioning system and remove the high pressure pipe joint until flowing refrigerant
is not found through the sight hole of the filling machine;

④Connect the low pressure pipe of the Freon filling machine to the low pressure joint on the compressor,
and exhaust the air from the filling machine through air vents below the high-pressure and low-pressure
gauges on the Freon filling machine; then turn on the switch of low pressure joint to add refrigerant to the
air conditioning system and remove the high pressure pipe joint until flowing refrigerant is not found
through the sight hole of the filling machine; then start the engine to continue adding refrigerant to the air
conditioning system, and the amount of such addition is generally 950--1200ml(the amount of refrigerant
now used by our company is 300ml/bottle, so the amount of addition is approx. 3~4 bottle) The amount of
actual addition depends on the specification of air conditioner manufacturer.

⑤ After the foregoing addition, check and verify the operation of all subsystems of the air conditioner
before flameout.

(4) Working principle of air conditioning system

Low temperature and low pressure refrigerator gas is inhaled and compressed by the compressor into
high temperature high pressure gas, which then enters into the condenser via pipeline and is condensed
into high temperature high pressure liquid. After drying and filtration within the receiver dryer and throttling
and pressure reduction through throttling element (expansion valve), the said liquid becomes low
temperature low pressure liquid before flowing into the evaporator. After absorbing heat from the air in the
cab, the foregoing liquid evaporates into gas, which is sucked in by the compressor to enter the next
working cycle.

(5) Maintenance requirement

a. Before adding refrigerant, it is necessary to vacuumize and check the quantity of refrigerating oil in the
compressor; check the tightness of belt; check the fastening of fixing bolts;

b. After adding refrigerant, observe through sight glass of liquid receiver and make sure there is no air

263
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

bubble; check the air tightness of all pipes in the air conditioning system;

c. Check the fastening of all electrical connectors and the operation of air conditioning system;

(6) Dismounting tools

a. Slotted screwdriver

b. Binding tape

c. Diagonal pliers

d. 13-15 box wrench

e. 16-18 open end wrench

f. 19-22 open end wrench

g. 22-24 open end wrench

h. 27-30 open end wrench

Adding refrigerant through high pressure joint after vehicle operation is strictly prohibited (for fear of
personal injury resulting from potential explosion of refrigerant bottle)!

3. Dismounting and Installation

Dismounting tools required:

1 13 open end wrench (for assembling/disassembling seat, machine cover plate and condenser);

2 16, 18 open end wrench (for assembling/disassembling compressor and compressor bracket)

Dismounting and installation steps of air conditioning system:

(1) Dismounting and installation steps of air conditioning system

① Remove 4 groups of rubber nails, bolts M8×25 and nuts M8 under the seat with reference to Figure
6-15-7 and Figure 6-15-8;

264
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

Figure 6-15-7

Figure 6-15-8
3 Remove the condenser (see Figure 6-15-9);

Figure 6-15-9
③ As shown in Figure 6-15-11, loosen nuts on tension device, remove the belt before taking off wire
harnesses and pipes on air compressor (remember to make reassembly marks) Take off fixing bolts and
nuts from compressor and compressor bracket and then remove the compressor.

265
Chapter 6 Main parts
Section 16 Air Conditioning System

Figure 6-15-10

(2) Installation

① Compressor installation: do the pretension of fixing bolts and nuts on compressor and compressor
bracket, and then mount the belt and adjust the tension device properly before tightening bolts and nuts.
Finally connect wire harnesses and pipes;

②Condenser installation: fix the condenser in original position, connect wires and pipes and finally mount
the machine cover plate and tighten bolts;

③Evaporator installation: fix the evaporator on cab chassis, connect the pipes and restore the seat to the
position before dismounting and mount rubber nails;

④Determine the parts to be disassembled based on actual needs. During dismounting, pay attention to
the rearrangement of components and keep them clean;

(3) Inspection notes

① Check the integrity of exhaust units of the evaporator and condenser, regularly add refrigerant and
check if compressor runs properly.

266
Chapter 7 Hydraulic Schematic Diagram

Refer to Appendix I for schematic diagram of hydraulic system


(I) Working principle of steering system:
The pressure oil from the steering pump first flows through the single circuit stabilizer valve, which
distributes the flow rate and stabilizes the flow rate of the flow direction diverter at around 30L/min, and
the excess oil is supplied to the working hydraulic system so that the change of flow rate of the flow
direction diverter caused by the change of the rotating speed of the engine is eliminated and the steering
stability and steering safety are improved.

(II) Working principle of hydraulic system

The handle of pilot valve has three control positions “Down Turn”, “Neutral”, “Up Turn” over the bucket to
control the action of bucket.

When the engine works, the control handle of the pilot valve pushes rightwards. At this time, pilot oil flows
into the rear control chamber b1 of the first linkage (i.e., bucket linkage) of the hydraulic selector valve (6)
through 1A opening of pilot valve, thus pushing the bucket valve stem to move forward. Pressure oil from
main oil pipeline enters the small chamber of bucket cylinder through the opening of the first linkage of
selector valve, thus realizing the downward turn of bucket (i.e., bucket unloading) by retraction of piston
rod of oil cylinder. When the control handle of pilot valve pushes leftward, pilot oil enters the front control
chamber a1 of the first linkage of selector valve through 1B opening of pilot valve, thus pushing the bucket
valve stem to move backward. Pressure oil from main oil pipeline enters the big chamber of bucket
cylinder through A1 opening of the first linkage of selector valve, thus realizing upward turn of bucket (i.e.,
bucket retraction). When the handle of pilot valve is at the neutral position, pilot oil in the two (left and right)
control chambers of the first linkage of selector valve is directly connected to the oil tank, and bucket valve
stem is kept at the neutral position under the influence of retracting spring. At this time, bucket oil chamber
is under the locked state.

The handle of pilot valve has four control positions “Lift”, “Neutral”, “Lower” and “Float” over the boom to
control the action of boom. When the control handle of pilot valve pushes forward, pilot oil flows into the
rear control chamber b2 of the second linkage (i.e., boom linkage) of selector valve through 2A opening of
pilot valve, thus pushing boom valve stem to move forward. Pressure oil from main oil pipeline enters the
small chamber of boom cylinder through B2 opening of the second linkage of selector valve, thus pushing
piston rod of the cylinder to retract and realizing the lowering of boom. At this time, oil in big chamber of
boom cylinder returns to oil tank via hydraulic selector valve. When the control handle of pilot valve
pushes backward, pilot oil enters the front control chamber a2 of the second linkage of selector valve
through 2B opening of pilot valve, thus pushing boom valve stem to move backward. Pressure oil from
main oil pipeline enters the big chamber of boom cylinder through A2 opening of the second linkage of
selector valve, thus pushing piston rod of oil cylinder to move forward and realizing the lifting of boom. At
this time, oil in the small chamber of boom cylinder returns to oil tank through hydraulic selector valve.

267
Chapter 7 Hydraulic Schematic Diagram

When the control handle of pilot valve continues to push forward after reaching the “Lower” position, it will
arrive at the “Float” position. At this time, the hydraulic selector valve realizes the interconnection of
working pump, oil tank and both big and small chambers of boom cylinder, and the piston of boom
cylinder is under the floating state. Therefore, the cutting edge of the bucket is able to float up and down
with different landform; when the control handle b of pilot valve is at the neutral position, pilot oil from the
two (left and right) control chambers of the second linkage of selector valve returns to oil tank. At that time,
the boom valve stem is kept at the neutral position under the influence of retracting spring, thus keeping
both big and small chambers of boom cylinder locked and stopping the action of the boom.

Under the mode of engine flameout, “lower” operation of boom and “down turn” operation of bucket: If
flameout occurs when the boom is being lifted, it is required to lower the boom slowly to the ground. At
that time, pressure oil stored in the accumulator inside oil supply valve (4) is supplied to the pilot valve (6).
When the control handle of pilot valve pushes forward to “lower” or “float” position, pilot oil enters the rear
control chamber b2 of the second linkage of selector valve, thus pushing boom valve stem to move
forward and connecting the oil port of big chamber of boom cylinder to oil tank; meanwhile, the oil
recharging valve for B2 oil port of the second linkage of selector valve is opened to conduct oil recharging
by connecting the oil port of small chamber of boom cylinder to oil tank. Under the influence of the gravity
of work device, the bucket lowers to the ground.

In order to perform “down turn” of the bucket, push the handle of pilot valve rightward to the “down turn”
position. Pressure oil stored in the accumulator inside the oil supply valve (4) enters the rear control
chamber b1 of the first linkage of the hydraulic selector valve according to the abovementioned route,
thus pushing the bucket valve stem to move forward and causing the oil in big chamber of bucket cylinder
to return to oil tank. Meanwhile, the oil recharging valve of B1 oil port of the first linkage of selector valve is
opened to connect oil port of the small chamber of bucket cylinder to oil tank. The bucket realizes the
“down turn” operation under the gravity of work device.

268
Chapter 8 Electric Schematic Diagram

Refer to Appendix Ⅱ for electrical diagram of CDM835E I.00I loader

269
Appendix I Schematic Diagram of Hydraulic System

1. Oil suction filter core; 2. Gear pump; 3. Priority valve assembly; 4. Steering gear assembly
5. Steering cylinder assembly; 6. Hydraulic multi-way valve assembly. 7. Pilot valve assembly. 8. Oil supply
valve assembly. 9. Bucket cylinder assembly. 10. Lift arm cylinder assembly. 11. Hydraulic radiator. 12.
Return oil filter core.

270
Appendix II Electrical Diagram

271
272