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Slide Slide Content Voice Over

No.
1 Electricity and Circuits
-II
2 Recall In our previous class, we have learnt about electricity and
electrical circuits. We have also learnt about various
components of an electric circuit which include an electric cell
or battery which is the source of current, an electrical device
like a bulb, an electric switch and connecting wires which are
made of metals like copper and iron.
3 But what if the metal connecting wire in an electrical circuit is
replaced with a cotton or a rubber thread? Will the bulb or any
electrical device run in such a circuit? Which materials can
complete an electric circuit? Lets find out with the help of an
activity.
4 Activity!

Let's make a tester to find out which objects or materials can be


used to connect various components in an electric circuit and
make it work. For this, we need
few connecting wires, a battery or cell, a small bulb.
Set up the circuit as shown in the figure. Leave the space for
the switch between the two wires as shown. Bring the two ends
of wires together and touch them. Do you bulb glows? Yes, and
now our tester is ready.
5 Now pick up the items given which includes a rubber eraser, a
plastic refill, a small pen spring, a pencil, a safety pin and an
iron rod, one by one and keep it in the gap such that both the
ends should touch the object. We will check whether the bulb
glows or not after each connection. In which cases the bulb will
glow?
6 We will find out the bulb will glow in case of pen spring, safety
pin and iron rod. On the other hand, it does not glow in case of
pencil, plastic refill and rubber eraser. What does it tells us?
This tells us that these materials do not allow electric current to
pass through them. On the other hands, some of them allowed
the electric current through them and make the bulb glow. So
can we differentiate these two kinds of materials?

7 Conductors of Electricity objects which allow electric current to pass through them are
objects which allow known as conductors of electricity.
electric current to pass In the previous activity, the pen spring, safety pin and the iron
through them are known rod are examples of conductors of electricity.
as conductors of
electricity.
8 Conducting materials Conductors are made of materials like silver, aluminium, iron,
Conductors are made of copper etc, which allow electric current to pass through them.
materials like These materials are generally known as metals and have lustre,
silver as we have studied in our previous classes.
aluminium
iron copper
9 Insulators of Electricity Objects which do not allow electric current to pass through
them are known as insulators of electricity.
objects which do not allow In our previous activity, we found out that the pencil, plastic
electric current to pass refill and the rubber eraser were unable to pass electric current
through them are known through them. These objects are the examples of insulating
as insulators of electricity. materials.

10 Insulating Materials Insulators are made of materials like rubber, plastic, glass,
Insulators are made of wood etc, which do not allow electric current to pass through
materials like them. These materials are composed of non-metals. Thats why
rubber non-metals are also known bad conductors or insulators of
plastic electricity.
glass
wood
11 Which objects given here, are conductors of electricity?

Inst for teacher: Ask students to identify each object one by


one and explain them why or why not the object will conduct
by naming the material they are made of.

12
Will the bulb glows in the Will the bulb glows in the following arrangement?
following arrangement?
NO , because rubber is an insulator and will not allow current
to pass through it. Thus circuit will not complete and bulb will
not glow.

13 Activity So, we now know that pencil made of wood is an insulating


material and a pencil made of wood will not conduct electricity.
But what if we sharpen the pencil from its two ends and
connect the exposed lead between the two ends of our tester?
You would be suprised to know that the bulb will glow. This is
because pencil lead is made of graphite, which is good
conductor of electricity but due to outer wood covering, the
pencil do not conducts electricity.
14 So, we have learned through which materials electric current
Is it possible for current to can pass but is it possible for current to pass through air?
pass through air?
15 Recall the tester we made in our activity earlier which we used
to test the various objects through which electric current can
pass? What happened when the space between two free ends of
wire was left empty? Did the bulb glowed in that case? No, it
did not, which tells us that air do not allow electricity to pass
through it.
Imagine what would happen if air was a conductor of
electricity!
16 Think It Over! Human skin is not made of metals. Then why do we get electric
Human skin is not made of shocks?
metals. Then why do we
get electric shocks? Ans: Though human skin is not made of metals, yet our body is
a good conductor of electrcity because of the presence of fluids
and metals largely in some form or other, which makes it
conducting.
17 Uses of Conductors So, we have learnt about conductors and insulators of
They are used to make electricity. Lets discuss their importance one by one.
• switches, electrical Conductors are used to construct electrical circuits which allow
plugs and sockets. various electrical devices to function. They are used to make
• electric wires. switches, electrical plugs and sockets.
• filaments of bulbs. They are used to make electric wires.
They are used to make filaments of bulbs.
18 Uses of Insulators On the other hands, insulators have their own importance. Their
They are used to make major use comes in protecting us from electric shocks by
• coverings of touching conducting material.
electric wires. They are used to make coverings of electric wires.
• plug and switch They are used to make plugs and switches coverings.
tops They are used to make outer insulating body of electrical
• outer insulating appliances.
body of electrical
appliances.
19 Is it safe to use this screw Is it safe to use this screw diver to mend an electrical device?
diver to mend an electrical Ans: No, there is no insulation provided in the screw driver
device? which makes safe for humans to use it in electric circuits. The
iron screw driver will allow electric current to flow through it
and reach us if no insulating handle is provided.
20 Think It Over! While making a switch using drawing pins and metal clips,
Ajay used a themocol board to fix two pins. Can he use an iron
While making a switch board in its place? Explain.
using drawing pins and
metal clips, Ajay used a Sol: No iron board can't be used because iron is an conducting
themocol board to fix two material. It will always allow current to pass through it and the
pins. Can he use an iron purpose of switch will not be served. Whether the two clips are
board in its place? connected or not, current will flow through the board and will
Explain. complete the circuit.