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Product: WHEEL LOADER


Model: 950H WHEEL LOADER JAD01884
Configuration: 950H Wheel Loader JAD00001-UP (MACHINE) POWERED BY
C7 Engine

Troubleshooting
950H Wheel Loader, 962H
Wheel Loader and IT62H
Integrated Toolcarrier Power Train
Media Number -RENR8866-08 Publication Date -01/10/2011 Date Updated -11/10/2011

i05356542

Transmission Troubleshooting
SMCS - 3030-035
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Illustration 1

Schematic for the Transmission Hydraulic System

(1) Transmission hydraulic control relief valve

(2) Torque converter

(3) Torque converter outlet relief valve (if equipped)

(4) Transmission oil filter

(5) Modulating valve (transmission clutch) for the Number 1 clutch

(6) Modulating valve (transmission clutch) for the Number 4 clutch

(7) Modulating valve (transmission clutch) for the Number 2 clutch

(8) Modulating valve (transmission clutch) for the Number 5 clutch


(9) Modulating valve (transmission clutch) for the Number 3 clutch

(10) Modulating valve (transmission clutch) for the Number 6 clutch

(11) Transmission oil pump

(12) Torque converter inlet relief valve

(13) Suction screen and magnet

(14) Oil sump

(15) Transmission lubrication

(16) Oil cooler

(A) Pump pressure tap at the transmission hydraulic control relief valve

(B) P3 Torque converter inlet pressure tap

(C) Torque converter outlet pressure tap

(D) Sampling valve for the transmission oil

(G) Pressure tap for the Number 1 clutch

(H) Pressure tap for the Number 4 clutch

(J) Pressure tap for the Number 2 clutch

(K) Pressure tap for the Number 5 clutch

(L) Pressure tap for the Number 3 clutch

(M) Pressure tap for the Number 6 clutch

(N) Transmission lubrication pressure tap

Personal injury or death can result from sudden machine movement.

Sudden movement of the machine can cause injury to persons on or


near the machine.
To prevent injury or death, make sure that the area around the machine
is clear of personnel and obstructions before operating the machine.

Personal injury can result from hydraulic oil pressure and hot oil.

Hydraulic oil pressure can remain in the hydraulic system after the
engine has been stopped. Serious injury can be caused if this pressure is
not released before any service is done on the hydraulic system.

Make sure all of the attachments have been lowered, oil is cool before
removing any components or lines. Remove the oil filler cap only when
the engine is stopped, and the filler cap is cool enough to touch with
your bare hand.

Escaping fluid under pressure, even a pinhole size leak, can penetrate
body tissue, causing serious injury, and possible death. If fluid is
injected into your skin, it must be treated immediately by a doctor
familiar with this type of injury.

Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during


performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair
of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling any component
containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Dealer Service Tool


Catalog" for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on
Cat products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

Operational Checks
Operate the machine in each direction and in all speeds. Note the noises that are not normal and
find the sources of the noises. If the machine is not operating correctly, refer to the
"Troubleshooting Problem List" below.

Make sure that you check for any service codes that have been generated before troubleshooting
a problem.

ReferenceFor more information on checking for service codes with the Caterpillar Monitoring
System, refer to Testing and Adjusting, "Using Caterpillar Monitoring System to Determine
Service Codes".

ReferenceFor more information on checking for service codes with the Caterpillar Electronic
Technician (ET), refer to Testing and Adjusting, "Using Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) to
Determine Service Codes".

ReferenceFor additional information about troubleshooting service codes, refer to Testing and
Adjusting, "Troubleshooting Service Codes".

Troubleshooting Problem List


 The transmission does not operate in any speed or the transmission slips in all speeds.

 The transmission overheats.

 There is pump noise that is not normal.

 There is noise in the transmission that is not normal.

 The transmission operates in FORWARD only.

 The transmission operates in REVERSE only.

 The transmission does not operate in FIRST SPEED FORWARD or in FIRST SPEED
REVERSE.

 The transmission does not operate in SECOND SPEED FORWARD or in SECOND


SPEED REVERSE.
 The transmission does not operate in THIRD SPEED FORWARD or in THIRD SPEED
REVERSE.

 The transmission does not operate in FOURTH SPEED FORWARD or in FOURTH


SPEED REVERSE.

 The transmission does not disengage when the transmission direction and speed control
lever (if equipped) is in the NEUTRAL position.

 The transmission does not disengage when the transmission direction control switch (if
equipped) is in the NEUTRAL position.

 The transmission will not upshift to the maximum selected gear in the Auto mode or the
Manual mode.

 Pressure is low at direction clutch pressure tap (J) when the machine is operated in
FORWARD speeds.

 Pressure is low at direction clutch pressure tap (G) when the machine is operated in
REVERSE speeds.

 Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (M) when the machine is operated in FIRST
speed.

 Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (K) when the machine is operated in
SECOND speed.

 Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (H) when the machine is operated in THIRD
speed.

 Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (L) when the machine is operated in
FOURTH speed.

 Pressure is high at direction clutch pressure tap (J) when the machine is operated in
FORWARD speeds.

 Pressure is high at direction clutch pressure tap (G) when the machine is operated in
REVERSE speeds.

 Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (M) when the machine is operated in FIRST
speed.

 Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (K) when the machine is operated in
SECOND speed.
 Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (H) when the machine is operated in THIRD
speed.

 Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (L) when the machine is operated in
FOURTH speed.

 Clutch engagement is sudden. (This symptom causes jerky shifting.)

 Clutch engagement is slow. (This symptom causes slow shifting in all gears.)

 Clutch engagement is slow in all FORWARD speeds, in all REVERSE speeds, or in any
one speed (FORWARD and REVERSE).

 The transmission neutralizer is actuated and the transmission remains engaged.

 The machine does not move and the engine lugs when the transmission is engaged.

 The engine is running and the parking brake is engaged. However, the parking brake
alarm does not sound when the transmission is shifted into the FORWARD direction or
into the REVERSE direction.

 The backup alarm does not sound when the transmission is shifted into the REVERSE
direction.

Troubleshooting
Note: In the following section, when components are referenced with a number, refer to the
schematic in Illustration 1.

ReferenceFor additional information about troubleshooting the power train electronic control
module (ECM), refer to Testing and Adjusting, "Troubleshooting Service Codes".

Probable Causes of Power Train Problems


Problem: The transmission does not operate in any speed or the transmission slips in all
speeds.

Probable causes:

1. The transmission fuse is missing or broken.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit for the transmission.

3. The system voltage is low.


4. The transmission direction and speed control (if equipped) is faulty.

5. The transmission direction control switch (if equipped) is faulty.

6. The upshift switch (if equipped) or the downshift switch (if equipped) is faulty.

7. The oil pressure is low. This symptom may be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. The oil level is low.

a. There is a restriction in the oil flow circuit or a dirty oil strainer.

a. The oil pump has failed.

a. Air leaks on the inlet side of the pump.

a. There is oil leakage inside the transmission (worn seals around the clutch piston).

a. The transmission hydraulic control relief valve (1) is not adjusted correctly. The
transmission hydraulic control relief valve is stuck open.

8. There is a torque converter failure.

9. There is a mechanical failure in the transmission.

10. Clutch discs and clutch plates are excessively worn.

11. The transmission neutralizer limit switch is not operating.

Problem: The transmission overheats.

Probable causes:

1. The coolant level in the radiator is low.

2. The machine is being used for the wrong application. There is too much torque converter
slip, which is caused by too much load.

3. An incorrect transmission gear is being used for the load that is on the machine. Shift to a
lower gear.

4. The temperature gauge is faulty.

5. The oil level is too high or too low.

6. The oil cooler or oil lines are restricted.


7. The clutch slips too much. This symptom may be caused by any of the following
conditions:

a. Low oil pressure. Refer to "Problem: The transmission does not operate in any
speed or the transmission slips in all speeds."

a. A clutch is damaged.

8. Oil flow is low. This symptom may be caused by pump wear or by leakage in the
hydraulic system.

9. There is air in the oil. This symptom may be caused by air leaks on the intake side of the
pump.

10. Torque converter inlet relief valve (12) is stuck open. This symptom causes low oil flow
through the torque converter.

11. The clutch or clutches are not fully released. (This symptom is called clutch drag.) This
symptom may be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. Clutch plates or clutch discs are warped.

a. A return spring is broken or weak.

a. A modulating valve is stuck at a partial pressure.

Problem: There is pump noise that is not normal.

Probable causes:

1. A loud noise at short intervals indicates foreign material in the transmission hydraulic
system.

2. A constant loud noise indicates pump failure.

3. There is air at the inlet side of the pump.

Problem: Noise in the transmission that is not normal

Probable causes:

1. Gears are damaged.

2. The teeth of the clutch plates are worn and/or the teeth of the clutch discs are worn.

3. Clutch plates are slipping and the clutch discs are making noise.
4. Other transmission components may be worn or damaged.

Problem: The transmission operates in FORWARD only.

Probable causes:

1. Number 1 REVERSE modulating valve (5) is inoperative.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

3. The REVERSE clutch is not engaged or the REVERSE clutch slips. This symptom may
be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. There is low oil pressure due to leaking piston seals.

a. The clutch discs and clutch plates have too much wear.

a. Clutch components are broken.

Problem: The transmission operates in REVERSE only.

Probable causes:

1. Number 2 FORWARD modulating valve (7) is inoperative.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

3. The FORWARD clutch is not engaged or the FORWARD clutch slips. This symptom may
be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. There is low oil pressure due to leaking piston seals.

a. The clutch discs and clutch plates have too much wear.

a. Clutch components are broken.

Problem: The transmission does not operate in FIRST SPEED FORWARD position or in
FIRST SPEED REVERSE position.

Probable causes:

1. Number 6 FIRST SPEED modulating valve (10) is inoperative.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.


3. The FIRST SPEED clutch is not engaged or the FIRST SPEED clutch slips. This
symptom may be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. There is low oil pressure due to leaking piston seals.

a. The clutch discs and clutch plates have too much wear.

a. Clutch components are broken.

Problem: The transmission does not operate in SECOND SPEED FORWARD position or
in SECOND SPEED REVERSE position.

1. Number 5 SECOND SPEED modulating valve (8) is inoperative.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

3. The SECOND SPEED clutch is not engaged or the SECOND SPEED clutch slips. This
symptom may be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. There is low oil pressure due to leaking piston seals.

a. The clutch discs and clutch plates have too much wear.

a. Clutch components are broken.

Problem: The transmission does not operate in THIRD SPEED FORWARD position or in
THIRD SPEED REVERSE position.

Probable causes:

1. Number 4 THIRD SPEED modulating valve (6) is inoperative.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

3. The THIRD SPEED clutch is not engaged or the THIRD SPEED clutch slips. This
symptom may be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. There is low oil pressure due to leaking piston seals.

a. The clutch discs and clutch plates have too much wear.

a. Clutch components are broken.

Problem: The transmission does not operate in FOURTH SPEED FORWARD position or
in FOURTH SPEED REVERSE position.
Probable causes:

1. Number 3 FOURTH SPEED modulating valve (9) is inoperative.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

3. The FOURTH SPEED clutch is not engaged or the FOURTH SPEED clutch slips. This
symptom may be caused by any of the following conditions:

a. There is low oil pressure due to leaking piston seals.

a. The clutch discs and clutch plates have too much wear.

a. Clutch components are broken.

Problem: Transmission clutches do not disengage when the transmission direction and
speed control lever (if equipped) is in the NEUTRAL position.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit. When the ECM detects a fault with a solenoid
coil the ECM will alert the operator and the ECM will log a fault code.

2. A direction clutch is engaged. Internal components are damaged. The piston for the clutch
is wedged in the bore. The discs of the clutch have expanded due to contamination.

Problem: Transmission clutches do not disengage when the transmission direction control
switch (if equipped) is in the NEUTRAL position.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit. When the ECM detects a fault with a solenoid
coil the ECM will alert the operator and the ECM will log a fault code

2. A direction clutch is engaged. Internal components are damaged. The piston for the clutch
is wedged in the bore. The discs of the clutch have expanded due to contamination.

Problem: The transmission will not upshift to the maximum selected gear in the Auto mode
or the Manual mode.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. The left brake pedal is not returning to the fully released position.
Problem: Pressure is low at direction clutch pressure tap (J) when the machine is operated
in FORWARD speeds.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. There is too much leakage in the piston seals of the FORWARD clutch.

3. Number 2 FORWARD modulating valve (7) is not correctly calibrated.

4. Number 2 FORWARD modulating valve (7) is contaminated.

Problem: Pressure is low at direction clutch pressure tap (G) when the machine is operated
in REVERSE speeds.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. There is too much leakage in the piston seals of the REVERSE clutch.

3. Number 1 REVERSE modulating valve (5) is not correctly calibrated.

4. Number 1 REVERSE modulating valve (5) is contaminated.

Problem: Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (M) when the machine is operated in
FIRST speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. There is too much leakage in the piston seals of the FIRST SPEED clutch.

3. Number 6 FIRST SPEED modulating valve (10) is not correctly calibrated.

4. Number 6 FIRST SPEED modulating valve (10) is contaminated.

Problem: Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (K) when the machine is operated in
SECOND speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.


2. There is too much leakage in the piston seals of the SECOND SPEED clutch.

3. Number 5 SECOND SPEED modulating valve (8) is not correctly calibrated.

4. Number 5 SECOND SPEED modulating valve (8) is contaminated.

Problem: Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (H) when the machine is operated in
THIRD speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. There is too much leakage in the piston seals of the THIRD SPEED clutch.

3. Number 4 THIRD SPEED modulating valve (6) is not correctly calibrated.

4. Number 4 THIRD SPEED modulating valve (6) is contaminated.

Problem: Pressure is low at speed clutch pressure tap (L) when the machine is operated in
FOURTH speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. There is too much leakage in the piston seals of the FOURTH SPEED clutch.

3. Number 3 FOURTH SPEED modulating valve (9) is not correctly calibrated.

4. Number 3 FOURTH SPEED modulating valve (9) is contaminated.

Problem: Pressure is high at direction clutch pressure tap (J) when the machine is operated
in FORWARD speeds.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Number 2 FORWARD modulating valve (7) is not correctly calibrated.

Problem: Pressure is high at direction clutch pressure tap (G) when the machine is
operated in REVERSE speeds.

Probable causes:
1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Number 1 REVERSE modulating valve (5) is not correctly calibrated.

Problem: Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (M) when the machine is operated in
FIRST speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Number 6 FIRST SPEED modulating valve (10) is not correctly calibrated.

Problem: Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (K) when the machine is operated in
SECOND speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Number 5 SECOND SPEED modulating valve (8) is not correctly calibrated.

Problem: Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (H) when the machine is operated in
THIRD speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Number 4 THIRD SPEED modulating valve (6) is not correctly calibrated.

Problem: Pressure is high at speed clutch pressure tap (L) when the machine is operated in
FOURTH speed.

Probable causes:

1. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Number 3 FOURTH SPEED modulating valve (9) is not correctly calibrated.

Problem: Clutch engagement is sudden. (This symptom causes jerky shifting.)

Probable causes:

1. Modulating valves (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) need to be calibrated.
ReferenceFor additional information about calibrating the modulating valves, refer to
Testing and Adjusting, "Calibration and Programming".

ReferenceFor additional information about calibrating the modulating valves, refer to


Testing and Adjusting, "Fill Time for the Transmission Clutch - Calibrate".

2. Modulating valves are unstable.

3. A speed sensor has malfunctioned.

Problem: Clutch engagement is slow. (This symptom causes slow shifting in all gears.)

Probable causes:

1. Oil pressure is low. Refer to "Problem: The transmission does not operate in any
speed or the transmission slips in all speeds."

Problem: Clutch engagement is slow in all FORWARD speeds, in all REVERSE speeds, or
in any one speed (FORWARD and REVERSE).

Probable causes:

1. The clutch pressure is low because of leaking seals on the piston for the affected speed.

2. The corresponding modulating valve is contaminated.

Problem: The transmission neutralizer is actuated and the transmission remains engaged.

Probable causes:

1. The left pedal position sensor must be calibrated.

2. The left pedal position sensor has failed.

3. The transmission direction and speed control (if equipped) is faulty.

4. The transmission direction control switch (if equipped) is faulty.

Problem: The machine does not move and the engine lugs when the transmission is
engaged.

Probable causes:

1. The service brakes are locked up.

2. The parking brake is not released or the parking brake may be locked up.
3. There is a mechanical failure in the front differential or in the rear differential.

4. There is a mechanical failure in a final drive.

5. The gears in the transmission do not turn.

a. Too many clutches are engaged.

a. There is a mechanical failure in the transmission.

Problem: The engine is running and the parking brake is engaged. However, the parking
brake alarm does not sound when the transmission is shifted into the FORWARD direction
or into the REVERSE direction.

Probable causes:

1. The parking brake alarm has failed.

2. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

Problem: The backup alarm does not sound when the transmission is shifted into
REVERSE.

Probable causes:

1. The backup alarm fuse is broken.

2. The backup alarm has failed.

3. There is a problem in the electrical circuit.

4. The transmission direction and speed control (if equipped) is faulty.

5. The transmission direction control switch (if equipped) is faulty.

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