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France between the 15th

MODULE II and early 17th centuries.


•.Notable developments
FRENCH
during the French
RENAISSANCE Renaissance include the
spread of humanism,

early exploration of the


“New World” (as France).
INTRODUCTION The development of new
•The French Renaissance techniques and artistic
was the cultural and forms in the fields of
artistic movement in printing, architecture,
painting, sculpture, music, •The reigns of Francis I of
the sciences and France (from 1515 to
literature. 1547) and his son Henry II
(from 1547 to 1559) are
generally considered the
apex of the French
Revolution.
Chateau du Close Luce,
the official residence of
Leonardo da Vinci
• The word "Renaissance"
is a French word, whose
literal translation into
English is "Rebirth". • The
word Renaissance was
first used and defined by
•The French Renaissance French historian Jules
traditionally extends from Michelet (1798–1874), in
the French invasion of his 1855 work, Histoire de
Italy. France.
• Jules Michelet defined
the 16th-century
Renaissance in France as a • His work is at the origin
period in Europe's cultural of the use of the French
history that represented a word "Renaissance" in
break from the Middle other languages.
Ages, creating a modern
understanding of Architecture
humanity and its place in • One of the greatest
the world. accomplishments of the
• As a French citizen and French Renaissance was
historian, Michelet also the construction of the
claimed the Renaissance Chateau of the Loire
as a French movement. Valley: no longer
conceived of as fortresses,
these pleasure palaces
took advantage of the
richness of the rivers and extensive gardens and a
lands of the Loire region grotte.
and they show
remarkable architectural
skill. Château de
Chenonceau(1515-1521),
designed by Philibert de
l’Orme )

• The old Louvre castle in


Paris was also rebuilt • The ascension of Henry
under the direction of IV of France to the throne
Pierre Lescot and would brought a period of
become the core of a massive urban
brand new Renaissance development in Paris,
chateau. To the west of including construction on
the Louvre, Catherine de’ the Pont Neuf, the Place
Medici had built for her des Vosges (called the
the Tuileries palace with "Place Royale"),, the Place
Dauphine, and parts of a royal palace by Louis
the Loure. XIV.

ARCHITECTURAL • The first phase of the


HISTORY 17th century expansion (c. 1661–1678)
was designed and
supervised by the
architect Louis Le Vau.

• It culminated in the
addition of three new
wings of stone (the
enveloppe), which
encompassed Louis XIII's
original building on the
• First built by Louis XIII in north, south and west.
1624 as a hunting lodge of
Cost
brick and stone, and
designed by the architect • One of the most
Jacques Lemercier, the baffling aspects to the
edifice was enlarged into study of Versailles is the
cost – how much Louis XIV revenues from the
and his successors spent province of New France
on Versailles (Canada), which, while
• Owing to the nature of part of France, was a
the construction of private possession of the
Versailles and the king and therefore
evolution of the role of exempt from the control
the palace, construction of the Parliaments.[
costs were essentially a • One of the most costly
private matter. Initially, elements in the furnishing
Versailles was planned to of the grands
be an occasional appartements during the
residence for Louis XIV early years of the personal
and was referred to as the reign of Louis XIV was the
"king's house". silver furniture, which can
• Accordingly, much of be taken as a standard –
the early funding for with other criteria – for
construction came from determining a plausible
the king's own purse, cost for Versailles. The
funded by revenues Comptes meticulously list
received from his the expenditures on the
appanage as well as silver furniture –
disbursements to artists, entrance court of the old
final payments, delivery – château, and built a
as well as descriptions and pavilion not far from the
weight of items Grand Trianon, the Petit
purchased. Trianon, designed by
AngeJacques Gabriel and
18tcentury
completed in 1768.

• At the north end of the


north wing, Gabriel also
built a theatre, the Opéra,
completed in 1770, in
time for the marriage of
LouisAuguste Dauphin of
France to the Austrian
Archduchess Marie
• In 1738, Louis XV
Antoinette.
remodeled the king's petit
apartment on the north
side of the Cour de • After his accession to
Marbre, originally the the throne, Louis XVI
made few changes to the 19thcentury
palace, primarily to the
• During the French
royal private apartments.
Revolution, after the royal
However, after Louis XVI
family's forced move to
gave Marie Antoinette the
Paris on 6 October 1789,
Petit Trianon in 1774, the
three years before the fall
queen made extensive
of the monarchy,
changes to the interior,
Versailles fell into
added a theater, the
disrepair and most of the
Théâtre de la Reine.
furniture was sold.

• Some restoration work


was undertaken by
Napoleon in 1810 and
Louis XVIII in 1820, but
the principal effort to
restore and maintain
Versailles was initiated by
Louis-Philippe, when he
created the Musée de
l'Histoire de France,
dedicated to "all the
glories of France".

• The museum is located


in the Aile du Midi (South
Wing), which during the
Ancien Régime had been
used to lodge the
members of the royal
family.
20th century
• Neglect after October
• It was begun in 1833 1789, when the royal
and inaugurated on 30 family had to leave
June 1837. Its most Versailles, and the ravages
famous room is the of war in parts of the 19th
Galerie des Batailles (Hall and 20th centuries have
of Battles), which lies on left their mark on the
most of the length of the palace and its park. •
second floor. Post-World War II
governments have sought
to repair these damages. the biggest mechanical
On the whole, they have system of its time. The
been successful, but some water came in from afar
of the more costly items, on monumental stone
such as the vast array of aqueducts which have
fountains, have yet to be long ago fallen into
put back completely in disrepair or been torn
service. down.
• Some aqueducts, such
as the unfinished Canal de
l'Eure, which passes
through the gardens of
the château de
Maintenon, were never
completed for want of
• As spectacular as they resources or due to the
might seem now, they exigencies of war.
were even more extensive
21st century
in the 18th century. The
18th-century waterworks • The Fifth Republic has
at Marly— the Machine enthusiastically promoted
de Marly that fed the the museum as one of
fountains— was possibly France's foremost tourist
attractions, with recent • In 2003, a new
figures stating that nearly restoration initiative – the
five million people visit "Grand Versailles" project
the château, and 8 to 10 – was started, which
million walk in the necessitated unexpected
gardens, every year. repair and replantation of
the gardens, which had
lost over 10,000 trees
during Hurricane Lothar
on 26 December 1999.

• The project will be on-


going for the next
seventeen years, funded
with a state endowment
of €135 million allocated
for the first seven years.

• It will address such


concerns as security for
the palace and continued
restoration of the bosquet government of the
des trois fontaines. Vinci kingdom of France, the
SA underwrote the €12 home of the French King
million restoration project Louis XIV, and the location
for the Hall of Mirrors, of the royal court.
which was completed in
2006
• Symbolically, the central
Social history room of the long
extensive symmetrical
range of buildings was the
King's Bedchamber
(appartement du roi),
which itself was centred
on the lavish and symbolic
state bed, set behind a
rich railing.
• Indeed, even the
principal axis of the
gardens themselves was
• On 6 May 1682, conceived to radiate from
Versailles became this fulcrum.
officially the seat of the
ARCHITECTURE
• The palace that we
recognize today was
largely completed by the
death of Louis XIV in 1715.
The eastern facing palace
has a U-shaped layout,
with the corps de logis
and symmetrical
advancing secondary
wings terminating with
the Dufour Pavilion on the
south and the Gabriel
• All the power of France
Pavilion to the north,
emanated from this
creating an expansive
centre: there were
cour d'honneur known as
government offices here;
the Royal Court (Cour
as well as the homes of
Royale).
thousands of courtiers,
their retinues and all the • Flanking the Royal Court
attendant functionaries of are two enormous
court. asymmetrical wings that
result in a facade of 402
metres (1,319 ft) in • The façade of the
length.[39] Encompassing original lodge is preserved
67,000 square metres on the entrance front.
(721,182 sq ft) the palace Built of red brick and cut
has 700 rooms, more than stone embellishments,
2,000 windows, 1,250 the U-shaped layout
fireplaces and 67 surrounds a black-and-
staircases. white marble courtyard.
In the center, a 3-
storey avant-
corps fronted
with eight red
marble columns
supporting a
gilded wrought-
iron balcony is
surmounted with
a triangle of lead
statuary
surrounding a
large clock, whose hands
were stopped upon the
death of Louis XIV.
• The rest of the façade
is completed with
columns, painted and
gilded wrought-iron
balconies and dozens of
stone tables decorated
with consoles holding
marble busts of Roman
emperors. Atop the
mansard slate roof are
elaborate dormer
windows and gilt lead roof
dressings that were added
by Hardouin-Mansart in
1679–1681.
PLAN OF PALACE OF Main floor plan 1.Dark
blue:Grand appartement
du roi 2.Medium
blue:Appartement
du roi 3.Light
blue:Petit
appartement du roi
4.yellow:Grand
appartement de la
reine 5.Red:Petit
appartement de la
reine
Grands
Appartements
• The grands
appartements are
known respectively
as Grand
Appartement du roi
VERSAILLES S:INTERIOR and Grand
Appartement de la reine.
• They occupied the main • Appartement du roi is a
or principal floor of suite of rooms originally
chateau neuf. set aside for the personal
• With three rooms in use of the king. • His
each apartment facing the successors used these
rooms for ceremonies as
garden to the west.
the lever And the coucher.
• And four facing the
garden parterres to the
north and the south. PETIT APPARTEMENT
• Followed Italian models DU ROI
in design.
Appartement du
roi(King’s Apartment)

• King’s private
apartment.
• Suit of rooms that were
used for the private use.
• Rooms were originally Galerei Des Glaces
arranged for Louis XIII on
the first floor, the space
was radically modified by
Louis XIV.
Petit Appartement De
La Reine

• HALL OF MIRROR
• Most celebrated room .
• Length of the gallery is
more than 70 meters.
• Queen's private
apapartment • There are 17 wide
arcaded mirrors
. • Originally arranged for
the use of Marie – . • Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun
Therese,consort of Louis painted 30 scenes as a
XIV testimony of early reign
years of Louis XIV on the
ceiling.
• The room’s
construction began in
1678 and finished in 1689.

Chapels of Versailles
• In the evolution of the
palace, there have been
five chapels.
• The current
chapel,which was the last
major building project of
Louis XIV represents one
of the finest examples of
French Baroque
architecture.
• The palace chapel is • It was perhaps the most
located in the north wing. ambitious building of
Louis XV for the chateau
ROYAL OPERA
of Versailles.
• Completed in 1770. • As
a theater it has 712 seats
located on the right bank
of the seinein Paris.

HISTORY
• Originally a 13th cent
LOUVRE PALACE fortress by Phillip ll
Augustus
LOCATION
• The chateau was
The Louvre palace is
enlarged by Charles V in
former royal palace
14th cent-sacrificed in
16th cent at
the end of
the reign of
Francis l to
make for a
new
renaissance
structure.
• West wing and part of
south wing made by
Pierre lescot were
finished
• 1564 Catherine de
medicis had philbert
Delorme build little
chateau called Tuileries.
• Jointed Louvre and
palais des Tuileries to

• 17th
cent
Louis Xlll
and
minister
Richelie
u
extende
d west
crest a roy al residence. wing by
adding domed pavillon de 400’ square. Louis XlV
horloge build the north ,east and
• Abandned as residence south parts of the central
when Louis XlV moved the courtyard
court to Versailles in
1682.
• After the demolition
of the Castle existing
on the site,Architect
Lescot started building
the left side of the
renaissance palace in
1546. Henry lV build
the Grand gallery along
the river seine. Louis
Xlll completed the
dnon wing started by
catherine medici and
also build the Richelieu
wing. Le mercier build
the Horloge pavilion,
around a courtyard of
roofing is typical of the
french renaissance style

• The glass pyramid in the


center of the courtyard is
• The Horloge pavilion in
a part of the addition to
the center of the scheme,
the museum that streches
designed by Le Mercier is
to 3 floors below the
a fine composition
central courtyard and was
derived from the high
designed by the famous
towers of the medieval
architect Pei in 20th
period and set the
century.
keynote for subsequently
build pavilions like Turgot
and Richileu. The elliptical
arches on the top floor set
among the vaulted
• The north and south segmental arched
wings enclosing the court openings set within semi-
show the vaulted denon circular arches and the
pavilion and the Richlieu oval shaped arches in the
pavilion on either side if top floor.
the pyramid . The arcaded
passage in the ground
floor is also characteristic
of renaissance
architecture.
• The 1st floor windows
are capped by triangular • The Horloge pavilion
pediments . The dormer shows the pilasters,
chimneys can be seen in cornices, arched windows,
the roof. The roof of the circular openings, caped
end pavilion is in the form by a pediment that fronts
of a truncated pyramid. the domical roof and
• This view from the finial.
louvre court clearly shows • The Richelieu pavilion
the later day baroque on the right also displays
style with cornices having Baroque features with
molding and festoons,
eloborate relief sculptures monuments displayed
and intricate moldings. there.
INTERIOR OF LOUVRE
PALACE
• The Cour Du Sphinx Built
in 1663 by Le Vau, this
small court (originally
known as the "Queen's
Court") was bordered to
the east by a new wing • Anne of Austria
featuring a pediment, to Summer Apartments
the south by the Grande
The apartment of Louis
Galerie and to the north
XIV's mother was built by
by a theater.
the architect Louis Le Vau
The western side was from 1655 to 1658 on the
closed off between 1855 ground floor of the Petite
and 1857 by Hector Galerie, which was
Lefuel, but it was not until commenced in 1566 and
1934 that a glass roof was completed under Henry
installed to protect the IV. From north to south, it
ancient Greek and Roman comprises six rooms: the
large salon, the anteroom,
the vestibule the great
study, the drawing room
and the small study, all
subsequently
interconnected.
They were converted into
a gallery when the
antiquities collection was • Salle Des Caryatides
installed in 1799, shortly
after works removed from
The new wing was built
Italy by the Revolutionary
by Pierre Lescot from
armies arrived at the
1546 to 1550 in the style
Louvre. Today, the gallery
of the Renaissance. This
houses the Roman
large room on the ground
Antiquities collections.
floor owes its name to
four sculpted female
figures – the Caryatids –
made by Jean Goujon in
1550 to support the
musicians' gallery. The
other end of the room
formed a space • The Michelangelo
surrounded by columns Gallery
used to stage the
presence of the royal
figure. The room
was transformed and
redecorated in the early
19th century and today
contains the Louvre's The Galerie Michel-
collection of Roman Angelo (Michelangelo
copies after Greek Gallery), with its
originals from the magnificent marble floor,
Hellenistic period was built in the 19th
century on the model of
the Salle des Caryatides
and served as the official
access to the Salle des
États on the first floor.
Today, the gallery houses
the Italian sculptures,
notably Michelangelo's
famous Slaves.
The Vestibule Denon, Opened in 1989 (the
which was originally the bicentenary of the French
main entrance to the Revolution), the new
museum, gives on to the entrance to the museum
Galerie Daru on the other has become the veritable
side. This is part of the symbol of the Louvre.
Department of Greek, Formal simplicity and high
Etruscan and Roman technology were the keys
Antiquities and leads to to this project conceived
the Escalier Daru (Daru by architect Leoh Ming
Staircase). Pei.
• The Hall Napoleon And The Pyramid stands
The Pyramid almost 22 meters high on
a base 30 meters wide. It

is made up of nearly eight


hundred diamond- and
triangleshaped glass
panes especially designed
by Saint-Gobain to offer
an ideal transparency.