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EE-434 Power Electronics

Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology


Topi 23460, Pakistan
hadeed@giki.edu.pk

January 17, 2019

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 1 / 23
Overview

1 Power Electronics

2 Converter classification

3 Power Electronics concepts

4 Electronic Switches
The diode

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Power Electronics (PE)

Definition
It deals with the conversion of electric power from one form to another
using electronic devices such that the power from the input is stored in
various elements (inductance and capacitance) and then released to the
load in a controlled fashion. Four basic types of power electronic circuits
are
AC-DC
AC-AC
DC-AC
DC-DC

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 3 / 23
Power Electronics (PE)

Switching
Electronic devices are used in saturation and cut-off region and therefore
they act as a switch.

Application
Everywhere around us. From mW to MW.

Why conversion
Because AC batteries and DC transformers are not available.

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Converter classification

Power electronics is used to interface the load and source.


Usually source is not in our control especially in case of renewable energy
(RE) based input.
Load is also user dependent and vary with the customer requirement.
This leaves very tight boundary conditions for a power electronic engineer.
PE circuits convert one type or level of a voltage/ current to another and
are called converters.

Input output relationship defines converter type.

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 5 / 23
Converter classification

AC input to DC output
It is called as rectifier. Average power is transferred from source to load.
DC input to AC output
It is called an inverter.
Average power flows from dc side to ac side
DC input to DC output
Also called switch mode power supplies.
AC input to AC output
Also called cycloconverters. It is used to change the level and/or frequency
of an ac signal.
Some converters can perform multiple task by manipulating circuit
designs. This may be a single stage or a multistage operation.

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 6 / 23
Power Electronics concepts

Suppose a 3V dc is required from a 9V battery source, what solutions are


possible ?
1. A voltage divider network.

Low efficiency for this case only. 33.3% efficiency.


If load changes, the output voltage will change unless the 2RL changes
proportionally.

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 7 / 23
Power Electronics concepts

2. Use a linear regulator.

Constant output is possible with load variations.


Low efficiency. Only 33.3% efficiency.
Complex in implementation

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 8 / 23
Power Electronics concepts

3. Use a switch and periodically operate it.

High efficiency because switch is a lossless device. Ideally 100%.


Output is not smooth and therefore, additional components are required.
Switch ON duration, controls the average output.
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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 9 / 23
Power Electronics concepts

The circuit output can be regulated by using a low pass filter having cut of
frequency very less than switching frequency (f0 << fs ).
Switch is replaced by semiconductor operated as switch and is turned on
and off at high frequency(fs ) to reduce the size of components.

Complete design involves application of measurements and control system


as well.
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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 10 / 23
General Characteristics
General characteristics
A switch has only two
states; on and off.
A passive switch is
controlled by the circuit
current and voltage. An
active switch can be A switch may allow unidirectional or
controlled by external bidirectional flow of current in on
circuit. state and unidirectional or
Devices are considered ideal bidirectional block of voltage in off
for simplified analysis. state.
Composite switches are made with
All switches can be
anti-series and anti-parallel (shunt
described in term of
devices conduct in opposite
quadrant of operation on I-V
direction) direction for 4 quadrant
plane[1,2 and 4 quadrant].
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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 11 / 23
Basic Switch applications

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Ideal characteristics

On resistance =0 or zero voltage drop


Off resistance = infinity or zero reverse current
The above points implies zero power loss
When ON - it conducts infinite current in both forward and reverse
direction
When OFF- blocks infinite forward and reverse voltages
It can switch instantaneously between Off-On and ON-off states.
On-off and off-on transitions are fully controllable.
It do not require power to drive or control the switch.
It can work in any ambient temperature.
In practice, switching time, energy requirement for switching action and
dependence on circuit are important parameters.
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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 13 / 23
The diode
A passive switch (no user control)
Two terminals
Single quadrant switch i.e., it blocks negative voltage and allows
current in positive direction
It is short circuit when forward biased and an open circuit when
reverse bias.
Generally it is mounted on a heat sink

Figure: Symbol, practical and ideal I-V characteristics of diode


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The diode| Dynamic characteristics
For power electronics point of view dynamic characteristics of diode are
important because power electronics switches operate at high frequency
and high current.
Diode reverse recovery current is an important feature. When diode turns
off, current becomes negative for a small time before becoming zero. This
is because minority carriers require finite time to recombine with opposite
charge to neutralize. This finite time is called reverse recovery time trr and
is typically 1µs.

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 15 / 23
The diode| Dynamic characteristics

To find the area of the charge Qrr , assume that the falling line is linear and
this forms an approximate triangle. Then, area of triangle gives the charge
value.
trr
Qrr = Irr × (1)
2
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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 16 / 23
The diode| Dynamic characteristics

For high switching circuits, trr of a diode defines the upper frequency of
the operation.
Irr flows from cathode to anode, this current flows to the source or other
elements with different current carrying capacity, so that device may have
to be carry this reverse recovery current as well.
This means the circuit device ratings increase.
Diodes can be classified in terms of soft recovery and abrupt recovery
diodes based on the value of trr .

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 17 / 23
The diode | Understanding a datasheet

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The diode | Understanding a datasheet

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The diode | Understanding a datasheet

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The diode | Understanding a datasheet

Caution
Vf falls as Tc goes high. This means it has a negative temperature
coefficient. Parallel connected diodes may not have same operating points.
So caution is required for parallel operation of diodes.[ See parallel
connection of diodes in reference book by H. Rashid]

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 21 / 23
Diode classifications

Rectifier diodes (trr ) in microsecond range. Suitable for line frequency


applications. Up to 6kV and 4.5kA
Fast recovery diodes (trr ) in 200-500 nanosecond range. Used in high
frequency applications. Up to 6kV, 1.1kA
Ultra fast recovery diodes (trr ) in 30-200 nanosecond range. Silicon
Carbide. Ultra low power loss. Highly reliable i.e., no temperature
influence on switching behavior. Very expensive.
Schottky diode.(trr ) <30ns. Very low on state loss. 100V, 300 A max.

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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 22 / 23
Diode parameters

Average forward current IFav , RMS forward current IFrms , Peak


current IF and surge current IFSM . A diode can sustain large currents
for a brief period of time. This value is for half cycle only.This is very
important for rectifiers with capacitive filters.
Breakdown or reverse voltage VRRM and forward voltage drop VF
Dynamic resistance rd
Reverse recovery time trr
I2 t rating. It is associated with protective fuse co-ordination and it is
usually given for 10ms. For safety, the fuse I2 t rating has to be less
than the diode I2 t rating.
The current ratings are only for sinusoidal currents. In case if the shape is
non-sinusoidal then these values should be calculated carefully. The
selected diode is usually based on a factor of safety for reliability.
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Engr. Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 01 Resources January 17, 2019 23 / 23