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YOGHURT

The word “yoghurt” is derived from Turkish “jugurt”, used to describe any fermented
food with an acidic taste (Younus et al., 2002). Yoghurt is a fermented milk product obtained
from the milk or the milk products by the lactic acid fermentation through the action of
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
(FAO/WHO, 1977). Yoghurt is a functional food. The functional food includes probiotics,
prebiotics and synbiotics. Probiotics can be defined as “live microbial feed supplements that
beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance” (Champagne
et al., 2005). Prebiotics as “non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by
selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the
colon”. Synbiotic is a combination of probiotics and prebiotics that “beneficially affects the
host by improving the survival and the implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in
the gastro-intestinaltract by selectively stimulating the growth and/or by activating the
metabolism of one or a limited number of health promoting bacteria” (DiRienzo et al., 2000).
The probiotic yoghurt, having probiotic effect is a fermented milk product with
adjuvant microorganisms. There is numerous advantages of consuming fermented dairy
products containing probiotic bacteria. A high population of probiotic organisms in the colon
contributes to good intestinal health. Consequently consumption of products such as yoghurt
containing viable probiotic organisms adds benefit to human gut health. Moreover, yoghurt
supplies good quality proteins, also an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium
and contains significant quantities of general vitamins. Yoghurt could be used for feeding,
owing to its higher Ca/Na ratio (Demott, 1985). Yoghurt is typically classified into the
following groups: set yoghurt, stirred yoghurt, drinking yoghurt, frozen yoghurt,
Concentrated Yoghurt, and Flavoured Yoghurt.
The fermented soy products represent an interesting alternative to the fermented milk
products. The metabolism of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) shows some differences between
soymilk and cow milk as a result of their different media compositions. The compositions of
soymilk and cow milk were found to be different with respect to the compounds which could
be utilised by the starter and probiotic cultures tested. Soy and milk based products fermented
with probiotic culture ABT5 and yoghurt culture with the addition of bifidobacteria at
different temperatures (37°C and 42°C) with the aim of shortening the fermentation time and
producing a probiotic fermented soymilk. During the fermentation and storage of the
fermented soymilk (28 days at +4°C), the changes in pH-value and viable cells count were
observed. Incubation temperature did not affect significantly fermentation time (7 h at 42°C
and 8 h at 37°C, respectively), with ABT5 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,
Bifidobacterium spp., and Streptococcus thermophilus). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus
survived poorly during cold storage and the viable cells count was under the probiotic
minimum as soon as after the first week of storage. Therefore in the consequent phase of the
experiment, soymilk was fermented at 42°C with yoghurt culture YCX11 enriched with
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12. Consequently, the fermentation time was
shortened to 4 hours whereby the viable cells count of bifidobacteria increased during
fermentation for the half of the logarithm scale approximately. During 28 days of cold
storage, bacterial count remained constant and above 107 cf u/ml.
Influence of dietary fiber addition on the properties of probiotic yogurt in this study,
the effects of using dietary fiber barley and oat β-glucan as a prebiotic on the viability of
Bifidobacterium bifidum in probiotic yoghurt and properties of yogurt during storage were
investigated. The survival of B. bifidum was within biotherapeutic level (> 7 log cfu/g) as a
result of the prebiotic effect of barley and oat based β-glucan. Probiotics can be defined as
living microorganisms that have proved beneficial effects on health of the host and that
improve the intestinal microbial balance.
Generally accepted that in order to appreciate the therapeutic effects, the probiotic
foods should have a minimum concentration of > 107 log10 cfu viable cells per mL or g of
product at the point of consumption. β-glucan, an alternative prebiotic, is also dietary fiber.
Both fiber and probiotics are well known for their beneficial health effects, and together they
may constitute a good source of functional foods. In conclusion, supplementation of β-glucan
in yogurt was found to improve the viability and metabolic activity of B. bifidum by
displaying a prebiotic effect and can be an alternative for development of cereal-based
functional dairy products.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Medeiros, A. C., Souza, D. F. and *Correia, R. T. P..(2015). Effect of incubation temperature,


heat treatment and milk source on the yoghurt kinetic acidification.International Food
Research Journal 22.vol.2,1030-1036.

Aswal, Priyanka;Shukla, Anubha; Priyadarshi, Siddharth.(2012). YOGHURT:


PREPARATION, CHARACTERISTICS AND RECENT ADVANCEMENTS. An Online
International Journal Available.vol.1.32-44.

HORÁČKOVÁ1, Šárka;MÜHLHANSOVÁ1, Andrea; SLUKOVÁ2, Marcela ; SCHULZOVÁ3,


Věra and PLOCKOVÁ1, Milada.(2015).Fermentation of Soymilk by Yoghurt and Bifidobacteria
Strains.Food Microbiology and Safety.vol.4.313-319.

Ozcan, T. and Kurtuldu, O.(2014). Influence of Dietary Fiber Addition on the Properties of
Probiotic Yogurt. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, Vol. 5. No.
5

Božanic, Rajka; Lovković, Sandy ;and Jeličić, Irena.(2011). Optimising Fermentation of


Soymilk with Probiotic Bacteria. Czech J. Food Sci. Vol. 29,No. 1: 51–56