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Chemistry  the study of matter Composition/Constituents:
Matter  anything that occupies space & has mass
(1) composition Matter
(2) structure
(3) changes that matter undergoes Pure Impure/ Mixture
(4) energy involved in such changes
 composed predominantly of atoms, molecules, ions Elements Compounds Homogenous Heterogenous
 interconvertible w/ energy
▪ Mass  refers to the amount of matter present in the material Law of Solution
▪ Weight  Mass x pull of gravity Definite Suspension
Units of Measurement Proportion Colloids
Fundamental Quantity SI Unit
Law of
- Length - Meter (m)
- Mass - Kilogram (kg)
- Time - Seconds (sec)
- Temperature - Kelvin (K) Classification of Matter:
▪ Element simplest form of matter
Properties of Matter 1 kind of material or atom
(1) Intensive/ Intrinsic  mass independent
 has definite chemical composition
 are characteristics of any sample of the  cannot be decomposed by simple physical/ chemical
substance regardless of the shape or size of the
means into two or more different substances
▪ Compound  substance composed of two or more elements unites
Examples: *Density *Melting point
chemically in definite proportion
*pH *Freezing point
cannot be changed into sipler substance under normal
*Color *Sublimation temperature
laboratory conditions
*Concentration *Optical activity
Law of Definite  Elements combined in fixed ratios of
*Boiling point
Proportions whole numbers to form compounds
(2) Extensive/ Extrinsic  mass dependent
 states that the elemental composition of a
Examples: *Volume
pure compound is always the same
 same w/ Law Constant Composition
*Heat content
*Temperature Law of Multiple Elements combined in different ratios of
Proportions whole numbers to form different
Changes that Matter undergoes:
(1)Physical Change  change in phase ▪ Mixture  composed of two or more elements/ substances which
(2)Chemical Change  in both intrinsic & extrinsic properties are not chemically combined
Evidences of Chemical Change:
*Evolution of Gas Classification of Mixture
*Formation of a precipitate ▪ Heterogenous  two or more distinct phases
*Emission of light ▪ Homogenous only one phase or single phase
*Generation of Electricity -Solution uniform mixture
*Production of Mechanical Energy composed of solute & solvent
*Absorption/liberation of Heat wherein atoms, molecules or ions of the substance
become dispersed
Physical State/ Phase -Suspension  homogenous dispersion insoluble in a liquid
a. solid  (lowest) aka Coarse Mixture
b. liquid  finely divided solid materials distributed in a
c. gas  (highest) liquid
d. Plasma  aka “Mesophase”, “Liquid Crystals” -Colloids contain particles bigger than those in solutions but
 has solid like properties smaller that those in suspension
 resemble those of a crystal in the formation of loosely particle of solute are not broken down to the size of
ordered molecular arrays similar to a regular crystalline the molecules but are small dispersed throughout
lattice & anisotropic refraction of light the medium.
-Crystal lattice  ordered arrangement of atoms  exhibit the light scattering effect
-flow properties Properties of Colloids
-LCD  liquid crystal display 1. Tyndall Effect  light scattering effect
Two main types of Liquid Crystals: 2. Brownian Movement  zigzag movement of colloidal
-Smectic (soap- or grease-like) particles
-Nematic (thread-like) 3. Electrically charge
Six Distict Crystal System: Electrophoresis  Gel-electrophoresis
1. Cubic (sodium chloride) SDS-PAGE
2. Tetragonal (urea) (used to separate
3. Hexagonal (iodofrom) protein & nucleic acids)
4. Rhombic (iodine) -Cathode () reduction takes place
5. Monoclinic (sucrose) -Anode (+) oxidation takes place
6. Triclinic (boric Acid) 4. Adsorption
Other Laws of Chemical Changes: 5. Saponification  a reaction between an alkali & fats/ oils forming
Law of  In a chemical reaction, the total mass of soap & glycerol
Conservation of reactant is equal to the total mass of 6. Fermentation  action of bacterial/ microorganism on organic
Mass products or mass is neither created nor substances resulting to the production of alcohol.
destroyed in any transformation of matter.
 by Antoine Van Lavoisier Nuclear Change  chance in the structure of properties,
Physical Changes/ Phase Transformation composition of the nucleus of an atom
resulting I \n the transmutation of the
element into another element
Nuclear Fission  splitting of a heavy atom
Nuclear Fusion  union of 2 light atoms to form a bigger

Types of Chemical Reactions:

(a) Direct Union/ Synthesis/ Composition  involves the formation of
Combustion  chemical combination with oxygen
Metal oxides = basic
Nonmetal oxides = acidic
(b) Decomposition/ Analysis  breakdown of complex substances into
simpler substance.
Electrolysis  causing chemical change by passing electricity
through conducting solution
Ex: H2O electrolysis H2 + O2
(c) Single Replacement: A + BC  B + AC
Na + HCl  H2  + NaCl
Li  most reactive metal
Li + NaCl  Na + LiCl
Na + LiCl  
Changes of State: Au  least reactive metal
1. Melting  from solid to liquid, usually caused by heating. (d) Double displacement/ Metathesis: AB + CD  AD + CB
2. Solidification  from liquid to solid of a substance which is a solid at Ex: NaCL + AgNO3  AgCl + NaNO3
room temperature & atmospheric pressure. Neutralization  the reaction between acid & a base
3. Freezing  from liquid to solid, caused by cooling a liquid. to form salt & water
4. Boiling  from liquid to gaseous (vapor) at a temperature called a. Acid + Base  Salt + Water
boiling point. b. Metal Oxide + Acid  Salt + Water
5. Evaporation  from liquid to gaseous (vapor) due to the escape of c. Nonmetal Oxide + Base  Salt + Water
molecule from the surface. d. Metal Oxide + Nonmetal Oxide  Salt
Vapor  refers to the gaseous phase of a substance, which is e. Ammonia + Acid  Ammonium salt
normally liquid or solid at room temperature. (e) Redox
6. Liquefaction  from gas to liquid at a substance which is gas at Oxidation Reduction
room temperature & pressure. It is caused by “VI LEORA” “VD LEORA”
cooling & increasing pressure.
 Half reactive which  Gain of Electrons
7. Condensation  from gaseous to liquid, of a substance which is a
involve loss of
liquid at room temperature & pressure. It is
naturally caused by cooling.
8. Sublimation from solid to gaseous on heating, & from gaseous  oxidation state/   oxidation state/
directly to solid on cooling. valence valence
9. Deposition  direct transition from vapor state to the solid state  Removal of  Removal of Oxygen;
hydrogen; Addition Addition of Oxygen
Process of Separating Components of Mixture: of Oxygen
1. Decantation  Difference in Specific Gravity  Reducing Agent  Oxidizing Agent
2. Distillation  Evaporation & then condensation Ex: Na  Na + e Ex: Cl2 + 2e  2Cl
3. Magnetic separation  for metals MnO4 (violet/ pink) acidic Mn2+ (colorless/discoloration)
4. Sorting  mechanical separation; darbling basic/ neutral MnO2  (brown ppt)
5. Filtration  solid to liquid
6. Centrifugation  speeding up of settling process of a precipitate
7. Functional Crystallization  lowering of temperature so that the
more insoluble component crystallizes
out first.
9. Chromatography  difference in solvent affinity

 Process involved in Chemical Change:

1. Combustion  chemical union of oxygen w/ another substance
2. Reduction  oxygen is removed from compound or H is added
3. Neutralization  acid reacts with a base to form salt & water
4. Hydrolysis  reaction of water on a salt forming an acid and base
Rate of Hydrolysis depends on: pH of the solution
Structure of Atoms: Electrons:
 Democritus  “Matter composed of tiny particles called Atomos”  Electrons  are located in electron clouds or energy level.
Atomos  Greek word , meaning-(not to be cut or to be divided) 1. Orbitals  region in space where the probability of finding an
 John Dalton  “atoms” electron is greatest
 Theory: The Billiard Ball Model -1s  spherical Hybridization of Orbitals:
- Sp3  hybrid orbital
 Atom is a hard indestructible sphere. -3p  principal - Sp2  double bond
 was disproved when -5d  dumbed - Sp  triple bond
Subatomoc Particles discovered. -Quantum numbers
-Electron () Thompson 2. Electron Shell  one or more orbitals of varying shapes
-Proton (+) Goldstein 3. Electron Configuration  groups of numbers which shows the
-Neutron (neutral)  Chadwick & Urey arrangement of the electrons in an atom.
 Thompson  Model: The Raisin-bread Model 4. Valence Electrons  electrons occupying the outermost shell
2 2 6 2 6 2 10
The Plum-pudding Model Ex: 30Zn = 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d (Ve is from 2nd to the last)
 “An atom is a sphere of positive particles” ▪ Paramagnetic  unpaired electrons
Rutherford  disproved the Thompson’s Theory (after 5 years) ▪ Diamagnetic  all the electrons are paired
 Experiment: The Gold Foil/ Film Experiment 5. Electron Energy level  are composed of sublevels, which in turn
99% passed consist of orbitals
<1% deflected Quantum Numbers:
According to him: (Proposal) Symbol Values
▪ Atom is mostly an empty space (99& 1. Principal n 1, 2, 3, 4
passed) n=1 K shell
▪ Most of its Mass & (+) particles are n=2 L shell
concentrated in the nucleus (<1% n=3 M shell
deflected) n=4 N shell
▪ Contains very small nucleus & in the
nucleus there is protons & 2. Angular Ɩ 0 n=1 # of Total # of
neutrons. Momentum/ orbitals electrons
▪ Electrons are scattered around the possible
Azithmutal n=1; Ɩ=0
Ɩ=0 -s subshell 1 2
nucleus. n=2; Ɩ=0,1 Ɩ=1 -p subshell 3 6
 Model: Nuclear Model n=3; Ɩ=0,1,2 Ɩ=2 -d subshell 5 10
Niel Bohr  Model: Planetary Model Ɩ=3 -f subshell 7 14
“Electrons move around in the circular paths 3. Magnetic m/mƖ 1, 0, +1
called orbitals, wherein the energy of orbitals is
n=1; Ɩ=0; m=0
Erwin Schrodinger  Model: The Quatum-Mechanical Model
n=2; Ɩ=0,1; m=0
“Electron moves in a 3D space/structure,
m= 1, 0, +1
which is called electron cloud (e cloud).”
n=3; Ɩ=0,1,2; m=0
Ion  charged Atom
m= 1, 0, +1
▪ Atomic Number  always equal to the number of protons
 always equal to the number of electrons (if neutral) m= 2, 1, 0, +1, +2
▪ Mass Number (Atomic Mass)  sum of Protons + Neutrons 4. Spin s/mS ½ or + ½
 Electrons + neutrons (if neutral) 2 2 6 2 6 2 10
 Atomic number + neutrons Ex: 30Zn = 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
Neutral = #protons = #electrons n = 3; Ɩ=2; m= 2, 1, 0, +1, +2; s = = + ½
(+) = #protons > #electrons  main energy level/ shell  sublevel/subshell  orbitals
() = #protons < #electrons Functions
Charged = #protons + #electrons 1. Principal  Total energy of electron (n  energy)
(+) ()  Size of electron cloud (  size)
 Main energy level or shell
Example:  Describes the relative position of an energy level w/
- Electron number (z) respect to the other nergy level present
- Electrons mass (A) 2. Angular Momentum/  Shape of electron cloud
Azithmutal  Subshell/sublevel
- Z Symbol
# Protons # Electrons # Neutrons 3. Magnetic  Orientation of the space of electron cloud
23  Orbitals
11 Na 11 11 12  Direction of the spin or rotation
24 2+ 4. Spin
12 Mg 12 10 12
32 2
16 S 16 18 16 Principles:
Pauli’s Exclusion Principle
Isotopes  same elements, same 3 of protons,  No two electrons can have the same set of quantum number
different # of neutrons  Each atomic orbital can only accommodate 2 electrons (Ex: 1s )
 same atomic #; different mass number Aufbau/ Building Up Principle
 Classes: (1) Stable  energy: Lower  Higher (lower energy levels are filled up first)
(2) Unstable or Radioactive Isotopes  the higher the n value, the higher the energy level
Isobars  different elements, same mass #  4s: (n+Ɩ) = 4+0 = 4 (energy level)
Isotones  different elements, same # of neutrons Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity
Negatron  neutron converts to proton  orbital are filled up singly before pairing up.
Positron  protron changes to neutron Heisenberg Uncertainty
▪ Allotropism It is impossible to determine simultaneously the momentum &
Allotrope  atoms of different elements can link together in different position of an electron.
ways to form substances with different properties.
Periodic Table:
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier
 Father of Modern Chemistry
 first true periodic table  Summary: Periodic Properties
Base on classes: Gases Metals Minerals TB LR
Oxygen Fe Chalk 1. Atomic Size/  
Nitrogen Co Silica Atomic Radius
Chlorine Cu 2. Ionization Energy Potential  
Dobereiner (Johann Dobereiner) 3. Electron Affinity  
 proposed the Law of ”TRIADS” based on physical & chemical 4. Electronegativity  
properties of elements. 5. Metallic Property  
Li, Na, K, Non-metallic Property  
Ca, Ba, Sr,  TB   Metallic Property & Atomic size
S, Sc, Tc
 LR   Metallic Property & Atomic size
Newlands (John Newlands)
 “octaves” (set of eight)
Periodic Properties:
Meyer & Mendeleev (Lothar Meyer & Dmitri Mendeleev)
1. Atomic Size: w/ in Group (TB) = atomic size/ atomic radius
First Periodic Law
w/ in the Period (LR) =  atomic size/ atomic radius
“The Physical & Chemical Properties
2. Ionization Energy Potential  is amount of energy required
are periodic functions of their atomic weight”
to remove en electron from a neutral
Moseley (Henry Moseley)
atom to convert it to positively charge
 elements are arranged based on atomic numbers
 increasing atomic number
TB =  IP
LR =  IP
Noble Gases  very high IP
3. Electron affinity  is the amount of energy release when a neutral atom
accepts an electron in its outermost shell to convert
it to negatively charge ion.
 is the energy change that occurs when an electron is
added to a gaseous atom because it measures the
attraction of the atom for the added atom
TB =  EA
LR =  EA
4. Electronegativity  the tendency of an atom to attract electrons to
itself when its chemically combined w/ another
TB =  EN
LR =  EN
Halogens  very high EN (F> O> N ≉Cl)
5. Metallic Property: TB =  metallic property
(4f) 1st 14 elements LR =  metallic property
= Lanthanoids/ Lanthanide series/ Rare Earth Metals Nonmetallic Property: TB =  nonmetallic property
th LR =  nonmetallic property
= 57-70 element
Metalloids  directly below the ladder
(5f) 2 14 elements
are elment possessing both metallic & nonmetallic
= Actinoids/ Actinide Series/ Heavy Rare Earth Metals
th in character
= 89-102 element -Boron
Group/ Family: Column; Top to Bottom (18 groups/families) -Germanium
Period: Row; Left to Right (7 periods) -Arsenic
Family A Family B -Antimony
Representative Elements Transition Elements -Tellurium
s & p blocks d & f blocks -Polonium
Group IA  VIIIA Group IB  VIIIB

Diagonal/Bridge Element  closely resembles the second member of

an adjacent group to the right
2 2 6 2 3
15P = 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
= period number (highest n value): 3
= p block
= Family A
= Group number (# of valence electrons): 5
Chemical Bonding:
Chemical bonds= stability= e configuration as noble gas
Example:  Forces of Attraction:
2 INTRAmolecular  forces within a molecule
2He = 1s
= noble gas: valence shell configuration a. Covalent Bond  made by sharing electrons
2 6
of ns np stable octet, 7 valence electrons -Nonpolar [Cl2, CO2, CCl2] –no significant diff. of EN
-Polar [HCl, HCHO] –has significant dif. of EN
 completely filled atomic orbitals
b. Ionic bond  affinity between oppositely charged particles
1. Electron Transfer  usually occur between a metal/ metalloid
 present in salts/ ionic compounds
& a nonmetallic
 forces that hold ions together in the crystal
 metal/ metalloid + nonmetal
lattice of a salt
Cation(+) + anion() = Ionic Bonding
2 2 6 1 INTERmolecular forces hold molecules together
Example: 11Na : 1s 2s 2p 3s 1. VAN DER WAALS
+ 2 2 6
Na : 1s 2s 2p = Ne 1. London Dispersion Forces (LDF)
2 2 5 
9F : 1s 2s 2p + e  aka Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole
 2 2 6
F : 1s 2s 2p = Ne  bond between nonpolar molecules (no charges)
2. Electron Sharing  nonmetal molecules  weakest bond
 Covalent Bonding 2. Dipole-dipole or Permanent Dipole
Example: H2 = 1H + 1H  aka Keesom Orientation FOrce
1s1 1s1  operate on polar or dipole molecules
Overlapping of Atomic Orbitals  Molecular Orbitals  stronger than LDF
1. head-on  sigma () m.o./ bond lies along the line 3. Dipole- Induced Dipole
2. lateral sideways  pi() m.o./ bond formed from overlap of p  aka Debye Induction Force
orbital  bond between a charged (dipole) and an uncharged
-anode  a region in space where there is a zero particles (induced dipole)
probability of finding an electron 2. Hydrogen Bonding
  bond  single bonds  bond of Hydrogen with a highly electronegative atom of
 bond multiple bonds another molecules
 special type of dipole-dipole interaction.
Sigma bonds ()  molecular orbitals are symmetrical about H  attached to highly electronegative atoms (N, O, F)
the bond axes. H-bond  D-D  LDF
 
Pi bonds ()  subject to addition reaction (ex: 1-pentene)
relative strength
subject to addition nucleophilic (ex: Ethanal)
3. Ion-ion, Ion-dipole, & ion induced dipole
 (+) & () interaction in the solid sate
 strongest bond
 similar atoms Solid Liquid Gas
Volume Definite Definite Indefinite
Non –polar  except for CH (still belongs) Shape Definite Indefinite Indefinite

Covalent  equal sharing of e Strength of IFA Strongest Strong Weakest
Bond  dissimilar atoms (Intermolecular Ideal Gas:
Polar  forced of Attraction) No IFA
 unequal sharing or e
 dipole Molecular Motion Vibration Gliding Constant
CCl4 CHCl3
 molecule: non polar  more polar than CCl4
Kinematic Molecular Theory  explains the phases of matter based on
 bond: polar
the movement (including direction) of
molecules, ions, or atoms.
H2O: Polar molecule
Polar Bond
Solutions  homogenous mixture of single phase system of two or more
-Solute  lesser amounts
 solid, liquid, gas
-Solvent  greater amounts
 liquid, solid, gas
Alloys  an example of solid homogenous mixture

Factors affecting Solubility:

1. Nature of Solute & Solvent
(Polarity): Like dissolve like
Solubility  maximum amount of solute expressed in grams that
can be dissolved in 100g of water Methods of Expressing Concentration of Solutions:
Miscibility  ability of one substance to mix with another 1. %𝑤/𝑤 =
𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
substance (ex: liquid-liquid; liquid-gas) 100𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑚𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
2. Temperature 2. %𝑣/𝑣 =
100𝑚𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
temp: sobility of solid in liquid 𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
temp:  solubility of a gas in liquid 3. %𝑤/𝑣 =
100𝑚𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
Exothermic  solubility: temperature 𝑚𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
4. 𝑚𝑔 % =
Endothermic  solubility: temperature 100𝑚𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
HCl : f=1
Standard Temp: 0C (273K) 5. Molarity (M)
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 H2SO4: f=2
3. Pressure (affects Gases only)
Henry’s Law of Gas solubility  solubility of gas: pressure 𝑀= H2PO4: f=3
𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 CH3COOH: f=1
SI unit for pressure: Pascal (N/m ) 𝑤𝑡/𝑀𝑊
= NaOH: f=1
4. Particle Size/ Surface Area 𝐿 Mg (OH)2: f=2
particle size: surface area: solubility 6. Molality (m)  more accurate AL(OH)3: f=3
5. Presence of Salts 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 NH3: f=1
Salting-out  presence of salt decreases solubility 𝑚=
 precipitation of an organic substance from a 𝑘𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝑤𝑡/𝑀𝑊 F=total positive/ total negative
saturated solution when highly soluble salts. = charges
Salting in  presence of salt increases solubility 𝑘𝑔
NaCl: f=1
*Basic or Sub salt  is prepared by: 𝑤𝑡/𝑀𝑊
= MgO: f=2
Partial hydrolysis of a normal salt 𝐿 Ca3(PO4)2: f=6
Partial Neutalization of a hydroxide 7. Normality (N) K3C6H5O7: f=3
Types of Solution According to the Solubility of the Solute: 𝑁 =𝑀 ×𝐹 = 𝐹 Oxid-agent: f=3 of e gained
 Saturated Solution  solution achieved the maximum solubility 𝐿
MnO4 H Mn
+ 2+
 Unsaturated Solution  less solvent that solute
 Supersaturated Solution  more solvent that solute 𝑀𝑊 F=5
𝑀𝑒𝑞 𝑤𝑡/
𝑁= = 𝐹 OHMn2
𝐿 𝐿 F=3
𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 Redu-agent: f=# of e lost
𝑁= 2+ 3+
𝐿 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 Fe  Fe
Colligative Properties Gas Laws (PV=nRT)
1. Vapor Pressure Lowering  the addition of a non-volatile solute lowers 1. Boyle’s Law  Volume is inversely proportional to pressure
the VP of the liquid  nonlinear relation for volume & pressure
 A liquid in a closed container will established an equilibrium 𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2
with its vapor. Constant: n, R, T
Variable: P, V
 When equilibrium is reached, the vapor exerts a pressure
Relationship: Inverse
(vapor pressure)
2. Charle’s Law  Volume is directly proportional to
 Volatile  exhibits vapor pressure temperature (Kelvin), 273Kstandard
 most use Lower Temperature Zone 𝑉1 𝑉2
 Nonvolatile  no measurable vapor pressure =
𝑇1 𝑇2
Raoult’s Law  is applied in the determination of vapor pressure Constant: P, n, R
P= (1x Xsolute) P Variable: V, T
 lowering of a vapor pressure of a solvent is equal to Relationship: Direct
the product of the mole fraction of the solute & vapor 3. Avogadro’s Law  Volume is directly proportional to moles
𝑉1 𝑉2
pressure of the solvent. =
 follow ideal solution 𝑛1 𝑛2
Constant: P, R, T
 ?P=P of pure solvent x mole fraction of the solute
Variable: V, n
2. Boiling Point Elevation Relationship: Direct
Boiling Point  equilibrium between the liquid & the gas, point at Avogadro’s Number: 6.02 x 10

which the VP equals atmospheric P. 4. Combined/  combination of Boyle’s, Charle’s, Avogadro’s

3. Freezing Point Depression Ideal Gas Law 𝑃1 𝑉1 𝑃2 𝑉2
Presence of salt/ solute will cause lowering of freezing point 𝑛1 𝑇1 𝑛2 𝑇2
Ice cream making Ideal Gas  exist at STP
?FP = kfm T= OC / 273 K
Freezing point of water is 0C P= 1 atm
= 760 mmHg
Kf= 1.86C/m
N= 1 mol
4. Osmotic Pressure V= 22.4 L
Pressure needed to prevent osmosis Ideal Gas Constant: R
Osmosis  net movement of solvent molecules through a R= 0.08205 Latm/ mol k
semipermeable membrane from a more dilute solution to R= 8.314 J/mol k
a more concentrated solution R= 1.987 cal/mol/k
 lower to higher concentration of solute 5. Dalton’s Law  State that the Pressure exerted by a mixture
of Partial Pressure of gasses (non-reacting gases) is the sum of
Reverse Osmosis  move under high pressure from more
the partial pressures that each gas in the
concentrated to less concentrated
mixture exert individually
 process of water purification  gaseous mixtures
𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑎 + 𝑃𝑏 + 𝑃𝑐 … 𝑃𝑥
6. Gay-Lussac’s law  Pressure is directly proportional to
or Amonton’s Law temperature, if V is constant
7. Clausius-Clapeyron 𝑃2 ∆𝐻𝑣 (𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )
𝑙𝑜𝑔 =
𝑃1 2.303 𝑅𝑇2 𝑇1
Where: P= Pressure
T= Temperature
Hv = heat of vaporization
R= gas constant + 8.314 J/molK
 Latent heat  heat required for phase
transition to happen.
-Hf  heat of fusion (S⇌L)
-Hv  heat of vaporization (L⇌G)
-Hs  heat of sublimation (S⇌G)
8. Grahams Law  The rate of the effusion of two gases (&
diffusion) are inversely proportional to the
square roots of their densities providing the
temperature & pressure are the same for two
𝑅1 𝑀𝑊1
𝑅2 𝑀𝑊2
Diffusion  gradual mixing of molecules
of one gas w/ the molecules of
another gas by virtue of their kinetic
Effusion  passage of a gas under
pressure through a small opening
Acids & Bases General Properties:
Electrolytes  Allow conductase of electricity ACIDS  sour taste
 WEAK electrolytes: Incomplete/PartiaI dissolution  Litmus: Blue to Red
Poor electric conductor  aqueous solutions conduct electricity
 STRONG electrolytes: Strong acids & bases  reacts with metal to produce Hydrogen gas
Complete dissolution reacts with carbonate & bicarbonate
Best electric conductor to produce Carbon dioxide gas
Non-Electrolytes  will not dissociate, will not conduct electricity  turns colorless w/ Phenolphthalein
 do not ionized in water  turns pink w/ methyl orange indicator
Most common acids:
Acid-Base Theory Strong Acids Weak Acids
Arrhenius yield H+ yield OH HBr
Bronsted-Lowry proton donor proton acceptor HI
Lewis e- acceptor e- donor HNO3 H2SO4
Oxyacids HClO4 H2PO3
Arrhenius Theory  water ion theory of Acidity HOXO –halous acid
Bronsted-Lowry  H (hydronium ion) BASES  bitter taste
 conjugate acid-base pairs  Litmus: Red to blue
 protonic concept  aqueous solutions conduct electricity
+  feel slippery
elaborated as HA <-> H + A
 Pink to Violet color w/ Phenolphthalein
 natural direction of a bronsted-lowry acid-base
 Yellow w/ Methyl orange
reaction: SA+SB WA+WB
+ Most common bases:
 H30  strongest acid in aqueous solution
Strong Bases
Lewis Theory  coordinate covalent bond
Heavy metals + chelating agents (2or more donor atoms) Alkali Metal
EDTA -^ donor atoms (hydroxides)
Chelates (cage-like structures)
Alkaline Earth Be(OH2)
Coordinate Covalent Bond  interaction wherein both lectrons in
(metal hydroxides)
the bond arise from a single orbital
 Weak Base  conjugate base of a strong acid
on one of the atoms forming the

1. SA + SB  neutral salt
HCl + NaOH  NaCl +H2O Neutralization aka “acid-base reaction”
2. SA + WB  acidic salt involve in determination of acidity or alkalinity of
HCl + NH4OH  NH4Cl + H2O solutions.
3. WA + SB basic salt Acid + base = salt & water
CH3COOH + NaOH  NaCH3COO + H2O  point when equal amounts of acid & base reacted;
4. WA+WB  neutral, acidic, basic salt non-observable
CH3COOH + NH4OH  NH4CH4COO + H20 *Titration  process of progressive addition of a solution of known
kA = kB  neutal concentration to a substance of unknown concentration
kA>kB  acidic salt *Indicator  substance that changes color at the end point
kA<kB  basic salt *Equivalent Pointis the point in a titration where stoichiometrically
equivalent amounts of analyte & titrant.
In a complex, the metal acts as a Lewis Acid (e- acceptor). *Stoichiometric point
*End point  is the point in a titration where we stop adding
 experimental approximate of neutralization point;
Basic Principles of Analysis
A. pH
 number of grams equivalent of H per liter of soln
 pH = -log [H]
or pH = log 1/[H]
pOH= -log[OH]
pH + pOH =14
acidic = pH < 7.0, pOH >7.0
basic= pH >7.0, pOH <7.0
neutral= pH=pOH=7.0
 () value of pH is possible
 > 14 value is possible as well.
 Protolysis  a process whereby a proton is transferred from one
molecule to another.
 Autoprotolysis  a process whereby there is a transfer of a
proton from one molecule to another identical molecule.
 Amphoteric  properly where a substance can act either as acid
or base.

Henderson- Hasselbalch equation

pH = pka h log [salt]/[acid] or
pH = pka=log [conjugate base]/[base]

Isohydric  a solution having the same pH as the standard solution.

B. Buffer Capacity
 ability/ degree (magnitude) of a buffer solution to resist
changes in pH upon addition of acid/alkali
depends on the amount of the acid & the base from which
the buffer can neutralize before pH begins to change to an
appreciable degree
Van slyke
 was responsible for a quantitative expression
 amount in g/l of strong acid or a strong base required to be
added to a solution to change its pH by 1 unit.
 higher buffer capacity, lower change in pH.

Pearson’s HSAB principle:

“Hard acids are electron acceptor w/ high positive charges & relatively
small sizes while soft acids have low positive charges & relatively large
sizes. “
Thermodynamics  deals w/ energy transformation First Law of Thermodynamics
System  any part of the universe which is isolated from the rest by a “Law of Conservation of Energy”
boundary on a wall Energy is not created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed.
Surrounding  everything outside the system The Energy of the universe is constant.
 V = 9xw
Three Types of Thermodynamic System
1. Open  allow exchange of both matter & energy Second Law of Thermodynamics
-you can add/withdraw “Spontaneous Law”
2. Closed  allows exchange of energy but not of matter A process that occurs by itself must be increased in the entropy in
3. Isolated  does not allow the exchange of both matter & energy. order to be SPONTANEOUS!
Adiabatic  doest not allow energy or heat flow accompanied by an increase of entropy
Diathermal  allows energy & heat flow G = () spontaneous
G = (+) non-spontaneous
G = (0)  equilibrium
Thermodynamic Functions: G = H TS
1. Internal Energy (U or E)  total energy content of a system, composed () (+) ()  spontaneous
of thermal energy & chemical energy (+) () (+)  non-spontaneous
 is the heat content of a system evaluated at (+) (+)   spontaneous
contant volume X X   non-spontaneous
Heat content = constant volume (isochoric) Above 0 degree  melt spontaneously
 refers to the heat required to Below 0 degree  not melt spontaneously
increase the internal energy & to
Exacly 0  equilibrium
perform work of expansion
2. Enthalpy (H)  Energy of a reaction  solid & liquid –Physical State @ Freezing point
 heat content evaluated at constant pressure Triple Point  the condition of temperature & pressure where a
Heat content = constant pressure ( Isobaric) substance can exist solid, liquid & gas @ the same time
3. Entropy (S)  measure of degree of randomness or disorderliness of a Freezing Point  0C  matter @ solid
system. Boiling Point  matter @ liquid
If the Entropy is Zero,
the reaction is Spontaneous & Irreversible. Third Law of Thermodynamics
4. Gibb’s Free Energy (G)  expendable amount of energy “The entropy of a pure crystalline solid at a zero Kelvin is zero.“
 combines enthalpy & entropy  SOK = O
 determines spontaneity of a reaction
 when a reaction is at equilibrium
= Gibbs Free Energy is Zero
G=HTS (G=HTS)
1. Endothermic Process  reaction wherein heat is absorbed by the
5. Heat (q)  an energy transfer due to temperature difference
system, indicated by (+) change in enthalpy.
q = (+)  endothermic
2. Exothermic Process  a reaction wherein heat is released by the
q = ()  exothermic
system, indicated by a () change in enthalpy.
6. Heat Capacity (c)  the amount of heat required to raise the
 tend to be spontaneous reaction
temperature of an object or substance by one
6. Work (w)  a form of energy transfer between a system & its
Chemical Kinetics (reaction rates):
surroundings in the form of compression or expansion of
1. Collision Theory  result of molecular collision
the gas.
 rate & frequency of effective collisions
 movement of an object against some force
 is effective if:
w = work
w= P2xtY
a. Reactants must posses energy equal to or higher
V = 0 w= 0
than minimum energy requirement (energy barrier,
work done BY the system  occurs during the process of expansion
activation of energy [Ea])
b. Proper orientation  reaction profile
V = Vf  Vi A=B  P
 sign is () Ea =  rate
work done ON the system  occurs during compression Ea =  rate
(compression) #peaks = equal to the number of steps of reaction
 sign is (+) Converted Reaction/ Single Phase Reaction
 single step reaction
 determining Endo or Exo
A. State Function  path independent; not concern w/ the process only  from graph
in the initial & final state. H = H prod  H reactants
Ex: H, V, G, S = ()
H = Hf  Hi = Endothermic
B. Non-state Function  path-dependent 2. Transition State Theory  reactant (first form) to transition state &
dissociation to products
reactants  transition state  products
Rate  dependents on energy required for the formation of
transition state (TS)
energy TS =slow rate
energy TS = fast rate
Intermediate  space occupied between two transition state (TS)
Factors Affecting Reaction rate:
1. Nature of Reactants  reactivity, physical state Chemical Equilibrium
2. Temperature
  temperature  Eave  mobility Kinetics  rate of forward reaction is equal to rate of backward reaction
  frequency collision   rate
3. Surface Area Homogenous Equilibrium  reactants & product are present
 SA  particle size in same phase.
  rate Heterogenous Equilibrium  the reactants & products are
4. Concentration in different phase
  conc.   rate
Except for zero order reaction
Ionic Equilibria  involves Ionia
Laws of Mass Action 1. Weak Acid & Weak Base
  reactant =  collision  will be equal if they are have 1 aqueous solution
A B # collision -weak acid: Ka =acid ionization constant
O O 1 -weak base: Ka = base ionization constant
O 2. Insoluble Salts  happened if there saturated solution
O 2
O Ksp = solubility product constant
O O 3. Complexes: Kf = formation constant

Rate Law Expression = A=B  P Le Chatelier’s Principles

 rate = K [A] [B]
when a stress is applied to an equilibrium
Where: K = specific rate constant  stress factors: s in concentration: P, V, temp
= temp-dependent will not cause any shift
[A][B] = molar concentration addition of catalysy
X & Y = order of reaction Ex: (g) = 2B9g) ⇌ P(a)
magnitude of the effects of the changing P (V)  shift to directions lesser # of gaseous
concentration of reaction rate molecules
x=1  temp = favors an endothermic reaction
y=2  3  temp = facvors an exothermic reaction
5. Catalyst  a substance that speed up the rate of reaction temp = 
by providing a new reaction pathway for molecules temp = 
 influences the speed of a reaction without itself being
altered chemically.
Effects: a. Directly lower EA
b. Can make reaction proceed in a multistep process wherein Common-ion Effects  suppresses the ionization of weak electrolytes
each step has lower Ea compared to the usual reaction + (the dissociation of a weak
Add of HCl  H + Cl = 
electrolytes is decreasing by
Add of NaOH  Na = OH = 
adding to the solution a strong
electrolytes that in common w/ the
Add of NaCl  Na+Cl = No shift
weak electrolyte)

Organic Chemistry  branched of chemistry that deals with carbon – containing compounds with: C, H, O, P, S, X (halides – F, Cl, B, I)

Hydrocarbon  contain (C,H)

1. Aliphatic 2. Aromatic Compounds 3. Alicyclic or Carbocyclic

 single chain, no ring/s involve  presence of ring/s, specifically Benzene Ring & its  they are chains that
a. Saturated  single bonds only, derivatives form a ring & behave
Alkane (parafins) Examples: like aliphatics (single
 CnH2n+2 bond)
b. Unsaturated Benzene Examples:
 has multiple bonds, (1 ring) -cyclopropane -cyclopropene
Alkenes (double bond) Naphthalene -cyclobutane -cyclobutene
 CnH2n (2 rings)
Alkynes (triple bonds) -polycyclic benzenoids
 CnH2n-2 -obtained from coal tar
-position (, )
 Cycloalkanes: CnH2n

(3 rings)
hydrocarbons (PAHs)
-for dyes
-isomer of anthracene

Hydrocarbon Derivatives  are hydrocarbons that bear other carbon & hydrogen atoms
& other elements such as Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, or Halogen, Phosphorus, etc

Oxygen-containing Nitrogen-containing Halogen- Phosphorus-containing Sulfur-containing

1. Aldehydes (RCHO) 1. Amines (amino group, -NH) containing 1. Phosphate groups 1. Thiols (-SH)
Ketones (RCOR) Primay Amines: RNH2 1. Alkyl Halides 2. Organophosphate -sulfur analogue of
2. Ethers (ROR) Secondary Amines: R2NH 2. Aryl Halides alacohols
-formed during Tertiary Amines: R3N -aka “Sulfhydryls”
dehydration of alcohol 2. Heterocyclic 2. Thioethers (R-S-R)
-CnH2n+20 3. Nitrogen-compounds
3. Alcohols (Phenol)

4. Carboxylic Acid
(Carboxyl, -COOH)

Organic acid (RCOOH)

5. Carboxylic Acid derivatives
-acid acyl
-ester (RCOOR)
Isomerism  refers to the existence of two or more compounds having
the same molecular formula, but different structure
Isomer  compounds having the same Molecular formula, but different
structure. 2. Spatial Orientation  arrangement of atom in space
Stereochemistry  the branch of organic chemistry that is solely  “Stereoisomer”
dedicated to the study of isomers a. Geometric Isomers  double bond (alken3), cyclic
Reasons: -Cis (means on the same side)
1. Order of Bonding Ex: Cis 2butene
 “Structurally Isomer”
a. Chain – branching
 exhibited by alkanes
 differ in the arrangement of C atoms -Trans (means across or on opposite sides)
Ex: C4H10  (butane) CH3CH2CH2CH3 Ex: Trans2butene
 (isobutane) CH3CHCH3

C5H12  (pentane) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 b. Conformational Isomers
 (isopentane) CH3CHCH2CH3 (a) open chain/ acyclic  can be obtain in rotation
 along a single bond
CH3 (b) cyclic-ring flipping
(neopentane) CH3 Ex:
  Ethane
  Saw horse Projection:
b. position  position of multiple bond or differ in the
position of substituent or functional group.  Perspective Formula:
 differ in position of the substituent or -dash (back)
unsaturated bonds (C=C, CC) -wedge (front)
Ex: C4H8 –alkene w/ 1 double bond
 (1-butene) H2CCHCH2CH3  Newman Projection:
-eclipse conformation
 (2-butene) H2CCHCH2CH3
 (1-bromopropane) CH3 CH2CH2Br
 (2-bromopropane) CH3 CHCH3
-staggered conformation:

-more stable
Prefixes that designate positions in the benzene:
Dihedral angle
(a) Ortho  indicate substances on the benzene
ring in positions next to each other
 Cyclobutane
-planar  not a stable conformation
 are all eclipsing
(b) Meta  substituents on the benzene ring
separated by one carbon atom.
-butterfly conformation  more stable

(c) Para  subtituents separated by two carbon

Para-bromochlorobenzene  Cyclopentane
-planar  not stable
c. Functional Isomer  Functional Group
 differ in their functional groups -envelope conformation  more stable
Ex: CH2CH2OH  ethanol (alcohol)
CH3OCH3  methyl ether (ether)

 Cyclohexane
-Chair  most stable

-planar  not stable

-boat conformation  more stable

 flagpole positions

steric effect
Optical Activity ability of a compound to rotate a polarized light either to Haworth Projection  presents a cyclic sugar structure
right or to the left Biosostere  substituents or groups w/ similar physical or chemical
 can only be determined by POLARIMETER properties that in impart similar biological properties to a
 Dextrorotatory =d/ (+) chemical compounds
 Levorotatory= l/() Purpose:
1. Chiral Center/ Chiral carbon/ Asymmetric chiral carbon -Enhance the desired biological or physical properties of a compound
 aka Stereocenter without making significant changes in chemical structure
 is acarbon to which four different atoms -Increase Potency
or group of atoms are attached -Decrease Side effects
2. No symmetry element -Increase duration of action by altering metabolism
 Enantiomers  mirror images but not superimposable -Isosteric analogs may act antagnonistically w/ the parent molecule
 also called as Optical Isomer since they rotate light in
the opposite direction Example of Biososteric replacements:
 Diastereomers  non-mirror images, not superimposable -Fluorine vs Hydrogen
 Mesocompounds  mirror images, superimposable -Hydroxyl vs Amino Acids
same compounds -Hydroxyl vs Thiol Groups
 Epimer  special type of diastereomers -Methyl, Methoxyl, Hydroxyl, Amino groups vs Hydrogen
 identical in all except in one chiral center -Fluoro, Chloro, & Bromo, thiol, vs Methyl & other small alkyl groups
 differ only in configuration at one asymmetry carbon atom
▪ D-glucose/ D-mannose Epimers at 2 Types of Organic Reactions:
▪ D-glucose/ D-galactose Epimers at 4 1. Addition: CH2 = CH2 + HBr  CH3CH2Br
 Anomer  differ only in configuration at Carbon #1 2. Substitution: CH3CH2OH+Cl  CH3CH2Cl
(carbonyl C or anomeric C) 3. Elimination: CH3CH2OH  CH2  CH2 +H2O
4. Re-arrangement: CH3CH2CH2Br  CH3CHCH3

5. Propagation, Inititation, Termination: CH4 + Br  CH3* + Br
-anomer -anomer O
Ex: Tartaric Acid 6. Oxidation: CH3CH2OH + H2CrO4  CH3C-OH + Cr +3
HOOCCHCHCOOH 7. Reduction: Nitrobenzene + Fe  Aniline + Ferric Hydroxide
 
n Systems of Nomenclature:
= # stereoisomers =2 (n=chiral center) 1. Common  uses the name given when it was discovered
=2  example: Formic Acid (Latin, formica=ants)
=4 Uses prefixes: -n, -iso, -neo
2. Derived Names  derived from a parent compound
Fischer Projection Formula 3. IUPAC (international Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry)
 most systemic
 example: 2-methylhexane
 based on: A. longest continuous C chain or parent chain
B. use of numbers
C. use of C # prefixes
I II III IV  QSAR (Quantitative Structure & Activity Relationship)
I-II  mirror images IUPAC Rules:
Superimposable 1. Name by considering the longest carbon chain
meso compounds ( compounds w/ stereocenters but are chiral) 2. Number C atoms consecutively from one end so that the branches
 optically inactive or substituents are given the lowest position numbers
II-III  non mirror images 3. Modify the Suffix based on the type of formula or the functional
Non superimposable group
 diastereomers ROH (-ol)
III-IV  mirror images
RCHO (-al)
Non superimposable RCOR (-one)
 enatiomers RCOOH (-oic acid)
Meso Compounds  compounds w/ sterocenters but are chiral 4. Identify the substituents & indicate the positions by using numbers
 are characterized by the presence of a plane of CH3 (methyl)
symmetry & are superimposable R (alkyl)
Racemic-mixtures (racemates) OCH3 (methoxy)
 produced w/ mixtures of equimolar concentrations OR (Alkoxy)
of dextro & levo isomers
Cl (Chloro)
 contain equal amounts of Br (Bromo)
D & L isomers NH2 (Amino)
R & S isomers  determine by Cahn-Ingold-Prelog 5. If there is more than one of the same substituent/ alkyl group on
Example: Thalidomide  exist 2 chiral center the chain, indicate the number of groups by using prefixes; di-
r-thalidomide  sedative/ hypnotic two; tri-three; tetra-four; & so on.
s-thalidomide  teratogenic
Thalidomide syndrome  because of the
presence of s-thalidomide
phocolmelia (short limb)
amelia (no limb)
Saturated Hydrocarbons 4. Hydration (addition of water/ H20)
Alkanes: CnH2n+2 (-ane) Oxidation of Alkene: 1. Hydroxylation/ Glycol Formation
# of C Rootword + -ane Molecular formula Basis for: Baeyer’s Test (for unsaturated)
1 Meth Methane CH4
Glycol (ex: 1,2-diols)  is the genral term
2 Eth Ethane C2H6
tha is used to refer to compounds
3 Prop Propane C3H8
4 But Butane C4H10 having two hydroxyl groups
5 Pent Pentane C5H12 attached to adjacent carbons
6 Hex Hexane C6H14 2. Oxidative cleavage
7 Hept Heptane C7H16 Metabolism: More reactive than alkyl group
8 Oct Octane C8H18
9 Non Nonane C9H20 Hydration
10 Dec Decane C10H22 Epoxidation
Substituents: R-alkyl = alkanes1H atom Peroxidation
yl = methyl: CH3 Reduction
Ethyl: CH2CH3 Alkadienes  contain 2 CC
Propyl: CH2CH2CH3
 name: Indicate the position of double bond +
Isopropyl: CH3CHCH3
prefix+ diene; CH2CHCHCH2

Alkynes: CnH2n2 (-yne)
Tertairy Butyl: CH3
Triple bond (one or more)

CH3CCH3 HCCH: Ethyne/ Acetylene (simplest alkyne)
 Reactive site occur in 
x (halo): F: Fluoro CC
Cl: Chloro triple bond (e rich)
Br: Bromo Aromatics  contain Benzene Ring that have multiple double bonds
I: Iodo Benzene: C6H6 (subject to Substitution Electrophilic)
NO2: Nitro Toluene  methyl derivative of benzene
CN: Cyano Xylene  dimethyl benzene
Alkyl groups Aromaticity: (Criteria)
 Can participate in Van der Waals Interaction
1. Cyclic
& Hydrophobic Bonding.
 Metabolism: Oxidation 2. Flat/ Planar (sp2 C = double bond)
 Aryl Groups (Ar)  an aromatic (benzene ring) with a 3. Conjugated double bonds  having alternating double bonds
hydrogen atom removed 4. Huckel’s Rule : 4n+2 rule
Reactions to Consider:
 Combustion  a chemical reaction in which HC burns
(rapid oxidation) & produces CO2 & H20
Cycloalkanes: (alkanes that exist in the shape of a ring) 6e- 10e-
 Cycopropane / Trimethylene 6=4n+2 10=4n+2
 Cyclobutane 4=4n n=2
 Cyclopentane n=1
cyclobutadiene: antiaromatic compound
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons  have multiple bonds in their molecules 4=4n+2
Alkenes: CnH2n (-ene) n= ½ (therefore, it’s not aromatic)
ethane/ ethylene:
furan: 6e- (n=1)
propene: CH3CHCH2 not benzene ring,
Reactive site occur in  But Aromatic
double bond (e rich) – has 1, 1 Pyrole: 6e- (n=1)
react to something not benzene ring,
positive But Aromatic
 Eletrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS)
Electrophile (E )  e- poor / e- lovinf reagents (+)

NUcleophile (N )  e- rich reagent () 1. Nitration
Electrophilic Addition  alkene react w/ electrophiles 2. Halogenation
1. Catalytic hydrogenation (addition of H) – alkenealkane 3. Friedel-Craft’s Alkylation
4. Friedel-Craft’s Acylation
 used in production in Margarine 5. Sulfonation  only reversible EAS
Fixed oils (Unsaturated Fatty Acids)  saturated F.A Other Functional Groups:
Liquids  solid Halides: Halogenation
2. Halogenation (addition of Halogen) Formation of an alkyl or aryl halide
Alkene CHCl2/CCl4 Alkyldihalide Examples of Organic halides: -F, -Cl, -Br, -I
Functional Froup: R-X
H2O halohydrin
Alkyl & aromatic halides
3. Hydrohalogenation  (addition of HX, -hydrogen halide) electron-withdrawing functional groups
Alkene + HX  alkylhalide  used to “lock” a drug molecule in a desired conformation
 Markonicov’s Rules  decrease aromatic oxidation of the drug
H adds to C w/ the greater # of H substituents only F can bind
 Ex: Diclofenac, Chloramphenicol
X adds to C w/ the lesser # of H substituents
 Electrophilic Groups will most likely attach to 1-pentene  Electron-withdrawing Groups  impart acid stability
Alcohols Phenols
 OH groups can form ion-dipole & H-bonds -aka Phenolics
 OH groups enhance water solubility -class of chemical compounds, consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH)
 esterified to form prodrugs attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
 metabolism: Oxidation, Glucuronidation or sulfate conjufation -they have relatively higher acidities compared to alcohols
Functional group: R-OH -examples of phenols:
Classification: Ortho (catechol)
1. Based on the # of R bonded to the Carbon bearing the –OH group Meta (resorcinol)
(C-OH, carbinol group) Para (hydroquinone)
a. Primary alcohol  has only one R-group (1 alcohol) 1-naphthol (alpha-naphthol)
Examples: 2-naphthol (beta-naphthol)
Methyl alcohol: CH3OH -form ion-dipole & hydrogen bonds
Ethyl Alcohol: CH3CH2OH -enhance water solubility
Propyl Alcohol: CH3CH2CH2OH -esterified to form prodrugs
b. Secondary Alcohol two R-groups (2 alcohol) -susceptible to oxidation
Example Air
Isopropyl: CH3CHCH3 Ferric ions

OH Sulfation
c. Tertiary Alcohol has three R-groups Glucuronidation
Example: Aromatic Hydroxylation
Tertairy Butyl: CH3 O-methylation
Important Alcohols & Phenols:

1. Methanol  aka “Wood Alcohol” (because it was formerly obtained
from destructive distillation)
  used to produce formaldehyde, a starting material for
OH many plastics
2. Based on the # of hydroxyl groups  a good denaturant for ethyl alcohol (makes ethyl alcohol
a. Monohydric  1 OH unfit for drinking) because of its taste & poisonous
b. Dihydric  2 OH (ethylene glycol) properties.
c. Trihydric  3 OH (glycerol) 2. Ethanol  aka “Grain Alcohol”, “wine Sprit”,
d. Polyhydric (carbohydrates) ”Spiritus vini rectificatus”
Nomenclature of Alcohols:  alcohol present in alcoholic beverages
A. Common names are often used  obtained from fermentation of sugars & starch
 name of alkyl group + alcohol  used as antiseptic (70% solution of ethanol)
 CH3OH (methyl alcohol)  used as solvent in medicinal preparations (tinctures)
B. Derived names from Carbinol (an old name of metyhanol)  unfit for use in intoxicating beverages by addition of
Eg. CH3CH2OH Denatured alcohol (contains Methanol & Benzene)
Methyl carbinol 3. Isopropyl Alcohol  component of rubbing alcohol
C. IUPAC Rules: similar to alkanes  solvent
1. Parent chain has the –OH  intermediate in the production of acetone
2. –OH is given the lower number 4. Cholesterol  a complex alcohol that occurs in nature, a sterol found
3. Name ending in –ol in a cell membrane of animal cells; used as precursor
Qualitative Test for Alcohols: for the synthesis of sex hormones & bile acids
1. Lucas Test 5. Glycerol  used in the manufacture of certain plastics
-Reagent: Zinc Chloride (catalyst) in concentrated HCl (reactant)  used as solvent in liquid medications being nontoxic
-involves in double displacement  ingresient in cosmetics formulation due to its moisturizing
-differentiate alcohols by forming an insoluble layer property
-Tertiary alcohols are the most reactive towards this test  main constituent of suppositories
Reactivity: 3>2>1>CH3OH 6. Ethylene Glycol  antifreeze for automobiles
-Primary alcohols do not undergo the reaction easily & needs heat  solvent
-Visible result: Two immiscible layers  humectants aids in retaining moisture
2. Dehydration –usually undergone by Methanol & Ethanol 7. Phenol  aka “Carbolic Acid”
removal of H2O  used as disinfectant for surgical instruments & utensils ets.
3. Oxidation – reagent: K2Cr2O7  starting material in the manufacture of aspirin, detergents,
 depend on type of alcohol dyes, herbicides, explosives, etc.
1  aldehyde (oxidized to Carboxylic acid) 8. Cresol  saponated cresol (aka “Lysol”) – used as disinfectant which
2  Ketone is better & less toxic than phenol
3  no reaction 9. Resorcinol  also used as antiseptic but not as good as phenol
4. With Active Metal (ex: Na) 10. Hexyl Resorcinol  a much better antiseptic & germicide,
williamsons reagent  for synthesis of ethers commonly used in mouthwash
Reactivity: CH3OH > 1> 2> 3 11. Menthol  from oil of Peppermint
12. Geraniol  from Rose Oil
Methanol  formaldehyde  formic acid  metabolic acidosis 13. Glucose  a carbohydrate basic unit
Antidote: ethanol/ ethyl alcohol Ideal Antiseptic
Ethanol  acetaldehyde  acetic acid  liver damage  has a low surface tension
Ethylene Glycol  oxalate + CA2+  hypocalcemia  should also be non-irritating to tissue & non-allergenic
  retain activity in the presence of body fluids
CaC2O4 (kidney stones)  rapid & sustained lethal action against microorganisms
Ethers  Amines  organic compounds that are derived from ammonia by
-aka Organic Oxides replacing 1, 2, or 3 H’s w/ alkyl or aryl (Ar)
ROR Primary Amines: RNH2
ArOAr Secondary Amines: R2NH
ArOR Tertiary Amines: R3N
-glycosidic bond formed in glycoside Quaternary Amines  not basic, no lone pair of electrons
Nomenclature fro Ethers amino group: NH
1. IUPAC Rules R-group: e- donor
-use alkoxy as a prefix causes: sterric effect (“crowding”)
-position is indicated by number basicity: 2>3>1> NH3 (more groups, more basic)
-“OXY” Heterocyclic Amines  cyclic compounds that contain N atom as
-CH3OCH3 part of the ring
2. Derived Name  occur widely in biological systems
-alkyl groups + Ethers
-CH3OCH3 Classification based on the Group attached to N:
Aliphatic Amine Aromatic Amine
Classification of Ethers: CH3NH2
1. Open-chain
a. Symmetrical  contains similar R groups -aniline
Ex: Methyl ether (Methoxy methane): CH2OCH3 Basicity: Aliphatic Amine > Aromatic Amine
Ethyl Ether (Ethoxy ethane): CH3CH2OCH2CH3 Classification based on the number of group attached to N
b. Mixed  contains different R groups (1, 2, 3 & Quaternary Ammonium Compounds)
Ex:Ethymethyl ether (Methoxy ethane):
CH3CH2OCH3 Important Amines:
2. Cyclic Ethers 1. Aniline  used to commercially in the preparation of many dyes &
a. Epoxides/ Oxiranes/ Oxacyclopropane drugs
 cyclic ethers in which the ether oxygen is a part of a 2. Choline  found in egg yolks, meats,& fish, essential for growth
3-membered ring system 3. Adrenaline/ Epinephrine/ Norepinephrine  a neurotransmitter
Ex: Ethylene Oxide  gas sterilant 4. Amphetamine  a psychomimetic drugs Causes low
 alkylation of essential 5. Methamphetamine pH urine or
metabolism of bacteria 6. Pseudoephedrine alkaline
7. Phenylpropanolamine urine
b. More than 3 members included in the ring system 8. Barbituric Acid  parent compound of barbiturates (sedatives)
furanose ring:  an addictive drug
 has both an amino & an acid group
9. Saccharin  artificial sweetener, (disadvantage: bitter after taste)
pyranose ring: 10. Other amino-containing compounds: -blockers
Important Ethers:
1. Ethyl Ether  once widely used as general anesthetic because it is
safe even in long surgical procedures
 NH2  recentl discovered compound w/ a composition of
 ADR: Irritation of mucous membranes, nausea &
87.5%N & 12.5% H
 dangerous because it is explosive
 solvent for waxes & fats
2. Ethylene oxide  gas sterilant
 used to fumigate textiles & grains
 raw material in the synthesis of other organic
3. Monobenzone  depigmenting agent in cases of excessive melanin
 reduce melanin formation
 can be seen in whitening preparation
4. Eugenol  from Clove Oil
 when mixed with ZNO forms a cement used by dentist as
temporary fillings
5. Naproxen  NSAID
6. Gembrozil
Aldehydes (RCHO) Ketones (RCOR) IUPAC: Parent chain has the –C=O group,
 undergone w/ Cannizaro Reaction Its is given the lower number
 are oxidized to carboxylic acids, Change –e to –one
& reduced to primary alcohols  product of oxidation of Secondary alcohol
IUPAC: Parent chain contains the –CHO,  non terminal functional group
same pattern as alkane,  Example:
change –e to –al Propanone (acetone)
terminal functional group  a substrate can be
Example: used to synthesize
Methanal (formaldehyde) tertiary alcohol
 simplest Ketone

Ethanal (acetaldehyde)

Reactions of Aldehyde: -Other example:

1. Reaction w/ 2,4-DNPH Acetone  used as a solvent & nail polisher remover
forms highly colored 2,4 –DNP Hydrazones Testosterone  a male sex hormone, steroidal ketone
which range from yellow to deep red Muscone  odorous principle of musk (sex attractants)
2. Oxidation: Pheromones  produce by musk to attracts sex ; (Scents)
(a) Benedicts Test traditional test forn glucose in the urine Muscaline  pheromone produce by house flies
*Basis: reduction of cupric ions to cuprous Chloracetophenone  lacrimator (tear gas)
oxide Pipper spray  contain capsaicin (sili)
 brick red ppt (for Aliphatic only; Metabolism of Ketones:
also for ketones) Ketones are very stable
RCHO + Cu  R-COOH + Cu2O Primary route of metabolism: reduction to alcohol
(b)Tollen’s Test rgnt: Ammoniacal AgNO3 (Silver Nitrate)
 form Silver mirror w/ Important Ketones:
Aliphatic & Aromatic Aldehyde 1. Acetone  used as a solvent for such products as paints, lacquers, &
2+ cellulose acetate because of its miscibility with both
RCHO + Ag  R-COOH + Ag
(c)Iodofrom Test  reaction w/ I2 – K2 (test for methylketones) water & non polar
yellow; fowl smell nail polisher remover
3. Reduction to Alcohols 2. Testosterone  makor constituent of the male sex hormone
4. Addition of Alcohols/ Acetals Formation  responsible for the development of the secondary
5. Addition of Grgnard Reagents sex characteristics
(a)Formaldehyde will give primary alcohols  steroidal ketone
(b)Higher Aldehydes will give secondary alcohols 3. Muscone  odorous principle component of musk (sex attractants)
(c)Ketones will give tertiary alcohols  valued for its ability to enhance fragrances even when
(d)Esters will give tertiary alcohols present in minute amounts
 present in many of the expensive perfumes as fixative
Musk  natural substance w/ a strong sweet smell
Important Aldehydes: 4. Pheromones  produce by musk to attracts sex ; (Scents)
1. Formaldehyde  preservative for anatomical specimens because it 5. Muscaline  pheromone produce by house flies
causes skin hardening 6. Chloracetophenone  lacrimator (irritates eye)
 effective disinfectant used in hospital is used as a Tear Gas (produce stinging pain
 embalming fluid –(FORMALIN) in the eyes &
 creates a “silver mirror” on the walls of a test streaming from the
tube w/ Silve Nitrate eyes & nose)
2. Acetaldehyde  intermediate in the manufacture or acetic, ethyl 7. Pipper spray  contain capsaicin (sili)
acetate, vinyl acetate which in turn are used on 8. Acetophenone  has been used as a hypnotic but newer & safer
the production of synthetic rubber & water-based drugs are now available
paints. 9. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)  solvent for lacquers, paints, plastics
3. Chloral  starting material for the manufacture of insectides -DDT
Chloral Hydrate  “knockout drops”
 dissolves Starch, Resins, Proteins
 metabolite: Trichloroacetic Acid
4. Butanal  a constitutent of the aroma of fresh bread
5. Benzaldehyde  once called “Oil of Bitter Almond” because of its
presence in almond seed
 used as Flavoring Agent
 intermediate in the manufacture of drugs, dyes, &
other organic products
6. Cinnamaldehyde  chief constituent of the oil of cinnamon bark
7.Vanillin  fragrant component of vanilla beans
 flavoring agent
8. Citral  major component of lemon grass oil
Hydrocarbons with Carbonyl Functional Group 3. Others
-Carbonyl Group  is a functional group composed of a carbon Monobasic/ Monoenoic Acid/ Monocarboxylic acid
atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom. unsaturated fatty acids, with one double bond
▪ Palmitoleic Acid (16:1 )  contains 16C w/ 1 double bond

Carboxylic Acids  R-COOH/ Ar-COOH (cis-9-hexadecanoic acid)

 terminal functional group ▪ Oleic Acid (18:1 )  at position between 9&10
product of hydrolysis of anhydrides (cis-9-octadecanoic acid)
 product of further oxidation of Primary Alcohol
▪ Elaidic Acid (18:1 )  (trans-9-octadecanoic Acid)
Nomenclature of Acids
▪ Nervonic Acid (20:1 )  (cis-15-tetracosanoic Acid)
1. Common name  Uses Greek letters to indicate the positions of
C-C-C-C-C-COOH Polyunsaturated (Polyethanoid; Polyenoic Acid)
Alpha=next to COOH  Dienoic Acids (2 double bonds)
▪ Linoleic Acid (18:2 )  (9,12-octadecanoic Acid)
Gamma  Trienoic Acid (3 double bonds)
▪ Linolenic (18:3
Sigma )  (9,12,15-ocatadecatrienoic Acid)
Epsilon  Tetraenoic Acid (4 double bonds)
 Often derived from Latin Greek name indicating ▪ Arachidonic Acid(20:4
the original source of the acid (5,8,11,14-Eicosatetranoic Acid)
2. IUPAC  Parent chain contains the –COOH, carboxy C is #1 can be synthesized through the bne
 Change –e to –oic
 Ex: methane? –methanoic acid Palmitoleic, Oleic, Linolenic,Linoleic & Linolenic
are the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids in animal
Reactions: 1. Acid/ Salt Formation lipids
2. Conversion into functional derivatives Linoleic, Linolenic, Arachidonic
(a) conversion into acid chlorides  are the three essential fatty acids
(b) conversion into an ester Omega  refers to VH3 Methyl group
(b) conversion into amides Fatty Acids are aliphatic carboxylic acids
3. Reduction  occur mainly as esters in natural fats & oils but do not
occur in the unsterified from as free fatty acids, a
Kinds of Acids: (based on the number of carboxyl group –COOH) transport form found in the plasma.
1. Monocarboxylic acids  saturated fatty acids,  are usually straight-chain derivatives containing an
one carboxylic acid group even number of carbon atoms.
#C Formula  the chain may be saturated or unsaturated
Common Name Systematic Name
Formic Acid 1 Methanoic Acid HCOOH Important Acids:
Acetic Acid 2 Ethanoic Acid CH3COOH 1. Salicylic Acid  Monoprotic Acid
Propionic Acid 3 Propanoic Acid CH3CH2COOH  used for treatment of fungal infection & removal of
Butyric Acid 4 Butanoic Acid CH3(CH2)2COOH warts & corns
Valeric Acid 5 Pentanoic CH3(CH2)3COOH  used as a keratolytic agent (for the removal of dead
Caproic Acid 6 Hexanoic Acid CH3(CH2)4COOH skin cell)
Caprylic Acid 8 Octanoic Acid CH3(CH2)6COOH  Whitfield’s Ointment ® (antifungal)
Capric Acid 10 Decanoic Acid CH3(CH2)8COOH = Benzoic Acid + Salicylic Acid
Lauric Acid 12 Dodecanoic Acid CH3(CH2)10COOH 2. Acetylsalicylic Acid  (ASPIRIN)
Myristic Acid 14 Tetradecanoic Acid CH3(CH2)12COOH  analgesic, antipyretic, treatment of colds,
Palmitic Acid 16 Hexadecanoic Acid CH3(CH2)14COOH headache, minor aches & pains
Stearic Acid 18 Octadecanoic Acid CH3(CH2)16COOH 3. Acetaminophen USP(Paracetamol BP) substitute for aspirin
Arachidic Acid 20 Eicosanoic Acid CH3(CH2)18COOH 4. Citric Acid  found in citrus fruits
Behemic Acid 22 Docosanoic Acid CH3(CH2)20COOH  Triprotic Acid
Lignoceric Acid 24 Tetracosanoic Acid CH3(CH2)22COOH 5. Lactic Acid  foud in sour milk
 formed during fermentation of milk sugar, lactose, &
2. Dicarboxylic Acids  saturated acids with two –COOH group responsible for souring of spoiled milk
 product of fermentation milk sugar
#C Name
6. Tartaric Acid  found on several fruits particularly grapes
2 Oxalic Acid oh
 salt of tartaric acid
3 Malonic Acid my
 Diprotic Acid
4 Succinic Acid such
*Potassium Hydrogen Tartarate (Cream of Tartar)
5 Glutaric Acid good used in making baking powder
6 Adipic Acid apple Potassium Sodium Tartrate used as a mild cathartic
7 Pimetic Acid pie 7. Benzoic Acid  Monoprotic Acid
8 Suberic Acid sweet  used as Antifungal Agent
9 Azelaic Acid as  its sodium salt, sodium benzoate,
10 Sebacic Acid sugar is used as a food preservative
Azelaic acid  anti-pimple 8. Para-aminobenzoic Acid  used in suntan lotions to prevent the
Oxalic Acid  product of the oxidation of Ethylene Glycol dangerous UV rays from reaching the skin
9. Acetic Acids  vinegar, spermatocidal
 considered as a universal precursor for fatty acids,
lipids, & other organic plant products
Glacial Acetic Acid  Ethanolic Acid
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

1. Acid/ Acyl chloride

Oic  oyl chloride

Ethanoyl chloride
(acetyl chloride)

2. Esters product of the reaction between a Carboxylic Acid & Alcohol

 Formula: RCOOR
 ends in –oate
 most ester have fragrant odors
& contribute to the flavors of fruits
 Common characteristics: pleasant odor
Ex: Isoamyl ethanoate Reactivity: most  least
Methyl salicylate acid/acyl chloride  anhydrides  esters  amide
 R – CO – OR + H2O  R – COOH + R – OH
Reactions: Hdrolysis  acidic, unpleasant odor
 Lipids  esters of glycerol & high molecular weight of fatty acids
 Saponification  reaction of lipids w/ a strong inorganic base Important Amides:
 alkali hydrolysis of an ester (RCOOR) 1. Acetanilide  has been used as an Antipyretic & as an analgesic
 products: Glycerol + Soap 2. Niacinamide  amide of niacin, a form of Vitamin B3
3. Nicotinamide (nicotinic acid)  only form can treat pellagra or
3. Anhydrides classical deficiency
 composed of two molecules of carboxylic acids 4. Sulfanilamide  sulfur analogue of an amide
 hydrolysis yield two molecules of carboxylic acid  parent compound of sulfonamides
discovered in 1936 to have a definite therapeutic
effect against such diseases as pneumoria,
diarrhea, & streptococcal infections
 -oic acid  -oic anhydrides  ADR: Nausea, Dizziness, Anemia
Example: ethanoic acid H2O acetic anhydrides

4. Amide  formed by the condensation of a carboxylic acid & an amine

Reactions: Hydrolysis (requires an acid catalyst & heat

products are Carboxylic Avid &
Ammonia Gas)

 -oic acid  amide


Organic Medicinal Chemistry  Physicochemical properties of a drug that
affect its biological action.
 the practice of medicinal chemistry is
devoted to the discovery & development Local Anti- Infectives or Germicides
of new drugs Antiseptic  compounds that kill (cidal) or prevent the growth of
Drug  an agent intended for use in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, (–static) microorganisms when applied to living tissue
cure, or prevention of disease in humans or another animals Disinfectant  agents that prevent infection by the destruction of
Receptor  a substance to which a drug needs to interact with to elicit a pathogenic microorganisms when applied to inanimate
pharcological response objects
Affinity  ability of a drug to bind to the receptor I. Alcohol & Related Compounds
Intrinsic  ability of a drug to exert a pharmacologic action  # of carbons,  antibacterial property
Four Fundamental Pathways: (but up to carbon 8 only)
1. Absorption branching tend to  Antibacterial property
2. Distribution (except to isopropyl)
3. Metabolism (a) Alcohol USP (Spiritus vini recticatus)
4. Excretion: Glomerular Filtration ”Grain Alcohol”; “wine spirit”
Active Tubular Secretion  the most widely abused of all recreational drugs.
Passive tubular –reabsorption  undergo a series of Oxidation reaction in vivo
Enterohepatic Recirculation  drugs emptied via the bile duct manufacture from:
into the small intestine can be Fermentation of grain
reabsorbed in the intestinal lumen Hydration of Ethyl
back to the systemic circulation  Denatured Alcohol
(LIver intestines  Liver)  ethanol that has been rendered unfit for use in
intoxicating beverages by the addition of other
Isosterism  describes the selection of structural components, the steric substances
electronic & solubility characteristics of a drug which make it  completely denatured alcohol contains added
interchangeable with drugs of the same pharmacologic class methanol (wood alcohol) & benzene & is
unsuitable for either internal or external use
Isosteres  compounds or groups of atoms having the same number & Diluted Alcohol  49/50 %
arrangement of electrons Rubbing Alcohol  70%
 group of atoms that impart similar physical & chemical Absolute Alcohol  95%
properties to a molecule, because of similarities in the size, Dehydrated Algohol  99%
electronegativity, or stereochemistry Isopropy alcohol  primarily used to disinfect the skin &
 compounds may be altered by isosteric replacements of surgical instruments
atoms or groups, to develop analogues with select biologic rapidly bactericidal in the
example: replacement of the hydroxyl group of folic acid by concentration range of 50% to 95%
an amino group.  a 40% concentration is considered to
be equal in antiseptic power to a
60% ethanol concentration
Formic Acid  blindness
Ethanol  act competitive inhibition
(b) Ethylene Oxide  gas sterilant
 used to sterilized temperature-sensitive
medical equipment & certain
pharmaceuticals that cannot be
 MOA: alkylation of functional groups in
nucleic acids & proteins
 carcinogenic

(c) Thermodent®  Formaldehyde USP (formalin)

 disinfectant; embalming fluid
 contains not less than 37% of formaldehyde
w/ methanol added to retard polymerization
 MOA: Direct & nonpecific alkylation of
nucleophilic functional groups of
(d) Cidex®  Glutaraldehyde/ Glutarol
 sterilizing solution for equipment & instruments
that cannot be autoclaved
II. Phenols (Carbolic Acid)
standard to compare germicide
 was introduced as a surgical antiseptic
by Sir Joseph Lister IV. Halogen-containing Compounds
 antiseptic; disinfectant a. Chlorine (Cl)  NaOCl  bleaching agent
Liquefied Phenol, USP (phenol containing 10% water)  Halazone  water disinfection
Phenol Coefficient  ration of the dilution of a M.O.A : chlorination of amide in CHON &
disinfectant to the dilution of phenol oxidation of –SH group
required to kill S. typhi. Halazone  chlorine-containing
the greater the Phenol Coefficient,  used to disinfect drinking water
the greater the Antibacterial property. Chlorides  may be precipitated from solution by the Silver
SAR  substitution of alkyl, aryl, halogen at Nitrate reagent
p position increase antibacterial property. b. Iodine (I)  one of the oldest known germicides in use today
Straight chain alkyl group  produces blue color w/ Starch & Dextrin
are  than branches  Iodine preparations official in USP:
Phenol  for Protein precipitation - Iodine Tincture (2% solution of iodine in
Cresol  a mixture of three isomeric cresols 50% alcohol w/ NaI)
Eugenol  clove oil -Strong Base (Lugol’s Solution)- (5% I in water w/ KI)
 toothache drop -Iodine Solution (2% iodine in water w/ NaI)
 anesthetic; antiseptic *Sodium & Potassium  iodine Stabilizer
Thymol  metacresol (m-cresol) Povidone Iodine (Betadine )
 antifungal; used for the treatment of tinea inf.  used as an antiseptic for skin application
Resorcinol  CRH (Dihydroxy benzene) before surgery & injection
 antiseptic; keratolytic  a complex w/ the nonionic surfactant
OH (Cathecol) / (o-hydroxyphenol) polymer, Polyvinylpyrrolidone
 has 10% Iodine (approximately)
 a water-soluble complex that release
OH (Resorcinol) / (m-hydroxyphenol) Iodine Slowly
OH (Hydroquinone) / (p-hydoxyphenol)  provides a nontoxic, non-irritating,
nonvolatile & nonstaining form of Iodine
Iodides  only ion that used for expectorant in cough
2nd bet expectorant (next to Water vapor)
III. Oxidizing Agents
Iodophor  complexes of iodine
Primary Mechanism of Action:
& nonionic surfactants
1. Liberation of nasent oxygen (nasent  alone)
 such complexes retain the germicidal
-Free radical
properties of iodine & also reduce its
2. Denature of Proteins
volatility & essentially remove its irritant
Panoxyl (Hydrous Benzoyl Peroxide) -2.5%, 5%, 10%
PVP : non-ionic Surfactant complexes of I2
Keratolytic & keratogenic agent
Less irritating
MOA: Induces proliferation of epithelial cell
More washable
Increases cell turnover Less volatile I2
most effective topical OTC agent for the control of acne M.O.A : Iodination of amide in CHON &
Carbamide Peroxide  a stable complex of urea & hydrogen oxidation of –SH group
releases hydrogen peroxide when mixed
w/ water
Hydrogen Peroxide  particularly active against anaerobic
bacteria & find use in the cleansing of
contaminated wounds.
 effectiveness is somewhat limited by its
poor tissue penetrability & transient
 the stability is increased in Acid Medium
Hydrogen Peroxide (0.03%)  has Acetanilide to
increase its stability by
catalytically retarding its
Vincent’s Stomatitis (Hairy Tongue)  result in
continued use of
Hydrogen Peroxide as
Volume Specifications: mL of Oxygen measured at
standard temperature &
pressure. Thus, a 20-
volume solution is 6% &
has 20mL oxygen
V. Cationic Surfactant (cationicpositive charge) VII. Heavy metals
 Refers to quaternary ammonium component w/ Oligodynamic Properties
 Have surface active property  has few concentration, they are able to inhibit
Causes absorptioninto the cell wall microorganisms
Causes distortion of the cell (lysis) a. Ag  AgNO3 for ophthalmia neonatorum
a. Benzalkonium Chloride  used as detergent, emulsifying, & may cause conjunctivitis
wetting agent New alternative: Erythromycin Ointment
 used w/ parabens as a preservative  Ag Sulfadiazine (Flammazine)
 is germicidal surfactant which render  burn ointment
inactive in the presence of Soaps b. Hg  quicksilver
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate  deactivate the  MOA: reacts with sulfhydryl (SH) groups in enzymes &
cationic surfactant other proteins
Span  w/o  this is reversible by thiol-containing compounds such as
Tween  o/w nonionic Cysteine & DImercaprol
Hg1Cl2  Calomel (Mercurous Chloride)
 HgCl2  Corrosive sublimate (Mercuric Chloride)
b. Methyl benzythonium Chloride: Diaperene
for Diaper rash
Cause by Bacterium ammoniagenesis Ammoniated mercury  White precipitate;
(causes liberation of ammonia in used for skin infections
decomposed urine) Organic Mercurials: Merthiolate (Thimerosal)
liberates ammonia from preservative for vaccines
decompose wine MOA: reaction w/ -SH of CHON
c. Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride Chlormerodin Hg-197  used for scintillation
 used as a general antiseptic scanning of brain for
 available form: Throat lozenges & mouthwashes suspected tumors
 FDA approved for the treatment of Gingivitis
d. Chlorhexidine (Bactidol®) VIII. Preservatives
 used as irrigation solution & as mouthwash  used to prevent microbial contamination
 not absorbed through skin or mucus membrane & does  IDEAL CHARACTERISTICS: effective at low
not cause systemic toxicity concentration against all possible
e. Hexidine  mouthwah microorganisms, notoxic, compatible w/ other
constituents used in the preparation, stable for
the shelf life of the preparation
a. Paraben (esters of p-hydroxy benzoic acid)
for liquid dosage form
VI. Dyes (cationic)  positively charge antifungals
Effective against gram (+) & fungi  preservative effect tends to increase w/ molecular
a. Gentian Violet (Methyl Violet)/ (Crystal Violet) weight
(p-rosanilline) Methylparaben  molds
Vaginal suppository (Anti-candida, yeast infection) Propylparaben  yeasts
Helminths (Strongyloides spp.)  more oil-soluble so it is prepared for oils &
is also used a 1% to 3% solution for the treatment of fats
tinea & yeast infections Butylparaben  cause endocrinologic abnormalities
 also used orally as an antihelminthic for b. Chlorobutanol  employed as a bacteriostatic agent in
strongyloides & oxyuriasis pharmaceuticals for injection, ophthalmic
b. Basic Fuchsin  ingredient of Carbol-fuchsin solution use & intranasal administration
(Castellani’s paint), used topically in the c. Benzyl alcohol  for dermal/ topical preparation
treatment of fungal infections, such as  commonly used as a preservative in vials of
ringworm & athlete’s foot injectable drugs in concentrations of 1% to
c. Methylene Blue  antidote for Cyanide Poisoning 4% in water or saline
 in high concentrations, it promotes the d. Benzoic Acid  for topical preparation
conversion of hemoglobin to  Very effective in acidic pH/low pH
Methemoglobin, which because of its high e. Sorbic Acid  for sugar-containing preparation like elixir
affinity for cyanide ion diverts it from  an effective antifungal preservative
inactivating hemoglobin Syrup, NF  self-preserving
 in low concentration, it is used to treat
drug0induced methemoglobin
Antifungal Agents:
General MOA: inhibition of ergosterol; synthesis injury to cell membrane
Amphotericin B (Fungitone) S.nodosus
Nystatin (Mycostatin ) S.norsei by Hazen&Brown
Natamycin (Natacin) S. natalensis
Griseofulvin P. griseofulvin
Fatty Acidsall fatty acids & their salts have fungicidal properties
a. Propionic Acid  present in sweat in low concentrations (around
b.Undecylenic Acid  obtained from the destructive distillation of
Castor Beans (Ricinus communis)
a. Griseofulvin (P. griseofulvin)
No established MOA: Inhibitor of microtubule assembly
accumulates in the stratum corneum of the skin, acts as a
a. Ketoconazole
protective barrier
potent enzyme inhibitor
 is recommended for the systemic treatment or refractory
Inhibits testosterone antiandrogenic effects
ringworm infections
is supplied in “microsize’” & “ultramicrosize” forms
low sperm count
 its bioavailability is notoriously poor
low libido
 is used in the treatment of Tinea corpuris, tinea unguium,
b. Fluconazole preferred for resistant candidiasis
Tinea capitis, & tinea pedis, caused by various species of
 has excellent penetrability into the CSF
dermatophyte fungi, including Trichophyton, Microsporum,
C. Itraconazole
& Epidermophyton.
2nd best systemic antifungal next to Amphotericin B
 is very lipophilic compound w/ vey low water solubility
 lacks the endocrinologic effects of ketoconazole
higher BA w/ ingestion of fatty foods
Uses: Blastomycosis
Uses: Ringworm Infections
b. Nystatin (Mykinac®, Mucostatin®, Nilstat®)
Polyene Antifungal: binds to ergosterol,
resulting in holes/ pores in the
fungal cell membrane
a. Amphotericin B
the aglycon portion of nystatin consisting of 38-membered
Gold Standard, Best organ, DOC
ketone ring w/ a single tetracene & diene chromophores
Polyene antifungal  creates pores in fungal cell
isolated from each other by a methylene group, one
carboxyl, one keto & eight hydroxyl groups
Side Effects: Revesible Azotemia (former name of uremia)
Use: Candidiasis of Esophagus/GIT
Patient should be monitored (BUN, Creatinine
C. Topic Azoles
Febrile Reaction
MOA: Inhibition of c14 lanosterol demethylase
Lanosterol  Ergosterol
Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis
b. Itraconazole
C. Caspofungin inhibits 1-3 -glucan synthase

Toconazole glucan (cell wall)
Miconazole : d.Voriconazole
Triazole e.Flucytosine  inhibits thymiditate synthase
Fluconazole by replacing uracil in nucleic acid
Itraconazole synthesis (DNA&RNA)
Ketoconazole always given w/ Amphotericin B for the treatment of
systemic mycoses & meningitis caused by
d. Terbinafine Cryptococcus neoformans & candida
allylamine, inhibition of squalene epoxidase
e. Naftifine
f. Whitfield’s Ointment  Benzoic + Salicylic
g. Selenium Sulfide (Selsum Blue) antidandruff
Antitubercular Agents: Antiscabies & Antipedicular Agents
1. Isoniazid (Isonicotinic acid hydrazide) Scabicides  compounds used to control the mite, Sarcoptes scabei,
MOA: Inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acid, an important an organsm that thrives under conditions of poor
component of the cell walls of mycobacteria personal hygiene.
principal adverse effect: Peripheral neuropathy due to the 1. Benzyl Benzoate obtained from Peru balsam & other resins
competition of isoniazed w/ pyridoxal phosphate for the  immediate relief from itching
enzyme apotryptophanase is a clear colorless liquid ester w/ faint
coadminististration of Vit B6 (Pyridoxine) , prevents the aromatic odor
symptoms of peripheral neuritis 2. Crotaminon
2. Pyrazinamide (Pyrazinecarboxamide) Pediculocides  used to eliminate head, body & crab lice
used in combination w/ other agents because resistance 1. Pyrethrin  derived from Chrysanthemum plants
develops rapidly  MOA: nerve poisoning
first line drug for short term treatment 2. Piperonyl Butoxide  enhances the pediculicide effects of
 adverse effect: Hepatotoxicity pyrithrins
 must be enzymatically hydrolyzed to pyrazinoic (active form) 3. Permethrin  exerts a lethal action against lice, ticks, mites, &
3. Ethambutol (2,2’-Ethylenediiminno-di-1-butanol dihydrochloride) fleas
 is remarkably stereospecific  a pediculicide w/ a single application of a 1%
 adverse effect: Optical neuritis solution is known to effect cures in more
 loss of ability to discriminate between red & green than 99% of the cases
(color blindness)  *Pruritus  most frequent Side Effects
*Toxicities of its isomers are about equal but their activity vary 4. Lindane ( Kwell®, Scaben®, Kwildane®)
considerably. The afctors that have pronounced effect on the  gamma-benzene hexachloride
activity are:  ADR: Neurotoxiciity
-Length of the alkaline chain  threefold actions:
-Nature of the branching e/ the alkyl substituents in the -direct contact poison
nitrogens -a fumigant effect
-Extent of N-alkylation -stomach poison
4. Ethionamide
 has two substitution differs from IHN series
 structural analogue ofIsoniazed
 used in the treatment of Isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis
 adverse effects: Gastric irritation, hepatotoxicity, peripheral
neuropathies, optic neuritis Antimalarials
5.Para-amnio salicylic acid  Antimalarials have one common structure – a quinolone ring , or
 acts as a competitive inhibitor for p-aminobenzoic acid in folate a “quinolone w/ an additional benzene addede” (an acridine
biosynthesis ring)
 adverse effect: Severe gastric irritation  non except the cinchona alkaloids has a quinuclidine ring
6. Clofamine Cinchona Alkaloids
 basic red dye used in the treatment of leprosy, including Quinine  reserved for malarial strains resistant to other agents
dapsone-resistant forms  major adverse effect: Cinchonism ( a sundrome causing
nausea, vomiting, tinnitus & vertigo)
Chloroquine  drug of choice in the treatment of erythrocytic
falcifarum malaria
Antitubercular Antibiotics anti-inflammatory action rxplains its occasional use
1. Rifampin (Rifampicin; Rifamycin) in Rheumatoid Arthritis & discoid lupus
 the most effective agent erythematosus
 obtained from S. mediterranae 8-aminoquinoline
a class of antibiotics that contain a macrocyclic ring bridged Primaquine  effective only against the exoerythrocytic stage of
across two non-adjacent positions of an aromatic nucleus malaria
& called Ansamycin  only agent that can lead to radical cures of
high risk of military cramps Plasmodium Ovale, & Plasmodium vivax malarias.
 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors  gametocidal for all 4 plamodia species, transmission
 Adverse effect: Red orange of body secretions of the disease can be prevented
2. Cycloserine 9-aminoacridine
 isolated from Streptomyces: Quinacrine  primarily used in the treatment of giardiasis, but is
S. orchidaceus, also effective against tapeworm & malaria, &
S. garyphalus, topically against leishmaniasis
S. lavendulus  should not be given w/ Primaquine because of
3. Capromycin  isolated form Streptomyces capreolus increased toxicity
4. Streptomycin  only aminoglycoside used for tuberculosis Mefloquine  effective single agent for suppressing & curing
 the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis multidrug-resistant forms of Plasmodium falciparum
(1944 by Waksman)
Leprosy: Dapsone, Rifampicin, Clofazimine
A substance is classified as an Antibiotic
if its is a product of Metabolism (although it may be
duplicated or even have been anticipated by chemical
 its is synthetic product produced as a structural analogue
of a naturally occurring antibiotic
it antagonizes the growth or the survival of one or more
species of microorganisms
it is effective in low concentrations
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Cell membrane disrupting agents
Nucleic Acid synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors except aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites when given alone

Kanamycin Streptomyces kanamyceticus

Clavulanate S. clavuligerus
Erythromycin S. erythreus
Griseofulvin P. griseofulvin
Polymixin B. polymixa
Bacitracin Bacillus subtilis
Nystatin S. noursei by Hazen & Brown Antifungal Chemotherapy
Chloramphenicol S. venezuelae 1. For Superficial Mycoses
Cephalosporins Acremoium Chrusogenum  Griseofulvin Grisactin, Grifulvin,V, Fulvicin
Aztreonam Chromobacterium violaceum  Nystatin Mycostatatin, Nilstat
Chlortetracyclin S. aureofaciens  Clotimoxazole Lotrimin
Linezolid E. faecium  Miconazole Monistat, Micatin
Ivermectin S. avemitilis  Econazole Spectazole
LIncomycin S. lincolnensis  Oxiconazole Oxistat
Carbapenems: Thienamycin S. cattleya  Sulconazole Exelderm
Rifampicin S. mediterranei  Ketoconazole Nizoralv
Amphotericin B S. nodosus  Butenafine Mentax
Daptomycin S. roseosporus  Haloprogin Halotex
Cycloserin S. orchidaceus  Terbinafine Lamisil
S. garyphalus  Ciclopirox Penlac
S. lavendalus
 Naftipine Naftin
Vancomycin S. orientalis
 Whitfield’s ointment
Neomycin S. fradiae
 Salicylic acid
Steptomycin S. griseus by Walksman
Muciprosin Pseudomonas fluorescens  Tolnaftate
Gramicidin B. brevis  Selenium sulfide
Natamycin S. natalensis 2. For Less Serious Systemic
D-cycloscrine S. garyphalus Mycoses
Streptogrannins: S. pristinaespirals  Ketoconazole
Quinopristin & Dalfupristin  Fluconazole Diflucan
 Itraconazole Sporanox
3. For Serious Systemic
 Amphotericin B Fungizone, Ambisome,
Abelcet, Amphotec
 Itraconazole
 Caspofungin Cabcidas
 Vorconazole Vfend
 Flucytosine Ancobon
Flame Test:

Metals Non-Luminous Flame Under Cobalt Glass Groups of Cation:

Sodium (Na) Persistent golden yellow Nil
Potassium (K) Violet Crimson Group
Members Characteristics
Lithium (Li) Carmine Red Purple #
+2 +2
Calcium (Ca) Brick Red Light green I Pb Ag Form precipitate w/ dilute HCl
Strontium (Sr) Crimson Purple Hg Insoluble chloride
Barium (Ba) Yellowish Green Bluish-green group
+ +3
Borate (BO3 )
1 Do not react w/ HCl,
+5 but form ppt. w/ H2S,
Copper (Cu) Bi Sb
Green +2 +2 dilute mineral acid medium.
Thallium (Tl) Cu Sn
Phosphorus (P) +2 +4 However, they
Cd Sn
Bismuth (Bi) +3 form precipitates w/ (NH4)2S
As acid insoluble
Lead (Pb) +5 in neutral & ammoniacal
As sulfide
Arsenic (As) Blue Yellow solution.
+2 +2
Cobalt (Co) III Fe CO Do not react w/ either HCl nor
+3 +2 H2S in dilute mineral acid
Antimony (Sb) Fe Mn
+3 +7 medium, however, they
Ammonium (NH4 )
Colorless Al Mn
+3 +2 form precipitates w/ (NH2)2S
Cr Zn
+6 in neutral or ammoniacal
Cr Base insoluble
+3 solution
Ni sulfides
+2 +2
IV Ba Sr Do not react w/ HCl, H2S &
+2 (NH4)2S.
Ca Sulfate insoluble
Groups of Anion: groups Form precipitate w/ NH4Cl in
neutral or slightly acidic
Group Members Precipitated formed & Visual Result medium
+2 +
# Do not react w/ any of the
V Mg
w/ 1M AgNO3 + 6M HNO3 w/ 1M BaCl2 + HNO3 Na NH4 reagents stated,
Cl AgCl -(white) Soluble group Na- yellow ppt w/ cobalt
I Br AgBr -(cream) uranyl acetate
No ppt. K- white ppt w/ sodium
I AgI -(yellow)
insoluble in HNO3 bitartrate,
NH4 alkalinized vapors turns
II NO2 AgS (black)soluble in HNO3
red litmus paper to blue
2 2
NO & C2H3O2 -(no ppt) No ppt.
*Mg  only Group V cation that will
C2H3O4 yield a precipitate w/ sodium biphosphate
III SO3 White ppt. soluble in HNO3 White ppt of BaSO4,
CaSO4, BaC2O4
C2O4 soluble in HNO3
VI 3
Ag3PO4 -(yellow) BaCrO4 -(yellow)
AsO4 Ag3AsO4 -(brown) Ba3(PO3)2 -(white)
Radiopharmaceuticals & their uses:
Ag2CrO4 -(red) Ba3(AsO4)2 -(white)
all ppt. soluble in HNO3 all ppt. soluble in
Radiopharmaceutical Uses
Technetium 99mPhytate  Liver imaging & potency studies
V NO3 No ppt.
No ppt. Technetium 99mHeptagluconate  Kidney imaging,
 determining renal function
VI White ppt.
No ppt. Technetium 99mIDA  Hepatobiliary studies
soluble in HNO3
Techetium 99mElidronate  Bone imaging
Technetium 99mInjection  Brain Scanning
Tc 99m Albumin Aggregated  Lung Scanning
Tc 99m Pyrophosphate  Cardiac Infarct Imaging
I-131-Human Serum Albumin  Blood plasma volume/
 cardiac output determination
Iodohippurate I 131 Injection  Cardiac infarct imaging
NaI- 1125  Localization of ocular tumors
Sodium Phosphate Serum Albumin  Thyroid Function
Cyanocobalamin 57 Capsule  Pernicious Anemia
Unit for Radioactivity:
Becquerel  new unit (named after Henry Becquerel)
 1Bq= 1dps
Curie  old unit (3.7 x 10 dps)
Color Reactions

Unknown Tests
Acetate C2H3O2 Sulfuric acid+ ethanol  fruity odor of ethyl acetate
Ferric chloride TS  brownish red or reddish brown ppt of basic acetates
Aluminum Al Ammonium TS  gelatinous ppt. w/c dissolves in excess of ammonium TS
Aluminon reagent  red lake
Ammonium NH4SCN Acidic cobalt solution  intense blue colored complex at interfeface Co(CNS)4
Thiocyanide Ferric salts  blood red ferric thiocyanate
Arsenates AsO4 Silver nitrates TS  chocolate brown soluble in nitric acid
Ammonium molybdate yellow ppt
Arsenites AsO3 Silver Nitrate test  yellow ppt soluble in nitric acid
Magnesia Mixture  no reaction (differentiating test for arsenates & arsenite)
BO3 
Borates Sulfuric Acid + methanol  green bordered flame
Turmeric paper (curcumin)  orange + sodium hydroxide  olive green
Turmeric paper when dipped into a solution of borate acidified w/ HCl  produce reddish brown/ orange-red
Bromine Br Carbon tetrachloride  orange color
Carbonate In acidic aqueous solution  effervescence
Chloride Cl Silver nitrate test  white curdy precipitate ppt soluble in ammonia, insoluble in nitric acid
Citrate C6H5O2 Silver mirror test
CaCl2 or Ca(OH)2 (in excess)  no ppt  white ppt w/c dissolve on cooling
Pyridine + acetic anhydride (3:1)/ Denige’s reagent (distinguishing test for citrate & tartrates)
 Citrates produces Carmine Red
 Tartrates produces Emerald Green
Chromium Cr Sodium hydroxide  grayish green slug dissolves in excess reagent (turn to yellow upon addition of Na Peroxide)
Cobalt Co Sodium hydroxide  blue ppt of CO(OH)2 (boiling)  olive green  rose red
Potassium nitrite + acetic acid Fernando Gabriel Reyes yellow ppt
-nitroso--naphthol brown ppt soluble in HCl
Nickel Ni Dimethylglyoxime  bright red crystalline ppt insoluble in ammonia
-nitroso--naphthol reddish brown ppt soluble in HCl
Copper Cu Fe+ HCl  deposit of red film on iron
Potassium ferrocyanide  green ppt. forming a blue solution w/ ammonia
Iodide Chlorine water or potassium permanganate solution violet color
Sulfuric acid+sodium bisulfate (cold)  decolorized
Sulfuric acid+oxali acid (hot)  decolorized
Cyanate CNO Cobalt acetate +acetic acid  azure blue crystal
Phosphate Silver test  yellow ppt in nitric acid & ammonia
Ammonium molybdate  yellow ppt. soluble in nitric acid & ammonia
Potassium K Flame test  violet or iliac color
Tartaric acid  white ppt of potassium bitartrate (only insoluble compound of potassium)
Salicylate Ferric chloride  violet color
Acid  white ppt of salicylic acid
Silver Ag HCl  white curdy ppt. insoluble in nitric acid but soluble in ammonia
Sodium Na Flame test  intense golden yellow flame
Cobalt uranyl acetate  golden yellow ppt
Tartrate C4H4O6 Silver mirror test
Pyridine + acetic anhydride (3:1)  emerald green
Thiosulfate S2O3 HCl  white ppt turning yellow; SO2
Zinc Zn Hydrogen sulfide  white ppt (only white sulfide)
Saccharin (Fluorescein Test)- Resorcinol+ sulfuric acid + excess NaOH  Fluorescent green liquid
 Common Names of Inorganic Compounds

Common Name Chemical Name Formula

Alcohol, grain Ethyl Alcohol / Ethanol C2H5OH Brimstone Sulfur (S)
Alcohol, wood Methyl Alcohol/ Methanol CH3OH Quicksilver Mercury (Hg)
Alum Potassium Aluminum Sulfate K2SO4Al(SO4)224H2O Benzol Benzene (C6H6)
Ammonia water Ammonium Hydroxide Solution NH4OH Carbolic Acid Phenol (C6H5OH)
Agua Fortis Conc. Nitric Acid HNO3 Cane Sugar Sucrose (C12H22O11)
Agua Regia Mixture of Conc. Nitric Acid & Hydrochloric Acid HNO3/ 3HCl Marsh Gas Methane (CH4)
Baking Soda Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3
Baryte Barium Hydroxide Ba(OH)2
Bauxite Impure Aluminum Oxide Al2O3
Bleaching Powder Calcium Oxychloride or Chloride of Lime CaOCl2
Blue Vitriol Copper Sulfate CuSO45H20
Borax Sodium Tetraborate Na2B4O710H2O
Brine Sodium Chloride Solution NaCl
Calomel Mercurous Chloride Hg2Cl2
Carbona Carbon Tetrachloride CCl4
Carborundum Silicon Carbide SiC
Caustic Potash Potassium Hydroxide KOH
Chalk Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
Limestone Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
Chile Saltpeter Sodium Nitrate NaNO3
Chloroform Trocloromethane CHCl3
Cinnabar Impure Mercuric Sulfide HgS
Corrosive Sublimate Mercuric Chloride HgCl2
Cream of Tartar Potassium Bitartrate KHC4H4O6
Cryolite Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Na3AlF6
Deuterium Oxide Heavy Water D2O
Dry Ice Solid Carbon Dioxide CO2
Epsom Salts Magnesium Sulfate MgSO47H2O
Flourspar Calcium Fluoride CaF2
Galena Lead Sulfide PbS
Glauber’s Salt Sodium Sulfate Decahydate Na2SO410H2O
Gypsum Hydrated Calcium Sulfate CaSO42H2O
Hematite Ferric Oxide Fe2O3
Iodoform Triiodomethane CHI3
Laughing Gas Nitrous Oxide N2O
Limewater Calcium Hydroxide Solution Ca(OH)2
Litharge Lead Oxide PbO
Lunar Caustic Silver Nitrate AgNO3
Lye Sodium Hydroxide NaOH
Milk of Magnesia Magnesium Hydroxide MG(OH)2
Muriatic Acid Hydrochloric Acid HCl
Nitroglycerine Glyceryl Nitrate/ Glyceryl Trinitrate C3H5(NO3)3
Oil of Vitriol Concentrated Sulfuric Acid H2SO4
Phosgene Carbonyl Chloride COCl2
Plaster of Paris Hydrated Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4)2 H2O
Prussian Blue Ferric Ferrocyanide Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
Prussic Acid Hydrocyanic Acid HCN
Pyrite/ Fool’s Gold Iron Sulfide FeS2
Quicklime Calcium Oxide CaO
Rochelle Salt Sodium Potassium Tartrate NaKC4H4O6
Sal Ammoniac Ammonium Chloride NH4Cl
Salt (Table) Sodium Chloride NaCl
Saltpeter Potassium Nitrate KNO3
Sand Silicon Dioxide SiO2
Slaked Lime Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2
Turnbull’s Blue Ferrous Ferricyanide Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2
Vinegar Diluted Acetic Acid C2H4O2
Washing Soda (Sal Soda) Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3
Water Glass Sodium Silicate Na2O3Si
Zinc Blende Impure Zinc Sulfide ZnS
GROUP I-A (1): ALKALI METALS 3. Sodium Acetate (NaCH3COO)
 react vigorously w/ water to form hydrogen gas & the metallic  Diuretic, Urinary alkalinizer, Antacid,
hydroxides  Alkalinizing agent in Benedicts Solution
 has the greates alkalinity in nature w/ alkalinity increasing as (test for ketones, aldehydes &
the ionic readily increase reducing sugars)
has only 1 valence (ns ); has a single positive charge Cations in Triple Acetates of Sodium are:
most reactive of all metallic elements -Co
hydroxides give alkaline solutions (increase w/ atomic number) -Zn
 ALL Group IA have icreasing oxidation potentials w/ increasing -Mg
ionization potentials except LITHIUM. 4. Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
 activity , alkalinity  w/ atomic #  aka “Baking Soda”
 degree of solution  w/  atomic #  Systemic Antacid
 Members: Hydrogen (H)  antidote for Zinc Poisoning
Lithium (Li)  Carbonating Agent for effervescent prep.
Sodium (Na) -liberating CO2, to enhance palatability
Potassium (K)  SE: Rebound Hyperacidity, Systemic Alkalosis, Edema
Rubidium (Rb) 5. Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)  Antacid, Carbonating Agent
Francium (Fr) –highest activity among Group IA  source of Carbonate Ion
Ammonium (NH4) 6. Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
 aka “Rock salt”, “Table Salt”, “Solar Salt”
 Hydrogen (H)  “Inflammable Air”. “Flammable Air” used for a more rapid elimination of iodine in cases of
 lightest element iodism
 has no therapeutic use  Electrolyte replenisher, Preservative, Condiment
 Uses: Inflating Balloons  Examples: NSS; Ringer Solution (Na, Ca, K)
Isotopes: 7. Sodium Citrate (Na3C6H5O7)
(a) Protium  most abundant Anticoagulant (due to Citrate), Diuretic,
(b) Deuterium  heavy hydrogen Chronic Acidosis, Buffer, Alkalinizer, , expectorant
(c) Tritium  radioactive isotope  can cause bleeding
Water Vapor  best expectorant 8. Sodium Fluoride (NaF)  Anticariogenic(prevent dental caries)
Messerschmidt process  can obtain 99% purity gydrogen 9. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)  aka“Caustic Soda”, “Lye”, “Sosa"
 Lithium (Li)  aka “Earth”  Saponifying agent
 Lightest metal *Saponification –rxn
 lowest density between inorganic &
 most reactive lement organic acid
 the only alkali metal that melts  NaOH TS, -reagent to
above the boiling point of water differentiate mercurous salts
 bridge elemnt (Li resembles Mg, to some extent Ca, from mercuric salts.
more closely than Na) 10. Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO)
 Pharmacologic Action:  aka “Chlorox®”, “Bleaching Powder”
Depressant  Oxizing Agent, Bleaching Agent
 Diuretic  *Diluted Sodium Hypochlorite:
Nonpharmacologic Action: Modified Dakins Solution: Antiseptic
 Heat exchanger in aircon Dakins Solution: Disinfectant
Important Compounds of Lithium:  0.025% Concentration for Sodium Hypochlorite
1. Lithium Bromide (LiBr)  Depressant Topical Solution
2. Litium Carbonate (LiCO3)  DOC for Mania 11. Sodium Iodide (NaI)
 Sodium (Na)  aka “Natrium” (Latin word, from nature)  Expectorant, Iodine Solubilizer, Antifungal
 most abundant Extracellular Fluid Cation 12. Sodium Lactate (NaC3H5O3)
 cation of choice to optimize the pharmaceutical  Antiketogenic, Eletrolyte Replenisher,
utility of organic medicaments Antacid, Diuretic
 used w/ caution in the treatment of cardiac & renal 13. Sodium Metaphosphate  Graham’s Salt
condition in w/c edema is a problem (Na-H20 reten.) 14. Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2)
 Triple Acetates w/ Sodium (forms insoluble salts)  Vasodilator , Antidote for Cyanide Poisoning
-Zinc Uranyl Acetate 15, Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3)  aka “Chile Salt Peter”
-Mg Uranyl Acetate  Meat Preservatives
-Cobalt Uanyl Acetate  most stable 16. Sodium Sulfate (NaSO3)  aka “Glauber’s Salt” ; Cathartic
 Pharmacologic Action: Fluid Retention
17. Sodium Tartrate (Na2C4H4O6)
Benedict’ Reagent contains:
-Na2CO3  primary standard for Karl Fischer Reagent
-Na2C6H5O7 (Method I - Water Determination)
Feling’s Solution contains: 18. Sodium Thiocyanate (NaSCN)  Hypotensive agent
19. Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O4)
 aka “Hypochlor”, Photographer’s Hypo”
Important Compounds of Sodium:  Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning w/ Sodium Nitrate
20. Disodium Calcium EDTA  stabilizer used for silver protein
1. Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate (NaH2PO4)
 aka “Fleet Enema”
21. Sodium Metabisulfite  used when Sodium bisulfate is
 Cathartic, Urinary Acidifier
2. Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO3)  water soluble Antioxidant
 Potassium (K)  aka “Kalium” (latin word)  Cesium (Cs)Catalyst in polymerization of resin forming material
 most abundant & predominant Intacellular cation  first element discovered by means of Spectroscope
 Deficiency: Hypokalemia (if severe, lead to Muscular Important Compound of Cesium:
Paralysis) 1. Cesium Chloride (CsCl)  used in density gradient
 *Avocado Highest Potassium Level centrifugation
 Pharmacologic Action:
Diuretic Ammonium (NH4)  Hypothetical Alkali Metal
 Muscular Contraction  salts show a striking resemblance to K & Rb
Important Compounds of Potassium: salts (Isomorphous)
1. Potassium Acetate (KCH3COO)  Synthesis: Haber’s Process
 Diuretic, Urinary alkalinizer, Antacid,  Pharmacologic Action:
2. Potassium Arsenite  aka “Fowler’s Solution  Diuretic
3. Potassium Aluminum Sulfate (KAl(SO4)2)  Buffer
aka “Potassium Alum “, “Potash Alum”, “Tawas”  Expectorant (like Iodide)
4. Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3)  Anti-cariogenic (like Fluoride)
 Systemic Antacid Important Compounds of Ammonium:
 Carbonating Agent for effervescent prep. 1. Ammonium Bromide (NH4Br) Depressant, Sedative
 source of Bicarbonate ion 2. Ammonium Carbonate [(NH4)2CO3]
5. Potassium Bitartrate (KC4H5O6) aka “Sal Volatile”, “Hart’s horn”, “Preston Salt”,
 aka “Cream of Tartar”, “Creamor” “Ammonium Sesquicarbonate”
 Laxative used as “smelling salts” when combined w/ Strong
6. Potassium Bromide (KBr) Depressant ammonia solution
 used for IR Analysis Expectorant (am, Respiratory Stimulant, Antacid,
7. Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) Ingredient of Aromatic Ammonia Spirit
aka “Potash, “Salt of Peter”, “Pearl ash” 3. Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
 Antacid, Carbonating Agent, Carbonate source  aka “Muriate of Hartshorn”
8. Potassium Chlorate (KClO3)  Expectorant, Diuretic, Urinary Acidifier
Aka “Bertholate Salt”  when reacted w/ Caustic Pencil,
 oxidizing agent White Ppt will be the positive result.
 Component in Toothpaste, Gargle, Mouthwash 4. Ammonium Iodide (NH4I)  Source of iodide, Expectorant,
due to deodorant action Antifungal
9. Potassium Chloride (KCl)  Electrolyte Replenisher 5. Ammonium Acetate (NH4CH3COO)
note: SLOW PUSH  aka “Spiri of Minderesus”
 IV Push: Lethal Injection  Buffer component
10. Potassium Citrate (K3C6H5O7) Diuretic, Expectorant, 6. Aromatic Ammonia Spirit
DIaphoretic  aka “Spirit of Sal Volatile”, “Spirit of Hart’s Horn”
11. Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)  Respiratory Stimulant
 aka“Caustic Potash”, “Lye Potash” 7. Ammoniated Mercury (HgNH2Cl)  aka “White Precipitate”
 Saponifying agent (produces liquid/soft soap)  Topical Anti-infective
12. Potassium Iodide (KI) 8. Ammonium Hydroxide  used to separate Bismuth frome
 Expectorant, Iodine Solubilizer, Antifungal copper & cadmium
13, Potassium Nitrate (KNO3)  Ammonium Complexes:
 aka “Salt Peter”, “Salt Prunelle”, “Salitre” *Copper Blue
 Meat Preservatives *Cadmium  Colorless
14. Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) *Bismuth  white hydroxide
 aka “Mineral Chameleon”
 Oxidizing Agent,
Antidote for Strychnine Poisoning
  Primary Standard for KMnO4 VS: Sodium Oxalate
 Secondary Standard: Oxalic Acid
15. Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KH2PO4)  Cathartic
16. Potassium Sodium Tartrate (KNa2C4H4O6)
 aka “Rocehlle Salt”, “Sal Signette”
 Cathartic, Sequestering Agent
17. Potassium Thiocyanate (KSCN)  Hypotensive agent
18. Sulfurated Potash[K2SO4/(K2Sx)2]  aka “Liver of Sulfur”
 used in the treatment of
16. Potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) (K2HgI4)
 aka “Nessler’s Reagent”
 an alkaline solution used to detect Ammonia

Reagents that will precipitate Poatssium:

-Sodium Cobaltinitrite
-Perchloric Acid
GROUP I-B (11): COINAGE ELEMENTS Silver (Ag)  aka “Argentum”, “Shining”, “Bright”
occur free in the metallic state  black ppt w/ Marsh’s Test
 coinage metals  2nd most malleable metal
 easy to recover from ores  2nd best conductor of electricity
 very malleable  Pharmacologic Action:
 Complexes/ Chelates Oligodynamic Property (Germicidal Action)
 Members: Copper (Cu) Bone replacement for temporary braces of
Silver (Ag) long bones & to close opening of the skull
Gold (Au) Styptic (causes constriction of vessels)
Roentgenium (Rg) Toxicity: Argyria
Antidote: NSS
Copper (Cu)  aka “Cuprium” or can be removed by Sodium Thiosulfate
 only reddish metal Potassium
 3rd most malleable metal Ferricyanide
 3rd best conductor
 component of hemocyanin (respiratory pigment) Important Compounds of Silver:
& cytochrome oxidase Soluble Compounds
 essential trace element 1. Silver Nitrate (AgNO3)
 each element of this group has a core w/ an outer  aka “Lapiz infernulariz”, “Lunar Caustic”,
shell of 18 electrons together w/ a single valence “Indellible Ink”, “Caustic Pencil”
electron in the outermost shell for removal of Warts
 Copper (II)  is an example of acid insoluble sulfide  once used as eyewash for newly born babies of
Cu  blue in solution mothers w/ gonorrhea (gonococcal opthalmitis)
 Pharmacologic Action:  0.5% Concentration as wet dressing for prsons
Protein Precipitant suffering from third degree burn
Enhances physiological utilization of Iron (Fe) 2. Ammoniated Silver Nitrate [Ag(NH3)2NO3]
Toxicity: Wilson’s Disease  aka “Howe’s Solution”
Antidote: Penicillamine  Dental Protective, Ingredient of Tollen’s Reagent,
Two important Alloys: Desensitizing Agent
(a) Brass: Cu + Zn(Zinc)  aka “Metal of Magynoeci” 3. Silver Trinitophenolate
(b) Bronze: Cu + Sn(Tin)  treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis
(c) Devarda’s Alloy: contain Cu + Al + Zn & Monilia albicans
Important Compounds of Copper:  extended use, may result to Argyria & Nephritis
1. Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) Insoluble Compounds:
 aka “Blue Vitriol”, “Blue Stone” 4. Silver Iodide (AgI)  Poisonous
 used in preparation of Benedict’s, Barfoed’s &  germicide; disinfectant
Fehling’s Solution 5. Silver Proteinates/ Silver Proteins
 + Iron: Increase hematinic Activity (a) Mild Silver Protein  aka “Argyrol”
 Antidote for Phosphorus Poisoning  Antiseptic for the eye
 Emetic  19-23/25%
 component of Bordeux Mixture (b) Strong Silver Protein  aka “Protagrol”
 an algicide/ fungicide in  stronger antiseptic/ germicide for
swimming pools ears, nose, & throat
2. Copper Acetoasenate [Cu2(AsO3)2Cu(C2H3O202] contains 7.5%-8.5% of Ag
 aka “Paris Green” (c) Collodal Silver Protein  aka “Collargol”
 Insecticide  general germicide
 18-22%
3. (Cu)3(C6H5O7)3
6. Colloidal Silver Chloride  “Lunosol” (prototype)
 Astringent in 8% concentration
4. Cupric Hydrogen Arsenite  Scheele’s Green
5. Blister Copper  obtained from furnace covered w/ black Gold (Au)  aka “Aurum’, “Shining dawn”, “King of all Metal”
blisters  most malleable & ductile
6. Cuprous Citrate  “Hatchett’s Brown”  best conductor of electricity
 also for NONdisseminated Lupus Erythematosus
 Dissolved by: a. Aqua Regia (3parts HCl+1part HNO3)
b. Selenic Acid  only single acid that can
dissolve gold
 Antidote: BAL (Dimercaprol)
Important Compounds of Gold:
1. Aurothioglucose (IM)  treatment of Gout
& Rheumatoid Arthritis
2. Gold Sodium Thiomalate (IM)  treatment of Gout &
Rheumatoid Arthritis
3. Auronofin (PO)  only Oral Gold Preparation
 treatment of Gout & Rheumatoid Arthritis
 also for Glossitis
(inflammation of the tongue)
4. *Colloidal Gold  aka “Purple of Cassius”
 stannous chloride w/ metallic gold slowly
turns down precipitate in weakly acidc
GROUP II-A (2): ALKALINE EARTH METALS 10. Magnesia Mixture (MgCl2 + NH4Cl + Ammonia)
 All Alkaline Earth Metals reduce water w/ the liberation of  is used to test Arsenic
hydrogen & the formation of an alkaline solution except  Arsenate will form White Ppt w/ magnesium
Beryllium(Be) Mixture
Members: Beryllium (Be) compared w/ arsenate, arsenite do not form
Magnesium (Mg) white precipitate w/ Magnesia Mixture. Thus,
Calcium (Ca) this is used as a differentiating test between
Strontium (Sr) Arsenate & Arsenite
Barium (Ba) 11. Flash Light Powders  mixtures of Potassium Chlorate or
Radium (Ra) Barium Peroxide & Powdered
Beryllium (Be)  Most toxic metal
 can cause lung carcinoma, chronic granuloma. Calcium (Ca)  2nd most abundant Extracellular Cation
 Fluorescent Lamp  Vitamin D is needed for its maximum absorption
 cause permanent hardness of water
Magnesium (Mg) Lightest of all structurally important metal  an ion plays a significant role in neurotransmitter release
 2nd most abundant Intracellular Cation  Pharmacologic Action:
 Chlorophyll component (Photosynthesis) Blood Coagulation
 Compound of Grignard’s Reagent Important Muscle Contraction
 cofactor of Phosphate transferring enzymes Important Release of Neurotransmitter
 also a constituent of bones & teeth Cation of Hydroxyapatite (Primary Element of
 produces a Violet-red Color w/ Diphenycarbazide bones & teeth  98-99%)
 give Yellow ppt w/Oxine (8-hydroxyquinoline) Deficiency State:
 creates Blue ppt (or Corn flower blue) ☹ Osteoporosis (bone density)
w/ Quinalizarin Reagent ☹ Osteomalacia(adults)
 Pharmacologic Action: ☹ Ricketts (Infants/ Children)
Laxative ☹ Hypocalcemia (tetany -tonic spasm ofmuscles)
Depressant Important Compounds of Calcium:
Natural Calcium-channel Blocker 1. Calcium Bromide (CaBr2)  Sedative Depressant
Other Use: Flares
2. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
 Antidote for Mg Poisoning: Ca Gluconate
 aka “Precipitated Chalk”, “Prepared Chalk”
 Natural Sources:
 made by the process called Elutriation
As Silicates: (Talc, Asbestos)
 Antacid, Carbonating Agent,
As CO3: (Magnesite, Dolomite
Ingredient of tootpaste, dentrifices
 As So4: (Keiserite)
 Primary standard for EDTA
 Magneson I (p-nitrobenzene resorsinol)
dyestuff to detect magnesium 3. Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)
ion forming a blue lake  aka “Muriate of Lime”
Important Compounds of Magnesium:  Calcium replenisher (Electrolyte Replenisher)
4. Calcium Guconate
1. Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3)  aka “Magnesia”
 Calcium Supplement & Replenisher
 Antacid, Laxative
 Antidote for Magnesium Poisoning
2. Magnesium Hydroxide [Mg(OH)2]
5. Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]
 aka “Milk of Magnesia”, “Magnesia Magma”
 aka “Slaked Lime”, “Milk of Lime”, “Calcium Hydrate”
causes Diarrhea
 Antacid; Saponifying Agent
 Antacid, Laxative
 used in infant’s milk formula to prevent the curlding
 packed w/ Blue Bottle (for aesthetic purposes)
of milk to improve the digestibility of it.
3. Magnesium Oxide (MgO)  aka “Calcined Magnesia”
 Antacid, Laxative 6. Calcium Lactate [Ca(C3H5O3)2]
 component of Universal Antidote  Calcium Supplement
4. Magnesium Trisilicate [2MgO2SiO2nH2O] 7. Calcium Phosphate monobasic (CaHPO42H2O)
 Antacid (Advatage: has prolong effect due to  source of Ca & PO4
gelatinous consistency of preparation) 8. Dibasic Calcium Phosphate (CaHPO4)
5. Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4)  aka “Epsom Salt”  the recommended calcium salt as electrolyte
 Anticonvulsant (IM) replenisher because it provides an optimum ratio of
Cathartic (PO) 1:1 Calcium to Phosphorus.
Antidote for Barium Toxicity 9. Calcium Phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2]
6. Hydrated Magnesium Silicate  aka “Bone Ash”, “Phosphate Rock”
 aka “Talc”, “Soapstone”, French Chalk”  Antacid
 Softest mineral 10. Calcium Oxide (CaO)  aka “Lime”, “Quicklime”, “Calx”
 Adsorbent, Filtering Aid,  Component of Bordeaux mixture
Clarifying Agent, Dusting powder  Insecticide
7. Magnesium Citrate [Mg3(C6H5O7)2] 11. Calcium Hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2]
 aka “Lemoda Purganti”, “Purgative Lemon”  aka “Chlorinated Lime”, “Chloride of Lime”
 Cathartic  Bleaching Agent, Disinfectant
8. Magnesium Stearate  Lubricant 12. Calcium Sulfate [CaSO4 ½ H2O or 2H2O)
9. Magnesium Nitrate Reagent  solution containing Mg(NO3)2,  aka “Plaster of Paris”, “Gypsum”, Terra Alba”
NH4Cl,  Rodenticide,
& a little ammonia Preparation of surgical casts & Dental Impression ,
Strontium (Sr)  aka “Brass Yellow” metal
 can replace Calcium in bone formation
 radioactive used in diagnostic to scan &study bones
 used to hasten bone (mineralization in diseases
such as Osteoporosis)
 salts are used in Red Pyrotechniques (Flares)
Important Compound of Strontium:
1. Strontium Chloride (SrCl2)
 temperature desensitizing agent (Sensodyne®)
2. Strontium Lactate  used in treatment of osteoporosis
Barium (Ba)  aka “Heavy”
 salts are used in Green Pyrotechniques
is an insoluble phosphates
 Toxicity: Baritosis
Antidote: Magnesium Sulfate
(Epsom Salt)
Important Compound od Barium:
1. Barium Sulfate (BaSO4)
 radiopaque substances used for GIT imaging
 causes Constipation
2. Barium Hydroxide [Ba(OH)2]  CO2 absorbent

Radium (Ra) most soluble hydroxide salt

 first radionuclide 1901/ radioactive substance
discovered by Marie Curie
 used for:
Cancer Radiotherapy
Diagnostic Purpose
 exhibit Autocomplexation
Members: Zinc (Zn)
Cadmium (Cd)
Mercury (Hg)
Copernicium (Cn)

Zinc (Zn)  metal present in Insulin Mercury (Hg)  aka “ “Messenger of Gods”,
Quicksilver”, “Liquid Silver” by Theophrastus
 as container for batteries & dry cells
 can be removed by Sulfur when it falls into Crack &
 protective coating of galvanized iron
difficult to clean places
 forms a White ppt w/ Sulfur-containing reagent
 Pharmacologic Actions:
 essential component of Carbonic Anhydrase & many
other enzymes
 w/ Dithizone Test: Red Color Extractable
 Pharmacologic Actions:
Treatment of Syphilis
Parasiticidal/ Fungicidal
Industrial Uses:
~Manufacture of Thermometers
Defficiency: Parakeratosis (have space
Antidote for Zinc Poisoning: NaHCO3 (Baking Soda)
Important Compounds of Zinc:
~Formation of Amalgams (dental cement)
1. Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2)  Toxicity:”Minimata Disease”
 aka “Burnette’s Disinfectant Fluid” Antidote:
 Antiseptic/ Disinfectant (found in mouthwashes), *EDTA
Topical Protectant, Dentin Desesitizer, Corrosive *Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate NF
2. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) (best Antidote –particulary the
 aka “Zinc White”, “Lassar’s Paste”, “Chinese White” bichloride)
Mild Antiseptic, Astringent, Topical Protectant *Egg Albumin (used in mergency)
Ladd’s paste  comprises Zinc Oxide, Liquid Petrolatum, -1 egg white for each 250
& Aluminum Powder 1/3 by weight Mercuric Chloride, to induce
3. Zinc Peroxide (ZnO2)  Antiseptic emesis,
4. Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO47H2O)  aka “White Vitriol” Important Compounds of Mercury:
 Emetic, Astringent, 1. Mercurous Chloride (Hg2Cl2)  aka “Calomel”
 Ingredient of White Lotion, USP  Cathartic, Local Antiseptic
w/ Sulfurated potash
2. Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2)  aka “Corrosive Sublimate”
5. Zinc Sulfide (ZnS)  aka “White Lotion”, “White Sulfide”
 also as Mercury Bichloride
 active component of White Lotion
 Disinfectant
 Parasiticide, Topical Protectant,
3. Mercurous Iodide (HgI)  Anti-syphilis
4. Mercury (II) Iodide (HgI2)  stimulant of Indolent Ulcers
6. Hydrated Zinc Silicate
 aka “Natural Calamine” 5. Potassium Mercuric Iodide (K2HgI4)  Antiseptic
 Topical Protectant, Anti-itch  component of Mayer’s
 makes Calamine pink Reagent
7. Zinc-eugenol Cement  Dental protective, Dentrifices 6. Ammoniated Mercury (HgNH2Cl)  aka “White Precipitate”
 Topical Antiseptic/
Cadmium (Cd)  Pharmacologic Actions/ Uses: Anti-infective
Astringent 7. Mercuric Oxide (HgO)  aka “Yellow Precipitate”
Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis  Ophthalmic Antiseptic/ Anti-infective
Other Use: Manufacture of Stink Bomb 8. Red Mercuric Iodide  w/ Potassium Iodide produces a
Toxicity: “Itai-itai Disease” solution known as Valser’s Reagent
Antidote: BAL 9. Water-soluble Mercury  solid preparation containing
Important Compounds of Cadmium: Mercury (10-20%), Cetyl Alcohol
(70%), Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Dioctyl
1. Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2)  Emetic,
Sodium Sulfosccunate, Glycerin &
Treatment of Tinea Infection
2. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS)  aka “Yellow Sulfide”
 Anti-Seborrheic Dermatitis/ 2+ 2+
Anti-dandruff Differentiation of Hg2 from Hg
2+ 2+
3. Cadmium Sulfate (CdSO4)  Ophthalmic Antiseptic Reagent Hg2 Hg
NaOH Hg2O (Black ppt) HgO (Yellow ppt)
KI Hg2I2 (Green ppt) HgI2 (Scarlet ppt)
Excess KI Hg (Black ppt) + K2HgI4 K2HgI4 (Dissolution)
NH3 Hg(NH2)Cl + Hg (Black ppt) Hg(NH2)Cl (White ppt)
HCl HgCl2 (White ppt) HgCl2 (Clear Solution)
 +3 oxidation state 7. Aluminum Magnesium Silicate (Hydrated Al Mg Si )
 *Hydroxides of this group of elements – tend to show  aka “Fuller’s Earth”, “Floretin”, “Floridin”
amphoteric properties except those at the top & bottom  is a low of plasticity, clay-like material, which, when,
elements of this group heated, exhibits an increase in its adsorptive
 Alum = double salts properties.
 Members: Boron (B) 8. Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Sulfate  aka “Magaldrate”
Aluminum (Al) 9. Aluminum Acetate (AlCH3COO)
Gallium (Ga) 10. Aluminon Reagent  tri-ammonium aurine-tricarboxylate
Indium (In)  11. Aluminum Silicate
Thallium (Tl)  (a) Kaolin  aka “China Clay”,
“Native Hydrated Aluminum Silicate”
Boron (B)  bridge element, resemble silicon “White Bole”
 Used in Vulcanizing Rubber  Intestinal adsorbent in diarrhea, Demulcent,
Important Compounds of Boron: Clarifying agent, Excipient for inorganic salts,
1. Boric Acid (H3BO4)  aka “Sal Sativum”, “Sal Sedativum” Dusting Powder
 burns with a Green bordered Flame (b) Bentonite  aka “Soap Clay”, “Mineral Soap”,
when mixed with methanol & the mass “Swelling Clay”
ignited “Native Colloidal Hydrated Silicate”
 Buffer component “Wilhinite”
 Eyewash (2% Boric Acid)  Suspending agent
 Antiseptic  Bentonite Magma (5% Bentonite)
 Toxicity: “Lobster Appearance” same w/ (c) Pumice  porous rock of volcanic origin
Sodium Borate  complex of Al, Na, K
2. Boron Trioxide  produces by heating Boric Acid to  dental abrasive
temperature over 160C Fine Pumice  powder form of pumice
3. Sodium Tetraborate (Na2B4O710H2O) (d) Clay  contain impurities of calcium, magnesium, iron
aka “Borax”, “Dobell’s Solution” oxides, fragment of quartz etc.
 Antiseptic, Eyewash, Wet Dressing for wounds
Gallium (Ga)aka “eka-aluminum”
Aluminum (Al)  most abundant metal  substitute for mercury in the manufacture Arc Lamps
 3rd most abundant element  except for Mercury, has the lowest melting point of
 is a base-insoluble sulfide the metals (29.75C)
 Pharmacologic Actions:  appears in transferring, an iron transport CHON, &
Constipation appears to be useful in treating cancer related
Astringent hypercalcemia
Antiperspirant  as Diagnostic Aid ( GA)
Deodorant Important Compound of Gallium:
Thin Foil is used to treat burns 1. Gallium Nitrate  for the treatment of cancer-related
 Toxicity: Shaver’s Disease hypercalcemia
Important Compounds of Aluminum:
111 113
1. Aluminum Chloride (AlCl36H2O)  Astringent, Antiseptic, Indium (In)  as Diagnostic Aid ( In, In)
Deodorant Thallium(Tl) aka “Green Twig”
2. Aluminum Hydroxide [Al(OH)3]  Defacqz Reaction (test)
 aka Amphogel®, Cremalin Gel®  most toxic, similar to Arsenic (Toxic Effects)
 Antacid, Protectant  rodenticides
 can interfere w/ phosphate absorption  Poisoning causes Green Tongue & Alopecia
 DIsadvatage: Constipation 201
 as Diagnostic Aid ( Tl)
Phosphate Deficiency  Treatment of Poisoning w/ Thallium:
3. Aluminum Phosphate (AlPO4) -Trihexyphenidyl
 aka Phosphagel® -Dimercaprol
 Antacid, Astringent, Demulcent
 Advantage: Do not interfere w/ PO4 absorption GROUP III-B (3)
4. Aluminum Carbonate [Al2(CO3)3]  “Rare Earth Elements”
causes constipation are the first elements that are large enough to permit the
treatment of Phosphatic Calculi addition of electrons to the d orbitals, beginning w/ the third
 Phosphate Fecal Route principal quantum number
5. Alum [AlNH4(SO4)212H2O] – NH4 salt  Members: Scandium (Sc)  “eka-boron”
[AlK(SO4)212H2O] – K salt Yttrium (Y)
 aka “Tawas”
 Astringent, Antiperspirant, Deodorant
6. Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)  aka “Alumina”, “Bauxite”
 Treatment of Silicosis
 GEW: MW/6
+4 oxidation state
 predominantly exhibit covalent bonding, owing to the small
size & high charge on the tetravalent ions.
 Oxides of Carbon(C) & Silicon(Si) are acidic, those of other
elements of the group are Amphoteric
 Members: Carbon (C)
Silicon (Si)
Tin (Sn)
Germanium (Ge)

Carbon (C)  non metal

 can form multiple bonds w/ itself (Catenation)
 Properties: Catenation –ability to bond w/ another
carbon froming chains
 produces in various forms, such as Coke, Lampblack, or
Coke  an impure form of carbon when coal is
heated strongly in the absence of air
 Manifestation: (a) Crystalline – graphite, diamond
(b) Amorphous – coal, anthracite 4. Carbonates/ Bicarbonates  Antacid, Carbonating agent
Soft Coal (Bituminous)  70% of carbon (a) Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) aka “Baking Soda”
Hard Coal (Anthracite)  90% carbon &  gastric antacid
6% volatile matter (b) Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3)
Important Compounds of Carbon:  source of K ion in electrolyte replenisher
1. Activated Charcoal (c) Ammonium Carbonate [(NH4)2CO3]
Adsorbent, Component of universal antidote  effective reflex stimulant & expectorant
 are prepared from ligneous material by (d) Sodium Carbonate Dehydrate  aka “Soda Crystals”
carbonization in the absence of air, followed by heat (e) Anhydrous Sodium Carbonate  aka “Soda Ash”
&/or chemical treatment to increase surface area &  Soluble Carbonate group:
porosity -K
 residue from a destructive distillation of various -Na
organic materials treated to increase it adsorptive -NH4
power.  Bicarbonate  cause temporary hardness of water
 Two forms: 5. Diamond  purest native form of uncombined carbon
Finely Powdered – use in liquid media
 official use in USP is
treatment of Diarrhea
Coarse, Hard, Porous Particles  gas absorption
2. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  aka “Carbonic Acid, “Dry Ice”
 most potent respiratory stimulant
(Best Respiratory Stimulant)
 treatment of persistent Hiccups
 Dry Ice: Treatment of Acne, Corns,
Calluses, Moles, Warts,
 toxicity dur to suffocation
 Absorbers: Soda Lime &
Barium Hydroxides
3. Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxic Gas
 210x greater affinity to hemoglobin
than oxygen leading to
asphyxia/hypoxia then death
 toxicity due to interaction w/
Hemoglobin (cherry red blood)
systemic poison
 Colorless, odorless, tasteless,painless
 major source: Automotive
 Treatment: (a) 100% O2
(b) Artificial Air
(He 80%+O2 20%)
(c) Hyperbaric O2
Silicon (Si)  2nd most abundant element Tin (Sn) aka “Stannum”
Important Compounds of Silicon:  used in manufacture of tin cans, household utensils
1. Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)  aka “Sand”, “Flint”, “Silica”  Alloys:
 Adsorbent, Clarifying Agnet, a. Solder Metal  50% Tin + 50% Lead
Filtering Agent, Insulator b. Pewter Metal  80% Tin + 20% Lead
Toxicity: Silicosis (along condition c. Gun Metal  10% Tin + 90% Copper
resembling chronic d. Rose Metal  25% Tin + 25% Lead + 50% Bismuth
tuberculosis, develops Important Compounds of Tin:
after long exposure
1, Stannous Fluoride (SnF2) Anticariogenic (8% solution)
(7years or more) to
2. Stannic Oxide (SnO2)  Germicide against Staphylococcal inf.
respirable air)
Antidote: Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3)
-forms coat on silica Lead (Pb)  aka “Plumbum” (latin word)
particles  most metallic alement of Group IVA
(a) Silica Fume  prepared by condensation of silica  is added to Phosphorus to render it black
from its vapor phase  forms a Black ppt w/ Sulfur-containing reagent
 Colloidal Silicon Dioxide NF  Pb (Plumbous)
(b) Silica Gel  prepared by hydrolysis of inorganic or Pb (Plumbic)
organic orthosilicates  Pharmacologic Action:
 Silicon Dioxide NF Astringent
2. Purified Siliceous Earth NF Protein Precipitant
 aka “Diatomaceous Earth” “Fuller’s Earth”,  Cumulative Poisoning: Plumbism
“Kieselgurh”, “Celite” *Effect: Lead Encephalopathy
 act as excellent inert, non-adsorbent filter aids. -Irritability
 used as Mild Abrasive -Memory Loss
3. Simethicone  aka “Polymeric Dimethyl Siloxane”, -Projectile Vomiting
“Dimetylpolysiloxane”, Lead Palsy
” Activated Dimethicaone”, “Dimethicone” -degenerative changes in motor
 Antifoaming agent, neurons
Antiflatulent in gastric bloating & -Wrist drop/ foot drop
postoperative gaseous Antidote: EDTA; Ca Versenate
distention in Gastrointestinal Sources of Poisoning: Lead Pipes
tract. Paints
4. Attapulgite [Mg5(Si8O20)(OH)28H2O] Crayons
 aka Polymagma®, Diatabs®, Quintess® Batteries
 adsorbent Automobile exhausts (Car)
 for diarrhea Important Compounds of Lead:
5. Talc [Mg3(OH)2Si4O10]  Hydrated Magnesium Silicate 1. Lead Acetate [Pb(CH3COO)2]  aka “Sugar Lead”,
 softest mineral known “Burrow’s Solution”
 formerly used as dusting powders  Astringent, Antiseptic
& lubricant fro surgical gloves 2. Basic Lead Acetate  aka “White Lead”
 filtering aid 3. Lead Subacetate [Pb(CH3COO)  aka “Goulard’s Extract
Purified Talc  has been freed of iton & other  Astringent, Antiseptic
impurities Goulard’s Cerate  Lead Subacetate + Ointment base
made by boiling very finely 4. Lead Oxide (PbO)  Letharge® (Lead monoxide)
powdered talc w/ water containing  used in cementing pipes & ingredient in
2% of Hydrochloric Acid Lead Subacetate Solutions
Most Frequent Impurities of Talc: 5. Plumber’s Solders  67% Pb, 33% Sn
-Aluminum Oxide  low melting point
-Calcium Oxide & used in soldering joints
-Ferric Oxide
6. Potassium Aluminum Silicate(KAlSi3O8) Germanium (Ge)  aka “eka-silicon” by Mendeleev
aka “Feldspar”  is purported to have immune system-enhancing
 most common rock & antitumor effects
7. Glass  generic term used to identify vitrous silicate material  found in bis--carboxyethyl germanium
prepared by fusing a base, such as Na2CO3 &CaCO3, sesquioxide
w/ pure silica Germanium Dioxide  has been used to increase the formation
appearance and characteristics of glasses can be of RBC & for treatment of anemia
modified by the addition of:
(a) Manganese Dioxide (MnO2)  mask the blue green
color of iron, usually
present in silica
(b) Boron (as Borate)  decrease the coefficient of
expansion of the glass
 to render Heat Resistant
(c)Potassium  to render light resistance property &
makes the glass amber (brown color).
(d) Lead  to increase the refractive index of a glass
8. Silanes (SiH4)  covalent SI-Si bonds
Group IV-B (4)
All members of the group possess amphoteric properties, &
their cations readily form complexes.
Members: Titanium (Ti)
Zirconium (Zr)
Hafnium (Hf)
Rutherfordium (Rf)

Titanium (Ti)  aka “Titans” (Sons of the Earth)

 powerful reducing agent
Important Compound of Titanium:
1. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)  solar ray protectant
(sun block preparation)
*TiO2: reflect UV rays
*PABA: absorbs UV rays
 Opacifying agent
 has high refracrtive index that
contributes to its opacity

Zirconium (Zr)  same with Aluminum but banned due to

Granuloma formation (skin cancer)
 Former Official Compounds:
-both are used as Antiperspirant
& for Athlete’s Foot

Hafnium (Hf)  occurs in small quantities in Zirconium ores

 Members: Nitrogen (N)
Phosphorus (P)
Arsenic (As)
Antimony (Sb)
Bismuth (Bi)
*Oxides of Nitrogen(N) & Phosphorus(P): Acidic
Arsenic(As) & Antimony(Sb): Amphoteric
Bismuth(Bi): Basic

Nitrogen (N) aka “Mephitic Air”, “Azote”, “Without Life” Phosphorus (P)  aka “Light Carrier”, “St. elmo’s Fire”
 occurs free in atmosphere  Two Forms:
 Most Abundant gas in Air (71% N2; 29% O2) (a) Red Phosphorus  non-poisonous & non-
 prepared primarily by the fractional distillation of flammable in air, except at high
liquid air temperature.
 cause fatal bend in deep sea divers due to (b) Yellow Phosphorys (White Phosphorus)
accumulation in the blood  has a distinctive, disagreeable,
 provide an atmosphere to retard oxidation of cod liver ozone-like odor.
oil, olive oil & multiple vitamin preparation.  ignites spontaneously when expose
 most stable diatomic molecule to air or when heated at about
Important Compounds of Nitrogen: 50C.
1, N2  very stable because of 3 covalent bonds  insoluble in water,
Since Stable –used as Inert Atmosphere for readily soluble in chloroform, benzene, or
oxidizable substance carbon disulfide
Liquid N2 –used as Refrigerant  Allotropic Modifications:
Container: Black (a) Scarlet P (PbBr w/ Hg @240C)
2. Nitrous Oxide (N2O)  aka “Laughing Gas” (b) Violet P (white w/ Na @ 200C)
 inhalational anesthetic (c) Black/Metallic (P w/ Pb @ 530C)
 SE: Diffusion Hypoxia
 Container: Blue Important Compound of Phosphorus:
3. Nitric Oxide (NO)  causes Vasodilation 1. Phosphate (PO4)  Antacids; Cathartics
 an important neurotransmitter produced  Insoluble Phosphates: -Mg
by neurons & other cells, -Sr
 associated w/ the Mechanism of Action -Ba
of Drugs like Sildenafil & Nitroglycerin -Ca
4. Nitrite (NO2)  Vasodilator; For Cyanide Poisoning 2. Phosphoric Acid NF  used to form soluble salts of insoluble
 *all nitrite are soluble in water, medicinal base.
except for Silver Nitrite (sparing soluble)  GEW: MW/3
 forms red color w/ Giess-Ilosvay Test 3. Hypophosphorous Acid  used as an antioxidant in Hydriodic
(sulpahnilic acid- 1 Acid Syrup & Ferrous Iodide Syrup
naphthylamine reagent)  powerful reducing agent
5. Nitrate (NO3)  preservative 4. Diphosphate Trisulfate (P2S3)
 ion when warmed with concentrated sulfuric
acid & metallic Cu, evolved brown gas; (=) Arsenic (As)  aka “Lewisite Metal”
result w/ Brown ring test; & no visible  component of Salvarsan (Antisyphilis)/ Asphenamine
reaction w/ diluted sulfuric acid.  binds to –SH (Keratin nails& hair)
gives white crystalline precipitate w/ the  Identification Test: Gutzeit’s Test
presence of Nitron Reagent ( diphenyl-endo- is the modified version of
anilo-dihydrotriazole) Marsh Test
 Lunge test – most sensitive test for nitrate  Poisoning: Arsenic Poisoning (Mee’s Lines)
Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate  longest acting  Antidote: BAL
nitrate  elements that resembled arsenic in action:
6. Nitric Acid, NF 30  is an aqueous solution containing not less -Selenium
than 69% & not more than 71% by -Tellurium
weight of HNO3 Important Compounds of Arsenic:
1. Arsenic Trioxide  Insecticide; Antileukemic
 Pimary standard for I & Ce(SO4)2
2. Potassium Arsenita Solution  aka “Fowler’s Solution”
 antileukemic
3. CopperAceto Arsenate  aka “Paris Green”
 insecticide
4. AsI2  aka “Donovan’s Solution”
 red solution
 primary standard in the preparation of cerric sulfate
Antimony (Sb)  aka “Stybium” GROUP V-B (5)
 in the presence of Rhodamine B w/ HCl  Tantalum (Ta)  for implants
forms Violet Precipitate  used in recent years in the surgical repair of
 Principal Source: Antimony Glance (Stibnite) large abdominal hernias
 Pharmacologic Action:  unaffected by body fluids, used in sheet form
Expectorant for surgical repair of bones, nerves, & tissues.
 *Amorphous form of Antimony – explosive form
Important Compund of Antimony:
1. Antimony Potassium Tartrate (SbKOC4H4O6)
 aka “Tartar Emetic”, “Brown Mixture”
Emetic, Expectorant,
Treatment of Schistosomiasis (Liver Fluke)
 no longer use as emetic because it is Toxic
2. Antimony Black  a black metallic antimony, obtained by the
action of zinc upon solutions of antimony
3. Alloys:
a. Babbit Metal  is 80% tin & 20% antimony
b. Antifriction Metal  is 75% tin, 12.5% antimony,
12.5% copper

Bismuth (Bi)  aka “Beautiful Meadow”

 will not react with acids to produce Hydrogen
 Pharmacologic Actions:
Internal Protective for Ulcer
Insoluble Bismuth  30% concentration as
 Causes: Dark Stool
Blue-black gums
 Antidote: BAL/ DImercaprol
Important Compounds of Bismuth:
1. Bismuth Subcarbonate  Antacid, Astringent, Antiseptic
2. Bismuth Subgallate  same
3, Bismuth Subnitrate  same
4. Milk of Bismuth  aka “Bismuth Cream”
 component: Bi Subnitrate + Bi Hydroxide
 Primary Use: Antacid,
Internal protective especially
for gastric patient,
Inhibit growth for H. pylori
5. Colloidal Bismuth Subcitrate  Tx of Peptic Ulcer
 lower oxi state –basic Sulfur (S)  aka “Brimstone”, “Shulbari”, “Enemy of Copper”
 higher oxi state –acidic  * -silfur  most stable allotropic form of sulfur
 *The relationship between the oxidation number & acidity of  obtained by Frasch Process (Sulfur Mining)
the oxyacids of a given element in the case of the elements in Pharmacologic Use/s:
Group VI is Directly Proportional In preparation of Scabicidal & Keratolyic ointment
Members: Oxygen (O) Stimulant Cathartic
Sulfur (S) Depilatory Agent
Selenium (Se) Fumigant
Polonium (Po) Anti-dandruff
Forms of Sulfur:
Oxygen (O)  aka “Acid Former”, “Yne” , (1) Precipitated Sulfur Lac  Sulfur; Milk Sulfur
“Empyreal Air” by Priestly,  Scabicide
“Dphlogisticated Air” by Schelle, fine particles
 most abundant element (then Si & Al) (2) Sublimed Sulfur  Cathartic
 > 1/5 of Air  coarse particles
 Treatment of Hypoxia / Asphyxia  used in the preparation of
 Container: Green Vleminckz’s Solution
The Three Allotropes: w/ Calcium Oxide (Lime) by boiling
(a) Nascent Oxygen (3) Elemental Sulfur  Fungicide
(b) Atmosphere/ Molecular Oxygen (4) Plastic Sulfur  resembles rubber & is insoluble in
(c) Ozone  allotropic form of oxygen/ poisonous gas Carbon Disulfide
*Ozonides  is formed when ozone dissolves & unites (5) Liquid Sulfur  is obtained by heating sulfur at a
w/ the double bonds of substances such as temperature of 160C until about 180C,
oil of turpentine, oil of cinnamon & olive then the product become dark brown &
oil. has reach the maximum viscosity
*Ozonized Gas  result when oxygen covert to ozone Calcarone  a crude furnace where Sulfur can be obtained/
 used in various disinfecting & recovered in Sicily
bleaching operations Sulfides:
Conditions based on Oxygen Requirement: -Black Sulfide: CuS
(a) Anoxic – inadequate oxygen HgS
(b) Anemic – red blood/ hemoglobin shortage FeS
(c) Stagnant -Pink Sulfide: MnS
(d) Histotoxic – poisonous to tissue -Orange Sulfide: Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3)
Important Compound/s of Oxygen: -Yellow Sulfide: Cadmium Sulfide
1. Hydrogen Peroxide (Thenard’s “Oxygenated Acid”) -White Sulfide: Zinc Sulfide
stability increase in Acid Medium
 3% H2O2  10 volumes (powerful oxidant) Important Compounds of Sulfur:
 6% H2O2  20 volumes (common bleach for air)- USP 1. Vlemickx’s Solution  is a mixture prepared by boiling lime &
sublimed sulfur.
2. Norhausen Acid  Fuming Sulfuric Acid
3. Sulfurated Potash[K2SO4/(K2Sx)2]  aka “Liver of Sulfur”
 used in treatment of
4. Lithopone  70% Zinc Sulfie & 30% Barium Sulfide
5. Thiosulfates  decolorizes potassium permanganate &iodine
6. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) has a suffocating odor
 antioxidant
turns filter paper moistened w/
acidified Potassium Dichromate gree.
7. Sulfur Ointment  has 10% Sulfur
8. Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) most common dehydrating agent used
in chemical reactions

Selenium (Se)  aka “Selena”, “Moon”

 essential trace element
 promotes absorption of Vitamin E
(Synergistic of Vit E)
used in making “red glass” & in rubber industry
 Pharmacologic Use: Antioxidant
Important Compound of Selenium:
1. Selenium Sulfide (SeS2)  aka “Selsun Blue”
 2.5 % suspension in topical
treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis
 Antidandruff/ Antiseborrheic Agent
2. Selenic Acid  only single acid to dissolve Gold
Polnium (Po)  first radioactive element dixcovered by Curie
 Members: Chromium (Cr)
Molybdenum (Mo)
Uranium (U)
Tungsten (W)
Chromiun (Cr) Essental trace element
Glucose tolerance factor
 Deficiency: Hyperglycemic
Important Compound of Chromium:
1. Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7)  powerful oxidizing agent
2. Chromate  yellow in solution
Chromate ion yellow
Dichromate ion orange
Molybdenum (Mo)  essential trace element
 cofactor of flavin dependent enzymes
 important constituent of xanthine oxidase &
aldehyde oxydase
 involved in bacterial fixing of atmospheric
Important Compound of Molybdenum:
1. Molybdenum Oxide  + FeSO4 (use: Hematinic
Brand name: Mol-Iron®
Uranium (U)  discovered by Becquerel
 radioactive element used for manufacture of atomic
 No pharmaceutical use
Tungsten(W)  aka “Wolfram” because it is found in nature as
Wolframite or as Wolfram Ocher
 is most desirable in making filaments in lectric bulbs
 imparts great hardness to steel
 Salt-forming elements
 Electronegativity: F > O> N  Cl
 Decreasing Acidity: HI > HBr> HCl >HF
Members: Fluorine (F)
Chlorine (Cl)
Bromine (Br)
Iodine (I)
Astatine (At)

Fluorine (F)  aka “Superhalogen” Bromine (Br)  Dark reddish brown fuming liquid with a suffocating
 strongest oxidizing agent odor
 most electronegative element  powerful caustic & germicide
 except Glod(Au) & Platinum(Pt), it attack all metals at  if in contact w/ skin wash immediately w/ a solution
ordinary temp. of NaHCO3 & treated w/ glycerin
 Poisoning: Fluorosis or Ammonia Water
Principal Manifestation: Mottled Enamel  Three Bromide Elixirs: Na, K, & Ammonium
Abnormal Bone Growth  added to Quinalizarin Reagent to differentiate
 * Fluoride  anticariogenic Agent magnesium & berylium
 is one of the metabolites of Methoxy  Pharmacologic Action:
flurane responsible for the Sedative
Nephrotoxicity associated w/ thic Depressant
inhaltional anethetic  Poisoning: Bromism (Antidote: NaCl & NH4Cl)
Important Compounds of Fluorine: Principal Manifestation: Skin Eruption
1. Sodium Fluoride (NaF)  Anticariogenic(prevent dental caries) Psychosis
at 2% solution. Weajness
2. Stannous Fluoride (SnF2) Anticariogenic (8% solution) Headache
3. Sodium Fluoride Phosphate (Na2FPO3) also cariogenic
4. Dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2)  aka “Freon”
Important Compound of Bromine:
 Refrigerant; 1. Kopperchaar’s Solution  Bromine, Tenth Normal Solution
Aerosol Propellant  solution of K Bromate & K Bromide
 0.10N Bromine Solution
Chlorine (Cl)  aka “Dephlogisticated Muriatic Acid” by Scheele  Used in the assay of Phenol
 most abundant Extracellular Anion
 used as Water Disifectant
 is added into a solution of an Iodine which liberates
color Brown
 “Greenish Yellow” Halogen (Chloros) Iodine (I)  most metallic of all halogen (except Astatine)
Important Compound of Chlorine:  present in thyroid gland
1. Hypochlorite (Na, K)  Bleaching Agent a radioactive isotopes which ha a wide use in diagnosis &
2. Chloride (Na, K, Ca)  electrolyte replenisher therapy.
 cause perment hardness of water 1:5000 (0.02%) –iodine concentration effective to
3. Potassium Chlorate  antiseptic combat many common bacteria in distilled water
 present in mouthwashes, vaginal  its Oxosalts (are very stable)
douche, & othe local cleansing prep.  Antidote for Iodine Poisoning: Cornstarch &
4. Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)  will form an acid when reacted w/ Sodium Thiosulfate
water Important Preparations of Elemental Iodine:
5. Hydrochloric Acid toilet bowl cleaner. 1. Stong Iodine Solution  aka “Lugol’s Solution”
neutalizing, stabilizing, / solubilizing 2. Iodine Tincture  Disinfectant
agent 3. Povidone-Iodine  Betadine® (10% Iodine)
* Diluted HCl – treatment of Achlordria 4. Iodophor  complex of Iodine
5. Boulton’s Solution  Phenolated Iodine Solution
 expressed in %w/v
6. HI  most acidic among the acid of halogen
* Concentrated HCl  expressed in %w/w
 is used to differentiate Group I cations
6. Hypochlorous Acid (HClO) Astatine (At) synthetic radioactive element(only synthetic halogen)
7. Chlorous Acid (HClO2)  resembles Iodine, but more metallic
 has no pharmaceutical applications
8. Chloric Acid (HClO3)
9. Perchloric Acid (HClO4)
Pseudohalogen (Halogenoids resemble halide anions)
are colored All Group 0 elements except radon occur in the atmosphere
are metallic in character  are all monatomic & unreactive
Members: Manganese (Mn) Members: Helium (He)
Technetium (Tc) Neon (Ne)
Rhenium (Re) Argon (Ar)
Krypton (Kr)
Manganese (Mn)  essential trace element Xenon (Xe)
 necessary for activation of a variety of enzymes Radon (Rn)
such as Pyruvate Carboxylase Helium (He)  2nd lightest gas/ air
 forms a Pink ppt w/ Sulfur-containing reagent  Container: Brown
 Cofactor involved in: Inhalation of pure Helium produces a
-Protein Synthesis “Donald Duck-like Sound” or “Chipmunk-like Sound”
-Phosphorylation Pharmacologic Uses:
-Fatty Acid & Cholestrerol Synthesis  Used to prepare synthetic airs
Poisoning: Parkinson-like (20% O2 + 80% He)
Important Compound of Manganese: Carrier/ Diluent of Medically important gases
1. Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) Neon (Ne)  for advertising purposes
 aka “Mineral Chameleon” Argon (Ar)  most abundant noble gas
 Oxidizing Agent, Antiseptic  substitute to nitrogen as an inert atmosphere for
 0.02% Strength as Antimicrobial pharmaceutics
by-product of the fractionalization for possible use as
Technetium (Tc)  aka “Technetos”, “eka-Manganese” anesthetics
 first element produced artificially Krypton (Kr)  least abundant noble gas
 used in Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals anesthetic(investigated for possible use as anesthetic)
( Tc)  Ramsay & Travers (isolated Krypton from Argon)
Xenon (Xe)  is a virtually ideal anesthetic inert gas sufficiently
Rhenium (Re)  very rare element potent to provide rapid induction of & emergence
 catalyst for dehydrogenation from surgical anesthesia
Radon (Rn)  aka “Niton” by Ramsay
 synthetic & radioactive noble gas
 treatment of cancer (Cervical Cancer)
 Recognize by Dorn
 Rutherford & Soddy (succeeded in liquefying the
emanation of Radon)
Ramsay & Collie (demonstrated the characteristic
spectrum of Radon)
GROUP VIIIB 12. Iron Pyrite  aka “Fool’s Gold”
consists of e elements (TRIADS) 13. Ferri Ferrocyanide, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]2  aka “Prussian Blue”
First Triad: Second Triad: Third Triad:  blue print dye
Iron (Fe) Ruthenium (Ru) Osmium (Os) 14. Ferro Ferricyanide, Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2  aka “Turnbull’s Blue”
Cobalt (Co) Rhodium (Rh) Iridium (Ir)  blue print dye
Nickel (Ni) Palladium (Pd) Platinum (Pt) 15. Cast Iron/ Pig Iron  is the crude metal obtained from blast
furnace contains 92 to 94% iron
Iron (Fe) essential trace element 16. White Cast Iron (Cementine)  is a solid solution of hard
 present in Tyrosine Hydroxylase which catalyzes the rate- brittle iron carbide formed
limiting step in catecholamines when molten iron ir rapidly
 Present in: Hemoglobin cooled.
Transferrin 17. Gray Cast Iron (Graphite Scales)  are formed when liquid
Ferritin iron is run into sand molds &
Cytochrome Oxidase Enzyme allowed to cool
 Enhance Absorption of: Vitamin C 18. Wrought Iron  is obtained from removing most of the
Copper impurities from cast iron.
most important element in engineering  contains from 99.8% to 99.9% of pure iron.
 Alloy: Steel (Iron + 35 Carbon)  very malleable & ductile, very tough &
 Mucosal Block postulation by Hahn possesses a high tensile strength
 best known of the three hypotheses on iron 19. Reduced Iron  is made from ferric oxide w/ the addition of
absorption Hydrogen
suggests that dieatary or administered iron is
reduced to the ferrous form which diffuses into Cobalt (Co)  essential in development of erythrocyte & hemoglobin
the mucosal cell where it is reoxidized & combined  used in manufacture of beer
w/ apoferritin to form stable ferritin  pink in appearance
 Misch Metal  is 70% Cerium & 30% Iron  Component of Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
 pyrophoric alloys  * Vogel’s Reaction(test for Cobaltous ions w/
 alloy of copper-nickel resulted from ammonium thiocyanate
removing sulfur from malte produce Beautiful blue)
Fe  green in solution  Deficiency: Megaloblastic Anemia
 Use: Hematinic Important Compounds of Cobalt:
 Toxicity: GIT Distress 1. Cobalt Chloride (CoCl2)  “Cobaltous Chloride”
Cardiac Collapse  aka “Lover’s Ink”,
Antidote: Deferoxamine “Sympathetic Ink”
Important Compounds of Iron:  indicator in silica gel beads
1. Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4)  aka “Green Vitriol” (dessicator)
 Hematinic Agent 2. Cobalt Zincate  aka “Rinmann’s Green”
 most economical & most 3. Cobalt meta-aluminate  aka “Thenard Blue”
satisfactory form of iron 4. Cobaltous  used as indicator in silica gel beads & other
preparation in the market dehydrating agents
 SE: Constipation Nickel (Ni)  aka “Old Nick’s Copper”
2. Ferrous Subsulfate Solution  aka “Monsel’s Solution”  found in fossil fuel combustion
3. Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate  aka “Mohr’s Salt”  metal in Fancy Jewelries
 most important double salt of  specified by Dimethylglyoxime Reagent, form Red ppt.
ferrous sulfate w/ alkali sulfate Ni  green in solution
4. Ferric Ammonium Sulfate [FeNH4(SO4)2] Nickel Pectinate  Tomectin
 aka “Ferric Alum”  is utilized for the treatment of diarrhea
 indicator used in precipitation method of analysis Raney Nickel  alloy of nickel & aluminum
5. Ferrous Gluconate  FERGON® (Hematinic Agent) Nickel Hydroxide  Green
less gastric irritating German Silver  Nickel + Zinc + Copper
6. Ferrous Fumarate  TOLERON® (hematinic agent)-1957 Constantan  alloy of Copper & Nickel
 more stable than ferrous sulfate  Dimethylglyoxime Reagent  precipitating agent of Nickel
 most tolerable form of iron
 less irritating to the GI tract than any Osmium (Os)  heaviest & densest metal
other iron preparations Important Compounds of Osmium:
7. Ferrous Carbonate (FeCO3)  aka “Chalybeate Pills”, 1. Osmic Acid
“Ferrunginous Pills”, 2. Osmium Tetroxide
“Blaud’s Pills” *Both used in staining microorganism for microscopic study
 Hematinic Agent especially electron microscopy
8. Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)  astringent, styptic, Palladium (Pd)  catalyst in finely divided steel
detection(test) of tannins & phenols Platinum (Pt)  catalyst in finely divided steel
 will react with:  called as “Noble Metals” because
-Morphine (blue) it shows low oxidation potential
-Benzoic Acid (flesh) & low reactivity
-Resorcinol (violet) Cisplatin  treatment of Prostate Cancer
9. Iron + Ammonium Acetate  aka “Basham’s Mixture”  aka Platinol
 Astringent, Styptic  a platinum complex
10. Iron Dextran Injection  IM only  antineoplastic agent prepared by treating
11. Iron Oxide  use as pigment potassium chloroplatinate w/ ammonia
Artificial Atmosphere:
-Five Gases are Official:
Nitrogen Activity Series  list od metals arranged in order of decreasing ease of
Oxygen oxidation
Helium Active Sites  are places in the reacting molecules where they can be
Carbon Dioxide absorb
Nitrous Oxide Reaction Mechanism  information on how reaction occurs in step by step
Barium, Strontium, Nickel Coordination Number of the Metal Ion  is the number of donor atoms to
placed higher than hydrogen in the electromotive series which is boded.
 Metal-ion Indicators:
- Murexide
- Calmagite
- Pyrocathecol Violet
Nuclide  is the nucleus of a specific isotope of an element
Nucleon  particle found im the nucleus of an atom
Node  a locus of points in an atom in which the electron density is zero.
Limiting Reactant  reagent that leads to the smallest amount of product
Ewens-Bassett system  is an element nomenclature that gives/sites the
charge of the complex ion rather than the
oxidation state of the central unit

Monel Metal  used for wire, screen, sheet metal

Thorium Oxide  obtained from Monazite contains Cerium

Metals are:
- ductile
- lustrous
- malleable
- some are liquid (Gallium & Mercury)

Radiactive Substances: Unstable Nucleus

Emits Radiation
Low proton-neutron ration

Softening  is the method used to render hard water into a more

purified form by removal of dissolved salts by precipitation
as either carbonates or hydroxides
Geiger Counter  used to detect & measure radioactivity
Rem  unit of radiation damage used in medicine
Rad & Gray  commonly used to measure the amount of exposure to
Radiation: 1. Alpha  least penetrating
 weighs almost the same as a helium atom
2. Beta
3. Gamma  have been speed of light
Particle Accelerators  “Atom Smashers”, “Cyclotron”, “Synchroton”
 are used to accelerate charge particles using
strong magnetic & electrostatic fields

Ionic Hydrides  are formed by alkali metals & by the heavier alkaline
Molecular Hydrides  are formed by nonmetals & semi-metals
Metallic Hydrides  are formed when hydrogen reacts w/ transition

Universal Antidote (Component):

-Magnesium Oxide (Calcined Magnesia)
-Activated Charcoal
-Tannic Acid
Hydroxyurea  is antineoplastic drug active against rapidly proliferating more potent than its erythro-racemate form
cells in the synthesis phase.
Pipobroman  used primarily for treating Polycethemia vera
 antineoplastic agent prepared from PABA (Para-aminobenzoic Acid)
Piperazine & 3-Bromopropioniyl bromide  used as Ultraviolet sunscreen
Polycythemia Vera  aka Erythremia  enhancer of Serum Salicylate
 is a bone marrow disease that leads to an  should not be taken concurrently w/ sulfonamides because it
abonormal increase in the number of interferes w/ the Antimicrobial Activity of the latter
blood cells Sulfonamides  are assayed by using NaNO2 & KI
Testolactone, USP  D-homo-17-oxaandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione
 prepared by microbial transformation of Vitamin B17 (Amygadalin)  convert to Cyanide w/ Enzyme Emulsin
Interferons  are secreted by cells in response to viral infections or Bordeaux Mixture  CuSO4 + CaO
other chemical or biologic inducers  algicide in swimming pools
 Major Classes: Alpha -  White Lotion  ZnSO4 + Sulfurated Potash
Beta -   active ing: ZnS
Lambda - 
Interferon alfa-2a  othernames: RIFN, IFLrA, Roferon-A
 a highly protein containing 165 amino acid
amufactured from a strain of E.coli bearing a
genetically engineered plasmid containing an
interferon alfa-2a gene from human leukocytes
Tertiary Amino Alkyl Ether  Drowsiness (most common)
Viomycin  causes toxic effect that are primarily associated w/ damage
to the eight cranial nerve & to the kidney
 exerts bacteriostatic action against the tubercle bacillus by
a mechanism that has not been determined
 is less potent than streptomycin, & its toxicity is greater
Emetine (antiprotozoan)  Indications:
-Balantadial Dysentery
Pentamidine  principal indication: Pneumocystis carinii (Pneumonia)
Suramin  high molecular weight bisurea derivatives containing six
sulfonic acid groups as their sodium salt
Glycobiarsol  available in the form of vaginal suppositories for the
treatment of trichomonal & monilial vaginitis
 also been used orally for the treatment of intestinal
Stibogluconate  pentavalent antimonial drugs intended primarily for
the treatment of various froms of leishmaniasis
 has low therapeutic index
 px should be monitored for sighs of heavy metal
Diethylcarbamazepine  a higly water-soluble compound that is
effective against various forms of filariasis,
including Bancroft’s onchocerciasis & laviasis
Iopanoic Acid, USP  designed for the visualization of gallbladder
Monmorillonite  Smectite
Selenomethionine Se 75 Injection, USP  used in the diagnosis of
Pancreatic tumors & growths
White Lotion, USP  Sulfurated Potash + Zinc Sulfate
Alkaline Water  usually contain appreciably quantities of sodium &
Magnesium Sulfates together w/ some Sodium
Glycerin  sequestering agent of Haine’s Reagent for Copper salts
Citrate  sequestering agent for Benedicts Solution
 acts as a blood coagulant in vivo & an anticoagulant in vitro
Polydentate Ligands  used for improving solubility &/or to stabilize a
metal ion by chelation
sequestering agent
Catecholamines  are phenylethylamine w/ orthodihydroxy
substitutions in the phenyl ring.
Two Carbons  can separate the amino from the phenyl ring that will
produce maximal sympathomimetic activity
Beta-1 receptor agonist selectivity  is conferred in beta
phenylethylamine structure.
Metthylphenidate  useful for ADHD commercially available as the
threo-racemate from, which is about 400 times
Barbiturates (Intravenous Anesthetics)
Phenobarbital  most water soluble among
Barbiturates 3-ethyl-4-hydrocypentanal
Functional Group: Carbon 2


Phenothiazine  for seizure disorder

C2 position  is the position in the structure when
substituted, will bring about the greatest
effect on Antipsychotic Activity
Thioridazine  has an alkyl piperidyl side chain at the N-10
position of the phenotiazine structure.
Thioxanthene  resemble the ring structure (ring
analogues) of the Phenothizines only that
the N-10 position of the Phenothiazine is
replaced by a carbon.

 differs in the presence of
N-methyl substituent
 (+)-N, alpha-dimethyl

Phenytoin anticonvulsant
 contains the structure -NH in the R’’
position of the structure


Atomic Atomic Name Symbol 59 140.9077 Praseodymium Pr
number Mass chemical 60 144.24 Neodymium Nd
element 61 145 Promethium Pm
62 150.36 Samarium Sm
1 1.0079 Hydrogen H
63 151.964 Europium Eu
2 4.0026 Helium He
64 157.25 Gadolinium Gd
3 6.941 Lithium Li
4 9.0122 Beryllium Be 65 158.9253 Terbium Tb
5 10.811 Boron B 66 162.5 Dysprosium Dy
6 12.0107 Carbon C 67 164.9303 Holmium Ho
7 14.0067 Nitrogen N 68 167.259 Erbium Er
8 15.9994 Oxygen O 69 168.9342 Thulium Tm
9 18.9984 Fluorine F 70 173.04 Ytterbium Yb
10 20.1797 Neon Ne 71 174.967 Lutetium Lu
11 22.9897 Sodium Na 72 178.49 Hafnium Hf
12 24.305 Magnesium Mg 73 180.9479 Tantalum Ta
13 26.9815 Aluminum Al 74 183.84 Tungsten W
14 28.0855 Silicon Si 75 186.207 Rhenium Re
15 30.9738 Phosphorus P 76 190.23 Osmium Os
16 32.065 Sulfur S 77 192.217 Iridium Ir
17 35.453 Chlorine Cl 78 195.078 Platinum Pt
19 39.0983 Potassium K 79 196.9665 Gold Au
18 39.948 Argon Ar 80 200.59 Mercury Hg
20 40.078 Calcium Ca 81 204.3833 Thallium Tl
21 44.9559 Scandium Sc 82 207.2 Lead Pb
22 47.867 Titanium Ti 83 208.9804 Bismuth Bi
23 50.9415 Vanadium V 84 209 Polonium Po
24 51.9961 Chromium Cr 85 210 Astatine At
25 54.938 Manganese Mn 86 222 Radon Rn
26 55.845 Iron Fe 87 223 Francium Fr
28 58.6934 Nickel Ni 88 226 Radium Ra
27 58.9332 Cobalt Co 89 227 Actinium Ac
29 63.546 Copper Cu 91 231.0359 Protactinium Pa
30 65.39 Zinc Zn 90 232.0381 Thorium Th
31 69.723 Gallium Ga 93 237 Neptunium Np
32 72.64 Germanium Ge 92 238.0289 Uranium U
33 74.9216 Arsenic As 95 243 Americium Am
34 78.96 Selenium Se 94 244 Plutonium Pu
35 79.904 Bromine Br 96 247 Curium Cm
36 83.8 Krypton Kr 97 247 Berkelium Bk
37 85.4678 Rubidium Rb 98 251 Californium Cf
38 87.62 Strontium Sr 99 252 Einsteinium Es
39 88.9059 Yttrium Y 100 257 Fermium Fm
101 258 Mendelevium Md
40 91.224 Zirconium Zr
102 259 Nobelium No
41 92.9064 Niobium Nb 261 Rutherfordium Rf
42 95.94 Molybdenum Mo 262 Lawrencium Lr
43 98 Technetium Tc 262 Dubnium Db
44 101.07 Ruthenium Ru 266 Seaborgium Sg
45 102.9055 Rhodium Rh 107 264 Bohrium Bh
46 106.42 Palladium Pd 108 277 Hassium Hs
47 107.8682 Silver Ag 109 268 Meitnerium Mt
48 112.411 Cadmium Cd 110 Darmstadtium Ds
49 114.818 Indium In 111 272 Roentgenium Rg
50 118.71 Tin Sn 112 Ununbium Uub
51 121.76 Antimony Sb 113 Ununtrium Uut
53 126.9045 Iodine I 114 Ununquadium Uuq
52 127.6 Tellurium Te 115 Ununpentium Uup
54 131.293 Xenon Xe 116 Ununhexium Uuh
55 132.9055 Cesium Cs 117 Ununseptium Uus
56 137.327 Barium Ba 118 Ununoctium Uuo
57 138.9055 Lanthanum La
58 140.116 Cerium Ce
Chromium(III)chloride CrCl3
Name Molecular Chromium potassium sulfate CrK(SO4)2
formula Chromium trioxide Cr2O3
Chromium(III)nitrate Cr(NO3)3
Aluminum Al
Cobalt carbonate CoCO3
Aluminum bromide AlBr3
Cobalt metall powder Co
Aluminum chloride anhydrous AlCl3
Cobalt sulfate CoSO4
Aluminum oxide Al2O3
Cobalt(II)sulfate CoSO4.7H2O
Aluminum powder Al
Cobaltic oxide Co2O3
Ammonum aluminum sulfate NH4Al(SO4)2
Cobaltous Co
Ammonium bromide NH4Br
Cobaltous bromide CoBr2
Ammonium chloride NH4Cl
Cobaltous chloride CoCl2
Ammonium ferric sulfate NH4Fe(SO4)2
Cobaltous chloride CoCl2
Ammonium ferric sulfate NH4Fe(SO4)2
Copper metal Cu
Ammonium ferrous sulfate FeSO4(NH4)2SO4
Copper oxide CuO
Ammonium fluoride NH4F
Copper(I)iodide CuI
Ammonium iodide NH4I
Copper(I)bromide CuBr
Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3
Copper(I)chloride CuCl
tri-Ammonium orthophosphate (NH4)3PO4
Copper(II)chloride CuCl2.2H2O
Ammonium perchlorate NH4ClO4
Copper(II)hydroxide carbonate CuCO3.Cu(OH)2
Ammonium phosphate dibasic (NH4)2HPO4
Copper(II)sulfate anhydrous CuSO4
Ammonium phosphate monobasic NH4H2PO4
Cupric bromide CuBr2
Ammonium sodium hydrogen NaNH4HPO4
Cupric dichromate CuCr2O4.4H2O
Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 Cupric oxide CuO
Cuprous cyanide CuCN
Ammonium thiocyanate NH4SCN
Ferric oxide red powder Fe2O3
Antimony oxide Sb2O3
Ferric sulfate Fe2(SO4)3.nH2O
Antimony pentoxide Sb2O5
Ferrous bromide FeBr2
Antimony tribromide SbBr3
Ferrous chloride FeCl2
Antimony(lumps) Sb
Ferrous orthophosphate Fe3(PO4)2
Arsenic As
Ferrous sulfate FeSO4
Barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2
Ferrous sulfide FeS
Barium carbonate BaCO3
Barium chlorate monohydrate Ba(ClO3)2.H2O Fluoboric acid (50% in water) HF
Germanium(IV)chloride GeCl4
Barium chloride BaCl2
Barium fluoride BaF2 Iodic acid HIO3
Iodine I2
Barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2
Iodine pentoxide I2O5
Barium oxide BaO
Iron Fe
Barium perchlorate Ba(ClO4)2
Lanthanium oxide La2O3
Barium permanganate Ba(MnO4)2
Lead bromide PbBr2
Barium peroxide BaO2
Lead carbonate PbCO3
Barium sulfate BaSO4
Lead chloride PbCl2
Bismuth metal Bi
Lead chromate PbCrO4
Bismuth nitrate Bi(NO3)3
Bismuth subnitrate BiNO3 Lead dioxide PbO2
Lead fluoride PbF2
Bismuth trioxide Bi2O3
Borax crystals Na2B4O7 Lead iodide PbI2
Lead metal Pb
Boric acid H3BO3
Lead oxide yellow PbO
Cadmium carbonate CdCO3
Lead sulfide PbS
Cadmium chloride CdCl2
Lithium carbonate Li2CO3
Cadmium fluoride CdF2
Lithium chloride LiCl
Cadmium granule. Cd
Lithium fluoride LiF
Cadmium metal, mossy Cd
Cadmium nitrate CdNO3.4H2O Lithium hydroxide LiOH
Lithium iodide LiI
Cadmium selenide CdSe
Cadmium sulfate CdSO4 Lithium nitrate LiNO3
Magnesium bromide MgBr2
Calcium Ca
Magnesium carbonate MgCO3
Calcium fluoride CaF2
Magnesium chloride MgCl2
Calcium hypochlorite(~35%Cl) CaCl2O2
Magnesium chloride anhydrous MgCl2
Calcium orthophosphate Ca3(PO4)2
Magnesium ferrocyanide Mg2Fe(CN)6
Calcium oxide CaO
Magnesium fluoride MgF2
Calcium pentahydroxide triphosphate Ca5(PO4)3OH
Magnesium oxide MgO
Calcium peroxide CaO2
Magnesium perchlorate Mg(ClO4)2
Calcium phosphate dibasic CaHPO4
Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 Magnesium silicate MgO,SiO2,Na2SiO4
Magnesium sulfate MgSO4.H2O
Calcium phosphate monobasic Ca(H2PO4)2
Cerium sulfate anhydrous Ce2(SO4)3 Manganese dioxide MnO2
Manganese hydroxide Mn(OH)2
Cesium chloride CsCl
Manganese metal Mn Sodium fluoride NaF
Manganous chloride MnCl2 Sodium hydrogen phosphate Na2HPO4
Mecurous chloride HgCl2 Sodium hydrogen sulfate NaHSO4
Mercuric iodide HgI2 Sodium hydrogen sulfite NaHSO3
Mercuric nitrate HgNO3 di-Sodium hydrogenphosphate Na2HPO4.2H2O
Mercuric thiocyanate Hg(CSN)2 Sodium iodate NaIO3
Mercurous fluorude Hg2F2 Sodium iodide NaI
Mercurous iodide Hg2I2 Sodium meta-periodate NaIO4
Mercurous nitrate HgNO3.H2O Sodium methaborate NaBO2.2H2O
Mercury(II)chloride HgCl2 Sodium perchlorate NaCl3O4
Mercury(II)iodide HgI2 Sodium peroxide Na2O2
Mercury(II)nitrate Hg(NO3)2 Sodium persulfate Na2S2O8
Molybdenium trioxide MoO3 Sodium polyphosphate (NaPO3)12-13.Na2O
Nickel carbonate NiCO3 Sodium pyrophosphate Na4P2O7
Nickel chloride NiCl2.6H2O Sodium silicate Na2Si3O7
Nickel fluoride NiF2 Sodium sulfate Na2SO4.10H2O
Nickel oxide green NiO Sodium sulfite Na2SO3
Nickel sulfamate Ni(SO3NH2)2.4H2O di-Sodium tetraborate Na2B4O7
Nickel sulfate NiSO4.6H2O Sodium tungstate Na2WO4.2H20
Perchloric acid HClO4 Stannic chloride SnCl4
Phosphormolybdic acid H3[P(MoO3O10)4]aq Stannous chloride SnCl2
Phosphorus in water P Stannous chloride SnCl2.2H2O
Phosphorus pentasulfide P2S5 Stannous fluoride SnF2
Phosphorus wite P Stannous oxide SnO
Potassium antimonate(pyro) KSb(OH)6 Strontium carbonate SrCO3
Potassium biiodate KH(IO3)2 Thallium wire Tl
Potassium bisulfate KHSO4 Thallous nitrate TlNO3
Potassium bisulfite KHSO3 Tin Sn
Potassium bromate KBrO3 Tin gran. Sn
Potassium bromide KBr Titanium carbide TiC
Potassium chlorate KClO3 Titanium hydride TiH2
Potassium cyanate KCN Vanadium boride VB2
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 Vanadium carbide VC
Potassium disulfate(pyrosulfate) K2S2O7 Vanadium oxide V2O4
Potassium ferro(III)cyanide K4Fe(CN)6 Yttrium nitrate Y(NO3)3
Potassium metabisulfite K2S2O5 Yttrium oxide Y2O3
Potassium nitrate KNO3 Zinc Zn
Potassium nitrite KNO2 Zinc carbonate ZnCO3
Potassium perchlorate KClO4 Zinc chloride ZnCl2
Potassium persulfate K2S2O8 Zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2
Potassium phosphate monobasic KH2PO4 Zinc selenide ZnSe
Potassium pyrophosphate K4P2O7 Zinc sulfate ZnSO4.7H2O
Potassium selenocyanate KSeCN Zirconium boride ZrBo
Potassium thiocyanate KSCN Zirconium hydride ZrH2
Selenium metall Se Zirconium(IV)oxide ZrO2
Silicic acid
Silver nitrate AgNO3
Silver sulfate Ag2SO4
Silver sulfate Ag2SO4
Sodium bismuthate NaBiO3
Sodium bromide NaBr
Sodium chlorate NaClO3
Sodium cobaltinitrile CoN6Na3O12
Sodium dithionite Na2O4S2

I.Elements of Fixed Positive Valence III.Elements of Variable Valence

+1 +2 +3 +4 ous ic
H Ba Al C ANTIMONY Sb +3 +5
Li Ca B Si ARSENIC As +3 +5
K Bd Fe BISMUTH Bi +3 +5
Na Mg Cr CHROMIUM Cr +2 +3
Ag Ra Ni COBALT Co +2 +3
Cu Sr Co COPPER Cu +1 +2
Zn Bi GOLD Au +1 +3
Cu As IRON Fe +2 +3
Fe Sb LEAD Pb +2 +4
Hg MERCURY Hg +1 +2
Ni NICKEL Ni +2 +3
Mn PLATINUM Pt +2 + 4
Sn TIN Sn +2 + 4

II.Elements of Fixed Negative Valence

-1 -2 -3 -4
Br O As C
Cl S N Si

IV.Common Radicals
-1 -2 -3