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The History of the United

States of America Part 8 (1964-

1980): The First Era

There is a lot that could be said about this time. This era was when my parents (including other human beings)
were teenagers and grew up to be men and women. This was a time where numerous political issues that we
discuss and debate today have its genesis from in some fashion. Massive worldwide changes culturally, socially,
technologically, and spiritually manifested themselves. Motown dominated the charts. Soul Train motivated our
creativity. America saw the greatness of the Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-War movement.
Unfortunately, this period of U.S. history witnessed the massive right wing backlash that started to cut away the
progressive blessings that existed. That backlash culminated into the election of the far right conservative Ronald
Reagan by 1980. It was a time of hippies, the landing of humans on the Moon, Black Power developments,
sexuality being shown more out in the open, and a profoundly new era of world history. Now, it is the perfect
time to evaluate laws, policies, and various movements that still impact our lives during this time of early 2019.
1 Prologue
2 LBJ’s Further Policies
3 The Civil Rights Movement Grows
4 The Counterculture and the Sexual
5 The Women’s Rights Movement
6 The Environmental Movement
7 The Vietnam War Continues
8 1968
9 Other Movements for Social Change
(Mexican-Americans, Asian Americans,
Native Americans, the Disabled, and
the LBGTQIA+ Movement)
10 The Rise of Richard Nixon
11 The Watergate Scandal (and the end of
the Nixon Presidency)
The history of the United States of America is filled with movements, controversies, and style. I was born
in this land as America is my land too. Therefore, I understand its culture and history. We, who are
Americans, are always filled with style. This era of time was groundbreaking in American and world
history. This is the most controversial era of time that I had to describe involving American history.
During this time, we saw the victories of the Civil Rights Movement and the end of the Vietnam War.
We witnessed the rise of second wave feminism and the counterculture. Americans debated drug usage
and other social issues. We saw more sexual freedom along with the continuation of the Cold War.
Technological advancements reached into new heights with humans being at the Moon on 1969. Not to
mention that the oil crisis transpired and the Watergate scandal caused Richard Nixon (who was caught
doing criminal activities) to resign from office. Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter were Presidents during the
1970’s in the midst of economic malaise, the Iranian Revolution, and the capture of U.S. hostages. By
the end of this time period, a former California Governor would be elected President. His name was
Ronald Reagan, and the transition from the peak of the liberal movement to the age of the conservative
revolution would exist. This work will have serious commentaries. This section of American history is

Not to mention that this time saw the Warren court expanding voting rights, promoting the separation
of church & state, and growing rights for people in the justice system. On June 13, 1966, there was the
Supreme Court decision of Miranda v. Arizona. The Supreme Court ruled that not informing suspects
held in custody on their right to counsel and silence violated the protection against self-incrimination,
establishing what later became known as "Miranda Rights." The Warren court also expanded voting
rights and made the one person and one vote concept too. Tons of debates about social issues or
economic issues have their genesis from this time period. By the end of this era, many Democratic war
hawks would be right wing neoconservative Republicans. Authentic progressives would continue to
spread the message of social justice. The 1960’s brought more human rights for Americans. There were
mistakes during the 1960’s plus excesses, and that is true. Yet, the expansion of human rights and the
growth of economic benefits for people certainly was a positive of the 1960’s. Progressive change isn’t
easy, and this work will show it. Since this period had so many issues, this part will be part one from
1964 to 1974. The second part (which will be shown in the future) will be from the time of the
resignation of Nixon in 1974 to 1980 or the election of 1980. Now, we shall see historical information in
full display. The era we live in now in 2019 has been shaped so much by the 1960’s including the 1970’s
LBJ's Further Policies
By July of 1964, President Lyndon Baines Johnson continued on his plans for America. A major part of his agenda
was the Great Society program. It was promoted in a Spring 1964 speech at the University of Michigan. The Great
Society promoted the usage of the federal government and all levels of government to end poverty, end social
injustice, develop parks, build roads, improve the environment in general, and use diverse means to improve
American society. Liberals loved this idea and conservatives abhorred it for philosophical reasons. The truth is that
the federal government should have an active role in improving the general welfare of society in America. By July 6,
1964, LBJ signed the Proclamation 3595. It designated the week beginning on October 4, 1964, as Fire Prevention
Week. It also urged, that, "State and local governments, the American National Red Cross, the Chamber of
Commerce of the United States, and business, labor, and farm organizations, as well as schools, civic groups, and
public-information agencies to observe Fire Prevention Week, to develop and employ effective means for
disseminating fire safety information and recommendations to all citizens throughout the year, and promptly to
undertake other effective community actions designed to eliminate the causes of preventable fires." He worked
with Paraguay and the United Arab Republic on trade issues. He spoke to the President’s Committee on Equal
Employment Opportunity to advance the Civil Rights Act of 1964 at the Rose Garden. Attorney General Robert F.
Kennedy was on board with using legal avenues to ensure social equality in America. LBJ also believed in collective
bargaining. On July 9, 1964, President Johnson signed the Urban Mass Transpiration Act of 1964 that invests in
highways and airways for automobile plus airplane travel. He continued to speak nationwide.

By the summer of 1964, he was in the 1964 Presidential campaign. His opponent was the conservative Barry
Goldwater. Goldwater wanted less government intervention involving domestic affairs so much that he opposed
the Civil Rights Act (as being too much of a governmental overreach while claiming not to be racist). He’s wrong
because the federal government has every right to enforce the Fourteenth Amendment and protect civil rights
nationwide via federal powers. The Civil Rights Act was a legal enforcement of the Fourteenth Amendment to
combat racial discrimination. Barry Goldwater wanted tax cuts, right to work laws, and no social welfare programs
from the federal government. Goldwater believed in less government spending on education, public housing, and
urban renewal. Yet, he was a war hawk that hypocritically wanted more federal government involvement in the
Vietnam War while cutting federal government funds to deal with domestic issues.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke out against the political views of Goldwater and wrote literature in opposition to
the reactionary ideologies of Barry Goldwater. Dr. King wrote the following words about Barry Goldwater of
Arizona on July 16, 1964:

"... The Republican Party geared its appeal and program to racism, reaction, and extremism...On the urgent issue of
civil rights, Senator Goldwater represents a philosophy that is morally indefensible and socially suicidal. While not
himself a racist, Mr. Goldwater articulates a philosophy which gives aid and comfort to the racist. His candidacy and
philosophy would serve as an umbrella under which extremists of all stripes would stand. In the light of these facts
and because of my love for America, I have no alternative but to urge every Negro and white person of goodwill to
vote against Mr. Goldwater and to withdraw support from any Republican candidate that does not publicly
disassociate himself from Senator Goldwater and his philosophy.”

Most Americans rejected Goldwater's views. LBJ believed in school lunches. By August, he or LBJ dealt with the Gulf
of Tonkin situation and he later massively expanded American involvement in the Vietnam War. The Federal-Aid
Highway Act of 1964 was signed into law by August 13, 1964. The Food Stamp Act of 1964 was signed on August
31, 1964, to help poor Americans. The 1964 election ends in a landslide for LBJ. LBJ won 60 percent of the popular
vote, and Goldwater won Arizona and deep Southern states like Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and
South Carolina. Democrats controlled more of the Congress, and Goldwater’s views were rejected by most
Americans. Also, Goldwater’s views would influence Reagan, both Bushes, and other right-wing politicians in the
future. By 1965, LBJ signed the Voting Rights Act, which was a great achievement. It was signed after the bloodshed
by black and non-black civil rights activists in Alabama. On January 5, 1965, he promoted more of the Great Society
programs in his State of the Union address. President Lyndon Johnson signed Medicare that helped the elderly
with health insurance, Medicaid that helped the poor with health insurance, and the Water Quality Act of 1965.
The Water Quality Act improved the environment. The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act sought to aid
schools in poorer communities. It invested in new schools, libraries, language laboratories, and helped Native
American, inner city, and Mexican American students.

President Johnson reorganized immigration policy with his signing the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. It
allowed almost 170,000 immigrants from the Western Hemisphere to come to America. Latin Americans, Central
Americans, and Caribbean Americans came into America too. This ended the racist old 1920’s quota system that
banned Chinese people and others from immigrating into America. The Great Society had imperfections (which
dealt with bureaucratic issues and some of it being too capitalistic), but it did cut poverty rates, helped to educate
millions of Americans, and improved the lives of the elderly including the poor. The National Endowment for the
Arts and Humanities was formed in 1965 and developed an intellectual culture in America. By 1966, LBJ dealt with
many foreign policy issues. He expanded the Vietnam War involvement with military troops in Operation Rolling
Thunder as early as 1965. In 1966, he spoke about housing, Vietnam, and the American peace efforts along with
women in military service. By the end of 1966, Republicans retook Congress, and Lyndon Baines Johnson had more
difficulty to pass progressive domestic legislation.

By 1967, more criticism of the Vietnam War grows as Dr. King in early 1967 gave many speeches opposing the
Vietnam War. By this time, Eugene McCarthy ran for President on the Democratic side against Johnson. LBJ dealt
with many issues and was still stubborn to continue with the status quo as it related to the Vietnam War. LBJ also
worked on researching the American cities to see the issues that must be addressed (especially during the city
rebellions that came after those locations experience poverty, lax infrastructure, racism, and deindustralization). As
money for the war increased, money for domestic programs was cut. This caused inflation that would undoubtedly
plague America during the 1970’s.

By January 31, 1967, in a message to Congress, President Johnson reflected on past legislative action toward
service members and proposed the Vietnam Conflict Servicemen and Veterans Act of 1967 "to remove the
inequities in the treatment of veterans of the present conflict in Vietnam", "enlarge the opportunities for
educationally disadvantaged veterans", "expand educational allowances under the G.I. Bill", "increase the amount
of Servicemen's Group Life Insurance", "increase the pensions now received by 1.4 million disabled veterans,
widows and dependents", and "to make certain that no veteran's pension will be reduced as a result of increases in
Federal retirement benefits, such as social security." The criminal law of the Safe Streets and Crime Control Act of
1967 dealt with funding police agencies, fighting the illegal drug trade, etc. It was a precursor to Bill Clinton’s Crime
Bill. RFK wanted LBJ to have a diplomatic solution to the conflict, but LBJ refused to do so at that time. He
supported Head Start, and it has been a successful program for decades now.

By 1968, the Presidential campaign increased among Democrats and Republicans. LBJ refused to back down from
his hawkish pro-war position early on. Robert F. Kennedy ran for President, and Eartha Kitt confronted LBJ over the
Vietnam War policy. 1968 saw his Presidency unravel. LBJ decided to quit running for President in 1968, and the
Democratic race continued. Democrats split apart by generational differences and ideological disputes on the
Vietnam War. The Republicans re-energized and choose Richard Nixon to defeat the Democratic candidate Hubert
Humphrey. On October 31, 1968, remarks were aired of President Johnson announcing a bombing halt in North
Vietnam during the evening. The address was recorded the previous day in the Family Theater at the White House.
By December 4, 1968, President Johnson asserted the US must provide low-cost housing for the impoverished as
the solution of major social problems during a ceremony commemorating the federal financed inexpensive housing
project in Austin, Texas. By January 20, 1969, LBJ ended his Presidency and Nixon takes over as President via his
inauguration. The Presidency of Lyndon Baines Johnson had a mixed legacy of the great progressive policies that he
executed (plus he saw the Warren court promoting great policies promoting civil rights, voting rights, the
separation of church, one person plus one vote, and Fifth Amendment rights) and the terrible foreign policy actions
involving Vietnam and other affairs.

The space race continues to exist. By February 1962, John Glenn is the first American to orbit the Earth. By January
1967, fire killed Apollo astronauts Roger Chaffee, Viril Grisson, and Edward White. They died by being burned to
death in a docked capsule during a routine test. Many people thought that the Moon project would end. Yet, NASA
continued with the plan to travel into the Moon. By July 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong left the spacecraft
Columbia's landing vehicle and became the first man to step on the moon. The mission was the fulfillment of John
F. Kennedy's dream.

“…There is no strife, no prejudice, no

national conflict in outer space as yet. Its
hazards are hostile to us all. Its conquest
deserves the best of all mankind, and its
opportunity for peaceful cooperation may
never come again. But why, some say, the
Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And
they may well ask, why climb the highest
mountain?…We choose to go to the Moon!
We choose to go to the Moon...We choose
to go to the Moon in this decade and do the
other things, not because they are easy, but
because they are hard; because that goal
will serve to organize and measure the best
of our energies and skills, because that
challenge is one that we are willing to
accept, one we are unwilling to postpone,
and one we intend to win, and the others,

-President John F. Kennedy at Rice Stadium

(in Houston, Texas) on September 12, 1962.
This plague "That's one small step for [a]
on the
Moon man, one giant leap for
remains on
the Moon mankind."
to this very
day. -Neil Armstrong

This was a ticker parade in New

York City which celebrated the
Moon landing. The crew of
Apollo 11 included Commander
Neil Armstrong, lunar module
pilot Buzz Aldrin, and Command
Module pilot Michael Collins. Advanced technology, determination, and long effort caused this
event to be a reality. After 50 years, space exploration has
continued unabated. The human beings, who first came on the
Moon, felt joy, and it signifies the greatness of human ingenuity
while recognizing the reality that humankind is not omnipotent.
Only the Creator is in my view. NASA and countless people
were vital in making this august goal (as advocated by the late
President John F. Kennedy) successful.


This image showed Neil Armstrong -The event was watched

giving a salute near the Eagle aircraft by ca. 600 million
while he was on the Moon. The people worldwide
astronauts on the moon gathered -It occurred on 4:17 EDT
samples, did experiments, and left to
come back to planet Earth. -The journey took 76
This image showed Buzz
hours among 240,000 Aldrin’s footprint on the
This shows a picture miles. Moon.
of the Earth from
the moon. In our -The spacecraft’s
time, people are launch mass was
planning to travel to 100,756 pounds.
the Moon in the
The Civil Rights Movement Grows
After the passage of the Civil Rights Act, new changes came to America in 1964 and beyond. The fight for freedom
wasn't over yet. By August of 1964, Congress passed the Economic Opportunity Act. It gave federal funds for legal
representation of Native Americans in both civil and criminal suits. It allowed the ACLU and the American Bar
Association to represent Native Americans in cases that later would win them additional civil rights. By this time,
the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party challenged the seating of the all-white racist Mississippi representatives
at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The MFDP group wanted no compromise, but
an agreement came. This caused many from SNCC and the MFDP to reject the Democratic Party. Some came
onward to the path of political independence and ultimately into the Black Power movement. In the convention,
Fannie Lou Hamer gave the heroic, accurate speech about America condemning the policies of the state brutalizing
African American men, women, and children. Fannie Lou Hamer made the point that she was a victim of abuse
from racists and she desired freedom 100 percent. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on
December 10, 1964. He was the youngest person to be honored during that time. Dr. King gave the money that he
had received from Oslo, Norway to the Civil Rights Movement. Coretta Scott King was with him in Oslo too.

On December 14, 1965, the Heart of Atlanta v. United States case upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 1965 became
a monumental year of the Civil Rights Movement in general. The early part of the 1965 year saw the Selma
movement growing into new heights. On February 18, 1965, a peaceful protest march in Marion, Alabama led to
Jimmie Lee Jackson being shot by Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler. Jackson died on February 26, and
Fowler was indicted for his murder in 2007. Malcolm X by 1965 supported the Selma voting rights movement. He
became more international, advocated for pan-Africanism, believed in women's equality, and he worked with
many liberation movements worldwide. Malcolm X became more progressive. Later, he was assassinated in
Manhattan, New York City at the Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965. Malcolm X had a funeral, and the world
mourned. Malcolm X was one of the greatest black heroes in human history, and we are inspired by his words and
his deeds.
Then, on March 7, 1965, Bloody Sunday happened. This was when civil rights workers in Selma, Alabama, begin the
Selma to Montgomery march but they were forcibly stopped by a massive Alabama State trooper and police
blockade as they cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Many marchers were injured by police clubs. This march,
initiated and organized by James Bevel, became the visual symbol of the Selma Voting Rights Movement. John
Lewis, Amelia Boynton Robinson (1911-2015), and others were assaulted by police officers. Condemnation of the
actions of the crooked cops on Bloody Sunday was massive and worldwide. By March 15, 1965, President Lyndon
Johnson used the phrase "We Shall Overcome" in a speech before Congress on the voting rights bill. The Selma to
Montgomery March was completed ultimately. On March 25, 1965, a white volunteer Viola Liuzzo was shot and
killed by Ku Klux Klan members in Alabama, one of whom was an FBI informant. The black deputy sheriff Oneal
Moore was murdered in Varnado, Louisiana on June 2, 1965. July 2, 1965 was when the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission was opened.

The Voting Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon Baines Johnson on August 6, 1965. It eliminated literacy
tests, poll taxes, and other subjective voter tests that were widely responsible for the disfranchisement of African-
Americans in the Southern States and provided federal oversight of voter registration in states and individual
voting districts where such discriminatory tests were used. After this time, there was an acceleration of the amount
of African Americans in political positions among all levels of government. From August 11-15, 1965, the Watts
rebellion happened. For years in Los Angeles before 1965, many black people were victims of poverty,
discrimination, racism, and police brutality. The Watts rebellion occurred after the accusations of mistreatment
and police brutality by the Los Angeles Police Department towards the city's African-American community. Watts
existed in South Central Los Angeles. The results of the rebellion were over 34 people were killed, 1,032 injured,
3,438 arrested, and cost over $40 million in property damage. Dr. King came to Watts to advocate nonviolence and
he was booed by some in the crowd which was rare back then. Dr. King later realized that civil rights aren’t enough
and that you need to also address the economic conditions of the people in order for real freedom to come about.
Eating at a restaurant is cool, but you also need the economic rights to be in existence of total freedom.

By September 1965, Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong became the first African-American students
to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. Bill Cosby co-starred in I Spy, becoming the first black person to
appear in a starring role on American television on September 15, 1965. For the record, I don’t agree with Bill
Cosby’s adultery and his using drugs to have sex with women (which he admitted in his disposition). Cosby is an evil
person. I cite this fact for a historical reference. President Johnson signed Executive Order 11246 requiring Equal
Employment Opportunity by federal contractors on September 24, 1965. By January 10, 1966, NAACP local chapter
President Vernon Dahmer was injured by a bomb in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. He died on the next day. On January
18, 1966, Robert C. Weaver was sworn in as the first United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development,
becoming the first African American to hold a cabinet-level position. By January 1966, Dr. King and the SCLC went
into Chicago to fight for housing rights, civil rights, educational opportunities, and economic justice among African
Americans. By June 5, 1966, James Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee to
Jackson, Mississippi. Shortly after he started, he was shot with birdshot and injured. Civil rights leaders and
organizations rallied together and continued the march leading to a large rally at the capital of Mississippi.

On June 16, Kwame Ture first used the slogan Black power in a speech. Black Power is one of the most distorted
philosophies in human history. Kwame Ture meant Black Power as saying that he wanted black people to define
their own identity, control their own communities, and form institutions to eliminate racism. Black Power was a call
for independence politically and socially for black people. It wasn't an advocacy of segregation as Jim Crow was
about the government using force to advance segregation while depriving black people of basic human rights. To
proponents of Black Power, it was about independence. Many moderate NAACP leaders condemned Black Power
like Roy Wilkins since he felt that it was a veiled plus slick reference to black separatism and black supremacy. Dr.
King took a nuisance view while praising the positives of Black Power that embraced self-determination and the
love of Blackness while rejecting separatism. While this was going on, the Chicago Open Housing Movement
continued. Dr. King, Bevel, and Al Raby (from Chicago) were leaders of the movement. They made massive rallies in
the summer of 1966 and demanded Mayor Richard J. Daley to end housing discrimination in the Chicago area. The
Summit conference ended the campaign. Before, there was a white racist backlash so fierce in Chicago and in the
suburbs like in Cicero that Dr. King was hit in the head with a rock. Thousands of white racists abhorred the Chicago

By September of 1966, Nichelle Nichols was cast as a black woman officer on television's Star Trek. She briefly
considered leaving the role but was encouraged by Dr. King to continue as an example for the black community.
The Black Panther Party was founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California by October of
1966. It merged Black Nationalism, socialism, and other revolutionary philosophies into one. Its goal was to end
police brutality, allow socialism to exist in the black community, end imperialism, and give power to the people. It
lasted for many years and became a symbol of the progressive side of the Black Power movement. On November
1966, Edward Brooke was elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts. He was the first black senator since

By January 9, 1967, Julian Bond was seated in the Georgia House of Representatives by order of the U.S. Supreme
Court after his election. Many racist Southerners opposed Bond, because Bond publicly opposed the Vietnam War
and opposed the draft (that forced people against their wills to join the military to fight in the Vietnam War). The
Vietnam War in 1967 was front and center in foreign policy debates by this time. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his
courageous “Beyond Vietnam” speech in New York City’s Riverside Church on April 4, 1967. He wanted the defeat
of “the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism.” In that speech, he eloquently exposed the Vietnam
War as immoral and how it stripped the necessary resources from the poor in America to benefit the military
industrial complex. Dr. King was heavily criticized for criticizing the Vietnam War from conservatives (including
some editorial writers) to moderate African American civil rights leaders. Yet, Dr. King continued to fight for what
was right, which was the ending of the unjust Vietnam War. By June 12, 1967, in Loving v. Virginia, the U.S.
Supreme Court ruled that laws that prohibited interracial marriage were unconstitutional. Thurgood Marshall was
the first African American appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court on June 13, 1967. The Detroit rebellion happened
from July 23-27, 1967. It came after a raid by the Detroit Police Department. The police wanted to put a raid on an
unlicensed club that celebrated the returning Vietnam Veterans hosted by mostly African Americans. Detroit was a
city filled with economic inequality, police brutality, etc. Over 43 people (33 black human beings and ten white
people) were killed, 467 injured, 7,231 arrested, and 2,509 stores looted or burned during the Detroit rebellion. It
was one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in United States history, lasting five days and surpassed the
violence and property destruction of Detroit's 1943 race riot. The movie In the Heat of the Night was released on
August 2, 1967. It starred Sidney Poitier.

On November 17, 1967, there was the Philadelphia Student School Board Demonstration. This was when 26
demands were peacefully issued by students, but the event became a police riot. The Guess Who’s Coming to
Dinner movie was released on December 11, 1967. It starred Sidney Poitier again. In the trial of accused killers in
the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, the jury convicted 7 of 18 accused men by the end of 1967.
Conspirator Edgar Ray Killen was later convicted in 2005. James Earl Jones starred in the play of The Great White
Hope based on the life of the heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson. The book Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of
the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools was published in late 1967 too.

1968 was one of the most dynamic years in human history. On February 1, 1968, two Memphis sanitation workers
were killed in the line of duty. They wanted to escape the rain and weren’t allowed to go into certain areas because
of racist policies. These African Americans experienced low wages, lax benefits, and disrespect by employers plus
by the reactionary Mayor Loeb. After this tragedy, black garbage workers executed a strike. Their wives and
children supported the strikers. The movement was local at first and spread nationally. The Orangeburg Massacre
occurred during a university protest in South Carolina. Black people were murdered by cops. The first day of the
Memphis Sanitation strike happened on February 12, 1968. On March of 1968, while filming a prime-time
television special, Petula Clark touched Harry Belafonte's arm during a duet. Chrysler Corporation, the show's
sponsor, insisted the moment be deleted, but Clark stood firm, destroyed all other takes of the song, and delivered
the completed program to NBC with the touch intact. The show was broadcasted on April 8, 1968. Later, there was
on American television, an interracial kiss between Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner on Star Trek. Also, it is
important to praise Black Love as Black Love is Beautiful and a Revolutionary Act.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. supported the Memphis strikers and had great support among black people and many
labor activists in the city of Memphis. By April 3, 1968, Dr. King gave his famous Mountaintop speech. In that
speech, he predicted the future and realized that the work for justice will continue. He knew that he would live
long enough to see the Promised Land, but black people in the future would see it. On April 4, 1968, Dr. King was
assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee by a rifle. From April 4-8 and on one in May 1968, rebellions exist in more
than 150 U.S. cities in response to the assassination of Dr. King. The revolts existed in Washington, D.C., Chicago,
Baltimore, Louisville, Kansas City, NYC, etc. By April 11, 1968, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was signed. The Fair
Housing Act is Title VIII of this Civil Rights Act. This law banned discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of
housing. The law was passed following a series of contentious open housing campaigns throughout the urban
North. The most significant of these campaigns were the Chicago Open Housing Movement of 1966 and organized
events in Milwaukee during 1967–68. In both cities, angry white mobs attacked nonviolent protesters. By May 12,
1968, the Poor People’s Campaign marched on Washington, D.C. They formed the location of Resurrection City at
Washington, D.C. Their goals which were progressive (in billions of dollars to help the poor in housing, education,
and jobs) and these legitimate demands weren’t met. Yet, their efforts contributed to investments (like Medicaid,
Head Start, etc.) to fight poverty in general.

Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a Civil Rights advocate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968, after winning the California
presidential primary. His appeal to minorities helped him secure the victory at the California primary. On
September 17, 1968, Diahann Carroll starred in the title role in Julia, as the first African American actress to star in
her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker. In October 1968, Tommie Smith and John
Carlos raised their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively,
at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games. Both men wanted oppression to end. They are readily praised today, but they
were heavily disrespected by extremists back in 1968. In Powe v. Miles, a federal court held that the portions of
private colleges that are funded by public money are subject to the Civil Rights Act. By the end of 1968, Shirley
Chisholm became the first African-American woman elected to Congress.

The 1969 Charleston Hospital strike was one of the most important events of the Civil Rights Movement. It involved
mostly black women who wanted fair wages and dignity while working in hospitals. More than 400 mostly African
American women protested against the all-white administrations of the Medical College Hospital (MCH) and
Charleston County Hospital (CCH). The strike lasted for 100 days against the MCH and for 3 additional weeks for the
CCH. It happened during the Spring and Summer of 1969. These workers wanted union rights, civil rights, and
equality among the sexes. Before the victory, many hospitals in Charleston, South Carolina opposed the
implementation of unions. Many administrators had a paternalistic, bigoted attitude against black workers. Black
nurses were paid less than white nurses, there were a lack number of physicians, and black nurses experienced
racist comments from white workers. Five black nurses wanted respect in February of 1967 and they were
fired. Mary Moultrie, a black nurse’s aide, worked with others to get the nurses reinstated. Mary Moultrie was one
major leader who helped to organize the strikes. She was elected President of the Local 1199B. Coretta Scott King,
Ralph Abernathy, and Walter Reuther of the United Auto Workers joined in demonstrations. The SCLC wanted
boycotts of Charleston businesses. Protests, economic pressure, and the exposure of civil rights violations done by
MCH caused the strikers to have a victory. More black political leadership existed in Charleston. Still, people are
fighting against racial and economic oppression in Charleston and throughout the world. This moment of civil rights
history should be known by all.
In 1969, the black freedom movement continued. From January 8-18, 1969, there were student protesters at
Brandeis University. They took over Ford and Sydeman Halls, demanding creation of an Afro-American
Department. This is approved by the University on April 24. This increased more colleges to have a Black Studies
program. By February 13, 1969, the National Guard with tear gas and riot sticks crushed a pro-black student
demonstration at University of Wisconsin. By February 16, 1969, after three days of clashes between police and
Duke University students, the school agreed to establish a Black Studies program. February 23, 1969 was the time
when UNC Food Worker Strike started when workers abandoned their positions in Lenoir Hall protesting racial
injustice. The National Guard called into Chicago, and Memphis placed on curfew on anniversary of MLK's
assassination on April 3-4, 1969. By April 19, 1969, armed African-American students protested discrimination and
took over Willard Straight Hall, the student union building at Cornell University. They ended the seizure the
following day after the University accedes to their demands, including an Afro-American studies program. At April
25-28, 1969, activist students took over Merrill House at Colgate University. They demanded Afro-American studies
programs. May 8, 1969 was the time when the City College of New York closed following a two-week-long campus
takeover demanding Afro-American and Puerto-Rican studies. Rebellions happened among students when the
school tried to reopen. By June, the second of two US federal appeals court decisions confirmed members of the
public hold legal standing to participate in broadcast station license hearings, and under the Fairness Doctrine
found the record of segregationist TV station WLBT beyond repair. The FCC is ordered to open proceedings for a
new licensee. Rebellions happened from September 1-2, 1969 at Hartford, CT and Camden, NJ.

The date of October 29, 1969 was the time when the U.S. Supreme Court in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of
Education ordered immediate desegregation of public schools, signaling the end of the "all deliberate speed"
doctrine established in Brown II. On December 1969, Fred Hampton (who was the chairman of the Illinois chapter
of the Black Panther Party) was shot and murdered while asleep in bed during a police raid on his home. He was
murdered along with another Black Panther member Mark Clark. Their murders were so unjust that the Chicago
authorities paid money to the families of Hampton and the other Black Panther who was murdered too. United
Citizens Party was formed in South Carolina when Democratic Party refuses to nominate African-American
candidates. In 1969, the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research founded at Harvard
University. The Revised Philadelphia Plan was instituted by the Department of Labor. The Congressional Black
Caucus was formed in 1969 too.
Women in the Black Panther Party
Many black women in recent years have written books about the central role black women
played in the Black Panther Party. Even within the Black Panther Party, there was
unfortunately sexism and we know that sexism must be gone completely. Kathleen Cleaver,
Assata Shakur, Judy Juanita, Ericka Huggins, and other Sisters have made their voices
known in the Black Panther Party for Self Defense.

The black women of the education, and self- sexism and any form of the Free Breakfast for
Black Panther Party have determination. Tarika male chauvinism. Huey Children Program, and
shown great heroism. Lewis or Matilaba taught Newton, Bobby Seale, helping families reunite
According to Chairman drill classes, educated and others condemned all with their relatives in
Bobby Seale, in 1969, over people, and worked in the forms of oppression. prison. Former Black
60% of the members of Panther newspaper. Black women in the Panther Malika Adams
the BPP were women. While some Panthers BPP’s ambulance said that women ran the
There is no question that were sexists, other program, the sickle cell BPP. There is no
the women in the Black Panthers publicly and anemia testing centers, question that she is right.
Panther Party like Tarika vociferously condemn transportation services, The strength of the Black
Lewis believed in the Ten Panther Party is that is
Point Program that dealt with questions of
wanted jobs, housing, race, sex, and class in a
way that wanted to end
During this Black imperialism overseas and
History Month, it is eliminate injustice at
important to always America too. In order for
honor unsung black
everyone to be free, men
and women must have
total human equality and

She was the member of the

She is the Black Black Panther Party Frankye
Panther Barbara Cox Adams-Johnson. To this day,
Easley and the picture she continues to fight for the
is from 2012. She liberation of people.
worked in Party
officers at Oakland,
Philadelphia, NYC, ALL POWER
and Algeria. The photo
is from Suzun Lucia
The 1972 Gary, Indiana National Black
Political Convention was one of the most
important events of American history.
Black Americans wanted to form an
independent Black political voice in order
for us to be not controlled by Republicans Photo from The Chicago
or Democrats. The meeting had Tribune, March 19, 1972
nationalists, mayors, socialists, and other
elected officials. It was hosted by Mayor
Richard Hatcher of Gary, Indiana. The
first meeting had more revolutionary
policies and the second meeting in 1974
was unfortunately watered down. To this
very day, black people are fighting for
liberation independent of the capitalist
Republican and Democratic parties. We
want liberation without racism and without

On January 19, 1970, G. Harrold Carswell's nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court was rejected following protests
from the NAACP and feminists. Black Panther Marshall "Eddie" Conway was arrested in Baltimore, MD on April 23,
1970. The film Watermelon Man was released, directed by Melvin Van Peebles and starring Godfrey Cambridge.
The film came out in May 27, 1970. The movie was a comedy about a bigoted white man who wakes up one
morning to discover that his skin pigment has changed to black. During August of 1970, there was the Marin
County courthouse incident and Hoover added Angela Davis to FBI Most Wanted list. Angela Davis was captured in
New York City in October 13, 1970. Blaxploitation films released to the public by 1970 as well. Angela Davis would
be vindicated by being found innocent of the charges against her on June 4, 1971. The U.S. Supreme Court, in
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld desegregation busing of students to achieve
integration by April 20, 1971. The FBI officially “ends” COINTEPRO by April 27, 1971. On June 1971, the control of a
segregationist TV station WLBT given to a bi-racial foundation. George Jackson was shot to death in San Quentin
prison on August 21, 1971. Ernest J. Gaines's Reconstruction-era novel The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman
was published in 1971. On January 25, 1972, Shirley Chisholm became the first major-party African-American
candidate for President of the United States and the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential
nomination. In Baton Rouge (on November 16, 1972), two Southern University students are killed by white sheriff
deputies during a school protest over lack of funding from the state.
Unsung Civil Rights Heroes

Clara Shepard Luper Albert Anderson Raby Ruby Doris Smith- Irene Morgan Kirklady
(1923-2011) was a great (1933-1988) fought Robinson (1942-1967) was (1917-2007) was an African
civil rights leader in injustice throughout his a leader of SNCC or the American woman, and she
Oklahoma City. She was a life. He was born in Student Nonviolent was born at Baltimore,
teacher and had a leading poverty at Chicago. He Coordinating Committee. Maryland. She fought to
role in the 1958 helped to promote the She was an activist and well refuse to give up her seat in
Oklahoma City sit-in 1963 Chicago boycott in respected from all of her Virginia. That was in 1944.
movement. She went to favor of educational peers. She was SNCC’s She worked with attorneys
the 1963 March on equality. He was a teacher Executive Director. She to fight for her case. Her
Washington and was in and was a supporter of the graduated from Spellman case went to the Supreme
the 1965 Selma to Chicago 1966 campaign of and was involved in the Court. The case of Irene
Montgomery marches. Dr. King. He opposed Atlanta Student Movement. Morgan v. Commonwealth
She fought for Oklahoma housing discrimination She was in the Freedom of Virginia was ruled in her
City sanitation workers in and worked to make sure Rides and sacrificed a great favor as the Virginia law was
their 1969 strike. She won that Harold Washington deal for our freedom. ruled unconstitutional. It
awards and was a hero. won the election to be the was found illegal to
mayor of Chicago by 1983. promote segregation in
interstate travel on public
buses. She inspired the 1947
Journey of Reconciliation
among Chicago’s CORE to
enforce the Supreme
Court’s ruling.
The Rev. Jesse Jackson speaks to reporters at the Operation PUSH Soul Picnic at the
142nd Street Armory in New York, March 26, 1972. Left to right are: Betty Shabazz,
widow of Malcolm X; Jackson; Tom Todd, vice president of PUSH; Aretha Franklin;
Miriam Makeba and Louis Stokes, rear right. PUSH stands for People United to Save
Humanity. (AP Photo/Jim Wells) Photo: Jim Wells/AP.
The university's Smith-Brown Memorial Union is named as a memorial to them. The infamous Tuskegee syphilis
experiment ended on November 16, 1972. This was started in 1932. It was when there was the U.S. Public Health
Service's 40-year experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis has been described as an experiment
that "used human beings as laboratory animals in a long and inefficient study of how long it takes syphilis to kill
someone." On May 8, 1974, Nelson Rockefeller signed the Laws for New York State with draconian indeterminate
sentences for drug possession, as well as sale. The FBI ended the Ghetto Informant program on July 31, 1973. In
1973, the Combahee River Collective, a Black feminist group, is established in Boston, out of New York's National
Black Feminist Organization. In 1974, the Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective existed. In Milliken
v. Bradley (on July 25, 1974), the U.S. Supreme Court in a 5–4 decision holds that outlying districts could only be
forced into a desegregation busing plan if there was a pattern of violation on their part. This decision increased the
trend of white flight. By 1974, the black freedom movement entered a new era along with the same goal of
liberation remaining the same.
The Counterculture and the Sexual Revolution
Massive changes defined the Counterculture and the Sexual Revolution. Ironically, it was the suppression of civil
liberties after World War II that was one factor that made this movement explode in America. These movements
involved hippies and other advocates who wanted more free sexual expression in public among mainstream
society. To this very day, the counterculture and the sexual revolution have been debated by people from across
the political spectrum about its value. This is a study of history, so you (or the
viewer) can make up your own mind on these movements. Human beings
have the right to agree or disagree with the sexual revolution. Yet, these
movements are part of American history and its history and impact in
American society must be known. If you’re talking about history in the United
States, you have to mention all of it. You can’t sugarcoat it or omit something
in history. You have to be completely transparent and this is the purpose of
this work. Back during the 1940’s and the 1950’s, the fashion and culture was
much more conservative than the 1960’s. Many people were in nuclear
families with suits, dresses, and short hair among men. Radical anti-
communist thought was widespread and racial discrimination plus sexism
were common. The counterculture was a rebellion against the music, This was the 1966 discussion
culture, fashion, and social mores of the traditional 1950’s stereotypical between Hugh Hefner (1926-
image. The Beat movement of the 1950’s and early 1960’s desired individual 2017) and William F. Buckley
freedom and personal experience. The counterculture was youth driven and Jr. (1925-2008) on the show
existed side by side to the Civil Rights Movement and the anti-Vietnam war
movement. The counterculture wanted freedom, spontaneity, and human Firing Line. Hefner defends
expression. One leader of this movement was the hippies. The hippies his Playboy agenda while
wanted love, peace, and freedom. Their strengths were that they believed in Buckley critiqued it from a
total opposition to the Vietnam War, they believed in love, and they wanted conservative perspective.
peace. Their weakness (as explained by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the
Massey lectures) was that many hippies wanted complete isolation from society in order for change to come. It
doesn’t work like that. Change never comes by isolation in communes. Change comes by confronting injustice in
society, so real revolutionary change can occur. Hippies believe in a form of nonviolent anarchism. Hippies
experimented with sex, many of them utilized recreational drug use, and they expressed a distrust of authority
(especially against older authority in causing the generation gap).

Political activist Jerry Rubin believed in hippie views. Also, the post-World War boom in American population grew
the student university population. These students were involved in changing clothing, hair, and fashion. The
counterculture wasn’t just about sex, drugs, and rock and roll. It was about a change in culture. With the Beatles
and other music groups, the youth dictated heavily music culture by the 1960’s. Even Elvis rebelled against
conventions. Bob Dylan sang protest songs about war and civil rights. Andy Warhol used fashion to rebel against
mainstream art. Tom Wolfe and Hunter S. Thompson wrote literature during this time. Many hippies developed the
Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. They were listening to music, using drugs, etc.

The music of the counterculture was diverse. The Beatles came from Britain to advance their songs. Bob Dylan used
folk music and was influenced by Pete Seeger. Other folksingers, like Joan Baez and Peter, Paul and Mary, took the
songs of the era to new audiences and public recognition. These folksingers were also involved in favoring civil
rights. The music of the 1960's moved towards an electric, psychedelic version of rock, thanks largely to Bob
Dylan's decision to play an electric guitar at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival. The newly popularized electric sound
of rock was then built upon and molded into psychedelic rock by artists like The 13th Floor Elevators and British
bands Pink Floyd and the Beatles. The Beach Boys's 1966 album called Pet Sounds has been called by Brian Wilson
as a call for love and understanding. Jim Hendrix, Sly Stone and the Family, the Doors, Janis Joplin, Jefferson
Airplane, and other musicians expressed tons of music relating to the counterculture.

Timothy Leary promoted LSD usage. He was once a Harvard professor. Today, we have new research from scholars
that many people like Leary and others had links to the intelligence community. The intelligence community via
MK-ULTRA and other programs experimented with drugs on people in nefarious projects. Many places like Haight-
Ashbury had drug addiction and crime. Some in the counterculture rejected Judeo-Christian religious views and
turned to other religions like Buddhism, Hinduism, and the New Age Movement. The New Age Movement in
America grew to what it is today in part of because of the counterculture. Therefore, yoga, meditation, and
Transcendental Meditation existed as it did today in part of what happened during the 1960’s. Woodstock or the
music celebration in 1969 was the peak of the Counterculture movement. Many people listened to Jimi Hendrix
and many celebrated by dancing and eating food. This celebration wouldn’t last. The counterculture ended by
many factors. There were lax programs back then to handle drug addiction. Many people became disillusioned
when musicians died like Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin. Many of the hippies went into the corporate world and
forsaken their previous views. In 1969, in California, a black young man was killed by the Hell Angels gang in a
concert at Altamont, California. Manson's followers murdered innocent people in California too by August of 1969.
The Hippie movement became more isolated and became more about communes instead of revolutionary policies
against unjust wars or against injustice. It ended by its own weaknesses.

Artists of the Counterculture

Jim Morrison (1943-1971) Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970) Janis Joplin (1943-1970) was
was the lead singer of the was the greatest guitarist in an American rock, soul, and
rock band of the Doors. He history. He made innovative blues singer. She wrote
had a distinctive voice, music, and he was songs and was very popular
poetic lyrics, and was an influenced by the blues and among fans worldwide. She
influential musician. R&B. broke down barriers too.
The Sexual Revolution existed too. As early as 1948, Alfred Kinsey created his report on sexuality about the
diversity of human sexuality in America. The Kinsey Reports were controversial. Liberals praised the reports as
accurately detailing human sexuality. Many conservatives have criticized the reports as biased, using
disproportionate amount of prisoners, and the usage of a pedophile in the studies (when that pedophile should be
in prison). His 1948 book was entitled, “Sexual Behavior in the Human Male” and his 1952 book was entitled,
“Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.” Kinsey told the truth that Americans are diverse in sexuality. Yet, Kinsey
was wrong to involve himself in promoting once exaggerated statistics with co-workers in his experiments and
research. He was also wrong for interviewing a pedophile and not calling the authorities to lock up that person.

Walter Pomeroy was a co-author Kinsey's book and he was an ally of Alfred Kinsey. Back in an article written in
1977 for a (pornographic) Forum publication called Variations, Pomeroy defended the evil of insect: "Incest
between adults and younger children can also prove to be a satisfying and enriching experience .... Incestuous
relationships can-and do --work out well .... We find many beautiful and mutually satisfying relationships between
fathers and daughters. These may be transient or ongoing, but they have no harmful effects." Pomeroy was
completely wrong as incest is 100 percent evil period. Even liberals acknowledge that Kinsey wasn’t perfect. The
conservative author Dr. Judith Reisman is one of the strongest critics of Alfred Kinsey today. Dr. Reisman has been
criticized by liberals as liberals accuse her of promoting pseudoscience about sexuality. Of course, Dr. Reisman
denies that accusation. Reisman accused Kinsey of being a pedophile while evidence is lacking on that charge
(Kinsey biographer James H. Jones has denied that Alfred Kinsey was a pedophile).

Also, Hugh Hefner created Playboy in 1953. He was a fan of Kinsey’s research. Hugh Hefner to the day of his death
in 2017 believed that he wanted sexual freedom among men and women. The legacy of Playboy has been debated
to this day. Ironically, there are conservatives and some feminists who criticize Playboy by accusing it of promoting
the sexual exploitation of women and sexism. Ironically, Hugh Hefner’s Playboy magazines back then (with images
of Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield, etc.) were tame compared to other like-minded magazines today. The
paradox of Hugh Hefner is that he believed that his efforts were about to liberate people from puritanical
restrictions of human sexuality, but his actions dealt with making women confirm to his hedonistic desires (even if
the women voluntarily worked in his locations, they still were part of the extremely confirming attitude of Hefner.
Hefner had many scandals in his life too).

The CIA-linked Gloria Steinem went undercover to expose the degrading practices of Playboy against women
workers during the 1960’s. Gloria Steinem dressed as a Playboy “bunny” in clubs to see firsthand about the
mistreatment that many women workers have experienced. Later, Playboy became international and grew into
new heights. Today, some people support it and others don’t. With the pill being legal in America, more birth
control developed. Contraception is fully legal in America by July of 1965. We see more people having pre-martial
sex and more of the public accepting it. Also, the sexual revolution made sex more relatable to people. People
became less immature about sex and embraced it with the realization that sexual activities are natural. Like in
many things in life, sex should have boundaries, but sex isn’t something that should be slandered about. The 1960’s
group called the Sexual Freedom League advanced the ideologies of the sexual revolution. It was created in 1963 at
New York City. Back in the 1960’s, it promoted the fight against censorship, sexual freedom, and the legalization of
abortion. Movies and TV before 1960 rarely showed a man and a woman in the same bed together. Films that
outlined the changing culture of the sexual revolution include: The Graduate (1967), Bob and Carol, and Ted and
Alice (1969), Midnight Cowboy (1969), and Carnal Knowledge (1971).

By the early 1970’s, the Sexual Revolution became mainstream in culture, music, literature (books with erotic or
explicit reading content are legal now. The Supreme Court mentioned that in 1968 that adults not children can read
explicit material), movies, fashion, and magazines. Later on, we witnessed how the sexual revolution changed
society. Also, sex shouldn’t be used as an excuse to be naïve. Sexual education is important, condoms exist, and
tons of folks do realize that sex is beautiful (along with understanding that we can use sex in the right way in
helping society in general. I reject nihilism. I abhor pedophilia and all sexually active people should get tested to
know their status). That is why it is important to promote moral absolutes. We are humans, but we don't have a
right to do what we want whenever we want. In other words, I reject murder, adultery, pedophilia, infidelity, and
any evil. Also, many evil people want to eliminate age of consent laws. Likewise, we should cherish the beauty of
sex and sexuality. There is nothing wrong with sex done in the right way among consenting people.
Iconic 1960’s Movies
These films stir up our imaginations. They were ahead of their times in their content, graphics, and issues that
they described. Cinema reached new heights of elaborate stories being advanced. These movies reflect the
changing times of American society and the constant essence of human expression.

Raisin in the Sun (1961) 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Nothing But A Man

The Learning Tree (1969) In the Heat of the Night (1967) Dr. Strangelove

Easy Rider (1969) West Side Story (1961) Lawrence of Arabia

The Women's Rights Movement
The Women’s Rights Movement existed for centuries and thousands of years. In America, the women’s rights
movement after World War II grew into a higher level. Ironically, industrialization motivated not only labor rights
efforts but women activism for their rights. Feminism means social equality among men and women. Today, some
want feminism to be a dirty word, but feminism means simply equality among the sexes. Immediately after World
War II, many women left their jobs to work at home because servicemen came home from war. Many women
wanted to be homemakers, and many women didn’t. Women, who wanted to work, had the qualifications, the
skills, and the determination. The problem was that the system back then (and today) has advanced sex
discrimination. That is why the women’s rights movement developed to fight for justice. This fight for sexual
equality changed our culture, our laws, and the world forever. The time of the 1960’s and 1970’s women’s rights
activism has been called by scholars as Second Wave Feminism. First Wave Feminism started from the time of
Seneca Falls, NY during the 1840’s and to 1920 (which is the time of women having the right to vote). On 1961,
President John F. Kennedy formed the President’s Commission on the Status of Women. She appointed Eleanor
Roosevelt as chairwoman. The report was issued by the Commission in 1963. The report documented massive
discrimination against women in the workplace, and it called for fair hiring practices, paid maternity leave, and
affordable childcare.

The women’s rights movement was about changing the traditional roles of the sexes. Many of its advocates like
Casey Hayden and Mary King (who were involved with SNCC) wanted to use the civil rights movement as a
motivation for them to promote their cause. Many women of many colors worked together in the cause of gender
equality. Many women abhorred the housewife stereotype since many women didn’t want to be housewives
alone. Betty Friedan outlined the angst of many women in her historical book entitled, The Feminine Mystique. The
book criticized conformity and wanted women to have more opportunities to express their own sense of
happiness. It came out in the year 1963. Women in the workplace grew in population by the 1950’s and the 1960’s.
Many working women were left out of top positions, and few were executives back then and now. Even Sandra Day
O’Connor (who was the first woman Supreme Court Justice) had trouble with jobs early in her career when he
graduated near the top of her class at Stanford plus had tons of high qualifications. So, women demanded equal
treatment and equal rights in the workplace and beyond. By June 10, 1963, Congress passed the Equal Pay Act.
That law made it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job.
After the early 1960’s, the Civil Rights Act also included words that banned discrimination based upon sex. By 1965,
in Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court struck down the one remaining state law prohibiting the use of
contraceptives by married couples. Later by 1966, Berry Friedan and other women formed the National
Organization for Women or NOW. N.O.W. wanted full equality for all women and “full and equal partnership of the
sexes.” N.O.W. grew the women’s rights movement. N.O.W worked to fight discrimination in the workplace,
education, sports, and all spheres of human life. Many successes came about like the ending of discriminatory
practices in the airplane industries. In 1967, Executive Order 11375 expanded President Lyndon Johnson's
affirmative action policy of 1965 to cover discrimination based on sex. As a result, federal agencies and contractors
must take active measures to ensure that women, as well as minorities, enjoy the same educational and
employment opportunities as white males. Later, the pill came and N.O.W. promoted the Equal Rights Amendment
(ERA) which would guarantee gender equality under the law by the Constitution. It was proposed during the
1920’s, but it hasn’t been passed yet. Also, N.O.W promoted the protection of reproductive rights. Back during the
early 1960’s, most Americans opposed abortion. Today, it’s the opposite. By the late 1960’s, advocates for abortion
protested nationwide to end laws that restricted it. N.O.W worked in court cases, political causes, and other

Today, we see NOW as center-left, but some conservatives view it now as going too far, and others viewed N.O.W.
as not going far enough. Numerous progressive feminists protested the Miss America pageant in 1968 as
exploitative of women. Some used efforts to raise public awareness like Charlotte Bunch. Gloria Steinem is a
feminist who worked undercover at the Playboy mansion to expose the humiliating employment experiences of
women. In 1972, she founded Ms. Magazine to promote feminist causes. Its title wanted to protest the social
custom of identifying women by their marital status instead of them as individuals. In 1968, EEOC ruled that sex-
segregated help wanted ads in newspapers are illegal. This ruling was upheld in 1973 by the Supreme Court,
opening the way for women to apply for higher-paying jobs hitherto open only to men. In 1969, California became
the first state to adopt a "no-fault" divorce law, which allowed couples to divorce by mutual consent. By 1985,
every state had adopted a similar law. Laws are also passed regarding the equal division of common property.
Many conservatives opposed the feminist movement from Pat Robertson to Phyllis McAlpin Schlafly (who
promoted Trump just before her death in 2016. She was a dedicated extremist).

Phyllis McAlpin Schlafly didn’t believe in women’s liberation. She wanted the nuclear family to reign supreme in
family life, and she didn’t even want women to fight in the military (even when historically, women served proudly
in the Armed Services heroically). She opposed the ERA as a breakdown of human nature which is ludicrous. Phyllis
McAlpin Schlafly was an anti-communist extremist with ties to the conservative establishment. Title VII of the Civil
Rights Act was used to fight sex discrimination. By the time of 1972, the title IX of the Higher Education Act of 1972
banned discrimination in education. It states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be
excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any
educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." As a result of Title IX, the enrollment of
women in athletics programs and professional schools increased dramatically. Coretta Scott King was a great civil
rights leader, and she worked with feminists at the National Women’s Conference. Shirley Chisholm spoke in favor
of equality too. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act was passed in 1974 that made it illegal to deny credit to a woman
just because of her gender. In 1974, In Corning Glass Works v. Brennan, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
employers cannot justify paying women lower wages because that is what they traditionally received under the
"going market rate." The Court mentioned that a wage differential occurring "simply because men would not work
at the low rates paid women" is unacceptable. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 banned employment
discrimination against pregnant women. Under the Act, a woman cannot be fired or denied a job or a promotion
because she is or may become pregnant, nor can she be forced to take a pregnancy leave if she is willing and able
to work.

Much progress has been made. Many women have expanded legal rights. We see the Roe v. Wade decision that
legalized abortion which has been debated to this very day.

A higher percentage of women are in the workplace now than in 1960. More women are in law, medicine, the
military, and in accounting. The problem is that we have so far to go. Many women suffer wage disparities since
one woman makes 75 cents as compared to one dollar earned by a man. Many women experience poverty and
sexual discrimination right now. Tons of women are victims of rape, assault, domestic violence, and sexual
harassment. Also, many black women are having their own movements for change since far too often, some white
feminists ignore the importance of black women in society. Many white feminists back then and today have been
caught doing cultural appropriation, making racist statements, and scapegoating black people for problems in the

We have a large number of poor single families who have been unfairly disrespected and scapegoated by sexists.
So, we still have to fight to make sure that sexual equality is made real for all.

Being an Olympic gold Eleanor Roosevelt stood up

Serena Williams won the most Grand Slam titles
medal winner and a civil for social justice, promoted
in singles, doubles, and mixed doubles combined
rights activist, Wilma women’s rights, and fought
among active players. She is the greatest woman
Rudolph was a heroic racial discrimination
tennis player in history. She has inspired women
and people in general worldwide.
black woman. throughout her life.

Lorraine Hansberry
Katherine Johnson used was a genius
complex mathematics to playwright who created
help NASA make the play Raisin in the
successful space Sun. She was a
missions. To this day, conscious black woman
she promotes STEM who fought for civil
among the youth and rights, opposed nuclear
weapons, and believed
in human justice.

Ellen Ochoa was the first Always

Latina woman to go into Celebrate
space. She was at the shuttle
Discovery. She is an engineer
and former Director of the History 24/7
Johnson Space Center. 365.

Kathrine Switzer
is an author and a
runner. In 1967,
Rita Moreno broke down she was the first
many barriers as a Puerto woman to run the
Rican dancer, singer, and Boston Marathon
actress. Her career has as a numbered
entrant. Women
been around for over 70
were allowed to
years. She was the first
run the Boston
Latina woman to win the
Academy Award for Best
officially by 1972.
Supporting Actress (for the
movie West Side Story).
The Environmental Movement
The environmental movement has a long history. It has spanned centuries in the modern era. America’s modern
environmental movement was created by the early 20th century. This movement was part of the overall human
rights movement that spread across the globe. The Progressives of the 1920’s wanted policies to protect public
lands, forests, and other natural resources. They were worried about the pollution from industrialization.
Industrialization dealt with social stratification, but it came with a price. That price was pollution (including lax
wages in many cases, and other problems). That is why the labor movement worked hard to fight injustices
involving labor issues. After World War Two, the first U.S. piece of legislation to have the federal regulation of
water quality existed. It was called the Pollution Control Act being passed on June 30, 1948. It was known as the
FWPCA and it went through amendments in 1956, 1965, and in 1972. It increased the government's authority in
water pollution control. By this time, many people died by smog or other pollutants. In Donora, PA, 20 people died
and over 600 people went to the hospital after experiencing sulfur dioxide emissions. It came from a steel and wire
plant and it came in the form of smog. After this tragedy, the first U.S. conference on air pollution existed in 1950
which was sponsored by the Public Health Service.

12,000 people died in London by smog in 1950. This came from a coal plant. Paul Ehrlich found that DDT spraying
contributed to the death of butterflies in New Jersey. By 1951, the Nature Conservancy was created in Washington,
D.C. This is a nonprofit organization that protects ecologically vital lands and waters worldwide. They will protect
more than 119 million acres of land and 5,000 miles of rivers worldwide. Heavy smog in New York City increased
asthma and other lung conditions. It killed 170-260 people. More New Yorkers died again by smog in 1962 and in
1966. Environmental awareness increased by the 1950's with Jacques Cousteau's The Silent World. Cousteau
researched oceanic life and the documentary film of the same title will win the Academy Award for Best
Documentary Feature in 1956. Eisenhower spoke on pollution in the air at his January 1955 State of the Union
address. By July 14, 1955, the Air Pollution Act was passed. It was the first legislation to address air pollution. It
caused enforcement against air pollution to be at the hands of the states, not to the federal government. The
Sierra Club later protested the Echo Park Dam construction, and it was gone from the Colorado River project. The
year of 1960 saw carbon dioxide climb above 300 parts per million.
She was the environmental leader Rachel Carson
By June of 1962, something happened. Rachel Carson released Silent Spring. It was acclaimed as one book that
accelerated the power of the environmental movement. Carson's book criticized the overuse of pesticide. It found
the DDT found in human tissue tripled from 1950 to 1962. The chemical industry denounced Carson's book as
having distortions. President John F. Kennedy caused the Science Advisory Committee to review the book’s claims.
The Committee reported that the conclusions in Silent Spring are generally correct, and by 1972 DDT will be
banned in the U.S. Back then, coal smog was one type of toxic waste. Toxic waste is a poisonous byproduct of
human activity. There was acid rain when water mixed with chemicals mixed with rain. Rachel Carson was a
biologist found that pesticides harmed birds and other animals. More people using cars caused regulations on car
emissions by 1963. On November 1963, Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall published The Quiet Crisis, an early
call to arms on environmental pollution with an introduction by President Kennedy. Udall will go on to become a
pioneer for environmental legislation. The Clean Air Act was passed in December of 1963. It allocated $93 million
for the study and cleanup of air and water pollution. The act gave the federal government authority to reduce
interstate air pollution, regulate emission standards for stationary pollution sources, and invest in technologies that
will remove sulfur from coal and oil. By October 2, 1965, the Water Quality Act passed. It grew federal standards to
handle water pollution. The Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act set the first national automobile emission
standards on October 20, 1965. Scientists wanted President Lyndon Baines Johnson about climate change by
greenhouse CO2 emissions as early as 1965.

Endangered species legislation came about on October 15, 1966. By August 1968, Paul Ehrlich released the
Population Bomb book. This book falsely claimed by the world population growth will cause a global catastrophe
shortly. He believed that environmental problems are caused by overpopulation. His writing influenced debates on
the issue of the population to this day. The Santa Barbara oil spill on January 28, 1969, produced more awareness
of pollution in America. Ohio's Cuyahoga River burst into flames when oil and chemical floated on the surface. By
December 1969, Gaylord Nelson, a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, hired 25-year-old Denis Hayes to direct a national
“teach-in” about environmental issues. Hayes recruited a handful of young college graduates to come to
Washington, D.C. and started planning what will become the first Earth Day. These events contributed to the Earth
Day national protest. By April 22, 1970, nationwide demonstrations existed to fight for environmental justice.
Many of the same people who supported women's rights, civil rights, and anti-war activism were included in the
Earth Day rallies. The ecological movement evolved from just talking about mostly conservation to other
environmental protection issues. LBJ and Nixon were pro-environment in many ways. The public caused Nixon to
support some environment reforms. 1970 was the year when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was
created. It was a federal agency to protect the environment. The EPA targeted cancer-causing pollutants. The Clean
Air Act of 1970 fought for air protection, the Clean Act existed by 1973, and the Endangered Species Act came
about in 1973. Gerald Ford would create the 1974 Nuclear Regulatory Commission to make sure that nuclear
materials would be regulated safely. Pollution disasters continued in the Love Canal situation and restorations like
Bowers Landfill being developed as a wetland. Conservatives express concerns about property rights when dealing
with environmental issues while liberals want more regulations involving ecological protections. This debate
continues to this very day. What is true is that environmental protection is a crucial part of sustaining a progressive
society and a healthy world.
The Vietnam War continues
The last 11 years of American involvement in the Vietnam War caused global change. After the Gulf of Tonkin
incident, President Johnson decided to retaliate. LBJ allowed the first overt American bombing of North Vietnam.
He gave a midnight TV appearance saying that the attack will not be part of a wider war. Soon, two Navy jets were
shot down. There was the first American prisoner of war named Lt. Everett Alvarez of San Jose, California. He was
taken to a prison in Hanoi called the Hanoi Hilton. Almost six hundred American airmen would be POWs. Back then,
85 percent of Americans supported President Johnson’s bombing decision. Many newspapers editorials supported
the President. The Defense Secretary McNamara lobbied Congress to pass the resolution to promote the Vietnam
War. He was confronted by Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon. He had been tipped off by someone in the Pentagon
that the Maddox had in fact been involved in the South Vietnamese commando raids against North Vietnam and
thus was not the victim of an "unprovoked" attack. McNamara responds that the U.S. Navy "...played absolutely no
part in, was not associated with, was not aware of, any South Vietnamese actions, if there were any..." Congress
passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964. This gave large power to President Johnson involving war
policy. The Resolution passed unanimously in the House and 98-2 in the Senate. The only Senators voting against
the Resolution are Wayne Morse, and Ernest Gruening of Alaska who said: "all Vietnam is not worth the life of a
single American boy." Many Buddhists protested against General Khanh’s military regime. Khanh later resigned as
the sole leader and promoted a triumvirate with himself, General Minh, and General Khiem by August 21, 1964.
Saigon had chaos, and mob violence grew. President Johnson continues to say that he doesn’t want extensive
American involvement in the Vietnam War during his 1964 Presidential campaign. He said, “We are not about to
send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for

By September 1964, LBJ and his aides in the White House discussed the future course of action. China had troops
on the Vietnamese border in response to American military action in Vietnam. By November 1, 1964, North
Vietnam forces attacked Americans at Bien Hoa airbase. Five Americans were killed, two South Vietnamese people
were killed, and nearly 100 people were injured. Johnson dismissed all recommendations for a retaliatory air strike
against North Vietnam. LBJ was re-elected by November 3, 1964. The Democrats had large majorities in the House
and in the Senate. 10,000 NVA soldiers use the Ho Chi Minh trail to send supplies to North Vietnamese troops.
December 1, 1964, was when President Johnson's top aides, including Secretary of State Dean Rusk, National
Security Advisor George Bundy, and Defense Secretary McNamara, recommend a policy of gradual escalation of
U.S. military involvement in Vietnam. Another coup happened on December 29, 1964. This was when General
Khanh worked with other leaders like Nguyen Cao Ky and Nguyen Van Thieu to oust older generals like General
Minh from power. Ambassador Taylor was angry over these coups and criticized young officers at the U.S.
embassy. General Khanh then criticized Taylor and the U.S. by saying that the U.S. wants to follow colonialism in its
treatment of South Vietnam. By the end of 1964, a car bomb hit the Brinks Hotel where American officers lived at.
2 Americans were killed 58 were wounded. LBJ dismissed recommendations for a retaliatory air strike against
North Vietnam. American military advisers were about 23,000 by the end of 1964. About 170,000 Viet Cong/NVA
forces fought in South Vietnam.

1965 was the start of the military war growing into a higher level in Vietnam. General Khanh controlled all of the
South Vietnamese government. Johnson aides, National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy and Defense Secretary
Robert McNamara, sent a memo to the President stating that America's limited military involvement in Vietnam is
not succeeding, and that the U.S. has reached a 'fork in the road' in Vietnam and must either soon escalate or
withdraw (on January 27, 1965). This was the turning point. After this, LBJ ordered attacks on North Vietnamese
targets by February of 1965. He also promoted Marines to protect the military air base at Da Nang by February 22,
1965. Her advanced Operation Rolling Thunder on March 2, 1965 where about 100 American fighters attacked
targets in North Vietnam. This continued until 1968. More Marines came about. Operation Market Time was when
the South Vietnamese Navy and the U.S. Navy fought North Vietnamese targets. The U.S. embassy in Saigon was
bombed. More Marines are sent. By April 17, 1965, 15,000 students protested against the U.S. bombing campaign.
LBJ wanted Hanoi to negotiate, but that fails. Nguyen Cao Ky ran South Vietnam by June 18, 1965.

Both sides attacked each other. A U.S. Marine rifle company destroyed suspected Viet Cong villages near Da Nang.
It caused controversy. By August of 1965, President Johnson banned draft card burning. Anti-war rallies grew in 40
cities and in London plus other international cities by October 16, 1965. As the war continued, American forces
continue to fight using the Army, Marines, Air Force, and the Navy. Ky faced new problems of more resistance to
his regime. 1967 was when the anti-Vietnam war movement reached into new heights of power. On January 23,
1967, Senator J. William Fulbright published The Arrogance of Power a book critical of American war policy in
Vietnam advocating direct peace talks between the South Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong. By this time,
Fulbright and President Johnson are no longer on speaking terms. Instead, the President uses the news media to
deride Fulbright, Robert Kennedy, and a growing number of critics in Congress as "nervous Nellies" and "sunshine

About 4.5 billion dollars from Congress fund the war by March 8, 1967. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. opposed the war
in New York City’s Riverside Baptist Church with a great speech on April 4, 1967. On April 15, 1967, Anti-war
demonstrations occur in New York and San Francisco involving nearly 200,000.

Rev. Martin Luther King declared that the war was undermining President Johnson's Great Society social reform
programs, "...the pursuit of this widened war has narrowed the promised dimensions of the domestic welfare
programs, making the poor white and Negro bear the heaviest burdens both at the front and at home."
Peace initiatives came about and fail. Protests in the Pentagon existed. At the end of 1967, Eugene McCarthy ran
for President on an anti-war platform. 463,000 troops came into Vietnam by the end of 1963 with 16,000 combat
deaths. The Tet Offensive in early 1968 harmed American morale. Americans had a victory, but it showed the world
that the Vietnam War was a long circumstance. In 1968, more pressure came unto Johnson to promote a peaceful,
negotiated settlement. The My Lai massacre happened in 1968. The Wise Men in March of 1968 wanted the
President to withdraw troops from Vietnam. April 4, 1968, was when Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in
Memphis. It was a tragic time. RFK was assassinated at June 1968. The Democratic Party was split, and Nixon
promoted the view of peace with honor. His problem was that he secretly stopped negotiations between South
Vietnam, North Vietnam, and America for his plan to be promoted.

Today, America and Vietnam have

a more cordial relationship as
close trading partners. This image
showed President Barack Obama
and Vietnamese President Tran
Dai Quang walking together on
May 23, 2016. They would agree
to lift an age old arms ban
involving Vietnam.

Photo by

LBJ accused Nixon of doing treason by preventing a negotiated settlement to the war from happening in 1968. The
end of the Vietnam War was bitter. Nixon contradicted himself by having the draft ended and gradually eliminated
troops, but he illegally sent troops into Cambodia, and he expanded bombings in many cases. Nixon followed the
view of Vietnamization or gradually sending American troops home while building up the South Vietnamese armies
to defend South Vietnam. It didn't work. Scandals ended his Presidency. Henry Kissinger organized settlements,
and he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Without a large number of American troops in Vietnam by the early 1970's,
North Vietnamese forces came massively into South Vietnam to win the war by April 30, 1975.
1968 in the history of the United States of America changed the world. From the start to the finish of 1968,
historical developments were abundant. The year of 1968 saw the Vietnam War, Cold War politics, civil rights,
youth culture, the human rights movement, the Olympics, and sexual equality in center stage. By January 1968,
anti-Vietnam War protests existed nationwide. In that time, the 87 year old Jeannette Rankin led 5,000 women to
protest the Vietnam War at Washington, D.C. Their motto is “Sisterhood is Powerful.” The Vietnam War damaged
the lives of millions of Americans and Vietnamese people. UCLA’s Kareem Abdul-Jabbar played Houston at the first
NCAA basketball game to be nationally televised. This event would later evolve into March Madness. Laugh In
debuted at January 22, 1968. North Korea captured U.S. crewmen from the USS Pueblo. They were only free after
11 months and after one crewman was killed. From early February 1968, the Tet Offensive came about. This was
when North Vietnamese troops hid weapons in rice baskets and other supplies to fight U.S. soldiers and U.S. South
Vietnamese troops. The North Vietnamese lost the battle, but U.S. support for the Vietnam War afterwards lost.
Even reporter Walter Cronkite wanted U.S. forces to withdrawal from the war in a stalemate. Later, it would be a
new era. America bombed Hue down to win the Tet Offensive too.

The police riot during the Democratic National

Convention of 1968 in Chicago outlined the
horrendous police brutality of crooked cops. The
whole atmosphere divided the Democratic Party
for a long time on the issue of the Vietnam War.
The whole world was certainly watching.
Revolutionaries of the 60’s
These leaders inspire our
movements of 2019. These
heroes spoke their minds,
wanted economic justice, and
believed in opposing the
military industrial complex.
They didn’t want capitalist
elites to monopolize wealth
(which is basically capitalism
for the poor and socialism for
the rich alone). Therefore, we
acknowledge their heroic
actions, and we still believe in Fred Hampton (1948-1969) fought Malcolm X (1925-1965) was a
the Dream for human justice for liberation, he opposed police revolutionary black man who
including black liberation now brutality, and he was a leader of opposed the Vietnam War and
and forever. the Black Panther Party. desired global pan-African unity.

Fannie Lou Hamer (1917-1977) Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929- Norman Thomas (1884-1968) was
fought racism, opposed the 1968) believed in racial justice and a socialist who influenced so many
Vietnam War, and wanted he wanted a radical redistribution movements of our modern
economic justice. of economic and political power. generation.

Tom Hayden (1939-2016) helped For over five decades, Ella Baker Rosa Parks (1913-2005) opposed
to cultivate the SDS and was (1903-1986) was a leader of the apartheid, disagreed with the
involved in many progressive Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War, and believed in
social movements. black freedom movement in economic development of
general. communities.
The Developments in 1968

The My Lai Massacre of The French rebellions in 1968 dealt Shirley Chisholm won
March 1968 was when U.S. with young people seeking the election in 1968 to be
Army troops murdered educational rights, economic justice, the first black woman to
men, women, and chlildren a more progressive France. be elected in the U.S.
Vietnamese people. Many Students, unions, socialists, House of
pwomen were raped too communists, and other progressives Representatives. She led
and it was one of the most were leaders in this movement from a historic 1972 won for
heinous crimes of the Paris to Bordeaux. the Presidency and her
Vietnam War. legacy has been clear to
advance the rights of
human beings regardless
of background.

The Memphis sanitation strikes existed after workers Echol Cole and Robert Walker were crushed to death by a
malfunctioning garbage truck. They wanted the escape the rain. Dr. King and other Memphis civil rights leaders
fought for the sanitation workers. It was the last crusade of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Black people were killed by
the police at Orangeburg, South Carolina at February 8, 1968. The young people were protesting segregation at a
local bowling alley. Hispanic Americans students protested for better education in Los Angeles by March 1-8, 1968.
They numbered at about 15,000 students. The March Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia wanted justice and the
freedom of speech. The Soviet Union suppressed this movement. Many people involved in the Prague Spring were
heroic socialists. The Presidential campaign grew with Robert Kennedy telling the world that he is running for
President. McCarthy almost won the New Hampshire Primary at March 12, 1968. African Americans promote Black
Studies at Howard University in Washington, D.C. by March 1968 too. President Lyndon Baines Johnson refused to
run for President again.

By April 4, 1968, the apostle of nonviolence Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by a rifle shot on his jaw. He
was only 39 years old. He fought against injunction and wanted to march in Memphis, Tennessee. Afterwards,
rebellions existed in over 100 cities in America. James Earl Ray was caught and he died in prison. To this very day,
members of Dr. King’s family believe that a government conspiracy not Ray was involved in the assassination of Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. June of 1968 saw the end of the Poor People’s Campaign. Thousands of people were in D.C.
and formed a tent city called Resurrection City. They made their demands and were forced out, but their cause
made more people get aware about the issue of poverty. Ralph Abernathy and others of many colors were leaders
of the Poor People’s Campaign after Dr. King’s passing. Early June 1968 was when Senator Robert F. Kennedy would
be assassinated at Los Angeles, California. The first Special Olympics existed on July 20, 1968 with 200 events.
Members had disabilities. Richard Nixon ran on the Republican ticket with Spiro Agnew on August 5-8, 1968.

The picture on the left was Diahann Carroll on the historic show of Julia. It existed in
1968 and the show had the first African American woman to have a primary leading
role on a TV show. The image on the right showed Tommie Smith and John Carlos
protesting for racial justice during the 1968 Olympics at Mexico City, Mexico.
Later August 1968 was when the Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago. Party bosses caused Hubert
Humphrey to be the Democratic Presidential candidate. The Democratic Party was divided by the Vietnam War.
Protesters were assaulted by Chicago police. Many cops were on a rampage to club and gas hundreds of anti-war
demonstrators. Reporter Dan Rather was assaulted by security forces on the convention floor. Also, Connecticut
Congressman Ribicoff condemned Chicago Mayor Richard Daley for using Gestapo tactics. Feminists protested Miss
America’s pageant in Atlantic City, New Jersey for the exploitation of women. Arthur Ashe was the first black man
to win a Grand Slam tennis tournament on September 9, 1968. He won the U.S. Open during that time. 60 Minutes
started in 1968 too. By October 16, 1968, two black American men by the names of Tommie Smith and John Carlos
won the gold and bronze medals in the 200 meter dash. They raised their gloved fists in the air when the national
anthem was played to protest racism and poverty in America. The International Olympic Committee stripped them
of their medals during the next day. They were sent home, but they promoted freedom afterwards. Johnson
ordered a bombing halt in North Vietnam. Humphrey almost won the election, but Richard Nixon won the election
on November 5, 1968. Nixon promoted the Southern Strategy, law and order, and his secret plan to end the
Vietnam War (when recent documents prove that he tried to undermine LBJ’s efforts to form a peace plan. LBJ
called this action treason). On that day, Shirley Chisholm of New York City became the first black woman elected to
the U.S. House of Representatives. Elvis made his comeback on December 1968 on NBC-TV. By later December
1968, Apollo 8 became the first manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon and return safely to Earth. The famous Earth
rise photograph was taken during its flight. 1968 was a time of sadness, excitement, and new developments at the
same time.
Other Movements for Social Change (Mexican-
Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans,
the Disabled, and the LGBTQIA+ movement)
The human rights movement expanded significantly during the post-war period from 1940’s to the early 1970’s.
Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans established their own movements for equality and
justice. They wanted influence in law and government. They also wanted respect. Those with disabilities and
consumer protections grew during this period too. New Hispanic American immigrants increased after World War II
as anti-immigrant policies declined and more labor opportunities developed. New immigrants desired jobs. Latino-
Americans have a large Spanish speaking population. Latino and Hispanic refer to ethnicity not to race as there are
Afro-Latinos, white Hispanics, and multiracial Hispanic people too. They share many cultural experiences. Mexican
Americans or Chicanos have fought for their rights also. Many Mexican Americans were farmers from the bracero
program. This allowed many immigrant guest worker programs to allow human beings to farm in the U.S. The 1965
Immigration law caused more Latino-Americans to come into America from more than 400,000 people in the
1960’s to 1.5 million by the 1980’s. After World War II, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans came into the east
coast of the Continental United States from Florida to New York State. Many Puerto Ricans wanted better jobs and
they are U.S. citizens. Dominicans and Cuban immigrants readily immigrated because of political and economic
reasons. After World War II, many Latinos experienced discrimination and oppression. Many of them were
veterans of World War II who served honorably against the Axis Powers. Veteran Hector Garcia fought
discrimination by forming the American G.I. Forum.

Many Latinos increasingly fought for civil rights during the time of the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement. They wanted
better salaries, wages, and educational opportunities. Like African Americans, they wanted voting rights and more
elected political leaders to represent them. Cesar Chavez was one influential Latino activist. He organized farm
workers to fight for labor rights in California. Chavez worked in farms and organized tons of people to stand up for
economic rights. He traveled into many states too. Many migrant farmworkers picked fruits and vegetables without
benefits and for long hours. Chavez formed a farmworkers’ union by 1962 in order to change that horrendous
reality. The union was in Delano, California. By the late 1960’s, he merged his union with a separate union of
Filipino-American farm workers to form the United Farm Workers or the UFW. The UFW used nonviolence and
strikes to fight for change. They used a consumer boycott of table grapes. Delores Huerta was Chavez’s ally, and
she worked to fight to win recognition from the growers. By 1975, California passed a law that made collective
bargaining a requirement among growers and union representatives. Farmworkers fought to establish better
working conditions a reality. Also, the broader Chicano movement wanted educational rights and human rights.
They also wanted actual Mexican-American history to be taught in schools nationwide. The Chicano movement
wanted to embrace their cultural heritage. The National Council of La Raza was created in 1968 to deal with
poverty and discrimination. It wanted better opportunities for Hispanic Americans. The Mexican American Youth
Organization (MAYO) was created in 1967. Jose Angel Gutierrez formed the La Raza Unida political party in Texas
by 1970. They wanted housing and jobs. Many Latino political leaders rose up. By 1980, six Latino-Americans sat in
Congress to represent areas from New York to Texas. State, county, and city government have more Latinos now
than ever before.

Native Americans fought discrimination, poverty, and lax education too. In 1961, the National Indian Youth Council
(NIYC) was created in 1961 to fight for justice. They wanted to maintain native fishing rights in the Northwest.
Later, they promoted civil rights for Native Americans. In 1968, the Chippewa activists Dennis Banks and George
Mitchell created the AIM (or the American Indian Movement). The AIM at first worked in urban communities.
Later, they fought for the total land, legal, and self-governmental rights for Native Americans. Many Native
Americans confronted the government over land and resources too. Native Americans occupied Alcatraz in 1969 in
protest for human rights. They controlled the Alcatraz Island in the San Francisco area until 1971. By the time of
1972, AIM members Russell Means and Dennis Banks marched from San Francisco to Washington, D.C. They
occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs and renamed it Native American Embassy. The 1973 standoff at Wounded
Knew caused two Native Americans to die by gunfire. The government later granted many Native Americans self-
government rights, but the struggle continues. The Indian Self-Determination Act of 1975 gave Native Americans
more autonomy in resources and education in reservations.
Asian American Hero Hazel Ying Lee ( 李月英)
The Chinese American Hazel
Ying Lee flew for the Women
Airforce Service Pilots (or
WASP) during World War II.
She was born in Portland,
Oregon and lived from
August 24, 1912 to November
25, 1944). Her parents were
Yuet Lee and SSiu Lan Wong
from Taishan, Guangdong.
She swam and did other
activities. She made history in
many ways to refute racist
Asian stereotypes. She was
heroic and was inducted into
the Oregon Aviation Hall of
Honor by 2004.

Ben Nighthorse Campbell won a U.S. Senate seat. Asian Americans fought for their rights too. The Japanese
American Citizen League fought for the civil rights of Japanese Americans. Many Chinese Americans also promoted
equality from Bruce Lee to other leaders. The first Asian-American to be elected to Congress was Dalip Singh from
California in 1956. By 1962, Daniel K. Inouye from Hawaii was elected to the Senate, and Spark Matsunaga (from
Hawaii was elected to the House. Spark was the first Asian-American woman in Congress). In 1968, Asian American
students strike at the San Francisco State University to demand the establishment of ethnic studies programs. By
the 1960’s and the 1970’s, many Asian Americans were in the civil rights movement, the anti-war movement, and
other progressive movements. Amy Uyematsu wrote a 1969 essay entitled, “The Emergence of Yellow Power.” It
wanted Asian Americans to embrace self-respect, cultural strength, and independence. Some Black Panthers were
influenced by the writings of Mao Zedong and the Japanese American Richard Aoki assisted the Black Panthers with
weapons training. By 1969, students at the University of California, Berkeley strike for the establishment of ethnic
studies programs too. In 1974, March Fong Eu was elected as California’s secretary of state. The Lau v. Nichols
decision mentioned that school districts with children who speak little English must provide them with bilingual
education. Later, more Asian immigration came into America, many Japanese Americans were given reparations by
1987, and more events would grow the Asian community in general.

Ralph Nader was a consumer rights activists that inspired changed. His book entitled, "Unsafe at any Speed" in
1965 contributed to Congress passing the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. This promoted
seat belts and other equipment which has saved lives since its inception. OSHA supported workers’ safety. By the
1960’s, JFK researched the policies to help Americans with disabilities. LBJ signed the August 1968 Architectural
Barriers Act law that allowed federal buildings to have ramps to help citizens who are handicapped. Disability rights
increased with the late President George H. W. Bush signing the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. People
among both parties (and human beings in general) used policies that developed the Special Olympics, educational
opportunities, and other blessings to those with disabilities.
The LGBTQIA+ movement has existed for a long time. Homosexuals, lesbians, bisexuals, including intersex human
beings have lived on this Earth for thousands of years. In America after World War II, from 1945 to 1969,
homosexuals and others in the LGBTQIA+ community had little rights. They could be arrested for being accused of
being gay. They could be arrested for being in a gay bar. They could be fired from a job for being accused of being a
homosexual. Tons of them experienced rejection from family, friends, from their pastors (or rabbis, imans, priests,
etc.), and from their co-workers. Some committed suicide and some were murdered. This was America back then
and many of these things exist today in 2019. One of the earliest Americans who wanted to defend homosexual
rights of the 20th century was Emma Goldman. After World War II, more changes happened in America. The first
North American lesbian publication was Vice Versa as founded by Edith Eyde (or Lisa Ben) in Los Angeles by 1947.
Harry Hay invented the Mattachine Society. In 1953 at March, the pro-homosexual Diana Foundation was formed
in Houston. The Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) was founded in San Francisco by four lesbian couples (including Del
Martin and Phyllis Lyon) and was the first national lesbian political and social organization in the United States
(created at 1955). The Mattachine Society New York chapter was founded in the same year. German American and
U.S. physician Harry Benjamin researched transgender people in 1957. He was the one who coined the word
“transsexual” back in 1957 too. By 1958, the Daughters of Bilitis was formed in its New York chapter by Barbara
Gittings. The LBGTQIA+ movement back then had its leaders just wanting equality including non-discrimination

In 1958, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a homosexual magazine in the first time in American history. Back
then, people were arrested for being gay or lesbian. Illinois was the first U.S. state to remove sodomy laws from its
criminal code by 1961. Later, other nations decriminalized homosexual acts worldwide. Lorraine Hansberry was an
activist for gay rights and wrote about feminism and homophobia, joining the Daughters of Bilitis and contributing
two letters to their magazine, The Ladder, in 1957 under her initials "LHN." Lorraine Hansberry was a genius writer
involving plays. Also, her recent, formerly secret letters and notes showed that she was attracted to women. In
1959, Hansberry commented that women who are "twice oppressed" may become "twice militant." She held out
some hope for male allies of women, writing in an unpublished essay: "If by some miracle women should not ever
utter a single protest against their condition there would still exist among men those who could not endure in
peace until her liberation had been achieved." Lorraine Hansberry supported anti-colonialist movements in Africa
and opposed the nuclear bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki back in 1945 (when she was a teenager in high
school). The Cooper Do-nuts Riot was a May 1959 incident in Los Angeles in which transgender human beings,
lesbian women, drag queens, and gay men rioted. It was one of the first LGBT uprisings in the United States. The
incident was sparked by police harassment of LGBT people at a 24-hour cafe called "Cooper Do-nuts." In 1965,
conservatively dressed gays and lesbians demonstrated outside Independence Hall in Philadelphia on July 4, 1965.
This was the first in a series of Annual Reminders that took place through 1969. In 1965, there was the Dewey
Lunch counter sit-in in Philadelphia. Many black gay, bisexual, lesbian, and transgender people fought for their
Jackie Shane (May 15, 1940 – February 21, 2019) Lorraine Hansberry (May 19, 1930 –January 12, 1965)
was a pioneer transgender musician. was a African American playwright and writer.

The Mattachine Society had a sip in at Julius Bar in NYC since NYC law banned serving alcohol to homosexuals.
There were transgender people and Vanguard members protesting in the Compton Cafeteria Riot of 1966.
Vanguard was founded to demonstrate for equal rights. The first lesbian to appear on the cover of the lesbian
magazine The Ladder with her face showing was Lilli Vincenz in January 1966. A coalition of homosexual
organizations organized demonstrations for Armed Forces Day to protest the exclusion of LGBT from the U.S.
armed services. The Los Angeles group held a 15-car motorcade, which has been identified as the nation's first gay
pride parade. This was all in 1966. Time came on and then the 1969 Stonewall riots happened in New York City. For
years, the NYPD harassed and randomly jailed homosexuals. Later, many homosexuals including transgender
people protested and fought back against the police in New York City at the Stonewall riots. This caused a new era
of the gay rights movement and expanded the movement into new heights. Transgender leaders like the musician
Jackie Shane, Marsha P. Johnson, Sylvia Rivera, and others made their marks in history. Pride marches spread in
1970 and the first Gay Liberation Day by 1970 in New York City.

The Gay Liberation Front formed and in 1973, the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from
its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), based largely on the research and advocacy of
Evelyn Hooker. By 1974, the world wouldn’t be the same. Discussions about homosexuality continue to this very
day. America is much more different place than during the 1950’s or the 1960’s. Likewise, there is still the epidemic
of murder, assault, homelessness, and oppression of the LBGTQIA+ community in America plus worldwide. Also,
there are many white LBGTQ people who are racist (racism is evil. These racists are silent on the Ed Buck story
when black men have been found dead at Ed's home. Many of these white racists exploit black people for sexual
purposes) and this is rarely talked about in our time. Millennials and other young people are more in favor of
homosexuality than older generations. This information relates to history and regardless of how people think about
many issues, we have to show every aspect of American people. People like Edmonia Lewis, Alice Dunbar Nelson,
Ma Rainey, Gladys Bentley, Janelle Monae, Barbara Smith, the bisexual Carmen Mercedes McRae, Billie Holiday
(yes, Billie Holiday was bisexual), Angela Davis, and others are all members of the LBGTQIA+ community in the past
and present. This year is the 50th year anniversary of the Stonewall riot in New York City. If you’re human, you
have the right to live on this Earth just like anyone else. This work is about bringing out the facts, so you can
analyze it and make up your own mind as you have the right to do. You don't have to believe me since you should
do your own research and make up your own conclusions. Also, no human being should experience murder,
harassment, abuse, slurs, or injustice because of their background. All human beings are created equal.

The rise of Richard Nixon

The legacy of Richard Nixon is complicated and controversial. He represented the reactionary counterrevolution.
He was a President who made history in many respects and made horrible mistakes. He had paranoia, insecurities,
jealousies, and a hatred of revolutionary progressive activism. Now, it is the time to outline the breadth of his
Presidency from the beginning to the end. He used the Southern Strategy for him to win the 1968 election. The
Southern Strategy was about Nixon appealing to mostly white blue collar workers to gain votes in the Midwest and
the South. Many of these people were former New Deal Democrats who switched to vote for Republicans by 1968.
Richard Nixon was clear that he wanted law and order, opposed many policies of the civil rights movement, he
tried to attack liberalism, and he supported the repression of progressive protesters. He promised to end the
Vietnam War with the phrase of ‘peace with honor.” He made many changes regarding Cold War policies as well.
Nixon constantly talked about the silent majority or those in middle American (mostly white Americans) who
agreed with his plans. It is no secret that Nixon hated student activists, Black Power leaders, and media figures who
questioned him. Vice President Spiro Agnew was known to attack the media and student leaders too.

His Presidency started in January of 1969. His inaugural address called for national unity in the midst of political
divisions. He criticized the big government programs of Johnson but believed that most Americans wanted
government involvement in combating pollution. He was obsessed with getting tough on crime rhetoric. Before the
1970’s, Americans profoundly believed in the us vs them mentality in dealing with Communism worldwide. Nixon
allied with Henry Kissinger to formulate a new Cold War policy. Nixon was a conservative Republican. Progressives
promoted a new politics with intellectuals, people of color, women, environmentalists, and activists plus feminists
in supporting social justice causes (as explained by Newfield). Conservatives grew in power in the Sunbelt in the
Southwest and the South. New industries dealing with technology, space exploration, and aerospace, in general,
flourished (in Miami, Dallas, Houston, Phoenix, San Diego, etc.). Many former liberals became neoconservatives or
conservatives. They were more concerned with decentralization and war mongering foreign policy than progressive
pro-general welfare policies.

Many of these same neo-conservatives were complicit in the future disastrous Iraq War policy.
The resurgent Right was made up of conservative religious people, libertarians, former liberals, pro-Vietnam War
activists, and hardcore Republicans. These human beings were increasingly Republican. Henry Kissinger is a
moderate East Coast political figure. Kissinger was educated at Harvard and was a Jewish émigré from Germany.
They promoted the realpolitik philosophy. This view was that American interests must be developed in dealing with
the Cold War beyond any ideological views. They wanted to use tactics to make China and the Soviet Union break
against each other so American interests would dominate international affairs more thoroughly. They viewed
foreign policy in complex terms instead of monolithic interpretations. Nixon and Kissinger didn’t believe in a
monolithic communist conspiracy to rule the world as LBJ thought. They knew of the nuisance, different
communist policies in North Korea, Yugoslavia, North Vietnam, and in other locations. That is why Nixon focused
more on international affairs than domestic policy affairs during his Presidency.

Nixon, as early as 1969, wanted a different relationship with China. China back then wasn’t recognized by the
United Nations. The Nationalist government of Taiwan was recognized by America more than China. Nixon wanted
to reach out to China because of many nations. China is the most populous nation on Earth. Nixon felt that if they
allied with U.S. markets, then U.S. markets would benefit economically with tons of consumers. Also, Nixon was
known as an anti-communist radical, so many saw Nixon as having more credibility in following this new course
than others. He also wanted to divide China and the Soviet Union. If China had normal relations with the
Americans, then Nixon felt that the Soviet Union would be weakened. He also wanted China to pressure North
Vietnam to establish a negotiated peace to end the Vietnam War. By April 1971, China publicly wanted American
leaders to talk with them. Henry Kissinger worked with Premier Zhou Enlai on setting up a meeting. By February
1972, President Nixon visited China and the Great Wall. Later, Americans increasingly visited China and America
normalized relations with China. That was a significant historical development.

By 1979, full diplomatic ties were formed between America and China. The Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev feared
that Nixon working with China would weaken his nation. So, he wanted a meeting with Nixon. Nixon came into
Moscow in May 1972. Nixon and Brezhnev formed agreements on many issues. Nixon told Congress on June 1,
1972, said that he and the Soviets agreed to fight environmental pollution and fight cancer plus heart disease.
Nixon considered a joint U.S./USSR space mission. He and the Soviets signed Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty of
SALT I. This froze the deployment of ICBMs or intercontinental ballistic missiles. It gave limits to ABMs or anti-
ballistic missiles. It didn’t alter dangerous multiple independent reentry vehicles or MIRVs. It was a step towards
détente. This was a more pragmatic approach toward Cold War political engagement. Domestically, Richard Nixon
believed in new federalism or stripping powers from the federal government and sending it to the states and local
communities. He stated this goal in his 1971 State of the Union address. He ironically allowed the creation of new
federal government programs like the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in regulating
workplaces to make them safer. He supported the War on Drugs and helped to form the DEA or the Drug
Enforcement Administration. He saw the creation of EPA or the Environmental Protection Agency that enforced
environmental standards. He signed the 1970 Clean Air Act. He also cut welfare by him decreasing of the power of
the Office of Economic Opportunity. This was a crucial part of LBJ’s Great Society and the war on poverty agenda.
He enacted a Family Assistance Plan to try to give a minimum income to every American family. The FAP didn’t
become law. Federal spending on social programs like Medicare, public housing, etc. grew.
Richard Nixon executed the repressive programs of the FBI against progressive activism. Such FBI suppression
efforts existed long before 1969 too. During Nixon’s time, the economy experienced struggles with stagflation or
inflation and recession at the same time. Attorney General John Mitchell indicted tons of people from the antiwar,
women's Chicano, Black Power, and Native American movements. Nixon in May of 1969 ordered the illegal
monitoring of various reporters and 13 members of his own National Security Council. Nixon pressured the FCC and
news companies to downplay the anti-war movements' protests. This was caused in part by the burden of the
Vietnam War from LBJ’s time. It grew under Nixon’s Presidency. More spending on Vietnam grew inflation. More
inflation means that prices on goods and services will increase which stagnates the economy.

Also, economic problems existed because of more competition for the economy by West Germany, Western
Europe in general, and Japan (which flourished in part by the Marshall Plan and American investments). Their
economics grew industries like steel and automobiles. Foreign competition increased the burden on the U.S.
economy. Some Americans lost jobs. Also, the price of oil increased. During the 1973 Arabic war against Israel,
Arabic members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) issued a boycott or embargo on
Israel’s allies including America. They did this since America supported Israel in the Yom Kippur war. Oil prices
increased by 400 percent. Gas lines existed by 1974. Nixon responded to stagflation by having a 90-day freeze on
all wages and prices. It worked for a short time, and economic growth existed. Long-term, price control couldn’t
stabilize the economy, and the economy became worse by the mid-1970’s. Domestically, busing was a big issue in
the Nixon presidency. Busing was about making integration real by using busing to send students to various schools
in making them heterogeneous ethnically.

Supporters of busing believe that it promotes integration. Opponents of busing say that it violated parents’ rights,
states’ rights, and community schooling. Some people who opposed busing were racists also. Nixon promoted
conservative judges in the court system. Both Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell failed to be in the
Supreme Court since they supported segregation years prior. Nixon opposed court-ordered busing. He reached out
to southern whites and urban blue collar workers. The federal court ordered school busing in 1971. Nixon wanted a
freeze on it. He also believed in black capitalism and the Philadelphia Plan (which was about affirmative action with
timetables to give federal contractors and labor unions to give consideration to women and minorities in
employment and education). Black capitalism (or Nixon wanted investments in black corporations to help black
people) was opposed by the Black Panthers since it benefits mostly the upper middle and wealthy of the black
community. Also, the Black Panthers were socialistic.
The 1972 United States Presidential election
November 7, 1972
538 electoral votes of the Electoral College are used and 270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout 55.2%

Nominee Richard Nixon George McGovern

Party Republican Democratic
Home state California South Dakota
Running mate Spiro Agnew Sargent Shriver (replaced
Thomas Eagleton)
Electoral vote 520 17
States carried 49 1 + D.C.
Popular vote 47,168,710 29,173,222
Percentage 60.7% 37.5%

The red areas are states won by Nixon/Agnew. The blue denotes the one state and the one district won
by McGovern/Shriver. The gold is the electoral vote for Hospers/Nathan by a Virginia faithless electors.
The numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.
Newly released tapes show that Richard Nixon didn't care about black people. He allocated few funds to black
businesses. Nixon cut other federal programs that were helping people of color. He refused to support the
extension of the 1965 Voting Rights Act, and he lobbied Congress to try to defeat the fair housing enforcement
program. Richard Nixon opposed making Dr. King's birthday a national holiday. That is why civil rights leaders
opposed Nixon for his evil record on civil rights. Nixon’s Southern Strategy caused him to have a significant victory
in the 1972 election. His Democratic opponent was George McGovern. McGovern was a sincere liberal who
opposed the Vietnam War and wanted social justice. By 1972, the Democratic Party moved into the left, and this
was one of the few times when an unapologetic liberal ran for President. Nixon had immense popularity, and
McGovern lost the election. Wallace ran for President and ended it when a gunman shot him. He was later
paralyzed for the remainder of his life. Nixon tried to portray himself as moderate, and he condemned McGovern
as an extremist when McGovern wasn’t. Spiro Agnew continued to be Nixon’s Vice President. Nearly every
electoral vote came for Nixon, and 60.7 percent of the popular vote also went for Nixon while 37.5 percent of the
popular vote came for McGovern. Richard Nixon was the first Republican President to sweep the South. Nixon
ended mandatory wage, price, and rent ceiling regulations. This caused a hike in inflation since the price controls
were stopped. With the Kent State disaster, the illegal bombing of Cambodia, the Pentagon Papers were released,
and the other revelations, Nixon decided to be stubborn and maintain his views.
The Watergate Scandal (and the end of the
Nixon Presidency)
In the midst of his victory, storm clouds came his way. It was Watergate. Even in 1972, Watergate was discussed,
but it wasn't the primary political discussion at first. Things would change. June 1972 was the time when right-wing
extremists had a botched burglary at the Democratic Party headquarters (called Watergate in D.C.). The Watergate
burglars were in trial by 1973. One burglar was named James McCord. He said that Nixon administration officials
were involved in the break-in. James McCord was part of the Committee to Re-Elect the President as a security
chief. This group was known as CREEP, and it was headed by former attorney general John Mitchell. CREEP used
intelligence monitoring of Democratic candidates drinking and sexual habits to try to discredit them. CREEP (one
member of this group was G. Gordon Liddy) used false literature and other lies in trying to defeat Democratic
opponents. The Senate investigated this charge. Hearings existed. Many witnesses said that President Nixon and
his top aides were involved in the cover-up. Nixon denied any wrongdoing. As time went on, investigators found
links between the burglars and top Nixon administration officials. Young Washington Post journalists named Bob
Woodward and Carl Bernstein helped to expose Watergate for the public. A source called “Deep Throat” gave them
sources on the events. Deep Throat was later found to be an FBI official.

Woodward and Bernstein reported that the men who tried to burglarize the Watergate hotel had total links to the
Nixon reelection committee. Nixon proclaimed his innocence multiple times. Nixon said the famous “I am not a
crook” speech on November 1973. Most Americans viewed Nixon as not honest about the Watergate scandal.
Congress had to act. By the fall of 1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned in the face of a corruption scandal.
Agnew was caught accepting bribes and evading income taxes. He was a hypocrite. Nixon named Gerald Ford as
the new Vice President as following the 25th Amendment. Nixon secretly taped his White House conversations.
Some believed that those tapes would show his role in covering up the break-in. June 1973 was when former White
House counsel John Dean would tell investigators that Nixon authorized a cover-up. Nixon refused to release the
tapes citing executive privilege. This was in July 1973. By October of 1973, Nixon wanted to reveal summaries of
the recordings.

Justice Department special prosecutor Archibald Cox refused to do this, so Nixon fired him. He fired other people
which was known as the Saturday Night Massacre. People protested that decisions and newspapers called for
Nixon to resign. Calls for impeachment grew loudly. Many people from the Nixon team were indicted by March
1974 for conspiracy in the Watergate break-in. Nixon was named as an unindicted co-conspirator. The Supreme
Court in July 1974 (via the United States v. Nixon) unanimously voted that Nixon Watergate Events
must release White House recordings as required by the new special
prosecutor. Chief Justice Warren Burger explicitly rejected Nixon’s claim of
executive privilege. The House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment. By
August of 1974, transcripts of tapes show that Nixon ordered a cover-up of the
Watergate break-in. The House Judiciary Committee approved the action to impeach
Nixon for the crimes of obstructing justice in the cover-up of the Watergate break-
in, misuse of power, refusing to comply with House subpoenas. Many Republicans
wanted Nixon to be impeached too. Richard Nixon in his
November 17, 1973 press
conference famously said
“I am not a crook” to deny
involvement in Watergate.
We know that to be a lie
The Chronology of Watergate from him.

June of 1972 was when By July of 1973, Richard July 1974 was when the
five men were arrested Nixon claimed Supreme Court ruled
for trying to bug the executive privilege to unanimously that Nixon
offices of the refuse to release the must give the entire White
Democratic National tapes of secretly House recording up. That
Committee in recorded Oval Office was requested by the new
Washington, D.C. at the conversations. special prosecutor. The
Watergate complex. House Judiciary Committee James Dean’s testimony to
recommended the Senate on June 25,
impeachment. 1973 documented the
Nixon denied On October 1973, August of 1974 was when corruption found in the
knowledge of the Nixon offered transcripts of the tapes Nixon administration. His
Watergate break in or investigators showed that Nixon ordered testimony was so powerful
any cover-up on April summaries of the the cover-up of the that it was further
1973. Archibald Cox is tapes. Special Watergate break. On validated by the
named as the Justice Prosecutor Cox refused August 9, 1974, Richard subsequent release of the
Department’s special to do. Nixon fired Cox Nixon was the first U.S.
Nixon tapes (which
prosecutor for and the Saturday Night President to resign from
documented the lies and
Watergate. The Senate Massacre happened office.
deception of Nixon).
Watergate Committee when Nixon fired other
started nationally people plus
televised coverage. resignations happened.
Former White House March 1974 was when
counsel John Dean (on former Nixon officials
June of 1973) told were indicted on
investigators under charges of conspiracy in Richard Nixon resigned on
oath that Nixon the Watergate break-in. the date of August 9, 1974.
authorized a cover-up. Richard Nixon is named Nixon saw the handwriting
as an “unindicted co- on the wall and left the
conspirator.” office of the Presidency.
Gerald Ford pardoned him,
and he lived his life until
his passing in 1994.
By August 9, 1974, Richard Nixon became the first U.S. President to resign since he faced impeachment. Nixon’s
crimes weren’t just about Watergate. It was about him using dirty tricks to secure his election, forming an enemies
list in allowing the federal government to harass his opponents, and using wiretaps against reporters plus others
who disagreed with his administration. Watergate shocked the confidence of the American people in governmental
institutions. It showed the world that no President is above the law. Trust in government went down. Nixon never
saw prison. 25 Nixon administration officials would go prison including Ehrlichman, Haldeman, and Mitchell. Nixon
who lectured others on "law and order" was one of the most lawless and corrupt Presidents of American history.
The aftermath of Watergate made Congress pass many laws to promote government transparency and ethics like
the Federal Election Campaign Act Amendments in 1974, the Freedom of Information Act in 1974, the Government
in Sunshine Act of 1976, and the Ethics in Government Act in 1978. Watergate showed that we need checks and
balances in any government. The nation weathered and survived the political storms, and later Gerald Ford would
be President. Gerald Ford’s time as President was brief but critical in American history.

By Timothy

Gloria Richardson
To this day, she has worked
with many organizations like
the Harlem Youth
Opportunities Unlimited,
Associated Community
Teams, and the New York
City Department for the
Aging. She has spoken out
She has total bravery. against sexism and for the
freedom of black people
She graduated from Howard including all oppressed
University and used civil people of the world. She was
disobedience in Washington, a friend of Malcolm X and
D.C. She was a woman who was a crucial person of the
was on a mission to end Jim black freedom struggle.
At the age of 96 years old, Crow apartheid. She was the Joseph R. Fitzgerald’s “The
she is still going strong to leader of CNAC or the
advocate for freedom. She
Struggle is Eternal: Gloria
Cambridge Nonviolent Action Richardson and Black
was born in Baltimore, Committee. Gloria
Maryland and Gloria
Liberation” is one book that
Richardson advocated not details her life in great detail.
Richardson was heroic for only protests, but wanting
being a leader of the economic equality and
Cambridge, Maryland civil
advancing armed self-defense.
rights movement.
She later married Frank
Dandridge or an African
American photographer. She
lived in New York City.
In the near future, I will present a series on the history and culture of Virginia. After 35 years of living on this
Earth, I have a better understanding of the state of my birth which is Virginia. Its great tragedies and its great
triumphs will be described in this series. I will show facts about history, culture, famous Virginians, and my
own experiences living in Virginia too. I love my state of Virginia and I love it enough to criticize evil people
in Virginia too (along with praising Virginians who stood up for justice, excellence, and liberty). Now, it is the
perfect time to present to the world insights about my home state.

Virginia’s Story

Part 1 Early Virginia

Part 2 The Antebellum Period and the Civil War

Part 3 Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, and the

Progressive Age
Part 4 The Era of the Two World Wars
Part 5 The Civil Rights Era
Part 6 Modern Virginia
Part 7 The Culture of Virginia

Occurrences of Virginia
Prior to 1954 • Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia
• Journey of Reconciliation

1954-1964 • Integration of the University of Virginia school of Law

and Virginia Tech in 1950 and 1953 respectively.
• The Norfolk 17
• Massive Resistance
Notable Events • The 24th Amendment
1964-present • Green v. Kent
• Loving v. Virginia
• Arthur Ashe Jr. won Wimbledon
• L. Douglas Wilder was the first elected governor in
America since Reconstruction
• The Charlottesville incident
Activists *L. Douglas Wilder *Arthur R. Ashe Jr. * Evelyn Butts *Oliver W. Hill
*Maggie L. Walker *Norfolk 17 *The Richmond 34 *Ella Baker
*Percy Casino Corbinf *Edna Meade Colson *Florence Farley
Legendary Athletes of the 1960’s

Johnny Unitas Bill Russell (1934- Wilma Rudolph (1940- Willie Mays (1931- Muhammad Ali
(1933-2011) was present) made history as 1994) was a great present) was a (1942-2016) was
one of the greatest the first African American sprinter from Saint great MLB player. the greatest
quarterbacks in NBA coach. He could play Bethlehem, Tennessee. He broke down heavyweight fighter
history. He could offense and defense while She was a track and field barriers and is a of all time. He had
pass the ball and playing basketball in the icon. Her nicknames great role model. the speed of a
organize the NBA. He won the NBA include the Flash, the He played for the middleweight and a
offense greatly. For Championship 11 times. Track Star, etc. She was Giants and the great
53 years, he held He was a 5 time NBA part of the TSU New York Mets. He determination.
the record for the Most Valuable Player. He Tigerbelles track them. was elected to the Louisville, Kentucky
most consecutive is active in promoting civil Rudolph was acclaimed Baseball Hall of was the place of his
games with a rights and other human as the fastest woman in Fame in 1979. birth. He defeated
touchdown pass rights issues. Being a the world in the 1960’s Mays won two heavyweight
(set between 1956 player and coach for the and became the first National League champions in two
and 1960), until it Boston Celtics was an American woman to win (NL) Most Valuable decades. He won
was broken in 2012 experience for him. He is three gold medals in a Player (MVP) the gold medal in
by Drew Brees. one of the greatest single Olympic Games. awards. He ended the Olympics at
players in basketball She won bronze at the his career with 660 Rome. Muhammad
history. 1956 Olympics in home runs, which Ali is also known
Melbourne, Australia. In was third all-time for his work in
the 1960 Olympics at at the time of his promoting civil
Rome, she won the retirement. rights, fighting
100m, the 200m, and the Currently, Mays is a poverty, doing
4 X 100m. She was active fifth all-time home humanitarianism,
in civil rights throughout run player. Mays and opposing the
her life. won a record-tying Vietnam War.
12 Gold Glove
The legendary artist and social activist
Abbey Lincoln (1930-2010)

Abbey Lincoln here was at the This is the scene of the romantic comedy
Concertgebouw in Amsterdam on July 13, called “For Love of Ivy” which came out in
1966. She rocked her Afro greatly. 1968. She plays the love interest of Sidney
Poitier and the musical core was composed
by Quincy Jones.

She was a beautiful black woman and an excellent artist. She performed jazz
worldwide, and she was a passionate advocate for civil rights. Her stage name
was Abbey Lincoln. She was born Ann Marie Wooldridge at Chicago, but she
was raised in Calvin Center, Cass County, Michigan. Billie Holiday was one of
the many singers that inspired her. She sang on the song “We insist!” Max
Roach was a part of that song. Numerous albums were part of discography. She
was in many movies like Nothing But a Man (1964), For the Love of Ivy (1968),
and Mo’ Better Blues (1990). She lived to be 80 years old and passed away on
August 14, 2010 in Manhattan. Jazz gave her joy in her life. Abbey Lincoln
could sing, write songs, act, and was involved in the struggle for our freedom.
Her legacy will live on forevermore.
Part 2 of this era of 1964-1980 will outline Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, the rise of the
conservative movement, economic issues, the Camp David Accords, and the Election
of 1980. Don't get it twisted, since many progressive heroes fought against apartheid,
the prison industrial complex, racism, and other evils during this time period as well.

“…The greatness of a community is most

accurately measured by the
compassionate actions of its members ... a
heart of grace and a soul generated by
-Coretta Scott King in the year of
February 15, 2000 at Georgia State