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Partido State University

Laboratory Highschool
Goa, Camarines Sur
A/Y 2018-2019

Making Filter Paper Out Of A Cornhusk (Zea Mays) As A Raw


Material
In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Practical Research II

Submitted By:

Kenneth John p. Chavez


Ken Simon D. Calzada
Elaine A. Pelon
Renan A. Prado
Joan P. Arsenal

Panelist:

Dr. Ma. Wendy Solomo


Ms. Yumi De Luna
Dr. Agnes Pesimo

Submitted To:

Ms. Nerisa Paladan

2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I: Problem and its Setting

Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1-3

Objectives------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3

Hypothesis------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3

Significance of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

Scope and Delimitation of the Study----------------------------------------------------------- 4-5

Locale of the Study-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

CHAPTER II: Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6-7

Related Studies------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7-9

Synthesis of the Art----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9-10

Conceptual Framework------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10

Definitions of Terms--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10-11

CHAPTER III: Methodology

Study Area------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12

Experimental Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12-13


Experimental Procedure---------------------------------------------------------------------- 13-14

Data Gathering------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14

Statistical Analysis--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
CHAPTER I

Problems and its settings

In this chapter, the researchers discussed the introduction, the objectives, the hypotheses, the

significance, scope and delimitation, and the locale of the study.

INTRODUCTION

Corn, with the scientific name Zea Mays, is a cereal plant belonging to the Poaceae family

(grass family). It is one of the most widely distributed food crops in the world. (Britannica

Encyclopedia) Statistics of world corn production for the year 2017-2018 shows that

approximately 41, 122 (million bushels) of corn are consumed worldwide. The top producers of

corn based from USDA, FAS Grain: World Markets and Trade (2018), are the United States, China

and Brazil. There are many products that are developed from corn, so are the wastes left after its

production.

Corn stover is the wastes of corn left at the fields after harvesting corn. It includes the

stalks, leaves, tassels and husks of corn. (Pennington, 2013) Dr. Monlin Kuo enumerated some of

its uses: making animal beddings, producing potting soil, manufacturing particleboards and

fiberboards, producing biofuels, and making paper. The leaves of corn, when dried, are used in

making herbal tea, and flavoring beer. The corn husk is usually used in cooking and wrapping

food, crafting, improving home furniture, and decorations. It can also be used a material in making

paper. According to Fagbemigun, et al. (2014), corn husk has the potential of being used in paper

production.
Paper is commonly made out of cellulose fibers. Corn husk is made up of approximately

44% cellulose, with low lignin content, giving it the capability of being used as raw material in

pulp and paper making. The lower the lignin content, the lesser the chemical needed in extracting

the cellulose fibers. The fiber length of corn husk is similar to hard wood fibers, when used in

making paper, will have high mechanical strength and tearing resistance. (Fagbemigun, et al.,

2014) There are filter papers that are also made up of cellulose.

Filter papers are used in purification and separation process. These various types of filter

papers - Quantitative Filter Papers, Glass Microfiber Filters, and Cellulose Filters are some of the

types of filter papers. Cellulose filters are the most preferable type to be used for general filtration

process. It is composed of cotton liners that are treated to have an alpha cellulose content of 98%

at the very least. It comes in different degrees of purity and hardness, making it ideal for filtering

various kinds of samples. It can also be used in chemicals because of its varying chemical

resistance. (Tisch Scientific, 2016)

Aside from purification and separation processes, filter papers are important in

chromatography, quantitative analysis of samples, liquid scintination counting methods, spot tests,

and microscopic examinations. It is not only important in the fields of science, but also in the

industry. Filter papers are used when manufacturing tea bags, making air filters and coffee making.

(Tisch Scientific, 2016)

The aim of this research is to make filter papers from the wastes of corn, specifically the

husks of corn. Since the corn husk is already proven to have cellulose content, which is essential

in making filter papers. The researchers are expected to take advantage of the potential of corn

husk in making paper to produce a specialized type off paper, which is filter paper. Utilization of
this waste will lessen the amount of waste left at the fields after harvesting, and the trash thrown

by the consumers of corn after peeling the corn cob.

OBJECTIVES

This study seeks to provide utilization of corn husk and other admixture to form filter paper,

specifically.

1. To determine the physical properties of filter paper made from corn husk as laboratory

material in terms of:

 Wet Strength

 Porosity

 Particle Retention

 Volumetric Flow

2. To evaluate the cost efficiency of the proposed materials as compared to commercial

filter paper that are available in the market.

HYPOTHESES

This study premised on the following assumptions:

𝐻𝑖 - The corn husk possesses properties feasible for the fabrication of filter paper.

𝐻𝑖 - The qualities of corn husk filter paper can meet the minimum requirements for filter paper as

laboratory apparatus.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is important to the following stakeholders:

Farmers. This study will give the farmers extra source of income, especially those

who farm corn. They will be able to gain money from selling corn husk to future

manufacturers of filter paper.

Local Government Unit of Goa and other neighboring cities. Utilization of corn

husk will help the LGUs enable to maintain their environment to preserve the sources of

raw materials such as fiber crops, soft wood, hard wood, and mineral fiber that can be

commercialized in making filter paper.

Industry. The industry can offer a new variety of filter paper, which can be more

accessible to future consumers.

Future Researches. The result of the study will serve as a reference for other

researchers who will give similar insights to the study.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researchers focused the study on the development of corn husk filter paper as an

alternative to commercial filter paper using corn husk and aqueous saturants. The study is

delimited on making only a filter paper specifically, a cellulosic type of filter paper. Where various

requirements or basis are to be met.

This study will not be generalizable to all types of filter paper and won’t engage in

experimentation and production of any kind of filter paper except for cellulose based filter paper.
The study is made within the first semester of the school year 2018-2019, between the months of

July and October.

LOCALE OF THE STUDY

The researchers conducted the study at Goa, Camarines Sur. It is convenient for the

researchers to conduct the study in the said location because of the availability of materials to be

used in the research.


CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter discusses the review of related literature and studies used as references by

the researchers in conducting the study. It also includes the synthesis of the art, the conceptual

framework of the research and the definition of terms that is useful in understanding words that

are used throughout the research.

2.1 RELATED LITERATURE

Based from various books, online journals, and other related literature materials that were

gathered by the researchers, with the help of different websites that the researchers visited, and

related literatures similar to the study, this section of the chapter will be devoted to a review of

such studies as they are related to the present day.

2.1.1 Corn Husk

a. Husks of maize or corn, peeled off and discarded after harvest, constitute a

menace to the environment because they are classified as waste with no beneficial

importance.

b. Corn husk is used in many different ways in various countries example of which

is the country of Nigeria where they used disposed corn husks as their alternative raw

material for making paper. Another is the country of Mexico where they use corn husks as

food wrappers for preserving their food.


2.1.2 Filter Paper

a. Filter paper is a quantitative and semi-permeable paper used for filtering and

made of pure cellulose treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid (Chemistry

Glossary). It is used to separate fine substances from liquids. It is used in science labs to

remove solids from liquids. This can be used to remove sand from water.

b. Filter paper has various properties that influence its effectiveness. The important

parameters are wet strength, porosity, particle retention, volumetric flow rate,

compatibility, efficiency and capacity. For this reason, the credibility of filtration depends

on such factors including (a)variety of filter papers to be used for a particular material that

is to be filtered, (b)amount and properties of the medium to be filtered, (c)size of the

particulate solids to be removed and (d)choice of filtration method. (Sartorius Stedim

Biotech)

2.2 RELATED STUDIES

2.2.1 Corn Husk

a. The study conducted by T.K. Fagbemigun, O.D. Fagbemi, O. Otitoju, E.

Mgbachiuzor, and C.C. Igwe on “Pulp and Paper-making Potential of Corn Husk” on 2014

introduced the use of corn husk as an alternative for making a paper. Chemical

characterization of the sample shows it is a ligno-cellulosic material with average lignin

content, less than 20%, similar to several non-wood plants which help in reducing the

amount of chemical and energy needed for pulping. Other dimensional indices, i.e. runkel
ratio, flexibility coefficient, slenderness ratio and wall rigidity gave a good insight into the

qualities of the individual fibres present in the material. Tensile strength of paper sheet

produced from the pulp of corn husk shows that the materials could be considered as an

alternative raw material for papermaking applications. Despite the fact that this study

presented relatively poor flexibility and runkel ratios, pulp produced from corn husk can

be mixed with softwood, hardwood or recycled paper pulps to produce paper with

increased printability, tearing strength and mechanical strength. ( T.K. Fagbemigun et al.

2014).

b. C.A. Mendes et al. (2014) conducted a study on characterization of corn husk

residue where they used five corn husk samples that were collected from disposal areas of

small street markets where the samples were cleaned manually to remove foreign materials

in the corn husk and were dried by the sun for 4(four) days. Then the samples were gathered

again and hammered. The researchers then perform tensile testing and evaluate the

morphology of the corn husk. The chemical composition of corn husk comprised 34-41%

hemicellulose, 31-39% cellulose, 2-14% lignin, 3-7% ash, 10-18% extractives and water-

soluble components. According to the results, corn husk has low lignin content and similar

amounts of hemicellulose and a-cellulose to those of the other fibers considered.

c. According to the research made by P. Kampeerapappun et. al. (2015), corn husk

is an abundant, inexpensive, and readily available source of renewable lignocellulosic

biomass. The material obtained after each stage of the treatments made by the researchers

was characterized and determined according to TAPPI Standard Methods, or a process of

measuring the contents of a substance. The results of the research are as follows; cellulose

and hemicellulose (TAPPI T203 OS-74), lignin (TAPPI T222 OS-83). The results
indicated that the untreated corn husk is composed of 29.3wt% cellulose, 39.7wt%

hemicellulose, and 11.4wt% lignin. Chemical composition of water-soaked corn husk was

not significantly changed as compared to the untreated corn husk which means that tap

water does not significantly remove hemicellulose and lignin content from corn husk.

However, any remaining impurities (e.g. dirt and dust) on corn husk are removed with

water. Cellulose content can be continuously increased via chemical treatment.

2.2.2 Filter Paper

a. According to Lifshutz(1997), generally, cellulose filter papers are produced by

dispersing cellulose fibers, such as wood pulps, in water and filtering the fiber suspension

through the continuous screen or wire of a paper machine. Conventionally, the resulting

paper is dried once, then saturated with an aqueous or non-aqueous solution or

suspension of polymer or resin, and finally dried again. Alternatively, while still wet, the

freshly formed paper is saturated with the aqueous or non-aqueous solution or suspension

of polymer or resin, and then dried only once. The dried, saturated paper may be then

pleated, dimpled, or otherwise formed into a filter configuration, and possibly given a

thermal cure to develop its final properties.

2.3 SYNTHESIS OF THE ART

The various studies reviewed were similar in terms of paper pulping, and chemical

treatments needed in the study, also the use of corn husk as raw material and identifying the

chemical properties of corn husk which makes it easier for the researchers to accomplish the study.

These studies play a vital role in the research being conducted


The study of each researchers mentioned were similar in terms of using the corn husk as

raw material or as a paper, in additional, the researchers wanted to make use of the previous studies

and explore the extent of the paper corn husk such as making this as a filter paper out of the raw

material – corn husk.

2.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

THROUGHPUT
 Preparation of corn husk
 Developing the proposed material for testing for feasibility
(dependent variable)
 Testing of physical properties
1. wet strength
2. porosity
3. particle retention
INPUT 4. volumetric flow rate

(independent variable)

Corn Husk
& Resin

OUTPUT (comparison)
(dependent variable)
Commercialized
Corn Husk Filter
filter paper
Paper

2.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Cellulose – important component needed in paper making that can be found in plant fibers
Corn husk – outer covering of the ear of a corn that is used as a raw material

Filter paper - semi-permeable paper used for filtering that is the final output of the research

Lignin - complex organic polymers that gives a structural strength or support in tissues of the

corn husk

Particle retention - the ratio of the quantity of particles retained by the filter paper to the quantity

entering it

Phenolic Resin - common materials selected to modify the properties of paper used for plastic or

special products and is used to form an aqueous saturant with Polyvinyl Alcohol

Polyvinyl alcohol – makes paper more resistant to oils and greases and is employed as a

component of adhesives and emulsifiers, as a water-soluble protective film, and as a starting

material for the preparation of phenolic resin

Porosity - refers to the ratio of open space in a filter matrix to the amount of volume taken by the

filter paper

Soda Ash - this will break down the fibers in the corn husk to make paper easily out of it

Volumetric flow rate - refers to the flow of water through a filter at a defined pressure difference

between the upstream side of the filter and the downstream side.

Wet strength – the strength of the filter paper when wet


CHAPTER III

Methodology

This chapter discusses the various elements of them research design. It includes the

methods used, research instruments, statistical tool or treatments, data gathering procedures, and

quantifications of data.

STUDY AREA

The preparation of the corn husk and making of the cellulose base paper was conducted in

one of the researcher’s house, located at Taytay, Goa, Camarines Sur. This is due to the availability

of the space and materials for the time of experiment. The aqueous saturants were made in Partido

State University at the university laboratory. The applying of the aqueous saturants is done in the

same laboratory.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

The researchers made use of the experimental design where the independent variables that

affect the product or the outcome of the experiment will be gathered for observations. In such

conditions, the researchers will be able to predict the outcome by manipulating the preconditions

or inputs of the experiment. Under the experimental research design will be the quasi experimental

design where the researchers will be able to control the amount of inputs or independent variables

to be able to get the required, and at the same time the desired, outcome of the researchers. Quasi

experimental design is suitable for the research since the researchers are creating a product where

the end result will base on the expected outcome or the response of the results will depend on the

purpose of the researchers. Specifying the type of quasi experimental design, the researchers used
the matched comparison-group design where the researchers will compare the output or product

of the experiment with the commercialized product.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

I. Gathering of the needed materials

The researchers collected corn husk from a farm located at Gimaga, Goa, Camarines

Sur. The gathered corn husks were brought together and stored normal temperature was

present. The polyvinyl alcohol and the phenolic resin were requested from a laboratory where

it is available by the researchers.

II. Preparation of the Corn Husk

The researchers washed the corn husk with a little amount of dish washing detergent,

and then rinsed off with water twice. Then it was boiled in water with soda ash, while being

stirred gently. After being simmered for two hours, it was again rinsed after cooling to make

sure the soda is gone.

III. Making the Cellulose Base Paper

The researchers hammered the simmered corn husk multiple times. After hammering,

the researchers used a blender to get the pulp. Silk screens were used to extract the pulp from

the blended corn husk. Then it was pressed using weight. Lastly, the pressed pulp is left to dry

to turn into paper.

IV. Making the Aqueous Saturants

The researchers formed aqueous saturants using Polyvinyl Alcohol and Phenolic Resin
 25% Polyvinyl Alcohol (by weight) & 75% Phenolic Resin (by weight)

 60% Polyvinyl Alcohol (by weight) & 40% Phenolic Resin (by weight)

 95% Polyvinyl Alcohol (by weight) & 5% Phenolic Resin (by weight)

V. Production of Filter Paper

The researchers applied the saturants to the cellulose base paper in sufficient quantity. After

that, the researchers left the paper with the saturants to dry.

DATA GATHERING

The results or data collected throughout the experiment were first based on the researchers'

observations. The moisture, texture and color produced in the experiment were documented and

stated on the results and discussions of the research. On the experimental side of the collection of

data, the evaluations were made after the treatment of the corn husks. Content analysis is also used

in collection of the data where the researchers also based the results from other related studies

mentioned in the review of related literatures to support the study.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The researchers used the one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to assess the
significance of one or more factors by comparing the response variable means at different factor
levels.