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D Goenka Public School, Sec 22, Rohini

Class IX
Chapter 1- Economics
Story of village Palampur

Overview: The story gives the idea of production and employment in the villages of
India. Palampur is a hypothetical village. Farming is the main activity. Besides dairy
farming, shop keeping, small scale manufacturing etc.. are other activities. Palampur is
connected with Raiganj a big village (3 kms away) and Shahpur a small town.

Transportation in Palampur:
Many kinds of vehicles like tongas, bullock carts, bogeys (carts drawn by buffalos )
loaded with jaggery, jeeps motor vehicles, tractors and trucks are also seen in the

Families in Palampur
There are around 450 families lived in palampur, 80 upper caste families who own land
in the village. The dalits (SCs) comprise one third of the village who live in much smaller
houses made of mud and straw.

The village had the facilities of electricity, tube wells, 2 primary schools, one high
school, a primary health centre run by the government and one private dispensary.

Factors of Production
Resources that are needed in the production process
4 types:
There are four requirements of production:
1. Land: contains natural resources, water, forests and minerals.
2. Labour: People do the work and manufacture goods and services. Labourers may be
skilled, unskilled, educated and uneducated depending upon the production work and
3. Physical capital: these are inputs needed at every stage of production. It is of two
types: fixed capital and working capital.

a. fixed capital: Tools, machines, buildings etc.. These are used up completely in the
production process.

b. working capital: Raw materials and money in hand . This capital is used for many
4. Human capital: The fourth important requirement is human capital. Without human
Capital production cannot be done as it brings together the other factors of production.
 Includes free gifts of nature
 Includes land surface and anything that grows on it or can be taken from it.
 Example- soil, minerals, water
 Basic constraint for land is that it is fixed. With increase in population, more is to
be grown form same piece of land.

Ways to increase production from same land:

1. Crop Rotation- is a practice of growing crops on rotation on the same piece of
2. Multiple Cropping- is a practice of growing two of more crops together on same
piece of land
3. Use of Modern Farming Methods- it includes
 using HYV seeds to increase the production
 using fertilizers to maintain soil fertility
 Using machines to make work easy and fast
 Use of irrigation facilities to reduce the dependence on monsoons.


It refers to an increase in the production of wheat and rice using HYV seeds, chemical
fertilizers, pesticides etc.

There was a manifold increase in the production of rice and wheat from same piece of
India has become self sufficient in foodgrains and has started exporting also

Continuous use of ground water for irrigation has reduced the water table.
Loss of soil fertility due to increased use of fertilizers

1. It includes the people who work.
2. Sources of labour:
 For small farmer- Farmer himself along with his family members provide labour
on the land
 For Large farmer- landless and small farmers are hired to work on large farmer’s

3. Farm Labourer- These are the landless families or small farmers who work on
4. Conditions of Farm Labourers:
 No right over crops grown on land.
 Paid wages in cash or kind
 Receive less wages because of heavy competition.
 Take loans from money lenders.

1. Capital means the inputs needed at every stage of production.
2. Two types- Fixed capital, working capital

3. Working capital needed in farming- seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, manure etc

Fixed capital used in farming- tractors, machines , tools etc.

How is the capital arranged

By small farmer-
 Borrowing from moneylenders or large farmers
 Works on large farmer’s land to get income

For Large and Medium farmers-

 Borrowings from bank
 Sale of the surplus in market to earn money
 Using past savings

Non Farm Activities

1. These are the activities other than farming.
2. Example- Dairy Farming, transportation, small scale manufacturing etc
3. Importance-
 They are needed in the village to earn livelihood
 Since land in fixed, so everyone cannot work as a farmer

Ways to start or increase non farm activities

1. Open training centre to train in activites like candle making, basket making etc
2. Giving loans at low rate of interest to people to start a non farm activity
3. Constructing all weather roads to improve transportation
4. Developing markets nearby for setting up of shops
Q1. What is the aim of production?
Aim of production is to produce goods and services.

Q2. What are the four requirements of production?

There are four requirements of production:
1. Land: contains natural resources, water, forests and minerals.
2. Labour: People do the work and manufacture goods and services. Labourers may be
skilled, unskilled, educated and uneducated depending upon the production work and
3. Physical capital: these are inputs needed at every stage of production. It is of two
types: fixed capital and working capital.

a. fixed capital: Tools, machines, buildings etc.. These are used up completely in the
production process.

b. working capital: Raw materials and money in hand . This capital is used for many
4. Human capital: The fourth important requirement is human capital. Without human
Capital production cannot be done as it brings together the other factors of production.

Q3. How is land fixed in the village Palampur?

75 % of people depend on farming. Land area in the village under cultivation is fixed.
Since 1960 there has been no expansion in land area under cultivation. No further
scope to increase farm production.

Q4. What is standard unit of measuring land in hectare?

Bigha, guintha etc.. are the local standard units of measuring land in hectares in the
villages of India.

Q5. What are the different crops grown in the Indian villages during different
a) Kharif crops like jowar, Bajra are grown in rainy seasons. These plants are grown
as cattle feed.
b) It is followed by cultivation of potato between October and December.
c) In the winter season, rabi crops like wheat, sugar cane are grown.

Q6. How are the villagers able to grow more than one crop in palampur?
Ways to increase production from same land:
1.Crop Rotation- is a practice of growing crops on rotation on the same piece of
2.Multiple Cropping- is a practice of growing two of more crops together on same
piece of land
3.Use of Modern Farming Methods- it includes
 using HYV seeds to increase the production
 using fertilizers to maintain soil fertility
 Using machines to make work easy and fast
 Use of irrigation facilities to reduce the dependence on monsoons.

Q7. What do you mean by multi cropping and dual cropping?

Multicropping: To grow more than one crop in the same field is known as multiple
cropping. This system gives high yield.
Dual cropping: To grow two crops in the same piece of land.

Q8. What is Green revolution?

Excessive production in agriculture due to use modern scientific methods is called
green revolution.

Q9. What is HYV ?

In late 1960s HYVs were introduced, which were a great boon to agriculture. These are
High Yielding Varieties of seeds which guarantees greater qualitative and quantitative
production. HYV seeds need plenty of water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides
to produce best results.

Q10. Which states of India were the first to use modern methods of agriculture?
Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first states to use modern
methods of agriculture and made use of HYV seeds, pesticides, chemical fertilizers etc..

Q11. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming
Multiple cropping: In this method more than one crop is grown on a single piece of
land. For example: Wheat – bajra – potato.
Modern farming methods: In this method modern HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers,
modern tools and machineries are used. This provides high yields.

Q12. How modern methods have over used the natural resources and violated
the resources?

 Green revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility.

 Continuous use of ground water for tube well irrigation has reduced the water –
table below the ground.
 Chemical fertilizers may destroy the bacteria and other micro organisms in the
 The consumption of chemical fertilizers in Punjab is highest in the country.

Q13. How is land distributed between the farmers of Palampur and Indian
 Land is unevenly distributed among the farmers of the villages.
 Some farmers have large lands while some have very small and others have no
land at all
 The land is getting divided hereditarily into smaller and smaller area. These
divisions may result in poor and unsatisfactory production leading to poor
economic status to the country.

Q14. Who will provide work to landless farmers?

Landless farmers work in the field of rich farmers for wages. They are paid salary than
what is fixed by the government.

Q15. What is the problem of Dala and Ramkali?

 Dala and Ramkali are landless labourers.
 They work in the fields of others but now a days they don’t get work because
many rich farmers use modern tractors, machines etc.. and employ very less
human labourers
 To run their livelihood Dala and Ramkali get loans. This further keep them in debt
for ever.
 Landless farmers get jobs for a short duration and rest of the time they are
engaged in some other odd jobs.
 They get very less salaries for their work.

Q16. Why do small and landless farmers need capital? Explain with examples.
 They need capital to purchase seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.
 Small farmers have to borrow money from large farmers of the village or money
lenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation.
 Farmers need capital as they don’t have surplus of their own.

Q17 What is surplus? What do the farmers do with the surplus?

Surplus are the excessive amount of production produced by the farmers. It is
what is left with them after self consumption.
The farmers use the surplus as capital for the next year. This can be used to
purchase machines, lend money or save in the bank.

Q18. Write short note on

a. Dairy farming b. small scale manufacturing c. shopkeeping d. transport
a. Dairy farming : Dairy farming is a common activity in Palampur . People feed their
buffalos on various kinds of grass and the jowar and bajra that grows during rainy
Milk is sold in Raiganj. Traders of Shahpur have set up collectrion cum chilling centres
at Raiganj

b. small scale manufacturing: Very simple production is done in the village. People
produce baskets, gur etc.. in small scale. Mishrilal of Palampur produce Jaggery and
sell in Shahpur. He makes a small profit. He owns a crushing machine as capital.

c. shopkeeping: Some villagers sell rice, wheat, sugar, tea, oil, biscuits, soap,
toothpaste, batteries, candles etc.. People whose houses are close to the bus stand use
a part of the space to open small shops. Some sell eatables like pakoras, samosas etc..
In Palampur Kareem had opened a computer centre. Students from shahpur town had
joined it. He had appointed two women of his village to work in his centre. In this way he
is self employed and have given employment to others.

d. transport: Transport is another major activity of villages. Rickshwas, Tongas, jeeps,

tractors, trucks are some of the vehicles found here. Some people are engaged in this
line too. Kishora of Palampur village own a buffalo. The buffalo gives milk and also
draws cart for him. Every he goes to ganga river to fetch clay for the potters of the
village. Kishora is engaged in multi economic activity.

Ch. 1: India size and location

Location of India

• Lies in the north eastern hemisphere inSouthern Asia, bordered by the Arabian
Sea in west and the Bay of Bengal in the east.
• India is the seventh largest country of the world. The Indian main land extends
between latitudes 8°4‘N to 37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E to 97°25'E.
• The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland is about 30°.
• The tropic of cancer (23° 30'N) divides the country into almost two equal parts.
• To the southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie the Andaman and Nicobar
islands and the Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea
• The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million sq. km. India’s total area
accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total area of the world.
• India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and the total length of the coast
line of the mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is
7,516.6 km.
• The southernmost point of the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under
the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
• Though the north south and east west extend of India in degrees is nearly 30 0,
but in terms of kilometers North south(3214 km) extend is more than east
west(2933 km) as latitudes being parallel lines have same land area between
them whereas area between two longitudes decreases towards poles.
India extend and standard meridian

• East-west extent of India is around 300. This brings difference in natural time in
extreme parts of the country. Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh there is a time lag of
two hours.
• This can create many practical problems in communication and transport,
therefore to avoid confusion one standard time was selected.
• Hence, time along the standard meridian of India (82°30'E) passing through
Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for the whole country.

• The Indian landmass has a central location between the east and the west Asia.
• The trans Indian ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the west
and the countries of east Asia provide a strategic central location to India.
• India’s contacts with the World have continued through the ages but her
relationships through the land routes are much older than her maritime contacts.
• The various passes across the mountains in the north have provided passages to
the ancient travelers.
• These routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since
ancient times.
• The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different


• India occupies an important strategic position in South Asia. India has 29 states
and 7 Union Territories.
• India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest,
China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in
the east.
• Our southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries,
namely Sri Lanka and Maldives.
• Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk
Strait and the Gulf of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated to the south of
the Lakshadweep Islands.
The French Revolution

Class IX- History

French Society during late 18th Century (Before 1789)


Causes of the French Revolution:

(A) Increase in the burden of taxes:

1) King Louis XVI (belonged to Bourbon Family) , on ascending the throne,
found the treasure empty.

Reasons for empty treasury:

 Luxurious lifestyle of royalty made the costs very high

 France had helped the America to get freedom from Britain. This led to a lot of
expenditure. France was in huge debt and burden of interest payments.

The king increased the taxes to meet the regular expenses of maintaining the
army, court, running government etc.

( B) Division of society into three estates

First estate- Clergy (people who were given special

position in the church)

Second Estate- Nobility (included king and people of

his court)

Third Estate- included merchants, lawyers, peasants,

landless labour, servants

1st and 2nd estate:

About 60% of land was owned by them

They enjoyed some privileges by birth, like:

(i) Exempted from paying taxes to state
(ii) Had feudal privileges: this included feudal dues which they took from
peasants. They were feudal lords who were provided service by the peasants.

3rd estate:

They alone bore the burden of taxes.

They paid:

 Taille- the direct tax paid to the state.

 Tithe- tax paid by the peasants to the Church.
 Indirect taxes- paid on purchase of everyday articles of consumption.

© Subsistence Crisis:

Meaning: an extreme situation where the basic menas of livelihood are endangered.

There was an increase in prices of food which made it unaffordable for many


 Increase in population was more than increase in production, this led to shortage
of food and increase in price.
 Famines and drought led to damage of crops, this created shortage of food and
increase in food price
 Wages were not increased to match the increase in the price. This led to wide
gap between rich and poor.

(D) Growth of Middle Class

 Middle class were the merchants, businessmen of the third estate who earned
money through trade and manufacturing of goods. Middle class also included
lawyers and administrative officials.
 They were educated and did not believe in divine rights of 1 st and 2nd estate.
 They wanted society based on merit.
 They wanted society based on freedom and equality in opportunities for all. (an
idea put forward by philosophers like Rousseau and John Locke)
 They discussed these ideas in salons, coffee shops, newspaper. They were read
aloud for those who dint know how to read and write.
(Pg 4 to 7) Questions you should be able to answer by now:

1. Which dynasty did Louis XVI belong to? Why did he increase the taxes in France
on accessing the throne

2. ‘The burden of financial activities of the state through taxes was borne by the
third estate alone’ Explain.

3. One of the artists during French revolution, in his painting, showed the noblemen
as a spider and the peasants as the fly. Can you explain why?

4. What kind of society did the educated middle class believe in?

5. How did the work of philosophers like Rousseau, John Locke and Montesquieu
influence the middle class in the old regime?


Explain the ideas proposed by various thinkers and philosophers which encouraged the
people to protest against the monarch in France.

6. Briefly explain the causes that led to the French Revolution.


Events that led to the outbreak of the revolution:

1. 5th May 1789- King called a meeting of the Estate General (a political body
consisting of the representatives of all the estates) for passing proposal of
new taxes.
2. Third estate was represented by educated people who had to stand at the
back. Peasants, artisans and women of 3rd estate were not given entry to hall.
3. The representatives of thirst estate demanded- one man one vote
instead of one estate one vote.
4. King rejected this proposal. The 3rd estate walked out in protest.
5. 20th June. 1789- Members of 3rd estate assembled in the tennis court of
Versailles and decided to draft a constitution. These members formed
National Assembly.
6. Tennis Court oath was led by Mirabeau and Abbe Seiyes.
7. Meanwhile, the French women got angry. There was a bad harvest and it
increased the price of the bread. Also the grains were hoarded. So they
protested against high price of bread and hoarding of food.
8. Kings ordered troops to move into Paris.
9. 14th July, 1789- the people Attacked Bastille to loot the ammunitions and
hoarded grains. Bastille was a symbol of despotic (dictatorial) power of King.
10. Conditions on countryside: rumours spread in the outskirts that the army is
being sent to destroy crops. So, Peasants attacked Chauteaux (Residence of
King or noblemen). They looted foodgrains which were hoarded.
11. The King finally recognised the National Assembly and accepted that his
powers will be checked by constitution.
12. With this, France became a Constituional Monarchy

Result of King recognising the National Assembly

14th August 1789: After the king recognised the assembly, they passed a decree
(verdict) according to which:
1. Feudal system was abolished
2. Clergy was force to give up their privileges.
3. Tithe was abolished
4. Land owned by the Church was confiscated.

(Pg 8-9) By now you should be able to answer the following:

1. What was Estates General?

2. The meeting of Estates General called by Louis XVI on 5 th may 1789 showed the
social inequality in his court. How?

3. What were the demands put forward by the third estates in the Palace of
Versailles? What was the king’s reaction to it?

4. What was the system of voting in the Estates General? What change did the
Third Estate want in this system?

5. Mirabeau and Abbe Seyes played an important role during and after the tennis
court meeting. Explain.

It can rightly be said that the third estate had some support of first and second estate in
framing of the constitution of France. In this light, explain the role of Mirabeau and
Abbes Sieyes.

6. Highlight the countryside conditions in France after the attack on Bastille.

7. Describe the incidents that led to the storming of the Bastille

8. What changes were brought in the old regime after passing of the decree on 4
August 1789 by the National assembly?

France becomes a Constitutional Monarchy

The National assembly completed the draft of constitution in 1791.

Features listed in the constitution of 1791

a) France would be a constitutional Monarchy, that is, powers of the King will be
limited by the constitution.
b) Powers will be divided between Legislature, executive and Judiciary
 Judiciary- consisting of Judges elected by the active citizens who were given the
right to vote.
 Executive- included King and ministers who would be controlled by legislature
 Legislature- consisting of National Assembly who were indirectly elected by
active citizens. It had power to make laws.

Active Citizens- only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes and were
given right to vote.
Passive citizens- remaining men and all women and children
c) Only men of richer section of Society who could pay taxes had the right to vote
d) No voting rights were given to women.

e) Constitution began with Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. It said
that Rights like Right to life, Freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality
before law belong to each human being and could not be taken away.

Pg 10- 11 Questions you be able to answer:

1. Explain how the new political system worked in France according to the
constitution of 1791.
2. Who were active and passive citizens?
3. What were the ‘natural inalienable rights’ of man according to the Declaration
of the Rights of man and Citizen?
4. The majority of men and women in 18th century n France could not read and
write. So images were used frequently instead of printed words. Many
symbols have been used to communicate the content of Declaration of
Rights. Explain the meaning of each symble used: (see pg 13- NCERT for
The Broken Chain, The Bundle of rods, Eye within a triangle radiating light,
Sceptre, Snake biting its tail to form a ring, Phrygian Cap, The winged
women, the Law tablet.


Events after the Formation of Constitution of 1791

1) Other countries with Monarchy were threatened by the happenings in France and
made plans to send troops to put down the events
2) National Assembly in 1792, declared war against Prussia and Austria.
3) Political Clubs were formed by people to discuss the policies and plans of
government. People were now questioning right to vote not being given to the
4) Popular Jacobin Club was formed-
 leader : Maxmillan Robespierre
 Members : belonged to less prosperous sections of society like shoemakers,
servants , shopkeepers, daily wage workers etc. Members were called Sans-
 The club members were simple, wore long striped trousers and not the
fashionable knee breeches like the nobles. Wore red cap. Women were not
allowed to do so.
5) August10, 1792- Jacobins planned a rebellion and attacked the Palace of the
Tuileries and imprisoned the king and his family.
6) Elections were held. All men 21 yrs and above could vote regardless of their
7) New assembly was elected called Convention
8) 21st Sep 1792, Monarchy was abolished and France was declared Republic,
that is, their would be no rule of a hereditary king. People would elect their head.
Robespierre was chosen as head.
9) 21 Jan 1793- Louis XVI was sentenced to death

Features of Jacobin Government- led by Robespierre

Reign of terror – Period between 1793-1794)

1) The government was very strict. Policy of severe control and punishment was
2) He believed in governance with terror. Those who opposed republic and did not
agree with his methods were arrested, imprisoned and guillotined (beheaded)
3) Slavery was abolished by him.
4) Churches were shut and converted into Barracks and offices.
5) The policies by his government that promoted equality:
 Wages and prices of goods were fixed.
 Meat and bread were made less expensive.
 Everyone was to eat inexpensive bread (equality bread). Use of expensive flour
to make bread was banned
 All French people were addressed as ‘citizens’ instead of Sir and Madame to
ensure equality to all.

Robespierre supporters could not take the strictness and wanted a government in

Robespierre was arrested in 1794 and guillotined

What after Robespierre-?

After Robespierre, a Directory ruled France

Jacobian Government fell.

Wealthy middle class forcibly took power.

New Constituition was made, in which,

 Voting rights were not given to non propertied section

 Two legislative council was elected
 A directory (executive of 5 members) was appointed

Role of The Directory - wanted to avoid concentration of power in one man’s hand

Directory and Legislative Council always clashed

It led to Political instability

This led to the Rise of Dictator Nepoleon Bonaparte.

(pg 14-17) Questions you should be able to answer by now:

1. Why were Political Clubs formed in France?

2. What do you know about the Jacobin Club and its members?

3. Why did the Jacobins plan an insurrection (rebellion) of large number of


4. What change did the Convention of 1792 bring in France? Who was chosen as
its leader?

5. Period from 1793 to 1794 is termed as Reign of Terror under Robespierre. Why?

6. How does Robespierre government ensure equality in the society?

Role of Women in French Revolution

Condition of Women in French Society:

 The 3rd estate women had to work to earn for living.

 No access to education and no job training was given.
 Only daughters of nobles and wealthier members could study at convent.
 Marriage was rranged for the girls of rich classes immediately after their
 Women were paid lower salary than men.
 They were not given voting rights. Considered as passive citizens

What women did for themselves?

 Women started Political Clubs.

 They thought that if they will participate in the revolt, then their condition can
 They demanded the right to vote and right to be elected in the Assembly.

Work done for women by

 Schooling was made compulsory for all girls.

 Were not forced to marry against their will.
 Divorce was made legal. Both women and men could apply for it.
 They received Job training and could take up small business
 However, the National assemble considered them as passive citizens and dint
give them right to vote

Under Jacobin Government

 No right to Vote was given to women.

 Women clubs were closed down.
 Their political activities were banned.
 Women who were active and questioned the rule of Jacobinwere arrested
 No equal wages were given

Pg 18-20 Questions you should be able to answer by now:

1. How did the revolutionary government (National assembly) improve the condition
of women in French society.

2. Highlight the women struggle for Political equality and equal wages during the
French Revolution. When did the women in France finally get the right to vote?

3. Who was Olympe De Gouges? What role did she play in the French Revolution?

4. Olympes De Gouge drafted a Declaration in 1791 which questioned the

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen which was given by the National
assembly. Compare the two Declarations and tell what has Gouge tried to
achieve? (refer to NCERT pg 20 for Declaration by Gouge and pg 11 for
eclaration by the National assembly)

Abolition of Slavery

Why slavery existed?

 There was a Shortage of Labour in French colonies in Caribbean which grew
tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee.
 Demand for labour was met by triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and
 French Merchants bought slaves from Africa and then sold them to plantation
owners in caribbean.

Important ports for slave trade- Bordeux and Nantes (on coast of France)

Work done for abolishing Slavery by govt in France

 The National Assembly did not abolish Slavery as they feared opposition from
businessmen whose income were dependent on slave trade.
 In 1794, Jacobin govt (Convention) abolished slavery.
 Napoleon reintroduced it later.
 Slavery was finally abolished from French colonies in 1848.

The Revolution and Everyday Life

Many changes were brought after July 1789- Attack on Bastille

The National assembly wanted to bring revolution (change) in the everyday life of

 Censorship was abolished: In Old Regime (before 1789) , all the written
material in Farnce was to be passed by the censors of the king. It was no longer
 Freedom of Speech was given- people could express views.
 Newspapers, pamphlets, books, poems became important to spread ideas of
 Freedom of Press was given: views could also be given to oppose any event
 Women talked about right to vote and wanted political equality.


 1804- Crowned himself as an emperor of France

 He was seen as a Modernizer and a Liberator
Modernizer: He made laws for protection of private property. He
introduced uniform system of weights and measures.
Liberator: people though he would bring them freedom from orthodox
thinking and introduce revolutionary ideas.

 Later his armies were seen invading other parts of Europe to

conquesr them. He was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815

Legacy (Inheritance) of French Revolution

 The French revolution has given a lot to the French society.

 The ideas of Liberty and democratic rights are the most important
 These ideals spread to other parts of Europe in which Feudal
system was got abolished.
 Tipu Sultam and Raja Ram Mohan Roy in India also took inspiration
from these ideas.

Pg 21 to 23: Questions that you should be able to answer by now

1. Which were the ports of France that owed economic prosperity due to slave

2. Name the countries involved in slave trade.

3. Why was the slave trade started?

4. ‘The years following 1789 in France saw many changes in the lives of men,
women and children’ Explain .


What changed did the revolution bring in the everyday lives of people of France?

5. Why was Nepoleon Bonaparte seen as Modernizer and Liberator by French


6. Describe the impact of the abolition of censorship in France.

7. Which two ideas has been the legacy of French Revolution?

Q.1. what was the subsistence crisis? Why did it occur in France during the Old


1- The population of France was on the rise. This led to increase in the demand for food

2-The production of food grains could not match with the demand. The price of bread
rose rapidly.

3- The wages did not increase with the rise in prices. The gap between the Rich and the
poor widened. This led to the subsistence crisis.

Q.2.What was the system of voting in the Estates General? What change did the
Third Estate want in this system?


Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted

1. According to the principle that each estate had one vote.

2. Members of the Third Estate demanded that voting must now be conducted by the
assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.

3. This was according to the democratic principles put forward by philosophers like
Rousseau in his book, The Social Contract.

Q.3. Describe the incidents that led to the storming of the Bastille.


1- National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution; the rest of France
was very angry with the chaos and disorder.

2- A severe winter led to bad harvest and the price of bread rose. Bakers exploited the
situation and hoarded supplies.

3- After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed
into the shops.

4- At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris. On 14 July, the angry
crowd stormed and destroyed Bastille.

Q.4. Describe how the new political system of constitutional monarchy worked in


The constitution of 1791 gave the power to make laws to the National Assembly. This
assembly was indirectly elected. That is,

1. Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the Assembly. Not all
citizens, had the right to vote.

2. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a
labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to

3. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens.

4. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong
to the highest bracket of taxpayers.

Q.5.What was ‘natural and inalienable rights’?


1-.The constitution of 1791 began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens

2- Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality
before law were established as ‘natural and inalienable rights’, i.e., they belonged
to each human being by birth and could not be taken away

3-It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural right.

Q.1. Explain the importance of the following events on the course of theFrench

(a) Storming of the Bastille (c) The passing of the Civil Constitution of the clergy

Ans. (a) On July 14, 1789, a mob of Paris stormed the fortress – the prison of Bastille –
as they considered it a symbol of oppression and cruelty. The Swiss guards were killed
and prisoners set free. The mob stole arms and ammunition. To this day, France
celebrates ‘Bastille Day’ on 14thJuly every year.

(c) In 1790, the Civil Constitution nationalised the church. The clergy or group of
persons who enjoyed special powers in the church were also forced to give up their
power. Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the church were taken away.

Q.2. Describe the Reign of Terror and role played by Robespierre in it.

Ans.The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror.

1. Maximilian Robespierre, leader of the Jacobins, followed the policy of severe control
and punishment.

2. All those he saw as enemies of the Republic — ex-nobles, clergy, political opponents
— were arrested, tried and guillotined if found guilty.

3. He issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices.

4. Meat and bread were rationed.

5. Use of expensive white flour was forbidden.

Robespierre followed his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to
demand moderation. Finally, he was convicted, arrested and guillotined in July 1794.

Q.3What did the following symbols convey in the Declaration of Rights?

(i) The broken chain (ii) The bundle of rods or fasces (iii)Sceptre (iv)Snake biting
its tail to form a ring (v) Red Phrygian cap (vi)The law tablet

Ans. (i) the broken chains: Chains were used to fetter slaves. A broken chain stands
for the act of becoming free.

(ii) The bundle of rods or fasces: One rod can be easily broken, but not an entire
bundle.Strength lies in unity.

(iii) Sceptre: Symbol of royal power.

(iv)Snake biting its tail to form a ring: Symbol of eternity. A ring has neither beginning
nor end.

(v) Red Phrygian cap: Cap worn by a slave upon becoming free.

(vi)The law tablet: The law is the same for all, and all are equal before it.

Q.4.write short note on Jacobins?

Ans.1- They got their name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris.

2-They belonged to the less prosperous sections of the society.

3-They included small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-
makers, printers, as well as servants and daily wage earners.

4-Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre.

5-A large group among the Jacobin decided to wear long striped trousers similar to
those worn by dock workers.

6-This was to set themselves apart from the fashionable sections of society especially
the nobles who wore knee breeches.

Q.5. Discuss the participation of women in political clubs, their activities and

Ans.From the very beginning, women were active participants in the events which
brought about so many important changes in French society.
1. They hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary government to
introduce measures to improve their lives.

2. Most women of the third estate had to work for a living. They worked as
seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market, or were
employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people.

3. Most women did not have access to education or job training. Their wages were
lower than those of men.

4. One of their main demands was that women should be given the same political rights
as men.

5. Women were disappointed that the constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive

Q6. Discuss the effects of the abolition of censorship in France

Hint: Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech ad

expression. Now opposing views of events could be expressed through newspapers
and pamphlets and other means.

Q7. How did the philosophers influence the people of France during the revolution?

(hint: Write about The philosophers- Rousseau, Montesseque, John Locke: their ideas
in their respective books)

Some Board Questions:

1. Describe the events that led to the insurrection of 1792 in France?

2. How did the laws introduced by the revolutionary government help to improve the
lives of women?

3. Analyse the impact of French Revolution over Europe and other parts of the

4. Ideas of Liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of French
Revolution. Explain.

5. Explain the socio economic causes of the French Revolution.

6. History-SA-I Chapter: The French Revolution Outline map of France (For locating and labeling
/Identification) Refer to Map on NCERT pg 9

• Bordeaux

• Nantes

• La Forte

• Paris

• Marseilles

• Alsace

• Normandy



Chile in South America is a country where democratic government was overthrown by
the military coup. And later military dictatorship was again replaced by democratic

Policy decisions taken by Allende to help the poor and the workers.

1. Salvador Allende reformed the educational system.

2. He provided free milk for school children.
3. He redistributed land to the landless farmers.
4. He also opposed foreign companies which are taking away natural resources like
copper from the country.
5. So the landlords, other political parties, the rich and the Church opposed
his policies.

How was Allende`s government overthrown? OR How did Pinochet become the
president of Chile?

1. On 11 September 1973, military coup (rebellion) happened. The military headed by

General Augusto Pinochet took over the Seaport and the Defense Minister was arrested
by the military.
2. The military commanders asked the President to resign. Allende refused to resign or
leave the country.
3. Then the military surrounded the President’s house and started bombing it. President
Allende died in the military attack.
4. A government elected by people was overthrown by the military through conspiracy
and violence.
5. General Augusto Pinochet, an Army general, became the president and ruled it for
the next 17 years.

Differences between Allende`s rule and Pinochet`s rule

No Allende` rule Pinochet`s rule

1 He had taken many policy decisions Pinochet’s government tortured and
to help the poor and the workers killed several thousand people
2 Allende came to power through Pinochet came to power through
election. conspiracy and coup (rebellion).
3 He did not permit foreign companies He allowed USA to take away the
to take away the resources from resources because it helped him in
Chile military coup.
How was democracy restored in Chile? OR How was Pinochet`s government

1. Pinochet’s military dictatorship came to an end after he decided to hold

a referendum in 1988. He felt confident that in this referendum, the people would
say ‘yes’ to his continuing in power. But the people said ‘NO’.
2. This led to Pinochet losing first his political and then his military powers.
3. Since then Chile had four presidential elections in which different political parties
have participated. Slowly, the army’s role in the country has been eliminated.
4. The elected governments that came to power ordered inquiries into Pinochet’s
rule. These inquiries showed that his government was not only very brutal, but
also very corrupt.
5. General Alberto Bachelet’s daughter Michelle Bachelet, who was imprisoned and
tortured along with her mother that girl, was the elected President of Chile in
January 2006.

CASE OF POLAND: transition from Non Democracy to Democracy

 In 1980, Poland was ruled by the Polish United Worker’s Party, a communist
 Conditions in Poland:
 No other political party was allowed to function.
 People could not freely chose the leaders of communist party.
 Those who where against the leaders were punished.

All this led to strike by the workers who wanted to overthrow the government of Poland

What were the demands of workers of Poland who went on strike?

1. They demanded the government to take back a crane operator, a woman worker,
who was unjustly dismissed.
2. They wanted the right to form independent trade unions.
3. They wanted an increase in the salary.
4. They also demanded the release of political prisoners.
5. They wanted an end to censorship on press.
6. They wanted the Freedom to organise, protest and express opinions

How was Jaruzelski`s communist rule overthrown in Poland?

1. The workers led by Lech Walesa became so polular that government had to give
in. Walesa signed a 21-point agreement with the government that ended their
strike. The government agreed to recognize the workers’ right to form
independent trade unions and their right to strike.
2. A new trade union of workers, called Solidarity was formed. Within a year,
Solidarity became very popular in Poland and had one crore members.
3. Solidarity criticized widespread corruption and mismanagement of
Jaruzelski`s government.
4. General Jaruzelski, imposed martial law in Dec 1981 and thousands of
Solidarity members were put in prison.
5. Another wave of strikes, again organised by Solidarity, began in 1988. This
time they demanded free election and the Polish government agreed to it.
6. In April 1989 elections, Solidarity contested elections and won 99 out of 100
seats. Walesa became the elected President of Poland.

Comparison of Pinochet’s Govt (Chile) and Government of Poland

In both the governments:

1. The people could not choose or change their rulers

2. There was no real freedom to express one’s opinions or form associations.


1. Chile was ruled by Military dictator and Poland was ruled by Political Party
2. Government of Poland claimed that is ruled on behalf of working class while
Pinochet made no such claims and openly favored big capitalists.
Two Features of Democracy

1. In a democracy, only leaders elected by people should rule the country.

2. In a democracy, people have the freedom to express views, freedom to
organise and freedom to protest.

Two Features of Non-Democracy

1. In a Non-Democracy, the people could not choose or change their rulers.

2. In a Non-Democracy, there was no real freedom to express one’s opinions, form
political associations and organize protests and political action.



1. In 1900 there were less than 15 democracies in the world. They were USA,
France, England, etc.
2. In 1950 there were 30 democracies in the world. Many Asian countries achieved
independence and became democracies. They were India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
3. In 1975 there were 30 democracies in the world. Some of the democracies
became Non democracies and vice versa.
4. By 2000 there are more than150 countries following democracy. Many of the
Asian and African countries became independent and began to follow