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oformulas for Karnataka state 10th standard mathematics

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Commutative Property 1) General term of G. P.

𝑎, 𝑎𝑟, 𝑎𝑟 2 , … … … … , 𝑎𝑟 𝑛−1

1) A ∪ B = B ∪ A 2) A ∩ B = B ∩ A

2)‘𝑛’ th term of G. P.

Associative Property

: 𝑇 𝑛 = 𝑎𝑟 𝑛−1

1) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶 = (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) ∪ 𝐶

3) Sum of ‘𝑛’ terms of G. P.

2) 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶 = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) ∩ 𝐶

Distributive Property 𝑎(1−𝑟 𝑛 )

: 1) 𝑆𝑛 = 1−𝑟

𝑟<1

1) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶 = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∩ (𝐴 ∪ 𝐶) 𝑎(𝑟 𝑛 −1)

2) 𝑆𝑛 = 𝑟>1

2) 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶 = 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∪ (𝐴 ∩ 𝐶) 𝑟−1

when : 𝑟 = 0 ; 𝑆𝑛 = 𝑎 and

Demorgan's Law

when 𝑟 =1; 𝑆𝑛 = 𝑛𝑎

1) (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵)| = 𝐴| ∩ 𝐵 |

2) (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)| = 𝐴| ∪ 𝐵 | 4) Sum of infiniteterms of G. P.

Cordinality of Sets (𝑟 < 1 ) 𝑆

𝑎

1) If 𝐴 andÛ 𝐵 are disjoint sets, 𝑛 = 1−𝑟

𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵 5)

𝑆2𝑛

= 𝑟 𝑛+1

𝑆𝑛

2) If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are non-disjoint sets

Mean

𝑛 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴 + 𝑛 𝐵 − 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) 𝑎+𝑏

1) Arithmatic Mean 𝑨. 𝑴 𝐴 =

3) 𝑛 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴\𝐵 + 𝑛 𝐵\𝐴 + 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) 2

2𝑎𝑏

4) 𝑛 𝐴\𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴 − 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) 2) Hormonic Mean 𝑯. 𝑴 𝐻= 𝑎+𝑏

5) 𝑛 𝐴\𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 − 𝑛(𝐵) 3) Geometric Mean (𝑮. 𝑴) 𝐺 = 𝑎𝑏

4) 𝐺 = 𝐴𝐻

2. Progression 5) 𝑨𝑴 ≥ 𝑮𝑴 ≥ 𝑯𝑴

Arithmatic Progression

1) General form of A. P.

𝑎, 𝑎 + 𝑑, 𝑎 + 2𝑑, … … … … , 𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑 3. Real Numbers

2) Formula to find 'n'th terms of A. P. 1) EUCLID division Lemma

: 𝑇𝑛 = 𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑 𝑎 = 𝑏×𝑞 +𝑟

Divident = (Divisor× Quotient) + Remainder

3) Formula to find C. D.

𝑇𝑝 −𝑇𝑞 2) (a,b) HCF ×(a,b) LCM = 𝒂 × 𝒃

: 𝑑= 𝑝−𝑞

4) Formula to find 'n' natural numbers 4. Permutation and Combination

𝑛(𝑛+1)

𝑆𝑛 = 2

Permutation

5) Sum of ‘𝑛’ terms of A. P. 𝑛𝑃 𝑛!

1) 𝑟 =

PÀAqÀÄ»rAiÀÄÄªÀ ¸ÀÆvÀæ : 𝑛 −𝑟 !

𝑛

𝑛 2) 𝑃0 = 1

𝑆𝑛 = [2𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑]

2 3) 𝑛

𝑃𝑛 = 𝑛!

𝑛

6)Formula to find Sn, when 'a' and 4) 𝑃1 = 𝑛

Tn are given: Combination

𝑛

𝑆 𝑛 = 2 [𝑎 + 𝑇𝑛] 𝑛

𝑛 𝑃𝑟 𝑛 𝑛!

Hormonic Progression 1) 𝐶𝑟 = Or 𝐶𝑟 =

𝑟! 𝑛 −𝑟 !×𝑟!

1) General form of H. P. 𝑛

1 1 1 1 2) 𝐶0 = 1

, , , … … … , 𝑎+ 𝑛−1

𝑎 𝑎+𝑑 𝑎+2𝑑 𝑑 𝑛

3) 𝐶𝑛 = 1

2) ‘𝑛’th term of H. P.

𝑛

1 4) 𝐶1 = 𝑛

: 𝑇𝑛 = 𝑎+ 𝑛 −1 𝑑

If ‘𝑛’ number of vertices in a plane −𝑏

sum of roots : 𝑚 + 𝑛 =

𝑎

𝑐

product of roots: 𝑚𝑛 = 𝑎

*no. of straight lines can be drawn = 𝑛𝐶 2

** standard form of Q.E. when 'm' & 'n' are given:

𝑛

*no. of triagles can be drawn = 𝐶 3 𝑥 2 − 𝑚 + 𝑛 𝑥 + 𝑚𝑛 = 0

ªÀÄÆ®UÀ¼À ¸Àé¨sÁªÀ

𝑛 (𝑛-3)

*no. of diagonals in a polygon = 𝑛𝐶 2 − 𝑛 = ∆= 𝒃 𝟐 − 𝟒𝒂𝒄 nature of roots

2

∆= 𝟎 real and equal

5. Probability ∆> 0 real and distinct

𝑛 (𝐸) ∆< 0 roots are imaginary

Probability of an event = 𝑃 𝐸 =

𝑛 (𝑆) 10. Circles

possible event 𝑃 𝐸 = 1 𝑑

diameter = 2 ×radius 𝑑 = 2𝑟 𝑟 = 2

Impossible event 𝑃 𝐸 = 0

Angles in the Minor segment are obtuse angles.

Complement event 𝑃 = 1− 𝑃 (𝐸)

Angles in the Major segment are acute angles

Mutually exclusive event 𝑃 𝐸1 ∪ 𝐸2 = 𝑃(𝐸1 ) + 𝑃(𝐸2 )

Angles in a Semi circle are right angles

6. STATISTICS

Angle between tangent and radius is right angle

𝒙 𝒇𝒙

Mean : 1) 𝒙 = 2) 𝒙 = If Two circles touch externally then 𝑑 = 𝑅 + 𝑟

𝒏 𝒏

If Two circles touch internally then 𝑑 = 𝑅 - 𝑟

Method ungrouped Grouped Length of Direct Common Tangent

data data 𝑡= 𝑑2 − 𝑅 − 𝑟 2

2 2

𝑥2 𝑥 𝑓𝑥 2 𝑓𝑥

direct method − 𝑛

−

𝑛 Length of Transverse Common Tangent

𝑛 𝑛

2 𝑡= 𝑑2 − 𝑅 + 𝑟 2

2 𝑓𝑑

actual mean 𝑑

𝑛

method 𝑛 11. Similar Triangles

assumed 𝑑2 𝑑

2

𝑓𝑑2 𝑓𝑑

2 Thales theorem

− − 𝐴𝐷 𝐴𝐸

mean method 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 =

𝐷𝐵 𝐸𝐶 A

step deviation 𝑑2 𝑑

2 𝑓𝑑 2

−

𝑓𝑑

2

×𝐶

Corollary – 1

− 𝑛 𝑛

method 𝑛 𝑛 𝐴𝐵 𝐴𝐶

×𝐶

=

𝐴𝐷 𝐴𝐸

𝝈 D E

Co-effecient of variation: 𝑪. 𝑽 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 Corollary – 2

𝑿

𝐴𝐵 𝐴𝐶

7. SURDS =

𝐷𝐵 𝐸𝐶

B C

multiplication of surds: 𝑛

𝑎×

𝑛

𝑏=

𝑛

𝑎𝑏 Corollary – 3

𝐴𝐵 𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐶

= =

8. Polynomials 𝐴𝐷 𝐷𝐸 𝐴𝐸

Euclid's Lemma for Polynomials

𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑥 × 𝑞 𝑥 + 𝑟(𝑥)

Divident = (Divisor× Quotient) + Remainder

9. Quadrilaterals

standard form of Q.E : 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 Corollary – 1 𝐴𝐵 2 = 𝐴𝐶 × 𝐴𝐷

−𝑏± 𝑏 2 −4𝑎𝑐

roots of Q. E 𝑥 = Corollary – 2 𝐵𝐶 2 = 𝐴𝐶 × 𝐷𝐶

2𝑎

𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 when 'm' and 'n' are roots of Q.E Corollary – 3 𝐵𝐷 2 = 𝐴𝐷 × 𝐷𝐶

12. Pythagoras Theorem 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽

1) 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 2) 𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽

𝐴𝐶 2 = 𝐴𝐵 2 + 𝐵𝐶 2 5) 𝑺𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 + 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝜽 6) 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒕𝟐

𝜽 angle 𝜽 and compound angle 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽

Trignometric ratios

𝟎

− 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽

𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝟗𝟎

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽

𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽

𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽

𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽

13. Trignometry 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽

14. Co-Ordinate Geometry

Slope = (vertical height)

(horizontal distance)

* slope 𝑚 = tan θ

𝑦 2 −𝑦 1

* slope 𝑚 =

𝑥 2 −𝑥 1

Parallel lines have Equal slopes

= hypotenuse

AC

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 BC adjacent

=

hypotenuse

* 𝑚1 × 𝑚2 = −1 Then lines are perpendicular.

AC

𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 AB opposite * Equation of a line in slope 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐

=

BC adjacent

𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽 BC * Distance formula :

=

adjacent

AB opposite 𝑑 = 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 2 + 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 2

𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 AC hypotenuse

= adjacent * Section formula:

]

BC

𝑚𝑥 2 + 𝑛𝑥 1 , 𝑚𝑦2 + 𝑛𝑦1

𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 AC

AB

hypotenuse

= opposite

[𝑥,y]= [ 𝑚+𝑛 𝑚+𝑛

* Mid point formula :

𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽

𝟎𝟎

𝟎

𝟑𝟎𝟎

𝟏

𝟒𝟓𝟎

𝟏

𝟔𝟎𝟎

𝟑

𝟗𝟎𝟎

𝟏

[𝑥,y]= [𝑥 2 + 𝑥1 𝑦2 + 𝑦1

2

,

2 ]

𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 𝟏 𝟑 𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 15. MENSURATION

𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 𝟎 𝟏 𝟏 3 𝑵𝑫 polynomials volume

LSA TSA

𝟑

𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽 𝑵𝑫 3 𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 cylinder 2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟(𝑟 + ) 𝜋𝑟 2

𝟑 cone 𝜋𝑟𝑙 𝜋𝑟(𝑟 + 𝑙) 1 2

𝜋𝑟

𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝑵𝑫 3

𝜋(𝑟1 + 𝑟2 ) 𝜋 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑙 1

𝟑 𝜋(𝑟1 2

Frustum + 𝜋(𝑟1 2 + 𝑟2 2 ) 3

𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 𝑵𝑫 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟏 + 𝑟2 2

of a cone

𝟑 + 𝑟1 𝑟2 )

sphere 4𝜋𝑟 2 4𝜋𝑟 2 4 3

𝜋𝑟

3

hemi 2𝜋𝑟 2 3𝜋𝑟 2 2 3

sphere 𝜋𝑟

3

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