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# 1.

## SETS Geometric Progression

Commutative Property 1) General term of G. P.
𝑎, 𝑎𝑟, 𝑎𝑟 2 , … … … … , 𝑎𝑟 𝑛−1
1) A ∪ B = B ∪ A 2) A ∩ B = B ∩ A
2)‘𝑛’ th term of G. P.
Associative Property
: 𝑇 𝑛 = 𝑎𝑟 𝑛−1
1) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶 = (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵) ∪ 𝐶
3) Sum of ‘𝑛’ terms of G. P.
2) 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶 = (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) ∩ 𝐶
Distributive Property 𝑎(1−𝑟 𝑛 )
: 1) 𝑆𝑛 = 1−𝑟
𝑟<1
1) 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐶 = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 ∩ (𝐴 ∪ 𝐶) 𝑎(𝑟 𝑛 −1)
2) 𝑆𝑛 = 𝑟>1
2) 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∪ 𝐶 = 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 ∪ (𝐴 ∩ 𝐶) 𝑟−1
when : 𝑟 = 0 ; 𝑆𝑛 = 𝑎 and
Demorgan's Law
when 𝑟 =1; 𝑆𝑛 = 𝑛𝑎
1) (𝐴 ∪ 𝐵)| = 𝐴| ∩ 𝐵 |
2) (𝐴 ∩ 𝐵)| = 𝐴| ∪ 𝐵 | 4) Sum of infiniteterms of G. P.
Cordinality of Sets (𝑟 < 1 ) 𝑆
𝑎
1) If 𝐴 andÛ 𝐵 are disjoint sets, 𝑛 = 1−𝑟
𝑛 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑛 𝐴 +𝑛 𝐵 5)
𝑆2𝑛
= 𝑟 𝑛+1
𝑆𝑛
2) If 𝐴 and 𝐵 are non-disjoint sets
Mean
𝑛 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴 + 𝑛 𝐵 − 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) 𝑎+𝑏
1) Arithmatic Mean 𝑨. 𝑴 𝐴 =
3) 𝑛 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴\𝐵 + 𝑛 𝐵\𝐴 + 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) 2
2𝑎𝑏
4) 𝑛 𝐴\𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴 − 𝑛(𝐴 ∩ 𝐵) 2) Hormonic Mean 𝑯. 𝑴 𝐻= 𝑎+𝑏
5) 𝑛 𝐴\𝐵 = 𝑛 𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 − 𝑛(𝐵) 3) Geometric Mean (𝑮. 𝑴) 𝐺 = 𝑎𝑏
4) 𝐺 = 𝐴𝐻
2. Progression 5) 𝑨𝑴 ≥ 𝑮𝑴 ≥ 𝑯𝑴
Arithmatic Progression
1) General form of A. P.
𝑎, 𝑎 + 𝑑, 𝑎 + 2𝑑, … … … … , 𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑 3. Real Numbers
2) Formula to find 'n'th terms of A. P. 1) EUCLID division Lemma
: 𝑇𝑛 = 𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑 𝑎 = 𝑏×𝑞 +𝑟
Divident = (Divisor× Quotient) + Remainder
3) Formula to find C. D.
𝑇𝑝 −𝑇𝑞 2) (a,b) HCF ×(a,b) LCM = 𝒂 × 𝒃
: 𝑑= 𝑝−𝑞
4) Formula to find 'n' natural numbers 4. Permutation and Combination
𝑛(𝑛+1)
𝑆𝑛 = 2
Permutation
5) Sum of ‘𝑛’ terms of A. P. 𝑛𝑃 𝑛!
1) 𝑟 =
PÀAqÀÄ»rAiÀÄÄªÀ ¸ÀÆvÀæ : 𝑛 −𝑟 !
𝑛
𝑛 2) 𝑃0 = 1
𝑆𝑛 = [2𝑎 + 𝑛 − 1 𝑑]
2 3) 𝑛
𝑃𝑛 = 𝑛!
𝑛
6)Formula to find Sn, when 'a' and 4) 𝑃1 = 𝑛
Tn are given: Combination
𝑛
𝑆 𝑛 = 2 [𝑎 + 𝑇𝑛] 𝑛
𝑛 𝑃𝑟 𝑛 𝑛!
Hormonic Progression 1) 𝐶𝑟 = Or 𝐶𝑟 =
𝑟! 𝑛 −𝑟 !×𝑟!
1) General form of H. P. 𝑛
1 1 1 1 2) 𝐶0 = 1
, , , … … … , 𝑎+ 𝑛−1
𝑎 𝑎+𝑑 𝑎+2𝑑 𝑑 𝑛
3) 𝐶𝑛 = 1
2) ‘𝑛’th term of H. P.
𝑛
1 4) 𝐶1 = 𝑛
: 𝑇𝑛 = 𝑎+ 𝑛 −1 𝑑
If ‘𝑛’ number of vertices in a plane −𝑏
sum of roots : 𝑚 + 𝑛 =
𝑎
𝑐
product of roots: 𝑚𝑛 = 𝑎
*no. of straight lines can be drawn = 𝑛𝐶 2
** standard form of Q.E. when 'm' & 'n' are given:
𝑛
*no. of triagles can be drawn = 𝐶 3 𝑥 2 − 𝑚 + 𝑛 𝑥 + 𝑚𝑛 = 0
ªÀÄÆ®UÀ¼À ¸Àé¨sÁªÀ
𝑛 (𝑛-3)
*no. of diagonals in a polygon = 𝑛𝐶 2 − 𝑛 = ∆= 𝒃 𝟐 − 𝟒𝒂𝒄 nature of roots
2
∆= 𝟎 real and equal
5. Probability ∆> 0 real and distinct
𝑛 (𝐸) ∆< 0 roots are imaginary
Probability of an event = 𝑃 𝐸 =
𝑛 (𝑆) 10. Circles
possible event 𝑃 𝐸 = 1 𝑑
diameter = 2 ×radius  𝑑 = 2𝑟  𝑟 = 2
Impossible event 𝑃 𝐸 = 0
 Angles in the Minor segment are obtuse angles.
Complement event 𝑃 = 1− 𝑃 (𝐸)
 Angles in the Major segment are acute angles
Mutually exclusive event 𝑃 𝐸1 ∪ 𝐸2 = 𝑃(𝐸1 ) + 𝑃(𝐸2 )
 Angles in a Semi circle are right angles
6. STATISTICS
 Angle between tangent and radius is right angle
𝒙 𝒇𝒙
Mean : 1) 𝒙 = 2) 𝒙 =  If Two circles touch externally then 𝑑 = 𝑅 + 𝑟
𝒏 𝒏
 If Two circles touch internally then 𝑑 = 𝑅 - 𝑟
Method ungrouped Grouped  Length of Direct Common Tangent
data data 𝑡= 𝑑2 − 𝑅 − 𝑟 2

2 2
𝑥2 𝑥 𝑓𝑥 2 𝑓𝑥
direct method − 𝑛

𝑛  Length of Transverse Common Tangent
𝑛 𝑛
2 𝑡= 𝑑2 − 𝑅 + 𝑟 2
2 𝑓𝑑
actual mean 𝑑
𝑛
method 𝑛 11. Similar Triangles
assumed 𝑑2 𝑑
2
𝑓𝑑2 𝑓𝑑
2 Thales theorem
− − 𝐴𝐷 𝐴𝐸
mean method 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛 =
𝐷𝐵 𝐸𝐶 A
step deviation 𝑑2 𝑑
2 𝑓𝑑 2

𝑓𝑑
2
×𝐶
Corollary – 1
− 𝑛 𝑛
method 𝑛 𝑛 𝐴𝐵 𝐴𝐶
×𝐶
=
𝐴𝐷 𝐴𝐸
𝝈 D E
Co-effecient of variation: 𝑪. 𝑽 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 Corollary – 2
𝑿
𝐴𝐵 𝐴𝐶
7. SURDS =
𝐷𝐵 𝐸𝐶
B C
multiplication of surds: 𝑛
𝑎×
𝑛
𝑏=
𝑛
𝑎𝑏 Corollary – 3
𝐴𝐵 𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐶
= =
8. Polynomials 𝐴𝐷 𝐷𝐸 𝐴𝐸
Euclid's Lemma for Polynomials
𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑔 𝑥 × 𝑞 𝑥 + 𝑟(𝑥)
Divident = (Divisor× Quotient) + Remainder

standard form of Q.E : 𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 Corollary – 1 𝐴𝐵 2 = 𝐴𝐶 × 𝐴𝐷
−𝑏± 𝑏 2 −4𝑎𝑐
roots of Q. E 𝑥 = Corollary – 2 𝐵𝐶 2 = 𝐴𝐶 × 𝐷𝐶
2𝑎
𝑎𝑥 2 + 𝑏𝑥 + 𝑐 = 0 when 'm' and 'n' are roots of Q.E Corollary – 3 𝐵𝐷 2 = 𝐴𝐷 × 𝐷𝐶
12. Pythagoras Theorem 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽
1) 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 2) 𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽
𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽

## According to Pythagoras Theorem 𝟑) 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝜽 + 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 (4) 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝟐 𝜽

𝐴𝐶 2 = 𝐴𝐵 2 + 𝐵𝐶 2 5) 𝑺𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 + 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝜽 6) 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝜽 = 𝟏 + 𝒄𝒐𝒕𝟐
𝜽 angle 𝜽 and compound angle 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽
Trignometric ratios
𝟎
− 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽
𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝟗𝟎
𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽
𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽
𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽
13. Trignometry 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝟗𝟎𝟎 − 𝜽 = 𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽
14. Co-Ordinate Geometry
Slope = (vertical height)
(horizontal distance)

* slope 𝑚 = tan θ
𝑦 2 −𝑦 1
* slope 𝑚 =
𝑥 2 −𝑥 1
Parallel lines have Equal slopes

## 𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽 AB opposite (If 𝑚1 = 𝑚2 lines are parallel

= hypotenuse
AC
=
hypotenuse
* 𝑚1 × 𝑚2 = −1 Then lines are perpendicular.
AC
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 AB opposite * Equation of a line in slope 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐
=
𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽 BC * Distance formula :
=
AB opposite 𝑑 = 𝑥2 − 𝑥1 2 + 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 2
𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 AC hypotenuse

]
BC
𝑚𝑥 2 + 𝑛𝑥 1 , 𝑚𝑦2 + 𝑛𝑦1
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 AC
AB
hypotenuse
= opposite
[𝑥,y]= [ 𝑚+𝑛 𝑚+𝑛
* Mid point formula :

𝒔𝒊𝒏 𝜽
𝟎𝟎
𝟎
𝟑𝟎𝟎
𝟏
𝟒𝟓𝟎
𝟏
𝟔𝟎𝟎
𝟑
𝟗𝟎𝟎
𝟏
[𝑥,y]= [𝑥 2 + 𝑥1 𝑦2 + 𝑦1
2
,
2 ]
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 𝟏 𝟑 𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 15. MENSURATION
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
𝒕𝒂𝒏 𝜽 𝟎 𝟏 𝟏 3 𝑵𝑫 polynomials volume
LSA TSA
𝟑
𝒄𝒐𝒕 𝜽 𝑵𝑫 3 𝟏 𝟏 𝟎 cylinder 2𝜋𝑟𝑕 2𝜋𝑟(𝑟 + 𝑕) 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑕
𝟑 cone 𝜋𝑟𝑙 𝜋𝑟(𝑟 + 𝑙) 1 2
𝜋𝑟 𝑕
𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝑵𝑫 3
𝜋(𝑟1 + 𝑟2 ) 𝜋 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑙 1
𝟑 𝜋𝑕(𝑟1 2
Frustum + 𝜋(𝑟1 2 + 𝑟2 2 ) 3
𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝜽 𝑵𝑫 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟏 + 𝑟2 2
of a cone
𝟑 + 𝑟1 𝑟2 )
sphere 4𝜋𝑟 2 4𝜋𝑟 2 4 3
𝜋𝑟
3
hemi 2𝜋𝑟 2 3𝜋𝑟 2 2 3
sphere 𝜋𝑟
3