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TESTING OF DC MOTORS

BIRBHUM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


PRITAM GHOSH
EE-08/14
3rd YEAR, 5th SEM
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
CONTENTS
 WHY TESTING OF A DC MOTOR IS REQUIRED?

 TYPES OF TESTING OF A DC MOTOR

 DIRECT METHOD OF TESTING OF A DC MOTOR

 SWINBURNE’S METHOD OF TESTING OF A DC MOTOR

 REGENERATIVE OR HOPKINSON’S METHOD OF TESTING OF A DC MOTOR

 CONCLUSION

 REFERENCE
WHY TESTING OF A DC MOTOR IS REQUIRED?

Performance of the
machine

Losses & efficiency of


the machine

Quality of the materials


used

Modification in
manufacturing process
TYPES OF TESTING OF A DC MOTOR

DIRECT METHOD

INDIRECT METHOD OR SWINBURNE’S


METHOD

REGENERATIVE METHOD OR
HOPKINSON’S METHOD
DIRECT METHOD
Suitable for small D.C.
Machines

Brake test for D.C. Motors

Belt pulley arrangement


attached to spring
balances S1 & S2

Loads on pulley adjusted


by hand WHEELS H1 & H2
EFFICIENCY CALCULATION
 Motor output power= ω*(S1 – S2)*r*9.81 watts
 Motor input power= Vt * Il watts
 Motor efficiency, ηm = [{ω*(S1 – S2)*r*9.81 }*100/(Vt * Il )]%
PRECAUTION

• THE BRAKE SHOULD BE


SUFFICIENTLY TIGHT FOR
A DC SERIES MOTOR

DISADVANTAGES
• Size of the motor is
restricted

• Spring balance readings


are not steady
SWINBURNE’S METHOD OF TESTING A DC MOTOR

• Most commonly used and simplest method of testing of shunt and


compound wound dc machines

• No load losses are measured separately


EFFICIENCY CALCULATION
 Power absorbed by armature at no load= Vt *Ia0
 Armature circuit loss = Ia02 *ra
 No load rotational losses, W0 = (Vt *Ia0) – (Ia02 *ra )
 Shunt field loss= Vt *If
 Power input = Vt*IL
 IL = I a + I f
 Efficiency of the motor: ηm =1- [{W0 + (Ia02 *ra )+ (Vt *If )}/ (Vt*IL)]%
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 Iron loss is neglected

 Required very less power  We cannot be sure about the


satisfactory commutation on
loaded condition

 Since constant losses are known,  We can’t measure the


efficiency of Swinburne's test can temperature rise when the
be pre-determined at any load machine is loaded

 In dc series motor, the


Swinburne’s test cannot be done
HOPKINSON’S METHOD OF TESTING A DC MOTOR

 Two identical dc machines are


coupled, both mechanically &
electrically

 One of these two machines is


operated as a generator to supply
the electrical power to the motor
and the other is operated as a
motor to drive the generator

 Due to the drop in the generator


output voltage we need an extra
voltage source to supply the
proper input motor-generator set
EFFICIENCY CALCULATION
 Input to motor armature= Vt*I1
 Motor armature circuit loss= I12 *ra
 Motor shunt field loss= Vt*If1
 No-load rotational loss in two machines, W0= (Vt*I)- ra*(I12+I22)
 No-load rotational loss in each machine=W0/2
 Total motor loss, Wm = (W0/2)+(Vt*If1)+(I12 *ra)
 Motor efficiency: ηm = [1-{Wm/Vt*(I1+If1)}]*100%
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 Very small power required  Difficult to find two identical
machines

 Both machines cannot be loaded


 Temperature rise and commutation equally all the time
can be observed

 It is not possible to get separate iron


losses for the two machines

 Change in iron loss due to flux


distortion can be taken into account  It is difficult to operate the machines
due to the advantage of its full load at rated speed because field currents
condition vary widely
CONCLUSION

 Each process is necessary for testing of different kinds of dc


motors

 Power required in Direct Method is much greater than that in


other two methods

 No load rotational loss for a particular machine can be


determined separately only by Indirect Method
REFERENCE
Electrical Machinery, Dr. P. S. Bimbhra
Chapter: D.C. Machines(Page No. 495-501 )
http://www.electrical4u.com/hopkinsons-
test/
http://www.electrical4u.com/swinburnes-
test-of-dc-machine/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor