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dexed - FM Plugin Synth

Version 0.9.3; build date Mar 21 2017

User's Manual

Compiled By ZacoOne, 2017
Table of Contents
Table of Contents 2
Introduction to Dexed x
Features x
Installation and Setup x
GUI Overview x
Function Control Panel x
Cartridge Manager x
System Parameters x
Initialize x
Storing Programs x
Operators x
Oscillator x
Amplifier x
Envelope Generator x
Keyboard Level Scaling x
Algorithm Matrix Panel x
LFO Panel x
Pitch Envelope Generator Panel x
Basics of FM Synthesis x
Engine Type x
Using as a DX7 editor x
Prerequisite x
To send to your DX7 x
To receive from your DX7 x
Troubleshooting x
Credits and Thanks x
Introduction to Dexed
Dexed is a multi platform, multi format plugin synth that is closely modeled on the Yamaha DX7. Dexed is
also a midi cartridge librarian/manager for the DX7. Please
visit for the latest version of Dexed and more information.

Yamaha DX7

Dexed requires a AU/VST host (like Savihost or Reaper) in order to run the plugin.

Dexed is free software and is licensed on the GPL v3.

•Multi platform (OS X, Windows or Linux) and multi format (VST, AU, LV2)
•The sound engine music-synthesizer-for-android is closely modeled on the original DX7 characteristics
•144 DAW automatable DX7 parameters available from one single panel
•Fully supports DX7 input and output Sysex messages; including controller change. This means that you can
use this with a native DX7/TX7 as a patch editor and sysex manager
•Each operator have a realtime VU meter to know which one is active
•Can load/save any DX7/TX7 sysex programs. It is also possible to save a single program into a different sysex
Installation and Setup
You can find and download Dexed from in zip format.

Windows: Unzip and place the extracted files into your common VST plugins folders (for example C:\Program
Files\VSTPlugins\). In most cases your host software will automatically recognize the plug-in. You may need
to add the VST Plugins folder to your host software’s VST folder preferences.

Mac OS X: Unzip and place the extracted files into your common AU plugins folders (for example
Home/library/audio/plug-ins/components).In most cases your host software will automatically recognize
the plug-in. You may need to add the VST Plugins folder to your host software’s AU folder preferences.

Please refer to the manual of your host software for more information on how to open and use VSTi/AU
plug-ins with it.
GUI Overview

At first look Dexed may look very intimidating with the many knobs, buttons and displays. But it is
deceptively simple once you break it down into it's basic sections. The Dexed graphical user interface is
separated into six sections.
The Function Controls
Algorithm selector
LFO controls
Pitch Envelope Generator
and Keyboard
Function Control Panel

The Function Control panel is where you find the master controls of Dexed. You can adjust the following
from here:

Tuning and filter cutoff controls.

Master volume, Key Transposition and Mono/Polyphony settings.
Select the voice to be played

From here you can access and store sysex programs, configure system parameters and initialize Dexed to
create new patches from scratch.

CART displays the Cartridge Manager

PARM displays the System Parameters
INIT resets the edit buffer
STORE allows to save custom patches into Cartridges slots

Also you can find the Knob Value Display here to conveniently view the values of various knobs across
Dexed globally.
Cartridge Manager

Any .syx file will be loaded from the Cartridges Manager. All sysex files are stored in the Cartridges directory.
To access the manager click the "CART" button.

To find this directory click the "SHOW DIR" button.

To load a DX7 program from any other location on you OS click the LOAD button. Double-clicking on a
program will load the currently selected program in the plugin.

Use the context (right-click) menu to send the program/cartridge the DX7 or open your OS file browser from
the directory context.

Hint: BlackWinny from kvraudio did a great DX7 compilation named Simply unzip the
content of this zipfile to your Cartridges directory.

To save a program click the Save button. (Remember, when planning to export a sysex file, you may have to
manually type the 'syx.' extension in order for it to be recognized as a sysex file).
System Parameters

Pitch Bend Range

The Pitch Bend Range knob can be adjusted from a minimum value of 0 to a maximum value of 12 with a
defualt value of 3.

Pitch Bend Step

The Pitch Bend Step knob can be adjusted from a minimum value of 0 to a maximum value of 12 with a
defualt value of 0.

Show Keyboard

This switch toggles the onboard keyboard display on and off.

Engine Resolution

Dexed can be configured to use some of the original math limitation of a DX synthesizer. This does not only
apply to the DAC, it also involves the bit resolution of the sine waves and the way that the amplitude is
applied to each operator. Since all of this is experimental, multiple engines will be available to be able to
compare them easily.

Dexed comes with 3 engine types :

•Modern : this is the original 24-bit music-synthesizer-for-android implementation.

•Mark I : Based on the OPL Series but at a higher resolution (LUT are 10-bits). The target of this engine is to be
closest to the real DX7.
•OPL Series : this is an experimental implementation of the reversed engineered OPL family chips. 8-bit.
Keep in mind that the envelopes stills needs tuning.

DX7 In

DX7 Out
DX7 Channel

The DX7 Channel knob allows you to select channels 1 through 18.




After Touch

The Operators control sound generation. There are six Operators. The Operators each contain an Oscillator,
Amplifier, Envelope Generator and a Keyboard Scale Leveling section.


The Oscillator provides you a detune, coarse and fine tuning knob. With these knobs you control the pitch of
the oscillator. The detune knob can be adjusted from a minimum value of -7 to a maximum value of +7 with
a center value of 0. The coarse knob can be adjusted from a minimum value of 0 to a maximum value of 31
with a default value of 1. The fine knob can be adjusted from a minimum value of 0 to a maximum value of
99 with a default value of 0. Finally, you have the Frequency Mode Selector. This switch allows you to toggle
between Frequency Ratio and Fixed Ratio modes.


The Amplifier grants you control over the volume level of the Operator/Oscillator.
Envelope Generator

The Envelope Generator gives you the ability to control the envelope settings of the Attack, Delay, Sustain
and Release of the Operator/Oscillator.
The envelopes work a little differently, essentially allowing for more elaborate curves, than a typical ADSR.
The envelopes on DEXED have 4 LEVEL settings and 4 RATE settings. The Level settings adjust the volume at
4 points of the envelope. The rate settings tell the Operator/Oscillator how long to take getting to each of
those points.
A simple AD envelope would have Level 1 at Rate 99, and Level 2, 3, and 4 at Rate 0. Rate 1 could be 99 (very
fast.. immediate attack), and Rate 2 could be at 20 for a slow decay, or at 50 for a fast decay.
Note: usually you'll probably keep Level 4 at Rate 0, but if you want a slow release time, keep RATE 4 at
perhaps 40-60. Rate 4 at a low value (like 0) will cause a note to keep ringing "forever" after you release it.

Keyboard Scale Leveling

The Keyboard Scale Leveling section allows you to set a point on the keyboard beyond which a
modulator or carrier changes volume. For instance, you might want a bright, brassy sound at the
bottom of the keyboard, but a much simpler sound at the higher range (much like a piano or
harpsichord, for example). So you could set a break point to achieve this...
On the other hand, sometimes you'll find that you want the higher end to get "louder" to counteract
an overly bright, cutting bass end, and so you can use breakpoints to make the higher pitched notes
louder. The curve you use can be linear or exponential. The way it is setup by default is what you will
mostly use.
Rate scaling and break points help deal with the significant digital aliasing that can occur in the mid
to higher registers.
Algorithm Matrix Panel

The Algorithm Matrix Panel is where you can select one of 32 algorithm configurations.
LFO Panel
Pitch Envelope Generator Panel
Basics of FM Synthesis
Engine Type
•Does Dexed works on OS X 10.6 ?
No, Apple makes it difficult for us to release new software with this old OS version. You can use an older
version of Dexed that supports this Mac OS version :
•Does Dexed uses the same midi velocity range (0-100) as the original DX7 ?
No, the envelopes are based on the DX7II that are using the standard midi velocity range (0-127).
•Some notes seems stucked and/or generate sound indefinitly, is this a bug ?
The envelopes on the orignal DX7 can be programmed to played indefinitly. If you want to avoid any stuck
notes, but sure to set L4 = 0 and R4 = 99.
•How can I find help/contact the author ?
If you have a generic question, you can use the kvraudio dedicated thread for dexed. If you have found a
bug, use the github page to open a new issue. I'm asb2m10 on kvraudio.
•Programmer/dsp enthusiast: I was expecting floating based 0.0->1.0 DSP stuff but when I read dexed code,
the only thing I see are bit shifts and adds. What is going on ?
msfa / Dexed is an integer based synth engine, it uses the Q** format.
Using as a DX7 editor
You can use this plugin to edit your real DX7 patchs. Since midi sysex send/receive are quirky for the majority
of VST hosts, any sysex messages (editor messages) must be send or received with the external dexed midi
interface. This is configurable in the "PARM" panel. By setting a DX7 in / DX7 out midi interface, dexed will
listen to specific program/cartridge changes from your DX7 and send controller/program/cartridge you edit.

•Before you use this interface, your DX7 must be configured to send or receive sysex messages. Do this by
hitting [FUNCTION] and [8] button
•Check the midi channel. By reading some of DX7 literature, most DX7 are supposed to support only 1
channel. Unless you are running a cluster of DX7, you should keep this to 1.
•Press [8] again and you should see: "SYS INFO AVAIL" or "SYS INFO UNAVAIL". Keep it to "SYS INFO AVAIL" to
be able to receive sysex messages. This step is not required on a TX7.
•You need to remove MEMORY PROTECT on the internal or cartridge memory to be able to receive a dexed
32 voice bulk dump. This is done by using the [MEMORY PROTECT] button and then by pushing [NO].

To send to your DX7

•If the midi out port is configured, any parameter change will be sent to your DX7.
•You can send any program/cartridge in the "CART" window by using the context (right-click) menu.

To receive from your DX7

•The midi in port must be configured.
•Receive a program by using [MEMORY SELECT] then the program you want to transmit ([1] to [32]).
•Receive a cartridge by pressing [FUNCTION] then 3 times on [8] you should see " MIDI TRANSMIT ? ". If you
hit yes, dexed should receive the complete cartridge.

•If you play on your DX7 keyboard, the |DX7 In| light should be flashing. Use this to test the midi in
•If the data sent is corrupted (wrong checksum, DX7 crash), it might be the midi interface implementation.
Default Windows USB midi driver are known to send corrupt sysex data. If it is the case, use a third party
device (like the midiman uno) that have his own USB driver.
•If you are unable to open the interface (error message after the using the [PARM] dialog), it might be
because the midi driver doesn't support multiple clients (common on Windows). Be sure that there are no
other applications that are using the same midi interface.
Credits & thanks
•DX Synth engine : Raph Levien and the msfa team
•Graphical design : AZur Studio
•LP Filter : Filatov Vadim (2DaT); taken from the excellent Obxd project
•PPPlay : Great OPL3 implementation, with documented code :D
•DX7 program compilation : Jean-Marc Desprez (author of SynprezFM)
•DX7 programs : Dave Benson, Frank Carvalho, Tim Conrardy, Jack Deckard, Chris Dodunski, Tim Garrett,
Hitaye, Stephan Ibsen, Christian Jezreel, Narfman, Godric Wilkie.
Additional Credits
IloveKombucha – Reddit User