The Islamic University of Gaza
Department of Civil Engineering
ENGC 6353
Shell Structures
Design of Spherical Shells (Domes)
Shell Structure
A thin shell is defined as a shell with a relatively small thickness, compared with its other dimensions.
Shell Structure
Four commonly occurring Shell Types:
Barrel Vault
Hyperbolic Paraboloid (Hypar)
What is a shell structure?
To answer this question, we have to investigate some important notions
of structural design.
A beam responds to loading by bending
the top elements of the beam are
compressed and the bottom is extended:
the development of internal tension and
compression is necessary to resist the applied vertical loading.
An arch responds to loading by compressing.
The elements through the thickness of the arch are being compressed approximately equally. Note that there is some bending also present.
Plate Bending
A plate responds to transverse loads by bending
This is a fundamentally inefficient use of material, by analogy to
the beam. Moreover, bending introduces tension into the
convex side of the bent plate.
Plate bending vs. membrane stresses
Note: this is an experiment you can try yourself by folding a sheet
of paper into a box.
This slide shows a concrete plate of 6”
thickness, spanning 100 feet, resisting
its own weight by plate bending
If the plate is shaped into a box,
then each of the sides of the box
resists bending by the development
of membrane stresses. The box
structure is much stronger and stiffer!
Domes
A shell is shaped so that it will develop membrane
stresses in response to loads
The halfdome shell responds to transverse loads by development of
membrane forces. Note that lines on the shell retain approximately their
original shape.
Domes
The primary response of a dome to loading is development of membrane
compressive stresses along the meridians, by analogy to the arch.
The dome also develops compressive or tensile membrane stresses along
lines of latitude. These are known as ‘hoop stresses’ and are tensile at the
base and compressive higher up in the dome.
Circumferential Hoop Stress
Meridional Compressive Stress
Circumferential Hoop Stress (tens.)
The halfdome shell does develop membrane tensile stresses, below about 50 ‘north latitude.’ These are also known as ‘hoop stresses’
Barrel Vaults
A barrel vault functions two ways
In the transverse
direction, it is an arch developing
compressive
membrane forces that
are transferred to the
^{b}^{a}^{s}^{e} ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{a}^{r}^{c}^{h}
When unsupported along its length, it is more like a
beam, developing compressive membrane forces near
the crown of the arch, and tensile membrane forces at
the base.
Barrel Vaults
A barrel vault is a simple extension of an arch shape along the width. It
can be supported on continuous walls along the length, or at the corners, as in this example. If supported on the corners, it functions as an arch
across the width, and as a beam, with compression on the top and tension
on the bottom in the long direction.
This form is susceptible to distortion.
Barrel Vault, continued
As with any arch, some form of lateral restraint is required
this figure shows the influence of restraining the base of
the archthe structure is still subject to transverse bending
stresses resulting from the distortion of the arch.
Folded Plates
Folded plate structures were widely favored for their simplicity of forming, and the variety of forms that were available.
Perpendicular to the
main span, the shell acts
as short span plates in
transverse bending
In the main span direction, the
shell develops membrane tension
at the bottom and compression at
the top, in analogy to a beam in bending
What’s wrong with this Folded Plate Structure?
Compare to the discussion of barrel vaults, and see if you can tell what key
element is missing from the folded plate shown.
It is missing transverse diaphragms, especially at the ends.
When adding a diaphragm at the two ends and at midspan. The folded plate
shell distorts much less.
Thin Shell Structures
Two type of stresses are produced:
1. 
Meridional stresses along the direction of the meridians 
2. 
Hoop stresses along the latitudes 
Bending stresses are negligible, but become significant when the rise
of the dome is very small
(if the rise is less than the about1/8 the base diameter the shell is
considered as a shallow shell)
Thin Shell Structures
Assumption of Analysis
1. 
Deflection under load are small. 
2. 
Points on the normal to the middle surface of deformation 
will remain on the normal after deformation 

3. 
Shear stresses normal to the middle surface can be neglected 
Spherical Shells
Internal Forces due to dead load w/m ^{3}
Consider the equilibrium of a ring enclosed between two
Horizontal section AB and CD
The weight of the ring ABCD itself acting vertically downward
The meridional thrust N per unit length acting tangentially at B
The reaction thrust N +d N per unit unit length at point D
H
N
C
N _{} +dN _{}
_{} +dN _{}
EF
a
1
cos
W
W
N
r
'
N
w
D
w
D
A
2
D
a
2
(2
r
')sin
a
sin
2
a
EF
(1
w
D
cos
)
2
a
2
(1
cos
)
w
D
a
(1
cos
)
w
D
a
(1
cos
)
sin
2
(1 cos
)(1
cos
)
w
D
a
1
cos
+ve compression
ve tension
N
+d
N
causes hoop tension
N
+d N
cos
d
a
cos
d
_{} +dN _{}
When increasein
issmall d
N
N ad
where
d
N
a cos
sin
N
N
w
D
a
(1
cos
)
w
D
a
sin
2
cos

1
1
cos
tends to be zero
w
D
a
cos
2
cos
1
1
cos
N _{} +dN _{}
Spherical Shells
HoopForce N
N
w
D
a
cos

1
1
cos
At crown
0
At base
90
when N
0
for
o
51 49
fo r
o
51 49
'
'
N
wa
2
N
wa
o
51 49
'
( compress ion
( tensio n )
N
N
will becompressive
will be tensile
)
Summary
In order to make the
– Negative sign for compression and
+Positive sign for tension for Meridional and Hoop forces
The previous equations can be rewritten as follows:
N
N
w
w
D
a
1
D
cos
a
1
1
cos
cos
Spherical Shells
Spherical Shells
Ri ng Force H
H
N
cos
w
D
a
at
o
51 49
'
N
0
&
H
is maximum
H
max
0. 382
w
D
a
Spherical Shells
Internal forces due to Live load (w _{L} /m ^{2} )horizontal
Meridional ForceT
W
y
r
w 
L 


r 


a (1 
cos 


a sin 

N
2
a
sin
2
)
w
L
sin
a
w
2
L
s in
2
a
2
s
in
2
N
w
L
a
2
Hoop Forc e N
N
w
L
a
2
cos 2
Ring Tension
H
at
N
cos
45
o
N
w
L
a
0
cos
2
& H
is maximum
H
max
0.35 35
w
L
a
Ring beam design
Design of the Circular Beam
Horizontal Load
A
s
T
T
Ultimate Load
0.9 f
y
H
r
Vertical Load
Vertical Uniform l oad (
w
V
)
N
Span length l
2
r
# of supports
sin
ow
.
P 
2 

r w 

M 
max ve 

C 
1 

M 
max ve 

C 
2 
V 


P r 

P r 
(see the tables of circu lar beams
)
(see the tables of circular beams)
Edge Forces
In flat spherical domes, bending moments will be developed due to
the big difference between the high tensile stress in the foot ring and
compressive stresses in the adjacent zones
It is recommended to use transition curves at the edge and to increase the thickness of the shell at the transition curve.
Bending moments can be avoided if the shape of meridian is
changed in a convenient manner. This change can be done by a
transition curve, which when well chosen gives a relief to the stress at
the foot ring.
Edge Forces
In order to decrease the stress due to the forces at the foot ring, it is
recommended to increase the thickness of the shell in the region of
the transition curve.
Ring Beam
At the free edge of the dome, meridian stresses have a large
horizontal component which is taken care of by providing a ring
beam there. This ring beam is subjected to hoop tension.
In case of hemispherical domes, no ring beam are required
since the meridional thrust is vertical at free end
Reinforcement
Steel is generally placed at the center of the thickness of the
dome along the meridians and latitudes. If all the meridional
lines are led to the crown, there will be a lot of congestion of bars
and their proper anchorage may be difficult.
To overcome this problem, small circle is left at the crown and
all the meridional steel bars are stopped at this circle. Area
enclosed by this small circle at the top is reinforced by a separate
mesh.
Example: Design of a spherical dome
Design a spherical shell roof for a circular tank 12m in
diameter as shown in the figure. Assume the following
loading: Covering material = 50 kg/m2 and LL= 100 kg/m2
Use
f
c
2
Example: Design of a spherical dome
Example: Design of a spherical dome
Design of Ring Beam:
Wu= 1.2(0.2+0.05)+1.6(0.1)=0.52 t/m ^{2} Total load on roof = 2ayWu=2(13.56)(1.4)(0.52)=62 ton
Vertical Load per meter of cylindrical wall
=62/(2*6)=1.645 ton/m’
Outward horizontal force =1.645/tan=3.337 t/m’
Ring tension in beam
T
H
r
3.337
5
A
T 20*1000
s f
y
0.9 4200
use 8
10 mm
20
tons
5.35 cm
2
Example: Design of a spherical dome
Design of the Shell
Meridian Force
Meridian force per unit length of circumference
N
W a
u
1
cos
at
0
N
W a
u
2
at foot
cos
N
0.52 13.56
1
0.896
0.896
3.72
t
/
0.52*13.56
2
3.52
m
' (compression)
t
/
m
Use minimum reinf. ratio = 0.0018
A
s
use 5
0.0018(10)(100)
8 mm/m
1.8 cm
2
' (compression)
Example: Design of a spherical dome
Ring (Hoop) Force
1 


cos 


1 

cos 



0 
N 
wr 2 



0.896 
N 
N
w
u
r
0.52(13.56)
At crown
At foot
cos
2 


2.59 
t 
/ 
m 
'
A
s
0.0018(10)(100)
1.8 cm
2
use minmum reinf. 5
8 mm/m
3.52
t
/
m
' (compression)
(compression)
Example: Design of a spherical dome
Bending Moment
Assume that the thickness at the foot = 15 cm
use minmum reinf. 5
8 mm/m
Example: Design of a spherical Dome
Reinforcement details
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.