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TROLLEY ASSIST TO OPTIMISE HAULING CYCLES WITH ELECTRIC TRUCKS

By

Vicente E. Alvarado
Planning and Development Engineer
Grootegeluk Coal Mine
PURPOSE OF THE PRESENTATION

This presentation discuss the basic analytical tools required to evaluate the feasibility of the
application of TROLLEY ASSIST to mining hauling cycles.

By applying trolley assist, open


cast mining activities may save up
to 50% in the fuel cost and
improve the productivity of the
fleet by 10% or more
INTRODUCTION
TROLLEY ASSIST : What is it?

Power Capacity in a 185


Tonne Truck:
Engine : 2000 HP
An engine drives the alternator Power is collected from a DC Wheels Motors : 3100 HP
to generate power on board of overhead line by means of
the truck. The power is pantographs. The line propels
chenneled to the wheel motors the truck. The engines just
idle along

COMPARATIVE DUTY Accelaration On Flat On ramp Diesel Retarding Trolley

ENGINE Heavy Mild Heavy Low Low

WHEEL Mild Low Mild Heavy Heavy


MOTOR
THE OVERHEAD LINE

The overhead line consists of


galvanised mast poles positioned at
a maximum distance of 50 m apart.
The line is strung with grooved
contact wire, which may be fixed
directly to the poles by means of
insulated brackets or may hang from
a messenger cable, which is fixed to
the poles by means of insulators.
THE TRACTION RECTIFIERS

The rectifiers are sized to supply one truck


permanently. In this way, the number of trucks
to be connected simultaneously to the line
determines the number of rectifiers to supply a
specific line. This distributed scheme reduces
the possibility of overloading the contact wire
and reduces the voltage fluctuations
experienced by the truck

1500

6000 4
1250

5000
1000
DC Current [Amps]

Number of Trucks
3
4000
750

3000 2
500

2000 j 250
1
1000 0
1700
0 0
1660
0 100 200 300 400 500
Time [se] 1620

1580

1540

1500
THE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF THE TRUCK

Speed → Productivity
}
They depend on
Rate of Fuel Consumption → Hauling Cost the operational
conditions of the
Energy Utilisation Rate → Cost of Use of Electric Energy
truck

Flat Retarding
Trolley Loaded
Flat

Tipping
Flat Diesel
Retarding
Loading Empty
Flat
TRUCK SPEED

Truck : EH4500
Electric Drive : Siemens AC Drive
Motor Torque Curves - EH4500
Gross Weight : 960 000 lb
Euclid-Hitachi/Siemens AC Haul Truck Drive
Payload : 255.4 Tonne
Rolling Radius : 67.2 in

Motor To rque [ ftlb ]


Gear Ratio : 35.816 26000

Engine GHP : 2700 24000


Propel, Diesel
Retard, Normal
Grade : 8% Ramp + 2% RR Propel, Trolley
10% Grade
22000
DC Link Voltage, (on
Trolley): 2200 V @
20000 1500 A(max)

960000 lb • 10% • 67.2 in


Motor Torque = ———————————— = 7505 ft lb 18000

2 • 12 in/ft • 35.816 16000

14000

800 rpm • 60 min/hr • 2 • π • 67.2 in 12000

Truck Speed in Diesel = ——————————————— = 14.1 KPH 10000

35.815 • 39380 in/Km


8000

6000

1450 rpm • 60 min/hr • 2 • π • 67.2 in 4000

Truck Speed in Trolley = ——————————————— = 26.1 KPH 2000


35.815 • 39380 in/Km
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3200

3400

3600
Motor Speed [ rpm ]
FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE

In trolley mode, the engine normally idles at


about 750 rpm. In that condition, the load on
the engine is mainly the cooling blower of
the electrical system. This load is normally
about 10% of the gross capacity of the
engine.

In diesel propulsion on a 10% effective grade,


ENGINE IN TRUCK 730E
the engine will develop full power at
maximum speed. In the case of the 12V 4000
engine, this is 2025 BHP at 1900 rpm.

0.33 lb/BHP-Hr • 2025 BHP


Fuel Rate in Diesel = ———————————— = 360 LPH

1.86 lb/L

0.41 lb/BHP-Hr • 2025 BHP • 10%


Fuel Rate in Trolley = ————————————— = 45 LPH

1.86 lb/L
Energy Utilisation in Trolley

For the EH4500 truck, the maximum line voltage is


limited by the capacity of the system specified by 730E Truck Motorised Wheel Curves
Siemens at 2400 volts maximum at the DC link of
the drive. The current is limited at 1500 A.
Therefore the estimated energy utilisation of the
EH4500 truck in trolley mode is 3600 kW.

For the 730E Truck:

Energy Utilisation = 1600 * 1450 / 1000 = 2320 KW


Truck Performance Measurements

Truck 25343 Pe rforma nce Test

Type: Koma tsu 730E


Performance Test on 730E Truck
Capacity: 185 Ton
GVW: 324.3 Ton

Truck Pe rformance 2000 48


Opera tion Index Unit Te st 1 Te st 2 Test 3 Te st 4

Comple te Te st
Da te 01/08/2002 01/08/2002 01/08/2002 01/08/2002
Sta rt 12:25:28 9:56:04 10:31:16 11:01:46 1500 36
Finish 12:44:58 10:28:08 10:57:45 11:37:20
Duration 0:19:30 0:32:04 0:26:29 0:35:34
Fuel Used Lts 42.91 37.38 34.63 44.66
Tra ve l Km 9.075 7.921 7.660 8.252
1000 24 MWcurrent in Amps
Accelera tion Time sec 93.7 88.6
(Fully Loaded) Total Fuel
Tra ve l
Lts
Km
4.13
0.756
4.35
0.592
Trolley cur in Amps

Vo lts - A m p s - LP
Idling Time sec 885.1 625.7 1060.9
500 12 Trolley volt in volt
Fuel Consump Lts 5.08 4.32 8.23
Av. Fue l ConsumpLph 20.67 24.86 27.92
Fuel cons. in LPH

K PH
On Flat Roa d Time sec 341.1 293 357.9 402
Fuel Consump Lts 14.54 11.07 14.64 16.51
0 0 Idling
Tra ve l Km 3.460 3.026 3.728 4.218
Av. Fue l ConsumpLph 153 136 147 148
Av. Truck Spe ed Kph 36.5 37.2 37.5 37.8 1 1448 2895 4342 5789 7236 8683 10130115771302414471 Truck speed in Km/h
On Ra mp Diesel Time sec 78.3 44.4 22.2 40.8
-500 -12 Window Trolley
Fuel Consump Lts 8.03 4.57 2.25 4.04
Tra ve l Km 0.429 0.236 0.112 0.196
Av. Fue l ConsumpLph 369 371 364 357 Window Retarding
Av. Truck Spe ed Kph 19.7 19.1 18.1 17.3

In Trolley Mode Time sec 89.2 178.9 146.1 140.4 -1000 -24 Ramp Diesel
Fuel Consump Lts 1.25 1.69 1.16 1.50
Tra ve l Km 0.602 1.248 1.029 0.919 On Flat
Energy KW Hr 52 102 78 79
Av. Fue l ConsumpLph 50 34 29 39
Av. Truck Spe ed Kph 24.3 25.1 25.4 23.6 -1500 -36
Av. Ene rgy UsageKW 2085 2050 1923 2024

In Reta rding Time sec 258.3 214.6 162.6 149.1


Fuel Consump Lts 2.71 2.41 1.90 1.81
Tra ve l Km
Av. Fue l ConsumpLph
1.358
38
1.717
40
1.412
42
1.222
44
-2000 -48
Av. Truck Spe ed Kph 18.9 28.8 31.3 29.5
Loade d Empty
EVALUATION OF THE TROLLEY ASSIST SYSTEM

Payload 185 Tonne

Condition Idling Flat r oad On Ram p Die sIn Tr olley ModFlat r oad Idling Flat r oad Re tar ding Flat r oad Cycle
Loading Loaded Loaded Loaded Loade d Tipping Empty Empty Empty Summar y

Dis tance in [m] 800 400 1000 200 200 1400 200

Per form ance with Trolley


Spe ed [KPH] 0 35.1 12.2 23.7 35.1 0 35.1 26.4 35.1
Fuel Rate[LPH 30.2 144.1 367.0 37.4 144.1 30.2 86.4 44.2 86.4
E. Rate [KW] 0 0 0 1930 0 0 0 0 0

Tim e [s ec] 360 82 118 152 21 300 21 191 21 1265


Fuel [Lts ] 3.0 3.3 12.0 1.6 0.8 2.5 0.5 2.3 0.5 27
Energy [KWHr 0 0 0 81.5 0 0 0 0 0 82
Truck Productivity TPH 527

Per form ance only in Dies el


Spe ed [KPH] 0 35.1 12.2 12.2 35.1 0 35.1 26.4 35.1
Fuel Rate[LPH 30.2 144.1 367.0 367.0 144.1 30.2 86.4 44.2 26.5
E. Rate [KW] 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0

Tim e [s ec] 360 82 118 295 21 300 21 191 21 1408


Fuel [Lts ] 3.0 3.3 12.0 30.1 0.8 2.5 0.5 2.3 0.2 55
Energy [KWHr 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Truck Productivity TPH 473
EVALUATION OF THE TROLLEY ASSIST SYSTEM

Payload 255 Tonne

Condition Idling Flat road On Ram p DiesIn Trolley ModFlat road Idling Flat road Re tarding Flat road Cycle
Loading Loade d Loaded Loaded Loade d Tipping Em pty Empty Em pty Summ ary

Distance in [m] 800 400 1000 200 200 1400 200

Pe rformance w ith Trolley


Speed [KPH] 0 36.1 16.0 31.5 36.1 0 36.1 27.0 36.1
Fuel Rate[LPH 34.0 199.9 499.8 46.4 199.9 34.0 119.9 30.5 119.9
E. Rate [KW] 0 0 0 3377 0 0 0 0 0

Time [se c] 360 80 90 114 20 300 20 186 20 1190


Fuel [Lts] 3.4 4.4 12.5 1.5 1.1 2.8 0.7 1.6 0.7 29
Energy [KWHr 0 0 0 107.3 0 0 0 0 0 107
Truck Productivity TPH 771

Pe rformance only in Die se l


Speed [KPH] 0 36.1 16.0 16.0 36.1 0 36.1 27.0 36.1
Fuel Rate[LPH 34.0 199.9 499.8 499.8 199.9 34.0 119.9 30.5 18.3
E. Rate [KW] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Time [se c] 360 80 90 225 20 300 20 186 20 1301


Fuel [Lts] 3.4 4.4 12.5 31.2 1.1 2.8 0.7 1.6 0.1 58
Energy [KWHr 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Truck Productivity TPH 706
THE RELIABILITY OF THE SYSTEM
Dispatch PowerView® - Panto Utilization (Fleet)

Haulpak 730E Euclid EH4500 Euclid EH3500 Total P. Fleet


Total Actual Util Total Actual Util Total Actual Util Total Actual Util
Aug-08 8019104 6174416 77% 746419 508819 68% 4397335 3430061 78% 13162858 10113296 77%
Sep-08 7856927 6275095 80% 1011703 742567 73% 3960866 3191251 81% 12829496 10208913 80%
Oct-08 6140578 4912127 80% 1005292 741819 74% 3602549 2878114 80% 10748419 8532060 79%
Nov-08 6928293 5701496 82% 696260 501402 72% 3897195 3217586 83% 11521748 9420484 82%
Dec-08 9163884 7296450 80% 1670151 1153852 69% 4466117 3431860 77% 15300152 11882162 78%
Jan-09 9657243 7750729 80% 2182507 1521806 70% 5138075 4167920 81% 16977825 13440455 79%
Feb-09 6744504 5685332 84% 1665515 1268863 76% 4160781 3525916 85% 12570800 10480111 83%
Mar-09 6477716 5501435 85% 1675983 1242466 74% 3640241 3059834 84% 11793940 9803735 83%
Apr-09
May-09
Jun-09
Jul-09 TROLLEY UTILISATION AT GROOTEGELUK MINE

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%
Oct-08

Nov-08
Aug-08

Dec-08

Jan-09

Feb-09

Jun-09

Jul-09
Sep-08

Apr-09

May-09
Mar-09
CONCLUSION
THANK YOU VERY MUCH