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US 20190016231A1

( 19) United States


(12 ) Scaringe
Patent etApplication
al.
Publication ( 10) Pub . No.: US 2019 /0016231 A1
(43) Pub . Date: Jan . 17 , 2019
(54 ) ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH MODULAR HOLM 10 /613 (2006 .01 )
REMOVABLE AUXILIARY BATTERY WITH BOOL 1 / 00 ( 2006 .01)
INTEGRATED COOLING (52) U . S . CI.
CPC ....... BOOL 11/ 1874 ( 2013.01); HOIM 10 /625
(71) Applicants:Rivian Automotive , LLC , Plymouth , (2015 .04 ); HOIM 10 /613 (2015 .04 ); BOOL
MI (US ); Rivian Automotive , Inc., 2240/ 545 (2013 .01) ; B60L 11 / 1877 ( 2013 .01) ;
Wilmington , DE (US ) B60L 11/ 1864 (2013 .01); HOIM 2220 / 20
( 2013 .01); B60L 1 /003 ( 2013 .01)
(72 ) Inventors : Robert J . Scaringe , Plymouth , MI
(US); Charles Chang , Coto De Caza, (57) ABSTRACT
CA (US ); Henry Huang , Ann Arbor , An electric vehicle system for transporting human passen
MI (US ); Patrick Hunt, Evanston , IL gers or cargo includes an electric vehicle that includes a
(US) body , a plurality of wheels , a cargo area , an electric motor
for propelling the electric vehicle , and a primary battery for
(21) Appl. No.: 16 /032 ,594 providing electrical power to the electric motor for propel
ling the electric vehicle . An auxiliary battery module is
(22) Filed : Jul. 11, 2018 attachable to the electric vehicle for providing electrical
power to the electric motor via a first electrical connector at
Related U .S . Application Data the auxiliary battery module and a second electrical con
(60 ) Provisional application No. 62/531,847, filed on Jul. nector at the electric vehicle that mates with the first
12 , 2017 . electrical connector. The auxiliary battery module can be
positioned in the cargo area while supplying power to the
Publication Classification electric motor, and can be removable and reattachable from
the electric vehicle . The auxiliary battery module includes
(51 ) Int . Ci. an integrated cooling system for cooling itself during opera
B60L 11/ 18 ( 2006 . 01) tion of the electric vehicle including a conduit therein for
HOIM 10 /625 ( 2006 .01) circulating coolant.

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US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH MODULAR auxiliary battery and adjustment of settings that govern the
REMOVABLE AUXILIARY BATTERY WITH ride performance of the electric vehicle when the auxiliary
INTEGRATED COOLING battery module is attached to (e. g ., mounted in the electric
[0001] This application claims the benefit of U . S . Provi vehicle .
sional PatentApplication No.62/ 531, 847 filed Jul. 12 , 2017 , [0005 ] According to an example , an electric vehicle sys
the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by tem for transporting human passengers or cargo includes an
reference . electric vehicle that includes a body , a plurality of wheels, a
cargo area , an electric motor for propelling the electric
BACKGROUND vehicle , and a primary battery for providing electrical power
to the electric motor for propelling the electric vehicle . The
Field of the Disclosure electric vehicle system also includes an auxiliary battery
[0002 ] The present disclosure relates to vehicles, such as module that is attachable to the electric vehicle for providing
electrical power to the electric motor via a first electrical
electric vehicles including hybrid vehicles, and more par connector at the auxiliary battery module and a second
ticularly to an auxiliary battery system for electric vehicles . electrical connector at the electric vehicle that mates with
Background Information the first electrical connector. The auxiliary battery module is
configured to be positioned in the cargo area while supplying
[0003] Electric automotive vehicles are of great interest power to the electric motor, and is configured to be remov
for transportation applications and can provide benefits of able and reattachable from the electric vehicle . The auxiliary
low or zero emissions, quiet operation and reduced depen battery module includes an integrated cooling system for
dence upon fossil fuels. However , the range of typical cooling the auxiliary battery module during operation of the
electrical vehicles may be insufficient for some uses . The electric vehicle , the integrated cooling system including a
present inventors have observed a need for an improved conduit for circulating coolant within the auxiliary battery
approach for providing extended range for electric automo module .
tive vehicles . [0006 ] According to an example, an auxiliary battery
module for providing electrical power to a powertrain of an
SUMMARY electric vehicle for transporting human passengers or cargo
[0004 ] The present inventors have observed a need for an is described . The auxiliary battery module includes : a bat
auxiliary battery system for an electric automotive vehicle to tery housing ; a battery disposed in the battery housing ;
increase the range of the electric vehicle , and in particular, support portions at the battery housing configured to
an auxiliary battery system that can be carried by the electric securely mount the battery housing of the auxiliary battery
vehicle, e.g., in a cargo area of the electric vehicle , and that module to support members of an electric vehicle at a cargo
can be efficiently cooled . The present disclosure describes an area of the electric vehicle using releasable fasteners or
exemplary electric vehicle system including an electric latching mechanisms to permit the auxiliary battery module
vehicle and an auxiliary battery module that can be easily to be removed from and reattached to the electric vehicle ; a
attached to , removed from and reattached to the electric first electrical connector at the battery housing and electri
vehicle as desired , and that can be cooled by sharing coolant cally connected to the battery disposed in the battery hous
of the electric vehicle 's cooling system that cools the ing, the first electrical connector configured to mate with a
vehicle 's primary powertrain electric battery . For example, corresponding second electrical connector at the electric
liquid coolant such as ethylene glycol can be circulated vehicle to permit the auxiliary battery module to power a
through cooling lines ( conduits ) in the primary powertrain powertrain of the electric vehicle to propel the electric
battery and through cooling lines in the auxiliary battery vehicle ; and an integrated cooling system inside the battery
module to cool both the primary battery and the auxiliary housing for cooling the auxiliary battery module during
battery , wherein , e . g ., the liquid coolant for the primary operation of the electric vehicle, the integrated cooling
power train battery and the liquid coolant for the auxiliary system comprising a conduit for circulating coolant within
battery module are both cooled by a shared heat exchanger the auxiliary battery module .
that exchanges heat between the coolant and a refrigerant. [0007 ] According to an example , a method of utilizing an
The present disclosure also describes an exemplary electric auxiliary battery module with an electric vehicle , the electric
vehicle system including an electric vehicle and an auxiliary vehicle suitable for transporting human occupants or cargo ,
battery module that can be easily attached to , removed from is described . The method includes attaching an auxiliary
and reattached to the electric vehicle as desired , and that battery module to an electric vehicle , the auxiliary battery
includes its own separate and distinct refrigerant- based module being configured to be removable from and reat
cooling system . When outfitted with the auxiliary battery , tachable to the electric vehicle , said attaching comprising
the electric vehicle can detect the fact that the auxiliary electrically connecting the auxiliary battery module in par
battery is attached to ( e .g ., mounted in the electric vehicle allel with a primary battery of the electric vehicle ; providing
( e. g ., in cargo bed ) and automatically set one of multiple electrical power from the auxiliary battery module to an
predetermined feature sets , e . g ., that pertain to driving electric motor of the electric vehicle via a first electrical
performance of the electric vehicle . Such feature sets may connector at the auxiliary battery module and a second
set , for example , certain suspension characteristics appro electrical connector at the electric vehicle that mates with
priate for the attachment of the auxiliary battery, such as , the first electrical connector for propelling the electric
e . g ., a setting for firmness of ride of the vehicle , braking vehicle ; monitoring a temperature of the main battery of the
performance/sensitivity , nominal suspension height, effec electric vehicle and a temperature of the auxiliary battery
tive steering ratio , etc . Exemplary approaches described module ; and cooling the auxiliary battery module based on
herein may provide for both integrated cooling of the said monitoring with an integrated cooling system of the
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

auxiliary battery module during operation of the electric DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY
vehicle, the integrated cooling system comprising a conduit EMBODIMENTS
for circulating coolant within the auxiliary battery module .
[ 0008 ] According to an example , an auxiliary battery [0017 FIG . 1A illustrates an exemplary automotive elec
module system for an electric vehicle , the electric vehicle tric vehicle system comprising an electric vehicle 100 and a
suitable for transporting human occupants or cargo , is removable auxiliary electric battery module 102 that can be
described . The auxiliary battery module system includes: attached , removed , and reattached to the same electric
means for attaching an auxiliary battery module to an vehicle 100 or a different electric vehicle to provide addi
electric vehicle , the auxiliary battery module being config tional power to the powertrain of an electric vehicle for
ured to be removable from and reattachable to the electric propelling the vehicle as may be desired according to an
vehicle, said means for attaching electrically connecting the example of the disclosure . As shown in FIG . 1A , the
auxiliary battery module in parallel with a primary battery of exemplary electric automotive vehicle 100 includes a body
the electric vehicle ; means for providing electrical power 104 ,multiple wheels/tires 106 , a cabin 108 sized for one or
from the auxiliary battery module to an electric motor of the more human occupants , one or more doors 110 that provide
electric vehicle via a first electrical connector at the auxiliary access to the cabin 108 , and a cargo area 112 ( e. g ., cargo
battery module and a second electrical connector at the bed ) including a support surface 114 and side members 116
electric vehicle that mates with the first electrical connector ( e . g ., bed sides ). The electric vehicle 100 may also include
for propelling the electric vehicle ; means for monitoring a a cargo area door 118 ( e . g ., tailgate ). The electric vehicle 100
temperature of the main battery of the electric vehicle and a also includes one or more electric motors (not shown in FIG .
temperature of the auxiliary battery module; and means for 1A ) for propelling the electric vehicle 100 and a primary
cooling the auxiliary battery module based on said moni battery (not shown in FIG . 1A ) for providing electrical
toring with an integrated cooling system of the auxiliary power to the electric motor (s ) for propelling the electric
battery module during operation of the electric vehicle , the vehicle 100 .
integrated cooling system comprising a conduit for circu [0018 ] The electric vehicle 100 is suitable for driving on
lating coolant within the auxiliary battery module . roadways and may be shared among a plurality of users
(drivers ) or among a plurality of uses controlled by an entity
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES (owner or other responsible entity) to permit enhanced
[0009] FIGS. 1A - 1C illustrate an exemplary electric utilization of the vehicle 100 . The vehicle 100 may be
vehicle system including an electric vehicle with a primary configured for driving by a human driver or configured for
battery and including a removable auxiliary battery module autonomous driving without a human driver. For autono
that can be removed from and reattached to the electric mous driving without a human driver, the vehicle can be
vehicle according to examples of the disclosure . configured with an array of sensors, including LIDAR (light
[0010 ] FIG . 2 illustrates exemplary dry - break fluid con detection and ranging ), camera systems for acquiring real
nectors that may be utilized to pass coolant between an time video imagery of obstacles and other vehicles, GPS
electric vehicle and an auxiliary battery module according to ( global positioning system ), wireless communication sys
examples of the disclosure tems for sending and receiving communications regarding
road information and traffic in real -time, as well as a
[0011 ] FIGS. 3A - 3C illustrates exemplary attachment computer for applying driving rules and making driving
components for attaching an auxiliary battery module to an decisions based on data and information acquired from the
electric vehicle according to examples of the disclosure . foregoing, in a suitable manner such as conventionally
[0012 ] FIGS. 4A -4C illustrate another exemplary electric known in the art.
vehicle system including an electric vehicle with a primary
battery and including a removable auxiliary battery module [0019 ] As shown in FIG . 1C , the exemplary auxiliary
that can be removed from and reattached to the electric battery module 102 comprises a battery housing 103 and a
vehicle according to examples of the disclosure . battery disposed therein comprising a plurality of individual
battery cells (not shown ) , and those battery cells may be
[0013] FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate exemplary block dia arranged and configured within the auxiliary battery module
grams of an electric vehicle and an auxiliary battery module 102 in any suitable manner such as conventionally known in
according to examples of the disclosure . the art for powertrain batteries for electric vehicles . The
[ 0014 ] FIGS. 6A -6D illustrate block diagrams of exem auxiliary battery module 102 may be configured to provide ,
plary thermal management systems for cooling a primary for example , 10 kWh , 15 kWh, 20 kWh, etc., of electrical
battery of an electric vehicle and an auxiliary battery module energy and may weight several hundred pounds or more .
connected to the electric vehicle , wherein coolant from the Accordingly, the battery housing 103 and any inner supports
electric vehicle is used to cool the auxiliary battery module for the auxiliary battery module 102 should be constructed
according to examples of the disclosure . of sufficiently strong materials, such as metal alloys , fiber
[0015 ] FIG . 7A illustrates an exemplary removable aux composite materials , combinations thereof, etc ., so as to
iliary battery module that can be removed from and reat support the weight of the auxiliary battery module 102 and
tached to an electric vehicle according with an integrated , provide sufficient strength in the attachment regions thereof,
independent cooling system to examples of the disclosure . to accommodate normal expected use and remain secured in
[0016 ] FIGS. 73 -7D illustrate block diagrams of exem potential collision events. The corresponding supporting
plary thermal management systems for cooling a primary portions of the electric vehicle 100 should likewise be
battery of an electric vehicle and an auxiliary battery module constructed of such materials to sufficient strength . The main
connected to the electric vehicle whose thermalmanagement battery may be configured to provide , for example , 50 kWh ,
systems are separate and distinct according to examples of 70 kWh , 100 kWh , etc ., of electrical energy , and it will be
the disclosure . appreciated therefore that the auxiliary battery module can
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

provide substantially additional power for increasing the over-center latches with locks, tab - in -slot latching mecha
range of the electric vehicle 100 . nisms ( e. g ., similar to seat belt/ safety belt locking mecha
[0020 ] In the example of FIG . 1A , the auxiliary battery nisms), and electromechanical automatic cinching latches
module 102 is configured to have a height and width such as commonly used on vehicle door locks provided they
approximately the same as the height and width of the cargo are constructed using suitable strength / gauge materials to
area 112 , e . g ., about 15 - 20 inches deep by about 48 -60 accommodate the weight of the auxiliary battery module
inches wide , for instance , and a depth in the lengthwise 102 , which may be several hundred pounds or more . Of
direction of about 12 - 24 inches, for instance. This configu course , the side members 116 and/ or other support members
ration permits a substantial portion of the cargo area 112 to of the electric vehicle 100 to which the auxiliary battery
remain available for other cargo . These dimensions are module 102 is attached should be constructed of high
merely exemplary , and other dimensions may be used . strength materials with suitable underlying supports to
[0021 ] As shown in FIGS. 1A -1C , the exemplary auxiliary accommodate the weight of the auxiliary battery module 102
battery module 102 includes a battery housing 103 and a first for normal expected uses and potential collision impacts .
electrical connector 120 mounted to the housing 103 , and the The auxiliary battery module 102 may be attached to ,
electric vehicle 100 includes a second electrical connector removed from , and reattached the electric vehicle 100 , or
122 mounted to a forward sidewall of the cargo area 112 , another electric vehicle equipped to accommodate auxiliary
wherein the second electrical connector 122 mates with the battery modules like auxiliary battery module 102 , such as
first electrical connector 120 such that the auxiliary battery for a fleet of electric vehicles that are equipped to accom
module 102 can provide electrical power to the electric modate such auxiliary battery modules 102 .
motor ( s ) that propel the electric vehicle 102 . In other words, [0023 ] According to an example , as shown in FIG . 1C , and
both the primary battery of the electric vehicle 100 and the as will be discussed in further detail below , the auxiliary
auxiliary battery module 102 can provide power to the battery module 102 includes an integrated cooling system
electric motor ( s ) of the vehicle powertrain to propel the for cooling the auxiliary battery module 102 during opera
electric vehicle 100 . In this regard , and as will be discussed tion of the vehicle, wherein the integrated cooling system
in further detail below , the electrical connectors 120 and 122 comprises a first conduit portion 140 within the auxiliary
include high - voltage connections 120a , 120b and 122a , battery 102 for circulating coolant within the auxiliary
122b , respectively, that permit the auxiliary battery module battery module 102 . The first conduit portion 140 may wind
102 to be electrically connected in parallel with the vehicle ' s between and among the multiple individual battery cells (not
primary battery and may include one or more low -voltage shown ) of the auxiliary battery module 102, and in this
connections 120c and 122c , respectively, to provide electri regard , the first conduit portion 140 may configured as
cal connection to sensors and electrical circuitry for moni tubing ( e.g ., tubing of copper alloy , aluminum alloy , steel
toring and control associated with operation of the auxiliary alloy, etc . ) that winds among the multiple battery cells , e . g .,
battery module 102 when attached to the electric vehicle with windings at multiple heights . Thermal contact between
100 . the first conduit portion 140 and the battery cells may be
[ 0022 ] The auxiliary battery module 102 can be config enhanced to facilitate transfer of heat between the conduit
ured to be positioned in the cargo area 112 of the electric 140 and the battery cells, e.g ., by disposing any suitable
vehicle 100 while supplying electric power to the motor( s ) thermal contact material therebetween , such as thermoplas
that propel the electric vehicle , and can be configured to be tic materials with good thermal conductivity known in the
removable from and reattachable to the electric vehicle 100 . art for conducting heat from and / or to battery cells . As
In this regard , as shown in FIGS. 1A - 1C , protruding support shown in FIGS. 1A - 1C , the auxiliary battery module 102
portions 121 ( support members ) that protrude laterally at a includes a first fluid connector 124 including an inlet port
top side of the auxiliary battery module 102 may be placed 124a and an outlet port 124b , and the electric vehicle 100
on corresponding recessed portions 123 of the vehicle side includes a complementary second fluid connector 126 that
members 116 to support the auxiliary battery module 102 . mates with the first fluid connector 124 and that includes a
For example , the auxiliary battery module 102 may be complementary inlet port 126a and a complementary outlet
lowered onto the electric vehicle 100 via a winch with a port 126b and to provide liquid -tight couplings that permit
cable and hooks that can hook onto grab areas 142 shown in flow of coolant from the electric vehicle 100 into the
FIG . 1C , or the auxiliary battery module 102 may be auxiliary battery module 102 and that permits return flow of
lowered with a winch that includes cables attached to coolant from the auxiliary battery module 102 back to the
threaded eye-bolts which may be screwed into holes 134 of electric vehicle 100 . For example , the respective inlet ports
the auxiliary battery module 102 in examples where those and outlet ports can be provided by suitable metal flat- face ,
holes 134 are threaded . Alternatively, the auxiliary battery dry -break connectors , such as illustrated by connector 150
module may include bottom cutout portions in the battery and connector 160 shown in the example of FIG . 2 .
housing 103 to accommodate forks of a forklift so that the [0024 ] Conventional flat-face , dry -break connectors are a
auxiliary battery module 102 can lifted with a forklift and type of dry -break connector that permits fluid - flow systems
lowered onto the electric vehicle 100 . Once the auxiliary to be separated with little to no loss of fluid . Such conven
battery module 102 is in proper position , fasteners such as tional flat - face , dry -break connectors include a releasable
threaded bolts may be placed through holes 134 of the locking mechanism based on complementary locking fea
auxiliary battery module 102 and fastened into receptacles tures to lock first and second ( e . g ., male and female ) ends
such as threaded holes 132 located at the recessed portions together when coupled , such as 1 ) a retractable sleeve on one
123 of the side members 116 to secure the auxiliary battery connector that forces a ring of metal bearings into a ring
module 102 to the electric vehicle 100 . Other latching shaped groove on the other connector, 2 ) complementary
mechanisms other than threaded bolts may be used to secure threaded housings that screw together, or 3 ) a protrusion on
the auxiliary battery module 102 , such as, for example , one connector that rides in a groove on the other connector
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

and locks with a relative rotation of the connectors. In length in a lengthwise direction extending between the front
contrast to conventional dry -break connectors that include and rear of the vehicle 100 that is longer, e .g ., several (3 , 4 ,
an integrated locking mechanism via integrated locking 5 , 6 ) inches longer, than a length of the protruding support
features provided at the housings of the connectors, accord portions 121 of the auxiliary battery module in the length
ing to examples of the present disclosure , the first and wise direction . The auxiliary battery module 102 can thereby
second fluid connectors 124 and 126 can each be provided be lowered initially onto the electric vehicle rearward of its
by a pair of flat- face, dry -break connectors without a locking intended final position , e. g ., several inches rearward , so that
mechanism at the first and second connectors , i. e ., without no vertical interference occurs between first and second
locking features on the respective connector housings, such electrical connectors 120 and 122 nor between first and
as illustrated in FIG . 2 . In this regard , a connector 150 as second fluid connectors 124 and 126 as the auxiliary battery
shown in FIG . 2 may serve as inlet port 124a , and another module 102 is being lowered , so as to prevent any damage
such connector 150 may serve as inlet port 126a . Likewise , to such connectors during attachment (mounting ) of the
a connector 160 may serve as outlet port 124b , and another auxiliary battery module 102 . The auxiliary battery module
such connector 160 may serve as outlet port 126b . 102 can then be pushed forward to engage the electrical and
[0025 ] Exemplary connector 150 includes a metalhousing fluid connections and secure the auxiliary battery module
152, a spring loaded retractable metal sleeve 154, and a 102 to the electric vehicle 100 .
metal center rod 156 . Exemplary connector 160 includes a [0027 ] To further facilitate proper alignment of the auxil
metal housing 162 , a metal sleeve , and a retractable metal iary battery module 102 , as illustrated in the example of
piston 166 . Connector 150 can be connected to connector FIGS. 1A - 1C , receptacles 128 recessed into a forward
160 by bringing their respective faces into contact and sidewall of the cargo area 112 , having a tapered opening
forcing them together, whereby sleeve 164 pushes retract portion 128a and a cylindrical opening portion 128b , can
able sleeve 154 inward , and center rod 156 pushes piston mate with protruding alignment members 130 at a forward
166 inward , such that a fluid pathway is opened between sidewall of the battery housing 103 of the auxiliary battery
connectors 150 and 160, with a fluid -tight connection being module 102 , wherein the protruding alignmentmembers 130
made by internal seals . The internal seals and internal have a complementary tapered portion 130a and cylindrical
mechanisms of the connectors 150 and 160 are of a typical portion 130b . After the auxiliary battery module 102 is
nature for conventional flat -face connectors known in the initially positioned so as to place protruding support portions
art. Aside from the lack of integrated locking features at the 121 on recessed portions 123 of the vehicle side members
housings of connectors 150 and 160 , the connectors 150 and 116 , the auxiliary battery module 102 can then pushed
160 can be otherwise configured to satisfy desired perfor forward , any misalignment of the auxiliary battery module
mance specifications, such as, e.g ., military specifications will be corrected as the protruding cylindrical portion 130b
MIL - C - 7413B or MIL - C - 25427A . Integrated locking fea contacts tapered opening portion 128a , which then guide
tures need not be provided at connectors 150 and 160, e. g., protruding cylindrical portion 130b into cylindrical opening
at the housings 152 and 162 thereof, because the auxiliary portion 128b as the auxiliary battery module 102 is pushed
battery module 102 is structurally secured to the electric forward , thereby providing for proper connection and seat
vehicle 100 with structural fasteners or other latching ing of the first and second electrical connectors 120 , 122 and
mechanisms as previously described herein , thereby secur the first and second fluid connectors 124 , 126 . The recep
ing and maintaining the first and second electrical connec tacle 128 and corresponding protruding portion 130 may be
tors 120 , 122 and first and second fluid connectors 124 , 126 configured to have sizes in a lengthwise direction extending
fixed in place relative to their respective counterpart between the front and rear of the electric vehicle 100 such
( complementary ) connectors. that the receptacle 128 and protruding portion 130 engage
[0026 ] To facilitate proper positioning of the auxiliary and align before the respective electrical connectors 120 and
battery module 102 relative to the electric vehicle 100 to 122 and respective fluid connectors 124 and 126 engage
thereby provide proper alignment of the first and second with one another, so as to ensure proper alignment and
electrical connectors 120 , 122 and the first and second fluid prevent damage to such connectors.
connectors 124 , 126 during attachment (mounting), [0028 ] Additionally, according to another exemplary
removal, and reattachment of the auxiliary battery module aspect, as shown in FIGS. 3A -3C , an insert 170 may be
102 in relation to the electric vehicle 100, an alignment provided to fill the recessed portion 123 when an auxiliary
system may be provided . In this regard , alignment guides battery module 102 is not attached to the electric vehicle
can provided at the electric vehicle 100 that mate with 100 . For example , the insert 170 may comprise a first (e . g .,
alignment members at the auxiliary battery module 102 to front ) insert member 172 and a second ( e . g ., rear ) insert
guide the positioning of the auxiliary battery module 102 member 174 , which may be attached to the sidewall mem
during attachment. For example , as illustrated in FIGS. bers 116 with fasteners such as threaded bolts that pass
1A - 1C , protruding support portions 121 of the auxiliary through holes in the insert 170 and can be secured into
battery module 102 may have downward facing tapered threaded holes 132 . The insert 170 may be made from metal
surfaces 121a that mate with complementary upward facing alloy ( e . g ., aluminum alloy ), plastic materials , or composite
tapered surfaces 123a of recessed portions 123 of sidewall materials, for example . As shown in FIG . 3B , the insert 170
members 116 . In this way , when the auxiliary battery module can be removed , and an auxiliary battery module 102 can be
102 is lowered onto the electric vehicle 100 , downward lowered onto the electric vehicle several inches rearward of
facing tapered surfaces 121a will contact upward facing the intended final secured position of the auxiliary battery
tapered surfaces 123a , such that any lateralmisalignment of module 102 . As shown in FIG . 3C , the auxiliary battery
the auxiliary battery module 102 relative to the supporting module can then be pushed forward to its final intended
recessed portions 123, will undergo self-correcting align position and secured to the electric vehicle 100 as described
ment (self alignment). The recessed portions 123 can have a above. Finally , the second (rear) insertmember 174 can be
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

inserted into the remaining gap of the recessed portion 123 224 including an inlet port 224a and an outlet port 224b, and
so as to eliminate the gap and provide a smooth , continuous the electric vehicle 100 includes a complementary second
surface across the tops of the sidemember 116 , second insert fluid connector 126 that mates with the first fluid connector
member 174 , and protruding support portions 121. In this 224 . The second fluid connector 126 includes a inlet port
regard , it will be appreciated that insert 170 has a size and 126a and an outlet port 126b complementary to those of
shape like that of the protruding support portions 121, and fluid connector 224 , and provide liquid - tight couplings that
complementary to the size and shape of the recessed portion permits flow of coolant from the electric vehicle 100 into the
123. auxiliary battery module 202 and that permits return flow of
[ 0029 ] While one auxiliary battery module 102 is illus coolant from the auxiliary battery module 202 to the electric
trated in FIGS. 1A and 1B , multiple auxiliary battery mod vehicle 100 . For example , these respective inlet ports and
ules 102 may be utilized and attached to (mounted in the outlet ports can be provided by metal flat-face , dry -break
electric vehicle 100 and electrically connected together in connectors , such as illustrated by connector 150 and con
parallel to provide further electrical power reserves , e . g ., by nector 160 shown in the example of FIG . 2 as previously
placing one next to another. In such cases , one or more of the described .
auxiliary battery modules may each be equipped with mul [0032 ] Additionally , the exemplary auxiliary battery mod
tiple electrical connectors in a manner such as described ule 202 includes a first electrical connector 220 , and the
above to provide electrical connection between adjacent electric vehicle 100 includes a second electrical connector
auxiliary battery modules 102 themselves as well as to the 122 that mates with the first electrical connector 220 such
electric vehicle 100 . Additional electrical connection con that the auxiliary battery module 202 can provide electrical
siderations for such examples will be discussed below . Also , power to the electric motor (s ) that propel the electric vehicle
in such cases, one or more of the auxiliary battery modules 202 . The electrical connector 220 includes high - voltage
may each be equipped with multiple fluid connectors in a connections 220a and 220b that permit the auxiliary battery
manner such as described above to provide coolant flow module 202 to be electrically connected in parallel with the
between adjacent auxiliary battery modules 102 themselves vehicle ' s primary battery and may include one or more
as well as to the electric vehicle 100 . low - voltage connections 220c, respectively , to provide elec
[0030] Another example of an electric vehicle system trical connection via connection 122c to sensors and elec
according to the disclosure is illustrated in FIGS. 4A -4C . trical circuitry for monitoring and control associated with
The electric vehicle system illustrated in FIGS. 4A -4C operation of the auxiliary battery module 202 when attached
comprises an electric vehicle 100 and another example of an to the electric vehicle 100.
auxiliary battery module 202. The electric vehicle 100 [0033 ] The auxiliary battery module 202 illustrated in
illustrated in the example of FIGS. 4A -4C is the same as the FIGS .4A - 4C can be configured to be positioned in the cargo
electric vehicle 100 previously described in connection with area 112 of the electric vehicle 100 while supplying electric
FIGS . 1A - 1C and 3A - 3C , and description of the electric power to the motor( s ) that propel the electric vehicle , and
vehicle 100 is not reproduced again here . In this example , can be configured to be removable from and reattachable to
the auxiliary battery module 202 has a different shape than the electric vehicle 100 . In this regard , as shown in FIGS.
the auxiliary module 102 previously described herein , the 4A - 4C , fasteners such as threaded bolts may be placed
auxiliary battery module 202 having a shorter height, e. g., of through holes 234 of the auxiliary battery module 202 and
about 8 - 12 inches , for instance , and a width and depth that fastened into receptacles such as threaded holes 139 located
about the same as the usable width and depth of the cargo in the support surface 114 of the cargo area 112 . Other
area 112 , e .g ., about 48 -60 inches by about60 - 80 inches, for latching mechanisms other than threaded bolts may be used
instance . These dimensions are merely exemplary, and other to secure the auxiliary battery module 102 , such as, for
dimensions may be used . example , over -center latches with locks, tab - in -slot latching
[0031] In other respects, the construction and features of mechanisms (e. g., similar to seat belt/safety belt locking
the auxiliary battery module 202 are like those of the mechanisms), and electromechanical automatic cinching
auxiliary battery module 102 previously described . Briefly , latches such as commonly used on vehicle door lock ,
the auxiliary battery module 202 includes a battery housing provided they are made of suitable strength / gauge materials
203 and a battery disposed within the battery housing 203, to accommodate the weight of the auxiliary battery module
the battery comprising a plurality of individualbattery cells 102, which may be several hundred pounds or more .
( not shown ). The auxiliary battery module further includes [0034 ] In examples , the auxiliary battery module 202 may
a first conduit portion 240 within the auxiliary battery 202 be lowered onto the electric vehicle 100 via a winch with
for circulating coolant within the auxiliary battery module cables attached to threaded eye-bolts which may be screwed
202. The first conduit portion 240 may wind between and into holes 234 of the auxiliary battery module 102 in
among the multiple individual battery cells (not shown ) of examples where those holes 134 are threaded . Alternatively ,
the auxiliary battery module 202 , and in this regard , the first temporary lateral lift bars with openings to accommodate
conduit portion 240 may configured as tubing ( e. g ., tubing forks of a forklift may be attached to the auxiliary battery
of copper alloy , aluminum alloy , steel alloy, etc .) winding module 202 so that the auxiliary battery module 202 can
among the battery cells , e . g ., with windings at multiple lifted with a forklift and lowered onto the electric vehicle
heights . Thermal contact between the first conduit portion 100 .
240 and the battery cells may be enhanced , e.g ., by disposing 100351 Of course , the battery housing 203 and any inner
any suitable thermal contact material disposed therebe supports of the exemplary auxiliary battery module 202
tween , such as thermoplastic materials with good thermal should be constructed of sufficiently strong materials as
conductivity known in the art for conducting heat from discussed above for the exemplary auxiliary battery module
and /or to battery cells . As shown in FIGS. 4A - 4C , the 102 to withstand normal expected use remain secured under
auxiliary battery module 202 includes a first fluid connector potential collision events .
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

[0036 ] While one auxiliary battery module 202 is illus controller 554 via suitable connections and interfaces . The
trated in FIGS. 4A and 4C , multiple auxiliary battery mod vehicle also includes braking system components 564, e . g .,
ules 102 may be utilized and attached to (mounted in the disks and other components for regenerative braking that
electric vehicle 100 and electrically connected together in may be monitored with suitable detection circuitry and
parallel to provide further electrical power reserves , e .g ., by controlled by controller 564 .
stacking auxiliary battery modules 202 one on top of [0040 ] The auxiliary battery module 502 may be electri
another. In such cases , one or more of the auxiliary battery cally connected in parallel to the electric vehicle 500 as
modules may each be equipped with multiple electrical previously described herein for auxiliary battery modules
connectors in a manner such as described above to provide 102 and 202 . Further, in this regard , a switch 566 can be
electrical connection between the auxiliary battery modules provided to electrically isolate the primary battery 552 from
102 themselves as well as to the electric vehicle 100 . the auxiliary battery module 502 until proper electrical
Additional electrical connection considerations for such connection of the auxiliary battery module 502 is obtained ,
examples will be discussed below . Also , in such cases , one e.g ., which can be verified through voltage detection cir
or more of the auxiliary battery modules may each be cuitry that communicates with controller 554. The switch
equipped with multiple fluid connectors in a manner such as 566 is suitable for high -voltage and high -current use , and
described above to provide coolant flow between the aux may be a mechanical switch located in the vehicle to be
iliary battery modules 102 themselves as well as to the operated by a human operator, or the switch 556 may be an
electric vehicle 100 . electromechanical switch suitable for the voltages and cur
[0037] Further considerationsrelating to configuration and rents applicable to powertrains for electric vehicles, e .g ., up
operation of an electric vehicle equipped with an exemplary to several hundred volts and many tens of amps for varying
auxiliary battery module 102 or 202 will now be described durations of aggressive driving , and which may be auto
with reference to the block diagrams of FIGS. 5A and 5B , matically actuated under control of the controller 554 .
which illustrate with additional detail an exemplary electric [0041 ] In addition , a DC /DC converter 568 can be con
vehicle 500 like electric vehicle 100 previously described . nected between the auxiliary battery module 502 and the
As shown in the side view of FIG . 5A and bottom view of primary battery 552 to manage any voltage differences
FIG . 5B , the electric vehicle 500 includes may support an between the primary battery 552 and the auxiliary battery
auxiliary battery module 502 such as either auxiliary battery module 502 . As an alternative, or in addition , a DC /DC
modules 102 or 202 previously described . The electric converter 568 ' may be configured in the auxiliary battery
vehicle 500 includes a body 504, multiples wheels 506 , a module 502 , in which case the switch 556 can be connected
cabin 508 suitable for human occupants , one or more doors between the DC /DC converter 568' and the primary battery
( not shown), a cargo area 512 with a supporting surface and 552 . Also , while one auxiliary battery module 502 is illus
side members 516 , one or more electric motors 550 of a trated in FIGS . 1A and 1B , multiple auxiliary battery mod
powertrain system , and a primary high - voltage battery 552 ules 502 may be utilized and attached to (mounted in ) the
(which may also be referred to as a primary battery pack ) for electric vehicle 500 and electrically connected together in
providing electrical power to the electric motor ( s ) 550 for parallel as previously explained herein to provide further
propelling the electric vehicle 500. The primary battery 552 electrical power reserves . In instances where multiple aux
and auxiliary battery module 502 may be monitored by a iliary battery modules 502 are electrically connected
controller 554 , which includes an onboard computer , e.g., together and utilized , each may include a DC /DC converter
with voltage detection circuitry and interfaces via suitable 568' located in the auxiliary battery module 502 to manage
low - voltage electrical connections. any voltage differences between multiple auxiliary battery
[0038 ] The vehicle 500 may also include a drive system modules 502
556 that couples rotationalmotion from the motor (s ) 550 to [0042] Temperature sensors 570 and 572 may be located at
the wheels 506 and that may be monitored and controlled by the auxiliary battery module 502 and main battery 552 ,
the controller 554 via suitable electrical connections and respectively, such that the controller 554 may monitor the
interfaces. In some examples , each wheel 506 may be driven temperatures of those components via suitable electrical
by its own motor 550 , in which case a drive system 556 may connections and interfaces . While the controller 554 is
provide a suitable coupling to provide rotation motion from illustrated in FIGS . 5A and 5B as a single block component,
the motor 520 to the wheel 506 . In other examples , a motor multiple controllers may be used to monitor and control the
550 may drive more than one wheel 506 , in which case the systems of the electric vehicle 500 and auxiliary battery
drive system 556 may provide suitable coupling for provid module 502 .
ing rotational motion from the motor 550 to multiple wheels [0043 ] The electric vehicle 500 may also include an aux
506 , such as through a suitable differential. iliary power unit ( APU ) 560 , which may also be monitored
[0039] The electric vehicle 500 also includes a steering and controlled by the controller 554, and may be in the form
system 528 , to provide, e. g ., electrical steering, hydraulic of, e. g ., a gasoline, propane , alcohol or other fuel- driven
steering, or combination thereof, which may also be moni electric generator that provides additional electrical power to
tored and controlled by the controller 554 via suitable the primary battery 522 via suitable circuitry for powering
connections and interfaces . The vehicle 500 also includes the powertrain system . In examples, an APU 560 may be
suspension components 562, e . g ., air -actuated , vehicle -lev configured as removable and reattachable structuralmodule
eling shock absorbers for adjusting ride height and ride according to the present disclosure .
dampening, which may also be controlled by the controller [0044 ] Further considerations relating to configuration and
554 via suitable connections and interfaces. The vehicle 500 operation of thermal management for the auxiliary electric
also includes one or more instrument panels 564 , e.g., in the battery module and main battery will now be described with
form of flat panel, e . g ., liquid crystal, electroluminescent, reference to FIGS. 6A -6D . FIG . 6A illustrates an exemplary
etc.,displays , which may be monitored and controlled by the functional block diagram of a thermal management system
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

for an electric vehicle having features previously described a second fluid connector including an inlet fluid connector
for electric vehicles 100 and 500 , including a primary 670 and an outlet fluid connector 668 , respectively ( e. g .,
battery 652 , e . g ., such as primary battery 552 , and utilizing dry -break fluid connectors , such as flat - face fluid connectors
an auxiliary battery module 602 such as auxiliary battery such as previously described herein ).
modules 102, 202 and 502 as previously described herein , [0048 ] A controller 680 ( that includes an onboard com
wherein both the auxiliary battery module 602 and primary puter ) at the electric vehicle , such as previously described
battery 652 provide power to the vehicle powertrain for herein , monitors a first temperature sensor 682 at the pri
propelling the electric vehicle . Components other than the mary battery 652 and a second temperature sensor 684 at the
auxiliary battery module 602 illustrated in FIG . 6A are auxiliary battery module 602 , and detects whether either of
components of the electric vehicle in the example of FIG . those temperature sensors measure an out -of-range tempera
6A . ture condition ( e.g ., a measured temperature exceeds one or
[0045 ] As shown in FIG . 6A , the electric vehicle com more upper threshold values or falls below one or more
prises a powertrain system 610 ( including one or more lower threshold values ), and , if so , and can control and
electric motors such as previously described ) , a powertrain adjust ( via electrical signals over electrical connection lines ,
coolant line 612 that passes through a radiator 614 , and that not shown in FIG . 6A ) any or all of the EAC compressor
is connected to a degas/bleed coolant reservoir 616 , and that 628 , pumps 636 and 658, fan 626 , active grill shutter 620 ,
is further connected to a pump 618 for circulating coolant. expansion value 630 , and coolant heater 638 to bring and
The electric vehicle also includes an active grill shutter AGS maintain the temperature of the respective battery 602 or
620 positioned adjacent to the radiator614 and controlled by 652 to values within one or more permissible ranges.
a motor or other suitable actuator. The vehicle 100 also [0049 ] In the example of FIG . 6A , it will be observed that
includes a refrigeration system including a condenser 622 , a the primary battery cooling loop and the auxiliary battery
receiver dryer (RD ) 623 ( e.g ., comprising a desiccant to module cooling loop are separate closed coolant loops and
remove moisture ), refrigerant lines 624 , a fan 626 , an may therefore be considered parallel closed coolant loops . In
electric A / C compressor (EAC ) 628, and expansion valve addition , it will be observed that both the primary battery
630, which may be a thermal expansion valve with a cooling loop and the auxiliary battery module cooling loop
solenoid or an electronic expansion valve . Refrigerant lines share the same heat exchanger 642 (e . g ., refrigerant -to
624 are shown, in this example , using a dotted line to coolant heat exchanger ), and in this sense , the heat
illustrate what may typically be a low pressure refrigerant exchanger 642 may be considered a dual heat exchanger .
( e. g ., which may correspond to a gaseous state ) and using a [00501 With regard to disconnection and reconnection of
dashed line to illustrate what may typically be a high the auxiliary battery module 602 , it will be observed that no
pressure refrigerant (e .g ., which may correspond to a liquid isolation valves are necessary to close off the auxiliary
state ). Pressure sensors 627 and temperature sensors 629 battery module cooling loop, because disconnection of the
may be located at one or both refrigerant lines 624 at both first fluid connector (including 664 and 666 ) and second
sides of the EAC 628 to monitor/measure the pressure and fluid connector ( including 668 and 670 ) isolates the coolant
temperature , respectively , of the refrigerant, e . g ., for use in in the loop .
controlling the EAC 628 . The refrigerant system is also [0051 ] FIG . 6B illustrates another exemplary functional
connected to a cabin HVAC module 632 via an expansion block diagram of a thermal management system for an
valve 631 and refrigerant lines 624 for providing cabin air electric vehicle having features previously described for
conditioning electric vehicles 100 and 500 and including a primary
[ 0046 ] In the example of FIG .6A , the electric vehicle also battery 652, e .g ., such as primary battery 552, and utilizing
includes a primary battery coolant line 634 ( e. g ., metal an auxiliary battery module 602 such as auxiliary battery
tubing such as copper alloy, aluminum alloy , steel alloy, etc.) modules 102, 202 and 502 as previously described herein ,
that is connected to a coolant pump 636 , a coolant heater wherein both the auxiliary battery module 602 and primary
638 , a degas/bleed coolant reservoir 640 , a heat exchanger battery 652 provide power to the vehicle powertrain for
642 ( e .g ., a refrigerant -to - coolant heat exchanger ), and the propelling the electric vehicle . The example of FIG . 6B
primary battery 652. These components as connected by the differs from the example of FIG . 6A only in that the pump
primary battery coolant line 634 and together with the 658 and degas/bleed coolant reservoir 656 are located at the
primary battery coolant line 634 form a primary battery auxiliary battery module 602 instead of being located at the
cooling loop . electric vehicle . Accordingly , the previous discussion of the
[ 0047 ] In addition , in the example of FIG . 6A , the electric common components and operation is not reproduced here .
vehicle includes an auxiliary battery coolant line 654 (e.g ., [0052] FIG . 6C illustrates another functional block dia
metal tubing such as copper alloy , aluminum alloy , steel gram of an exemplary thermal management system for an
alloy , etc .) that is connected to another degas/bleed coolant electric vehicle having features previously described for
reservoir 656 , another coolant pump 658 , the auxiliary electric vehicles 100 and 500 and including a primary
battery module 602 (with an internal first conduit portion battery 652 , e .g., such as primary battery 552, and utilizing
660 ), and the heat exchanger 642 . The portion of the an auxiliary battery module 602 such as auxiliary battery
auxiliary battery coolant line 654 that resides outside the modules 102 , 202 and 502 as previously described herein ,
auxiliary battery module 602 may be referred to as a second wherein both the auxiliary battery module 602 and primary
conduit portion 662 . Such as previously described herein , battery 652 provide power to the vehicle powertrain for
the auxiliary battery module includes a first fluid connector propelling the electric vehicle. Unlike the example of FIG .
including an inlet fluid connector 664 and an outlet fluid 6A , in which the primary battery 652 and the auxiliary
connector 666 , respectively (e .g., suitable dry -break fluid battery module 602 are cooled via separate , parallel closed
connectors , such as flat- face fluid connectors described coolant loops ( albeit sharing the same heat exchanger 642 ),
previously herein ). In addition , the electric vehicle includes in the example of FIG . 6C , the auxiliary battery module 602
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

is cooled via a single (i.e ., the same) coolant loop as the the auxiliary battery module 702 can provide electrical
primary battery 652. In this example , a portion 686 of the power to the electric motor (s) that propel the electric vehicle
coolant line 634 that is connected to dry -break fluid con 102 , such as shown in FIGS. 1A , 5A and 5B , for example .
nector 670 connects to a portion 688 of coolant line 634 via The electrical connector 720 of FIG . 7A and electrical
a tee - connection 690 , and a bypass valve 692 is disposed connector 122 of FIGS. 1A and 1B include high - voltage
between the tee - connection 690 and a portion 694 of cooling connections 720a , 720b and 122a , 122b , respectively, that
line 634 that connects to the heat exchanger 642'. Other permit the auxiliary battery module 702 to be electrically
aspects of the system are substantially similar to those of the connected in parallel with the vehicle 's primary battery and
example of FIG . 6A and are not described again here. may include one or more low - voltage connections 720c and
[0053] In operation of the system according to the 122c , respectively , to provide electrical connection to sen
example of FIG . 6C , when the auxiliary battery module 602 sors and electrical circuitry for monitoring and control
is disconnected from the electric vehicle , as detected by the associated with operation of the auxiliary battery module
controller 680 , the controller 680 opens or maintains as open 702 when attached to the electric vehicle 100 .
the bypass value 692 . No isolation values are necessary to [0056 ] The auxiliary battery module 702 can be config
close off the auxiliary battery module 602 from the cooling ured to be positioned in the cargo area 112 of the electric
loop , because disconnection of the first fluid connector vehicle 100 such as previously described in connection with
( including 664 and 666) and second fluid connector (includ FIGS. 1A - 1C and 3A - 3C . In this regard , the auxiliary battery
ing 668 and 670 ) isolates the coolant in that portion of the module 702 includes a battery housing 703 as noted above ,
cooling loop. In such a case, the thermal management protruding support portions 721, tapered support surfaces
system operates as previously described to monitor and 721a , protruding alignment members 730 , fastening holes
control the temperature of the main battery 652 by control 734 for bolts, and grab areas 742 . In addition, the auxiliary
ling and adjusting any or all of the EAC compressor 628 , battery module 702 includes air vents disposed in walls of
pumps 636 and 658 , fan 626 , active grill shutter 614 , the battery housing 703, e. g., inlet air vents 752 and 754 and
expansion value 630 , and coolant heater 638 to bring outlet air vents 756 and 758, whose use will be further
maintain the temperature of the main battery 652 back to a discussed below .
within one or more permissible ranges . On the other hand, 100571. FIG . 7B illustrates an exemplary functional block
when the auxiliary battery module 602 is connected to the diagram of a thermal management system for an electric
electric vehicle, as detected by the controller 680 , the vehicle having features previously described for electric
controller 680 closes or maintains as closed the bypass value vehicles 100 and 500 and including a primary battery 762,
692 , thereby forcing coolant through the auxiliary battery e . g ., such as primary battery 552, and utilizing an auxiliary
module 602 as well as through the main battery 652 . In that battery module 702 mentioned above , wherein both the
case , the thermal management system operates such as auxiliary battery module 702 and primary battery 762 pro
previously described to monitor and control the temperature vide power to the vehicle powertrain for propelling the
of the main battery 652 and the auxiliary battery module 602 electric vehicle . As shown in example of FIG . 7B , the
by controlling or adjusting any or all of the EAC compressor electric vehicle comprises a powertrain system 710 (includ
628 , pumps 636 and 658, fan 626 , active grill shutter 614 , ing one or more electric motors such as previously
expansion value 630 , and coolant heater 638 to bring described ), a powertrain coolant line 712 that passes through
maintain the temperature of the respective battery 602 or a radiator 714 , and that is connected to a degas/bleed coolant
652 to values within one or more permissible ranges . reservoir 716 , and that is further connected to a pump 718
[ 0054 ] FIG . 6D illustrates another exemplary functional for circulating coolant. The electric vehicle also includes an
block diagram of a thermal management system for an active grill shutter AGS 720 positioned adjacent to the
electric vehicle having features previously described for radiator 714 and controlled by a motor or other suitable
electric vehicles 100 and 500 and including a primary actuator. The vehicle also includes a refrigeration system
battery 652, e. g., such primary battery 552, and utilizing an including a condenser 722a , a receiver dryer (RD ) 723 (e.g .,
auxiliary battery module 602 such as auxiliary battery comprising a desiccant to remove moisture ), refrigerant
modules 102 , 202 and 502 as previously described herein , lines 724a , a fan 726 , an electric A / C compressor (EAC )
wherein both the auxiliary battery module 602 and primary 728a, and expansion valve 730a , which may be a thermal
battery 652 provide power to the vehicle powertrain for expansion valve with a solenoid or an electronic expansion
propelling the electric vehicle . The example of FIG . 6D valve . Pressure sensors 727a and temperature sensors 729a
differs from the example of FIG . 6C only in that the pump may be located at one or both refrigerant lines 724a at both
658 and degas/bleed coolant reservoir 656 are located at the sides of the EAC 728a to monitor/measure the pressure and
auxiliary battery module 602 instead of being located at the temperature , respectively , of the refrigerant, e . g ., for use in
electric vehicle . Accordingly , the previous discussion of the controlling the EAC 728a . The refrigerant system is also
common components and operation is not reproduced here . connected to a cabin HVAC module 732 via an expansion
[0055 ] Another exemplary auxiliary battery module will valve 731 and refrigerant lines 724a for providing cabin air
now be described with reference to FIGS. 7A - 7C and FIGS. conditioning
1A -3 . As shown in FIG . 7A , an exemplary auxiliary battery 10058 ] In the example of FIG . 7B , the electric vehicle also
module 702 includes a battery housing 703 and a battery includes a primary battery coolant line 734 (e.g., metal
diposed within the battery housing 703 , wherein the battery tubing such as copper alloy, aluminum alloy , steel alloy, etc.)
comprises multiple individualbattery cells ( not shown ). The that is connected to a coolant pump 736 , a coolant heater
auxiliary battery module 702 also includes a first electrical 738, a degas/bleed coolant reservoir 740, a heat exchanger
connector 720 mounted to the battery housing 703. The first 742a ( e.g., a refrigerant-to -coolant heat exchanger ), and the
electrical connector 720 mates to a second electrical con primary battery 762. These components as connected by the
nector 122 of the electric vehicle 100 of FIG . 1A such that primary battery coolant line 734a form a primary battery
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

cooling loop. As shown in FIG . 7C , the cooling system for heat exchangers , e . g ., both a refrigerant-to -coolant heat
the auxiliary battery module 702 illustrated in FIG . 7C is exchanger and a coolant radiator without refrigerant lines in
separate and independent from the cooling system of the this example . Various components shown in FIG . 7D may be
main battery 762 illustrated in FIG . 7B . the same as those shown in FIG . 7C , and like reference
[0059 ] A controller 780a (that includes an onboard com numerals are used in FIG . 7D .
puter ) at the electric vehicle , such as previously described [0063] As shown in FIG . 7D , the exemplary thermal
herein , monitors a first temperature sensor 782 at the pri management system for the auxiliary battery module 702
mary battery 762, and detects whether the temperature includes a first auxiliary battery module coolant line 734b
sensor 782 measures an out of range temperature condition (e . g ., metal tubing such as copper alloy , aluminum alloy ,
( e . g ., exceeds one or more upper threshold values or falls steel alloy , etc .) that is connected to a coolant pump 758 , a
below one or more lower threshold values ), and , if so , and degas/bleed coolant reservoir 756 , a first heat exchanger
can control and adjust (via electrical signals over electrical 742b (e .g ., a refrigerant-to - coolant heat exchanger ), and the
connection lines , not shown in FIG . 7B ) any or all of the auxiliary battery 702a . These components as connected by
EAC compressor 728a , pump 736 , fan 726a , active grill the auxiliary battery coolant line 734b form an auxiliary
shutter 720 , expansion value 730a , and coolant heater 738 to battery module cooling loop that is separate and distinct
bring /maintain the temperature of the auxiliary battery 702a from and independent of the primary battery cooling loop.
to a value within one or more permissible ranges . As shown in FIG . 7D , the cooling system for the auxiliary
[0060 ] As shown in FIG . 7C , the thermal management battery module 702 illustrated in FIG . 7D is separate from
system of the auxiliary battery module 702 includes an and independent of the cooling system of the main battery
auxiliary battery module coolant line 734b (e .g ., metal 762 illustrated in FIG . 7B . The auxiliary battery module 702
tubing such as copper alloy, aluminum alloy, steel alloy , etc .) in this example also includes a refrigeration system includ
that is connected to a coolant pump 758 , a degas/bleed ing a condenser 722b , a receiver dryer (RD ) 723b , refrig
coolant reservoir 756 , a heat exchanger 742b ( e . g ., a refrig e rant lines 724b , a fan 726b , an electric A / C compressor
erant -to - coolant heat exchanger ), and the auxiliary battery (EAC ) 728b , and an expansion valve 730b , which may be a
702a (i.e., the arrangement of battery elements ). These thermal expansion valve with a solenoid or an electronic
components as connected by the auxiliary battery coolant expansion valve, so as to provide cooling via a refrigerant
line 734b form an auxiliary battery module cooling loop that for the first heat exchanger 742b . Pressure sensors 727b and
is separate and distinct from and independent of the primary temperature sensors 729b may be located at one or both
battery cooling loop . As shown in FIG . 7C , the cooling refrigerant lines 724b at both sides of the EAC 728b to
system for the auxiliary battery module 702 illustrated in monitor/measure the pressure and temperature , respectively,
FIG . 7C is separate from and independent of the cooling of the refrigerant, e .g ., for use in controlling the EAC 728b .
system of the main battery 762 illustrated in FIG . 7B . The [0064] The exemplary thermalmanagement system shown
auxiliary battery module 702 in this example also includes in FIG . 7D for the auxiliary battery module 702 also
a refrigeration system including a condenser 722b , a receiver includes a second auxiliary battery module coolant line 7340
dryer (RD ) 723b , refrigerant lines 724b, a fan 726b, an ( e . g ., metal tubing such as copper alloy , aluminum alloy ,
electric A / C compressor (EAC ) 728b , and an expansion steel alloy , etc .) that is connected to the first auxiliary battery
valve 730b , which may be a thermal expansion valve with module coolant line 734b via bypass valves 744a and 744b
a solenoid or an electronic expansion valve . Pressure sensors and which is connected to a second heat exchanger 742c,
727b and temperature sensors 729b may be located at one or e . g ., in the form of a radiator 746 and an active grill shutter
both refrigerantlines 724b atboth sides of the EAC 728b to (AGS ) 748 in this example and which utilizes fan ( s ) 726b .
monitor /measure the pressure and temperature, respectively , The bypass valves 744a and 744b can be actuated under
of the refrigerant , e . g ., for use in controlling the EAC 728b . control of a controller 780c to invoke battery cooling either
10061] A controller 780b (that includes an onboard com using the first heat exchanger 742b or the second heat
puter ) at the auxiliary battery module 702 can monitor a exchanger 742c.
temperature sensor 784 at the auxiliary battery module 702 , [0065 ] For example , when the ambient outside tempera
and detects whether the temperature sensor 784 measures an ture measured by a temperature sensor in communication
out of range temperature condition (e .g., exceeds one or with the controller 780c is above a first threshold tempera
more upper threshold values or falls below one or more ture ( e . g ., a high temperature such as 90° F ., 95° F ., 100° F .,
lower threshold values ), and , if so , and can control and etc .), the controller 780c can control the bypass values 744a
adjust ( via electrical signals over electrical connection lines, and 744b to route coolant through the first auxiliary coolant
not shown in FIG . 7C ) any or all of the EAC compressor line 734b to the first heat exchanger 742b so as to permit
728b , pump 758 , fan 726b , and expansion value 730b to refrigerant cooled by compressor 728b to cool the coolant
bring/maintain the temperature of the auxiliary battery 702a destined for cooling the auxiliary battery 702a and to bypass
to a value within one or more permissible ranges . One or the second heat exchanger 742c . For example , if the outside
more fans 726b can direct air flow over the condenser 722b ambient temperature is 115° F ., refrigerant cooling may be
and through inlet air vents 752 and 754 and outlet air vents needed to adequately cool the auxiliary battery 702a , and the
756 and 758 shown in FIG . 7A . controller 780c therefore controls the bypass valves 744a
[0062] FIG . 7D illustrates a block diagram of a variation and 744b accordingly.
of the thermal management system of FIG . 7C of the 100661. When the ambient outside temperature measured
auxiliary battery module 702 . Whereas the thermal manage by a temperature sensor in communication with the control
ment system illustrated in FIG . 7C is shown as including one ler 780c is below the first threshold temperature , the con
heat exchanger, which may be , e. g ., a refrigerant-to - coolant troller 780c can control the bypass valves 744a and 744b to
heat exchanger or a coolant radiator without refrigerant bypass the first heat exchanger 742b and route coolant from
lines , the exemplary system shown in FIG . 7D includes two the first auxiliary coolant line 734b to the second auxiliary
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019
10

coolant line 734c to direct coolant through the second heat monitor parameters of the auxiliary battery module , such as
exchanger 742c so as to permit coolant cooled by radiator its temperature via a temperature sensor or voltage via
746 , AGS 748 and fan (s ) 726b to cool the coolant destined voltage detection circuitry . In addition , wireless transceivers
for cooling the auxiliary battery 702a . For example, if the disposed at ( e .g ., in or on ) the auxiliary battery module may
outside ambient temperature is 65° F ., refrigerant cooling pair and communicate not only with the onboard controller,
may not be needed to adequately cool the auxiliary battery but also with mobile computing devices such as smart
702a since cooling by the radiator 746 via ambient outside phones, tablets, and other portable computerized devices , to
air may be sufficient, and the controller 780c therefore provide diagnostics and information about the auxiliary
controls the bypass valves 744a and 744b accordingly. The battery module, e .g., to fleet technicians .
components connected by the first auxiliary battery coolant [0070 ] In some examples , when one or more auxiliary
line 734b and second auxiliary battery coolant line 734c , battery modules is attached to the electric vehicle, the
bypassing the first heat exchanger 742b and refrigerant vehicle 's controller (with onboard computer system ) may
system components, form an auxiliary battery module cool automatically identify characteristics of the auxiliary battery
ing loop that is separate and distinct from and independent modules , e . g ., weight and weight distribution , based on how
of the primary battery cooling loop . many auxiliary battery modules are attached and based on
[0067] The controller 780c ( that includes an onboard the size and weight of those modules , e .g ., given pre
computer ) at the auxiliary battery module 702 can monitor tabulated information on those quantities based on a model
a temperature sensor 784 at the auxiliary battery module number or unique identification number of the auxiliary
702, and detects whether the temperature sensor 784 mea battery module (s ). The controller may then set a predeter
sures an out of range temperature condition ( e. g ., exceeds mined feature set for the electric vehicle based on the
one or more upper threshold values or falls below one or electric vehicle 500 being equipped with the auxiliary bat
more lower threshold values ), and, if so , and can control and tery module( s). In examples, the predetermined feature set
adjust ( via electrical signals over electrical connection lines , may comprise one or more ride performance characteristics
not shown in FIG . 7D ) any or all of the bypass valves 744a including one or more of a limitation on a maximum
and 744b , the EAC compressor 728b , pump 758, fan (s ) permissible acceleration , a firmness of ride of the vehicle ,
726b , expansion value 730b , and AGS 748 to bring/maintain braking performance /sensitivity, a nominal suspension
the temperature of the auxiliary battery 702a to a value height, and an effective steering ratio , and onboard computer
within one or more permissible ranges . One or more fans 554 may select appropriate vehicle driving performance
726b can direct air flow over the condenser 722b and /or over characteristics suitable for the vehicle configuration , such as
radiator 746 and AGS 748 through inlet air vents 752 and placing a limitation on a maximum permissible acceleration,
754 and outlet air vents 756 and 758 shown in FIG . 7A . a firmness of ride of the vehicle , braking performance /
[0068] Additional aspects of the disclosure are now sensitivity , a nominal suspension height, and an effective
described that are applicable to all of the examples previ steering ratio .
ously described herein . As described above , the first elec [0071 ] The onboard computer of controller may include a
trical connector of the auxiliary battery module provides computer processing system ( one or more CPUs) and a
electrical power to the electric vehicle , and the first electrical non - transitory computer readable memory coupled to the
connector may also be used to charge the auxiliary battery processing system , wherein the processing system may be
module, e. g ., using a high - voltage battery charger. In addi programmed to receive data signals and make decisions as
tion , the controller, which can monitor the temperature of the described herein . In addition, application specific integrated
primary battery and the temperature of the auxiliary battery circuits (ASIC ) may be utilized to execute control functions
module using respective temperature sensors , can carry out described herein based on sensor measurements, e .g ., such
such temperature monitoring when the electric vehicle is not as temperature measurements , as described herein . The
in use and may initiate cooling of the primary battery and/ or onboard computer of the controller may also include ele
the auxiliary battery module even when the vehicle is not in mentmanagers , real-time data buffers, conveyors, file input
use , so as to prevent battery degradation from extreme processors, database indices, data buffers and data managers
outside environmental temperatures that may be experi for managing data and processing. The onboard computer of
enced by the electric vehicle and auxiliary battery module . the controller may execute software program instructions
[0069] In addition , in exemplary aspects , the auxiliary including source code , object code, machine code, or any
battery module may include one or more sensor pairing other stored data that is operable to cause a processing
devices to detect proper placement and attachment of the system to perform the methods and operations described
auxiliary battery module , e .g., one or more interlock switch herein . Any suitable computer languages may be used such
devices, an electronic chip , a radio frequency identification as C , C + + , Java , etc ., as will be appreciated by those skilled
(RFID ) chip , a magnet structure of a particular configura in the art. Other implementations may also be used , how
tion , etc ., and the electric vehicle 500 may include one or ever , such as firmware or even appropriately designed
more associated sensors to detect or otherwise communicate hardware configured to carry out the methods and systems
with the sensor pairing device of auxiliary battery module . described herein .
Such auxiliary battery modules may have unique identifi 10072 ] It should be understood that as used in the descrip
cation numbers associated with them , those unique identi tion herein and throughout the claims that follow , the
fication numbers may be detected using such sensing means. meaning of “ a,” “ an ,” and “ the” includes plural reference
In examples, such sensing devices may be coupled to unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Also , as used in
Bluetooth transceivers or other wireless devices that estab the description herein and throughout the claims that follow ,
lish communication so as to permit the sensing devices to the meaning of “ in ” includes “ in ” and “ on ” unless the
receive or generate a signal a signal that permits the con context clearly dictates otherwise . Finally , as used in the
troller ( via the onboard computer included therewith ) to description herein and throughout the claims that follow , the
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019

meanings of " and” and “ or” include both the conjunctive erant system configured to deliver refrigerant to the heat
and disjunctive and may be used interchangeably unless the exchanger to cool the coolant in the coolant line .
context expressly dictates otherwise ; the phrase " exclusive 7 . An auxiliary battery module for providing electrical
or” may be used to indicate situation where only the dis power to a powertrain of an electric vehicle for transporting
junctive meaning may apply . In addition , as used in the human passengers or cargo , the auxiliary battery module co
description herein and throughout the claims that follow , the p sing:
meaning of “ about” and /or “ approximately ” refers to + 10 % a battery housing ;
of the quantity indicated , unless otherwise indicated . a battery disposed in the battery housing ;
[0073 ] While the present invention has been described in support portions at the battery housing configured to
termsof exemplary embodiments, it will be understood by securely mount the battery housing of the auxiliary
those skilled in the art that various modifications can be battery module to support members of an electric
made thereto without departing from the scope of the vehicle at a cargo area of the electric vehicle using
invention as set forth in the claims. releasable fasteners or latching mechanisms to permit
1. An electric vehicle system for transporting human the auxiliary battery module to be removed from and
passengers or cargo , the electric vehicle system comprising: reattached to the electric vehicle ;
an electric vehicle comprising a body, a plurality of a first electrical connector at the battery housing and
wheels, a cargo area, an electric motor for propelling electrically connected to the battery disposed in the
the electric vehicle , and a primary battery for providing battery housing, the first electrical connector config
electrical power to the electric motor for propelling the ured to mate with a corresponding second electrical
electric vehicle ; and connector at the electric vehicle to permit the auxiliary
an auxiliary battery module that is attachable to the battery module to power a powertrain of the electric
electric vehicle for providing electrical power to the vehicle to propel the electric vehicle ; and
an integrated cooling system inside the battery housing
electric motor via a first electrical connector at the for cooling the auxiliary battery module during opera
auxiliary battery module and a second electrical con
nector at the electric vehicle that mates with the first tion of the electric vehicle , the integrated cooling
electrical connector, system comprising a conduit for circulating coolant
within the auxiliary battery module .
the auxiliary battery module being configured to be posi 8 . The auxiliary battery module of claim 7 , comprising:
tioned in the cargo area while supplying power to the a first fluid connector at the battery housing of the
electric motor, auxiliary battery module and connected to a conduit
the auxiliary battery module being configured to be within the battery housing, the first fluid connector
removable from and reattachable to the electric vehicle , configured to mate with a second fluid connector at the
the auxiliary battery module including an integrated cool electric vehicle, an engaged connection of the first fluid
ing system for cooling the auxiliary battery module connector and the second fluid connector being con
during operation of the electric vehicle , the integrated figured to pass coolant from the electric vehicle through
cooling system comprising a conduit for circulating the first fluid connector and permit circulation of cool
coolant within the auxiliary battery module . ant within the conduit in the auxiliary battery module .
2 . The electric vehicle system of claim 1, comprising : 9 . The auxiliary battery module of claim 7, the integrated
a first fluid connector at the auxiliary battery module and cooling system of auxiliary battery module being separate
a second fluid connector at the electric vehicle that and distinct from a cooling system for cooling the primary
mates with the first fluid connector, the first fluid battery .
connector and second fluid connector when engaged 10 . The auxiliary batterymodule of claim 9 , the integrated
creating a closed loop comprising a conduit, a portion cooling system of auxiliary battery module comprising a
of the first closed loop passing through the auxiliary closed coolant loop comprising a coolant line, a coolant
battery module and providing for the flow of coolant pump configured to circulate coolant though the coolant line
through the auxiliary battery module. and within the auxiliary battery module , and a heat
3 . The electric vehicle system of claim 1, the integrated exchanger.
cooling system of the auxiliary battery module being sepa 11 . The auxiliary battery module of claim 7 , the integrated
rate and distinct from a cooling system for cooling the cooling system of auxiliary battery module comprising a
primary battery . closed coolant loop comprising a coolant line, a coolant
4 . The electric vehicle system of claim 3 , the integrated pump configured to circulate coolant though the coolant line
cooling system of the auxiliary battery module comprising a and within the auxiliary battery module , and a heat
closed coolant loop comprising a coolant line, a coolant exchanger.
pump configured to circulate coolant though the coolant line 12 . The auxiliary battery module of claim 11 , the inte
and within the auxiliary battery module, and a heat grated cooling system of the auxiliary battery comprising a
exchanger. refrigerant system configured to deliver refrigerant to the
5 . The electric vehicle system of claim 1 , the integrated heat exchanger to cool the coolant in the coolant line .
cooling system of the auxiliary battery module comprising a 13 . A method of utilizing an auxiliary battery module with
closed coolant loop comprising a coolant line , a coolant an electric vehicle , the electric vehicle suitable for trans
pump configured to circulate coolant though the coolant line porting human occupants or cargo , the method comprising:
and within the auxiliary battery module , and a heat attaching an auxiliary battery module to an electric
exchanger. vehicle , the auxiliary battery module being configured
6 . The electric vehicle system of claim 4 , the integrated to be removable from and reattachable to the electric
cooling system of the auxiliary battery comprising a refrig vehicle, said attaching comprising electrically connect
US 2019 /0016231 A1 Jan . 17 , 2019
12

ing the auxiliary battery module in parallel with a passing coolant from the electric vehicle through the first
primary battery of the electric vehicle ; fluid connector and through the conduit in the auxiliary
providing electrical power from the auxiliary battery battery module .
module to an electric motor of the electric vehicle via 15 . The method of claim 13, the integrated cooling system
a first electrical connector at the auxiliary battery of auxiliary battery module being separate and distinct from
module and a second electrical connector at the electric a cooling system for cooling the primary battery.
vehicle thatmates with the first electrical connector for 16 . The method ofclaim 13, the integrated cooling system
propelling the electric vehicle ; ofauxiliary battery module comprising a closed coolant loop
monitoring a temperature of the main battery of the comprising a coolant line, a coolant pump configured to
electric vehicle and a temperature of the auxiliary circulate coolant though the coolant line and within the
auxiliary battery module , and a heat exchanger.
battery module ; and
cooling the auxiliary battery module based on said moni 17 . The method of claim 15 , the integrated cooling system
toring with an integrated cooling system of the auxil of auxiliary battery module comprising a closed coolantloop
iary battery module during operation of the electric comprising a coolant line, a coolant pump configured to
vehicle , the integrated cooling system comprising a circulate coolant though the coolant line and within the
conduit for circulating coolant within the auxiliary auxiliary battery module , and a heat exchanger.
battery module . 18 . The method of claim 16 , the integrated cooling system
14 . The method of claim 3, comprising : of the auxiliary battery comprising a refrigerant system
connecting a first fluid connector at a battery housing of configured to deliver refrigerant to the heat exchanger to
the auxiliary battery module that is connected to the cool the coolant in the coolant line .
conduit within the battery housing to a second fluid 19 . (canceled )
connector at the electric vehicle ; and * * *