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Law Enforcement Administration

Law Enforcement Administration - the process involved in ensuring strict compliance, proper obedience of
laws and related statutes. Focuses on the policing process or how law enforcement agencies are
organized and manage in order to achieve the goals of law enforcement most effectively,
efficiently and productively.

Law - the system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its
members and may enforce by the imposition of penalties.

Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.

Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of


objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency. Connotes bureaucratic structure and behavior, relative
routine decision-making and maintenance of the internal order.

Sir Robert Peel - considered a "father of law enforcement".

Sir Robert Peels Nine Principles of Policing

1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.

2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.

3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to
secure and maintain the respect of the public.

4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of
the use of force.

5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating
absolute impartial service to the law.

6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only
when the expertise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.

7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition;
the police are the public and the public are the police. The police being only full time
individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens.

8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the
powers of the judiciary.

9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder not the visible evidence of police action
in dealing with it.

Administration of Police Organization

Police - one of the pillars of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility of maintaining law
and order and combating crime within the society.
- comes from Latin "politia"-civil administration which itself derives from the ancient Greek police "city"

Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objectives and plans and
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internal operating efficiency.

Organization - a group of persons working together for a common goal or objectives.

Police Organization - a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety administration engaged in the
achievement of goals and objectives that promotes the maintenance of peace and order, protection of life
and property, enforcement of the laws and the prevention of crimes.

Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.

Law Enforcement Agency - pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the laws.

Objectives - refer to the purpose by which the organization was created. Refer to the goals of the
organization.

Supervision - means the act of watching over the work or tasks of the members of the organization to ensure
that desired results are achieved.

Management - the process of directing and facilitating the work of people organized in formal groups in
order to achieve objectives. Judicious or wise use of resources (manpower, material,money,equipment,
supplies and time).

Hierarchy - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any given organization.
Serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and obedience upward, through the
department.

Authority - the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions within an
organizational hierarchy. Must be viewed in terms of prescribed roles rather than of individuals.
A particular position within the organization. Carries the same regardless of who occupies that position.

Management/Administrative Functions
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
5. staffing
6. Reporting
7. Budgeting

Principles of efficient Management

* Division of work - work specialization can increase efficiency with the same amount of effort.

* Authority and Responsibility- authority includes the right to command and the power to require
obedience. One can not have authority without responsibility.

* Discipline - necessary for an organization to function effectively, however, the state of the disciplinary
process depends upon the quality of its leaders.

* Unity of Command - subordinate should receive orders from one superior only.

* Scalar Chain - the hierarchy of authority is the order of ranks from the highest to the lowest levels of the
organization. Shows the vertical hierarchy of the organization which defines an unbroken chain of

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units from top to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority.

Organizational Units in the Police Organization

1. Functional Units

Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department; comprised of several divisions.

Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.

Section - functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization.

Unit - functional group within a section or the smallest functional group within an organization.

2. Territorial Units

Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty.

Route - a length of streets designated for patrol purpose, also called line beat.

Beat - an area designed for patrol purposes whether foot or motorized.

Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route or post.

District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its own station.

Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated districts.

EVOLUTION OF THE POLICING SYSTEM

ORIGIN OF THE WORD “POLICE”

POLITEIA – Greek word which means government of the city

POLITIA – Roman word which means condition of the state or government

POLICE – French word which was later adopted by the English language

THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE


1. HOME RULE THEORY
- policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency of their functions upon
the express needs of the people.
- policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and security.

2. CONTINENTAL THEORY
- policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities
- the people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection with the police
organization.

CONCEPTS OF POLICE SERVICE

1. OLD CONCEPT
- police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive machinery

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- this philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the increasing number of
arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than trying to prevent them from committing
crimes

2. MODERN CONCEPT
- regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice system, an organ of crime prevention
- police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes
- broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its mission the welfare of the individual
as well as that of the community in general.

EARLY POLICING SYSTEM

1. KIN POLICING
- the family of the offended individual was expected to assume responsibility for justice
- the family of the victim was allowed to exact vengeance

2. EGYPT
- ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them
- created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose duties include guarding of the tombs and
apprehending thieves
- introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors.

3. ROME
- created the first organized police force called VIGILES OF ROME, or VIGILES URBANI (watchmen of the
city), which had the primary task of firefighting and policing
- the Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehending thieves, keeping an eye out for burglars and hunting
down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to maintain order in the streets
- the Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and looked for disturbances of the peace while they
patrolled the streets
- created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a special force of guards used by Roman Emperors as
the Emperors' personal guards
- as personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty was to protect the Emperor from assassination
and other forms of attack against the Emperor.

4. ENGLAND

a) FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM/MUTUAL PLEDGE SYSTEM


- required all males aged 12 and above to join a group of nine to form a TYTHING
- members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN
- a CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings
- the primary task of the things was to protect their village from thieves and animals
- tythings were later organized into SHIRES
- a shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE, which is the origin of the word “sheriff”
- their duty was to apprehend offenders

b) PARISH CONSTABLES
- a parish official charged with controlling crimes
- appointed to serve for one year
- duties included organizing watchmen to guard the
gates
- during trouble, the watchman would raise a “HUE AND
CRY”, a call to arms where the rest of the parish
would stop what they were doing and come to the aid
of the constable.

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MODERN POLICING SYSTEM

1) ENGLAND

a. BOWSTREET RUNNERS - a group of men organized to arrest offenders.


- organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London,in 1749 in London, England.
- the name was adopted from the name of the street where the office of Henry Fielding was located.
- when Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was replaced by his blind brother, John Fielding

b. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF ACT 1829


- the law that created the first modern police force in London England, called the Metropolitan Police
Service.
- this law was passed through the initiative of Sir Robert Peel, a member of the Parliament
- the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is the Scotland Yard, now known as the New
Scotland Yard

SIR ROBERT PEEL - recognized as the father of modern policing system.

2. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


a. NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT
- created in 1845 in New York, USA
- recognized as the first modern style police department in the US.
- the largest police force in the world
- modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of London

b. BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT


- the oldest police department in the US
- the first night watch was established in Boston in 1631.
- formally founded in May, 1854.

AUGUST VOLLMER - recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his contributions in the
development of the field of criminal justice in the US
- author of the book, Police Administration, which served as the basic guide in the administration of the
police organization in the US
- was the first police chief of Berkeley, California.

Important Personalities in the Evolution of Philippine Policing

Brig.Gen. Rafael Crame - the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1917.

Col. Antonio Torres - the first Filipino Chief of Police of the Manila Police Department in 1935.

Col. Lambert Javalera - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the Philippine
Independence from the United States of America in 1946

Dir.Gen. Cesar Nazareno - the first chief of the Philippine National Police.

HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 – THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT OF
1990, RA 8551 – THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION ACT OF
1998 and RA 9708

A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DILG)


- formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)

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- reorganized under RA 6975

ORGANIZATION: - consist of:


a) the Department proper
b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG
c) local government units (LGU)
1) provincial governors
2) city and municipal mayors
d) the National Police Commission
e) the Philippine Public Safety College
f) Philippine National Police
g) Bureau of Fire Protection
h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology

- the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975
- headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the pleasure of the
President
- the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secretaries
a) Undersecretary for Local Government
b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order
- No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as Secretary within one
(1) year from date of retirement or resignation
- the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG


1. Assist the President in the exercise of general supervision over local governments;
2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations and other issuances on the general
supervision over local governments and on public order and safety;
3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuance's implementing laws on public order and
safety, the general supervision over local governments and the promotion of local autonomy
and community empowerment and monitor compliance thereof;
4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments, law enforcement and public safety;
Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and projects to promote peace and order, ensure public
safety and further strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal capabilities of local government
offices and personnel;
5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet local emergencies arising from natural and man-
made disasters; Establish a system of coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local executives
and the Department, to ensure effective and efficient delivery of basic services to the public;
6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the performance of police functions, a police force that
is national in scope and civilian in character.

RELATIONSHIP OF THE DILG WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE (DND)


- under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external security while the
DILG was in charge with internal security
- under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines is now in charge with both internal and external
security with the PNP as support through information gathering and performance of ordinary police
functions.

NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION


- an agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination
- shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP.

VISION OF THE NAPOLCOM


"We envision the National Police Commission as a highly dynamic, committed and responsive administering

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and controlling body, actively and effectively facilitating the evolvement of a highly professional, competent,
disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP"

MISSION OF THE NAPOLCOM


"To administer and control the Philippine National Police with the end in view of maintaining a highly
professional, competent, disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP”

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NAPOLCOM


A. Exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the Philippine National Police (PNP)
which shall mean the power to:
1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual prescribing rules and regulations for efficient
organization, administration, and operation, including criteria for manpower allocation distribution and
deployment, recruitment, selection, promotion, and retirement of personnel and the conduct of
qualifying entrance and promotional examinations for uniformed members;
2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish standards for such purposes on a continuing basis,
the performance,activities, and facilities of all police agencies throughout the country;
3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;
4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile statistical data for accurate assessment of the crime
situation and the proper evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of all police units in the country;
5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education and training, logistical requirements,
communications, records,information systems, crime laboratory, crime prevention and crime reporting;
6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National Appellate Board, personnel administrative actions
involving the demotion or dismissal from the service imposed upon members of the Philippine National
Police by the Chief of the Philippine National Police;
7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional Appellate Boards, over administrative cases against
policemen and over decisions on claims for police benefits;
8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment, and uniforms and, after consultation with the
Philippine Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks, awards, medals of honor;
9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters pertaining to the discharge of its own
powers and duties,and designate who among its personnel can issue processes and administer oaths
in connection therewith;
10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on the established criteria for manpower allocation,
distribution and deployment and their impact on the community and the crime situation, and thereafter
formulate appropriate guidelines for maximization of resources and effective utilization of the PNP
personnel;
11. Monitor the performance of the local chief executives as deputies of the Commission; and
12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and irregularities.

B. Advise the President on all matters involving police functions and administration;

C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual report of its activities and accomplishments during the
thirty (30)days after the end of the calendar year, which shall include an appraisal of the conditions
obtaining in the organization and administration of police agencies in the municipalities, cities and
provinces throughout the country, and recommendations for appropriate remedial
legislations;

D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary, within sixty (60) days before the commencement of
each calendar year, a crime prevention program; and

E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out the provisions of R.A. 6975, as amended, other
existing laws and Presidential issuance's, and as the President may direct.

COMPOSITION OF NAPOLCOM
1. One chairperson

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2. Four regular commissioner
3. The Chief PNP as ex officio member
Note:
* shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or extension
* three of the four regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector and not former members of the
police or military
* the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector either active or retired
* at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman
* from among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice Chairperson shall be
chosen
* the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission
* refer to the organizational structure of the NAPOLCOM

Important dates in the history of modern Philippine Policing

1901 - ACT no. 175 of the Philippine Commission established the Philippine constabulary on august 8, 1901.
1905 - the Philippine constabulary school was established at the sta.lucia barracks in Intramuros
on February 17, 1905.
1908 - the Philippine constabulary school was transferred to Baguio City.
1916 - the Philippine constabulary school was renamed academy for officers of the Philippine constabulary.
1917 - on December 17, 1917, Brigadier General Rafael Crame from Rizal Province, became the first Filipino
chief of the Philippine constabulary.
1926 - the academy for officers of the Philippine constabulary was renamed Philippine Constabulary
Academy.
1936 - the Philippine Constabulary Academy became the present day Philippine Military Academy.
1938 - The Philippine Constabulary became the existing and organized national police force of the country
pursuant to commonwealth act no. 343 dated June 23, 1938 and EO no. 389 dated December 23, 1950. This
decree integrated local police forces into the Philippines constabulary operational and organizational set up.
1966 - congress enacted RA no. 4864, the police act of 1966. This law also created the Police Commission
(POLCOM).
1972 - The POLCOM was reorganized as the National Police Commission.
1975 - PD 765 was enacted. This law is called the Police Integration Law of 1975. The Integrated National
Police was established with the Philippine Constabulary as nucleus under the Department of national
Defense. The NAPOLCOM, originally under the office of the President was transferred to the Ministry of
National defense.
1985 - The National Police Commission was returned to the office of the President pursuant to E.O 1040.
1989 - Executive order 379 placed the Integrated national Police directly under the command, supervision
and control of the President. This order vested the NAPOLCOM with the powers of administrative control
and supervision over the Integrated National Police.
1990 - RA 6975 was passed on December 13, 1990 establishing the Philippine National Police under a
reorganized Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). A new National Police Commission
was created under the DILG.
1998 - congress passed into law RA no. 8551 on February 25, 1998, otherwise known as the Philippine
National Police reform and reorganization act of 1998. This act strengthened and expanded NAPOLCOM,s
authority over the PNP to include administration of police entrance examination and conduct pre-charge
investigation against police anomalies and irregularities and summary dismissal of erring police members.

FUNCTIONS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION

1. PRIMARY OR LINE FUNCTIONS


- functions that carry out the major purposes of the organization, delivering the services and dealing
directly with the public
- the backbone of the police department
- examples of the line functions of the police are patrolling, traffic duties, crime investigation

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2. STAFF/ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS
- functions that are designed to support the line functions and assist in the performance of the line
functions
- examples of the staff functions of the police are planning, research, budgeting and legal advice

3. AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS
- functions involving the logistical operations of the organization
- examples are training, communication, maintenance, records management, supplies and equipment
management

ORGANIC UNITS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION

1. OPERATIONAL UNITS
- those that perform primary or line functions
- examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice control,
2. ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS
- those that perform the administrative functions examples are personnel, finance, planning and
training.
3. SERVICE UNITS
- those that perform auxiliary functions
- examples are communication, records management,supplies.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
- the systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members, positions,departments and
functions or work of the organization
- it is comprised of functions, relationships,responsibilities and authorities of individuals within
the organization

KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

1. LINE
- the oldest and simplest kind; also called military
- defined by its clear chain of command from the highest to the lowest and vice versa
- depicts the line functions of the organization
- orders or commands must come from the higher level of authority before it can be carried out
- involves few departments

2. FUNCTIONAL
- structure according to functions and specialized units
- depicts staff functions of the organization
- responsibilities are divided among authorities who are all accountable to the authority above.

3. LINE AND STAFF


- a combination of the line and functional kind
- combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff departments that service,
advise, and support them
- generally more formal in nature and has many departments

ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES

FOUR PRIMAL CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIZATION


1. AUTHORITY
- the supreme source of government for any particular organization

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- the right to exercise, to decide and to command by virtue of rank and position
2. MUTUAL COOPERATION
- an organization exists because it serves a purpose.
3. DOCTRINE
- provides for the organization’s objectives
- provides the various actions, hence, policies, procedures, rules and regulations of the org. are based on
the statement of doctrines
4. DISCIPLINE
- comprising behavioral regulations

ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION


1. UNITY OF COMMAND
- dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure uniformity in the execution of
orders

2. SPAN OF CONTROL
- the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively supervise

Factors affecting the span of control:


a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors
b) Nature of the job and work conditions
c) Complexity of task
d) Education and skill of the employees

3. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
- conferring of an amount of authority by a superior position to a lower-level position.

4. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
- the relationship between superiors and subordinates
- serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and obedience upward through the
department

HIERARCHY - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any given
organization

5. SPECIALIZATION
- the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks

SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS (AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION)


- the designation of certain activities or tasks as ones that must be performed in a highly.
technological,scientific or precise manner
- areas of police specialization include undercover works, crime scene operations, legal advising,
computer work, SWAT operations and others

SPECIALIZATION OF PEOPLE (SPECIALISTS)


- the designation of particular persons as having expertise in a specific area of work
- signifies the adaptation of an individual to the requirements through extensive training

6. CHAIN OF COMMAND
- the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and authority.

7. COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY
- dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision and
control.

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BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM

The institution of police in the Philippines formally started during the Spanish period. The establishment of
the police force was not entirely intended for crime prevention nor peacekeeping. Rather, it was created as
an extension of the colonial military establishment.

Ancient Roots

The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice of barangay chieftains to select
able-bodied young men to protect their barangay during the night and were not required to work
in the fields during daytime.Among the duties of those selected were to protect the properties
of the people in the barangay and protect their crops and livestock from wild animals.

Spanish Period

Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the regulations
of the Department of State; this was armed and considered as the mounted police; years after, this kind of
police organization discharged the duties of a port, harbor and river police.

Guardrilleros/Cuardillo – this was a body of rural police by the Royal Decree of 18 January 1836, this decree
provided that 5% of the able-bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be enlisted in this police
organization for three years

Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on 12 February 1852
to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their work in policing towns,it consisted of a body
of Filipino policemen organized originally in each of the provincial capitals of the central provinces
of Luzon under the Alcalde Mayor

American Period

The Americans established the United States Philippine Commission headed by General Howard Taft as its
first governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant
to Act No 70of the Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the celebration of the anniversary of the
Manila’s Finest every January 9th.

ACT NO 175 – entitled “An Act Providing for the Organization and Government of an Insular
Constabulary”,enacted on July 18, 1901.

Henry T. Allen - Captain of the 6th US cavalry, a graduate of West Point class 1882. Father of the Philippine
Constabulary.The first chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1901.

ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901.

CAPT GEORGE CURRY - the first chief of police


of the Manila Police Department in 1901.

Act No 255 – the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine Constabulary,
enacted on October 3, 1901

Executive Order 389 – ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the four services
of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted on December 23, 1940.

Post-American Period

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RA 4864 – otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted on September 8, 1966;
created the Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory agency to oversee the
training and professionalization of the local police forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM
was renamed into National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).

Martial Law Period

PD 765 – otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,enacted on August 8, 1975;


established the Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine Constabulary (PC)
as the nucleus and the integrated local police forces as components, under the Ministry of National
Defense
- transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National Defense

Post Martial Law Regime

Executive Order No 1012 – transferred to the city and municipal government the operational
supervision and direction over all INP units assigned within their locality; issued on July 10, 1985

Executive Order No 1040 – transferred the administrative control and supervision of the INP
from the Ministry of National Defense to the National Police Commission

RA 6975 – otherwise known as the Department of the Interior andLocal Government Act of 1990,
enacted on December 13,1990; reorganized the DILG and established the Philippine National Police,
Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety College.

RA 8551 – otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act
of 1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA 6975.

RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum educational
qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system; approved on 12 August 2009.
- An Act extending for five (5) years the reglementary period for complying with the minimum educational
qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system thereof,amending for the
purpose pertinent provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 and for other purposes.

Administration of Police Organization Review Questions 1

1.A primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide


responsibility for providing a specific specialized functions.
A.Section
B.Sector
C.Squad
D.Detail

2.A subdivision of a squad


A.Section
B.Unit
C.Sector
D.Detail

3.A subdivision of a unit.


A.Section
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B.Unit
C.Squad
D.Detail

4.A subdivision of a section.


A.Precinct
B.Unit
C.Squad
D.Detail

5.The primary geographic subdivision of a precinct.


A.Post
B.Sector
C. Section
D.Unit

6.The primary subdivision of a sector.


A.Post
B.Beat
C. Unit
D.Sector

7.One of several tours of duty.


A.Detail
B.Post
C. Shift
D.Beat

8.Fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer


A.Post
B.Beat
C. Shift
D.Section

9.The primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.


A. Precinct
B.Section
C. Sector
D.Unit

10.It means planning the work of the department and of the


personnel in an orderly manner.
A.Plan
B.Delegate
C. Oversee
D.Organize

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Memorize the following:

1.Organize - it means planning the work of the department and of the personnel in an orderly manner.

2.Oversee - It means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been organized and delegated is satisfactor
completed.

3.Delegate - It means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to do something.

4.Precinct - the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.

5.Post - Fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer.

6.Shift - one of several tours of duty.

7.Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.

8.Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct.

9.Unit - subdivision of a section.

10.Squad - a subdivision of a unit.

11.Detail - a subdivision of a squad.

12.Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide responsibility for providing a specific
specialized functions.

Answers: Administration of Police Organization

1. A
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. B
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. B
10. D

Administration Of Police Organization Review Questions 2

1. A nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on
crimes brought to their attention.
A. National Crime Reporting
B. Uniform Crime Reporting
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C. National Statistic Report
D. National Police Crime Report

2. It post the location of murder's, rapes, robberies, carnapping and other major crimes of the locality.
A. Crime hot spots
B. Crime incident location
C. Crime spot map
D. Crime mapping

3. It post the the motor vehicle and pedestrian accident which occur in the area.
A. Traffic spot map
B. Traffic crime map
C. Traffic statistic report
D. Traffic incidence report

4. Useful to indicate the traffic accidents and crime location.


A.Traffic map
B. Traffic and crime map
C. Crime map
D. Spot map

5. Each time any file is issued, a record should be made on a color charge-out which is often called a
“Substitution Card” or an “Out Card” which takes the place of a file that has been removed from the cabinet.
A. Borrower's card
B. Document card
C. Borrower's slip
D. Charged out card

6. A file showing the history of each police officer, both prior and subsequent to joining the force, is
indispensable.
A. Personal records
B. Policy,order,memoranda file
C. Assignment record
D. Correspondence file

7. This consist of set or records of communications classified, arranged and filed alphabetically by the subject
to which they pertain.
A. Personal record
B. Policy,order,memoranda file
C. Assignment record
D. Correspondence file

8. This consist of photographic records of known criminals and describe the procedure how criminals commit
crime.
A. Modus operandi file
B. Operation file
C. Method of operation file

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D. Criminal file

9. A notation put into a file to indicate that a record is not stored in that file but in some
other location specified therein. It tells the filer or searcher where to find the needed material.
A. Reference
B. Cross reference
C. File notation
D. Cross location

10.Making an identifying mark on the item to be stored to indicate what classifications it is to be filed .
A. Identifying
B. Classifying
C. Coding
D. Differentiating

Remember the ff: Administration of Police Organization

1. Uniform Crime Reporting - A nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of law enforcement


agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention.

2. Crime spot map - It post the location of murder's, rapes, robberies, carnapping and other major crimes of
the locality.

3. Traffic spot map - It post the the motor vehicle and pedestrian accident which occur in the area.

4. Spot map - Useful to indicate the traffic accidents and crime location.

5. Charged out card - Each time any file is issued, a record should be made on a color charge-out which is
often called a Substitution Card or an Out Card which takes the place of a file that has been removed from the
cabinet.

6. Personal records - A file showing the history of each police officer, both prior and subsequent to joining the
force, is indispensable.

7. Correspondence file - This consist of set or records of communications classified, arranged and filed
alphabetically by the subject to which they pertain.

8. Modus operandi file - This consist of photographic records of known criminals and describe the procedure
how criminals commit crime.

9. Cross reference - A notation put into a file to indicate that a record is not stored in that file but in some
other location specified therein. It tells the filer or searcher where to find the needed material.

10.Coding - Making an identifying mark on the item to be stored to indicate what classifications it is to be filed .

11. The accredited professional organization for criminologists in the Philippines is the PCAP

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- Professional Criminologist Association of the Philippines.

12.The Professional Criminologists Association of the Philippines (PCAP) was accredited by PRC on March 25,
1990 as the professional organization for criminologists in the country.

13. The Board of Examiners for Criminology was created on July 1, 1972, pursuant to Republic Act No. 6506
entitled “An Act Creating the Board of Examiners for Criminologists in the Philippines and For Other Purposes.”

14. The first Board, constituted in 1987, was composed of


1. Dr. Sixto O. de Leon as Chairman
2. Atty. Virgilio B. Andres as member
3. Jaime S. Navarro as member

15.Republic Act No. 6506 - An Act Creating the Board of Examiners for Criminologists in the Philippines and for
Other Purposes.

16. Lourdes W. Aniceto - the present chairman of the board of criminology.

17. Ernesto V. Cabrera - the present member of the board of criminology.

1. B
2. C
3. A
4. D
5. D
6. A
7. D
8. A
9. B
10. C

Administration of police organization review questions 3

1. There are how many staff directorate in the Philippine National Police?
A. 8
B. 10
C. 12
D. 14

2. The second highest ranking officer in the PNP.


A. Deputy Director General for Operation
B. Chief of the Directorial Staff
C. NCR Director
D. None of the Above

3. What is the rank of the PNP Chief of the Directorial Staff?

17
A. 3 Star General
B. 2 Star General
C. 1 Star General
D. None of the Above

4. This theory of Police service is followed by the PNP.


A. Continental Theory
B. Home Rule Theory
C. Modern Rule Theory
D. None of the Above

5. Under this theory of police service, policemen are considered servants of the community.
A. Continental Theory
B. Home Rule Theory
C. Modern Rule Theory
D. None of the Above

6. Under this theory of police service, policemen are considered servants of the higher authority and people have
little share or no share of all there duties nor any direct connection with them.
A. Continental Theory
B. Home Rule Theory
C. Modern Rule Theory
D. None of the Above

7. This concept of police service says that punishment is the sole instrument of crime control, throwing more peopl
to jail rather than keeping them out of jail.
A. Old Concept
B. Modern Concept
C. Community Concept
D. None of the Above

8. This concept of police service says that the yardstick of efficiency of police is the absence of crime.
A. Old Concept
B. Modern Concept
C. Community Concept
D. None of the Above

9. This type of organizational structure divides authority between several specialist.


A. Line Organization
B. Functional Organization
C. Line Staff Organization
D. None of the Above

10.It is the simplest type of organizational structure,Channels of authority and responsibility extends in a direct
line from top to bottom within the structure.
A. Line Organization
B. Functional Organization

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C. Line staff Organization
D. None of the Above

Answer:

1. B
2. D
3. A
4. B
5. B
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. B
10. A

Administration of Police Organization Reviewer 4

1. This type of organizational structure is found in almost all police organization today.
A. Line Organization
B. Functional Organization
C. Line Staff Organization
D. None of the Above

2. An organization is effective if it enables the individual to contribute to the organizations objective.


A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational efficiency
C. Scalar Principle
D. Unity of Command

3. Organization is effective if it is structured in such a way to aid the accomplishment of the organization's
objective
with a minimum cost.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational efficiency
C. Scalar Principle
D. Unity of Command

4. The vertical heirarchy of an organization which defines an unbroken chain of units from top to bottom
describing explicitly the flow of authority.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational efficiency
C. Scalar Principle
D. Unity of Command

5. A subordinate should only follow the command of one superior.


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A. Unity of command
B. Span of control
C. Delegation of authority
D. Principle of balance

6. The control of superior should not be more than what he can effectively direct.
A. Unity of command
B. Span of control
C. Delegation of authority
D. Principle of balance

7. The assignment of authority and responsibility to another person.


A. Unity of command
B. Span of control
C. Delegation of authority
D. Principle of balance

8. Refers to the division of work according to type, place, time and specialization.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result

9. To ensure the effectiveness of the structure in meeting the organization's objective.


A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result expected

10.That which implies the system of varied functions, arrange into a workable pattern.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result expected

Answer:

1. C
2. A
3. B
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. B

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Administration of Police Organization Review Questions 5

1. The authority delegated should be adequate to ensure the ability to accomplish expected result.
A. Functional Principle
B. Line and Staff principle
C. Principle of balance
D. Principle of delegation result expected

2. The responsibility of the subordinates to their superior for performance is absolute and superior can not
escape responsibility for the organization on activities performed by their subordinates.
A. Principle of Absolute Responsibility
B. Principle of balance
C. Principle of Parity and Responsibility
D. Principle of delegation

3. The responsibility for actions can not be greater than that implied by the authority delegated nor should it
be less.
A. Principle of Absolute Responsibility
B. Principle of balance
C. Principle of Parity and Responsibility
D. Principle of delegation

4. This law organized the Manila Police department.


A. Act 183
B. R.A. 8551
C. E.O. 1012
D. E.O. 1040

5. Transferred the operational supervision and direction over all INP units to the city and municipal
government.
A. Act 183
B. R.A. 8551
C. E.O. 1012
D. E.O. 1040

6. Transferred the administrative control and supervision of the INP from Ministry of National Defense to the
office of the Napolcom.
A. Act 183
B. R.A. 8551
C. E.O. 1012
D. E.O. 1040

7. The Transfer of the administrative control and supervision of the INP from Ministry of National Defense to
the office of the Napolcom took effect on.
A. July 10, 1985

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B. July 10, 1986
C. July 10, 1987
D. July 10, 1988

8. The Manila Police Department was organized on.


A. July 31, 1900
B. July 31, 1901
C. July 31, 1902
D. July 31, 1903

9. Granted to those who possesses the mandatory promotional requirement.


A. Regular Promotion
B. Special Promotion
C. A and B
D. None of the Above

10.Extended to PNP members who acted conspicuously beyond and above the call of duty.
A. Regular Promotion
B. Special Promotion
C. A and B
D. None of the Above

Answer:

1. D
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. C
6. D
7. A
8. B
9. A
10. B

Administration of Police Organization Review Questions 6

1. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Senior Superintendent must first obtained
what mandatory training requirement?
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course

2. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Superintendent must first secure what
mandatory training requirement?
A. General Staff Course
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B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course

3. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Chief Inspector must first secure what
mandatory training requirement.
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course

4. A PNP officer before eligible for promotion to the rank of Senior Inspector must first secure what
mandatory training requirement.
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Advance Course
D. Officer Basic Course

5. Before an officer is appointed to the rank of PNP Inspector, He/She must finish what mandatory training
requirement?
A. General Staff Course
B. Officer Senior Executive Course
C. Officer Candidate Course
D. Officer Basic Course

6. Before a PNP enlisted personnel is appointed to the rank of SPO3 to SPO4,


what mandatory training requirement must he/she undertake?
A. Senior Leadership Course
B. Basic Leadership Course
C. Public Safety Basic Course
D. None of the Above

7. Before a PNP enlisted personnel is appointed to the rank of PO2 to PO3,


what mandatory training requirement must he/she undertakes?
A. Senior Leadership Course
B. Basic Leadership Course
C. Public Safety Basic Course
D. None of the Above

8. Highest award in the PNP.


A. Medalya ng Kasanayan
B. Medalya ng Kabayanihan
C. Medalya ng Katapangan
D. Medalya ng Kagitingan

9. PNP's mandatory retirement age.


A. 55

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B. 56
C. 60
D. 65

10. Optional retirement requires the approval of the


A. DILG Secretary
B. Napolcom
C. Chief of the PNP
D. President of the Philippines

Answer:

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. B

Note:
Mandatory Promotional Requirement
1. Educational Attainment
2. Time in Grade
3. Eligibility
4. Mandatory Training Requirement
5. Performance Evaluation Rating
6. Awards and Commendations Received
7. Clearances

Mandatory Training Requirement


1. Senior Superintendent - GSC (General Staff Course, MNSA,
or MPSA (Master in Public Safety Administration)
2. Superintendent - OSEC (Officer Senior Executive Course)
3. Chief Inspector - Officer Advance Course
4. Senior Inspector - Officer Basic Course
5. Inspector - Officer Candidate Course
6. SPO3 to SPO4 - Senior Leadership Course
7. SPO1 to SPO2 - Basic leadership Course
8. PO2 to PO3 - Public safety Basic Course

Performance Evaluation Rating - made by supervisor twice


a year. January to June, July to December
5 - Outstanding

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4 - Very Satisfactory
3 - Satisfactory
2 - Fair
1 - Poor

Administration of Police Organization Definition of Terms

Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each composed of designated districts.

Beat - an area designated for patrol purposes whether on foot or motorized.

Bureau - largest organic unit within a large department.

Commanding Officer- an officer who is in command of the department, a bureau, a division, an area, or a
district.

Department Rules - rules established by department directors\superiors to control the conduct of the
members of the police force.

District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes usually with its own station.

Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.

Duty Manual - describes the procedures and defines the duties ofofficers assigned to specified post or
position.

Formal Organization - is defined as those organizations that areformally established for explicit purpose of
achieving certain goals.

Functional Organization - The functional responsibility of each functional manager is limited to the particular
activity over which he has control, regardless of who performs the function.

Henry Allen - a captain, first chief of the constabulary.

Informal Organization - are those sharing the basic characteristic of all organizations arise through the social
interactions of individuals or through family grouping.

Leave of Absence- period, which an officer is excused from active duty by any valid reason, approved by
higher authority.

Length of Service- the period of time that has elapsed since the oath of office was administered.Previous
active services may be included or added.

Line Organization - is the simplest and the oldest types of organization where responsibility extends in
a direct line from top to bottom within the structures and authority is definite and absolute.

line and staff organization is a combination of the line and functional types.
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Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is free from specific routine duty.

On Duty - the period when an officer is actively engaged in the performance of his duty.

Order – an instruction given by a ranking officer to a subordinate.

Organization - It is a form of human association for the attainment of goal or objective.

patrol officer - is the backbone of the police department.

PD 765 - created the PC-INP.

Police - is a branch of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility of maintaining law and
order and combating crime within the society.

Police organization - is a group of trained personnel in the field ofpublic safety administration engaged in the
achievement of goals and objectives that promotes the maintenance of crimes.

Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as a designated desk or office or
an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty.It is a spot location for general guard duty.

Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior rank in a team or group.

RA 4864 - established Napolcom.Known as police act of 1966.

Rafael Crame - first filipini chief of the constabulary.

Report - usually a written communication unless otherwise specifies to be verbal reports; verbalreports
should be confirmed by written communication.

Route - (line beat) a length of street designated for patrol purposes.

Section - functional units within a division.

Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route, or post.

Sick leave - period which an officer is excused from active duty by reason of illness or injury.

Special Duty - the police service, its nature, which requires that the officer be excused from the performance
of his active regular duty.

Superior Officer- one having supervisory responsibilities, either temporarily or permanently, over officers of
lower rank.

Suspension - a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives an officer from the privilege of performing
his duties as result of violating directives or other department regulations.

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Sworn Officers - all personnel of the police department who have taken oath and who posses the power to
arrest.

Unit - functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within an organization.

Patrol Organization and Operation

Patrol - from french patrouiller - to paddle, paw about, patrol.


- keep watch over an area by regularly walking or traveling around or through it.
- a person or group of people sent to keep watch over an area.

Patrol officers - are uniformed officers assigned to monitor specific geographical areas, that is to move
through their areas at regular intervals looking out for any signs of problems of any kind.

History of Patrol

1. Ancient China - law enforcement was carried out by prefect. Prefects were government officials
appointed by local magistrates who reported to higher authorities such as the governors who in turn were
appointed by head of state usually the emperor of the dynasty.

2. Ancient Greece - publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police.In Athens, a group of 300
Scythian slaves (rod-bearers) was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control and
also assisted with dealing with criminal, handling prisoners and making arrests.

3. Roman empire - the army rather than a dedicated police organization provided security. Local watchmen
were hired by cities to provide some extra security.Magistrates such as procurators, fiscals and quaestros
investigated crime.
Under the reign of Augustus, 14 wards were created, the wards were protected by seven squads of 1000
men called vigiles who acted as firemen and night watchmen. Their duties included apprehending thieves
and robbers and capturing run away slaves.
The vigiles were supported by the urban cohorts who acted as a heavy duty riot force and praetorian
guard if necessary.

 praetorian guard - bodyguards used by roman emperors.


 urban cohorts - were created by Augustus to counter balance the enormous power of the praetorian
guard in the city of Rome and serve as the police force.
 vigiles - (watchmen of the city) - were the firefighters and police of ancient Rome.
 ward - a subdivision of a municipality.

4. Medieval England - the Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since the Norman conquest was a
private system of tithing, led by a constable to enforce the law.

 tithing - was a grouping of 10 households.

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 constable - is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. The office of
constable can vary significantly in different jurisdiction.

5. Spain - modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandus or (brotherhood) - peace keeping
association of individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain. The first recorded case of the
formation of the hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the
pilgrim road to Santiago de compostela in galicia and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.
6. France - The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of king Louis XIV in
1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe.

7. Britain and Ireland - in England, a system of sheriffs, reeves and investigative juries to provide basic
security and law enforcement.

 Sheriff - is a contraction of the term "shire-reeve" - designated a royal official responsible for keeping
the peace through out a shire or county on behalf of the king.
 Reeve - a senior official with local responsibilities under the crown. ex., chief magistrate of a town or
district.
 Shire - traditional term for a division of land in the UK and Australia.
 Jury - is a sworn body of people convened to render impartial verdict officially submitted to them by
a court or to set a penalty or judgement.
 Thief taker - a private individual hired to capture criminal.
 Bow street runners - London's first professional police force.
 Henry Fielding - a magistrate educated at Elton college who founded the Bow street runners
originally numbered just six.
 Statute of Winchester - in 1285, obliged the authorities of every town to keep a watch at the city
gates and arrest all suspicious night walkers.
 Sir Robert Peel - prime minister of England from Dec. 1834 to April 1835 and again From Aug.1841 to
June 1846. While home secretary, help create the modern concept of the police force leading to
officers being known as bobbies in England and peelers in Ireland.
 Patrick Colquhoun - (1745 - 1820) - a Scottish merchant and a magistrate who founded the first
regular preventive police force in England, the Thames river police.

8. In the US - the first city police services were established in


Philadelphia in 1751, Boston 1838 and new york 1845.

 August Vollmer - first police chief of Berkeley California. He is sometimes called the father of modern
law enforcement in the US.
1. He was the first chief to require that police officers attain college degrees.

2. First police chief to create a motorized force placing officers on motorcycles and cars so that they
could patrol broader areas with greater efficiency .
3. He was also the first to use the lie detector in police work.

 O.W. Wilson - studied under August Vollmer. Became Chief of Police of the Fullerton police
department. He also became chief of police of the Wichita police department. He introduced the
following reforms and innovations:

1. requires new policeman to have college education.


2. use of police car for patrol, mobile radios and use of a mobile crime laboratory.

28
3. he believe that the use of a two way radio allowed better supervision of patrol officers.

What are the 3 main task of supervision?


1. Organize - means planning the work of the department and of the personnel in an orderly
manner.
2. Delegate - means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to do something. The
supervisor confers upon a subordinate officer the same authority and responsibility that the
supervisor possesses to accomplish the specific task The supervisor remain responsible for the
completion of the delegated task.
3. Oversee - means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been organized and delegated is
satisfactorily completed.

Community policing - is the process by which an organized group of citizens devoted a time to crime
prevention within a neighborhood. When suspecting criminal activities, members are encourage to contact
the authorities and not to intervene.

Beat patrol - the deployment of officers in a given community, area or locality to prevent and deter criminal
activity and to provide day to day services to the community.

Sting Operations - organized groups of detectives who deceived criminals into openly committing illegal acts
of conspiring to engage in criminal activity.

Hotspots of Crime - the view that a significant portion of all police calls in cities typically radiate from a
relatively few locations.

Models of Policing
1. Neighborhood Oriented Policing - a philosophy of police suggesting that problem solving is best done
at the neighborhood level, where issues originate not at a far-off central headquarters.
2. Pro Active Policing - aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the initiative
against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur.
3. Problem Oriented Policing - a style of police management that stresses pro active problem
solving instead of reactive crime fighting.
4.Community Oriented Policing - programs designed to bring the police and the public closer together
and create more cooperative working environment between them.
5. Reactive Policing - the opposite of Pro Active policing where the police wait for crime to occur.

Blue Curtain - describes the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police
subculture.

Cynicism - the belief that most peoples actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness.

Civilian Review Board - ex. PLEB - organized citizen groups that examine police misconduct.

Watchman - style of policing characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public order.

Fleeing Felon Rule - the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force.

Beats - designated police patrol areas.


29
Internal Affairs - unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct.

Deadly Force - police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an officer or the
community.

Booking - the administrative record of an arrest listing the offenders name, address, physical description,
date of birth, time of arrest, offense and name of arresting officer. It also include photographing and
fingerprinting of the offender.

Line Up - placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness.

Stop and Frisk - the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands
lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine if the person is carrying a concealed weapon. Also
called Inquiry of Pat Down.

Foot Patrol - police patrol that takes officer out of cars and puts them in walking beat to strengthen ties with
the community.

Excited Delirium - an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontation with the police.

* Patrol reduces crime by creating an impression of omnipresence.

Responding to Crime - total response time is comprised of four dimensions.


1. Discovery Time - interval between the commission of the crime and its discovery.
2. Reporting Time - interval between the discovery of the crime and when it is reported to the police.
3. Processing Time - interval between receiving the call and dispatching the officers for service.
4. Travel time - the amount of time it takes for the police to travel to the scene of the crime.

The Phantom Effect - "residual deterrence" most people believe that the police is present even when the are
not in sight.

Sworn Date - the date that a sworn employee took the oath of office for their position.

Advantages of Foot/Bicycle Patrol


1. Increased personal contact between the police and citizen.
2. Increased observation ability.
3. Increased ability to gather information
4. Economical

Advantages of Motorized Patrol


1. Increased speed and mobility
2. Increased conspicuousness
3. Availability of additional equipment
4. Increased transportation capability
5. Deceased response time
6. Communications

30
Basic Preventive Patrol Methods Utilized by an Officer
1. Frequent check and contact with business premises
2. Frequent check of suspicious persons
3. Fluctuating patrol patterns
4. Maintenance of visibility and personal contact
5. Daily individual patrol and community action plan

Factors to be Considered in Becoming Familiar with the Community


1. General population information
2. Appropriate geographical information
3. Recent criminal activity
4. Specific factors that may influence patrol functions ex. location of hospitals, high crime areas,
community habits.

How to Prepare for a Normal Patrol Shift


1. Gathering information through crime reports and briefings
2. Gathering needed materials ex. report forms, citation books
3. Obtaining and checking equipment
4. Planning work around identified priorities
5. Preparing daily patrol and community action plan

What an Officer on Night time Patrol Should be Looking for


1. broken glasses
2. open doors and windows
3. pry marks
4. suspicious vehicles
5. persons on foot
6. differences in normal lighting (on or Off)
7. unusual sounds
8. access to roof tops or upper floors

Definition of Terms
1. Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide responsibility for providing a
specific specialized functions.
2. Unit - a subdivision of a section usually small in size with personnel assigned to perform a
specialized activity, one or two employees performing assigned work.
3. Squad - a subdivision of a unit.
4. Detail - a subdivision of a squad.
5. Precinct -the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.
6. Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct, supervised by a sergeant.
7. Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.
8. Watch/Shift - one of several tours of duty.
9. Post - a fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer.
10.Task Force - an adhoc work group normally established by bureau commander to respond to a
specific incident or series of related incidents. Task Force assignment is temporary.
11.Chief of Police - overall commander of the department.

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12.Chain of Command - a fundamental component of proper supervision.The chain of command
requires that each employee reports and is accountable to only one direct supervisor.

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 1


1. Sir Robert Peel introduced the Metropolitan Police Act and passed
by the parliament of England on
A. 1828
B. 1829
C. 1830
D. 1831

2. Considered as the father of modern policing system.


A. Sir Robert Peel
B. August Vollmer
C. Edgar Hoover
D. Henry Armstrong

3. In the principles of law enforcement enunciated by Sir Robert Peel,


the basic mission of the police is
A. Prevention of crime
B. Enforcement of the law
C. Maintenance of peace and order
D. None of the above

4. One of the feature of this act is that no freeman shall be taken


or imprisoned except by the judgment of his peer
A. Magna Carta
B. Statute of 1295
C. Legies Henry
D. None of the above

5. The closing of gates of London during sun down. This mark


the beginning of the curfew hours
A. Statute of 1295
B. Statute of 1775
C. Statute of 1827
D. Statute of 1834

6. A Position having power to arrest, punish, and imposes imprisonment.


A. Justice of the Peace
B. Sheriff
C. Star Chamber Court
D. traveling Judge

7. A Special Court that tried cases against the state.


A. Shire-Reeve
B. Star Chamber Court
32
C. Magna Carta
D. Legies Henry

8. He is held responsible in passing judgment that was taken from the


shire-reeve in view of some abuses.
A. Legies Henry
B. star Chamber Court
C. Justice of the Peace
D. Traveling Judge

9. An Act enacted in England with the following features:


a. Policeman became public servant
b. The Police has a broad power of arrest
c. Grand Jury was created to inquire on the violations of the law.
A. Statute of 1295
B. Star Chamber Court
C. Legies Henry
D. Magna Carta

10. Shire means


A. Ruler
B. District
C. Police
D. Judge

11. Reeve means


A. Ruler
B. District
C. Police
D. Judge

Answer:
1. B
2. A
3. A
4. A
5. A
6. A
7. B
8. D
9. C
10. B
11. A

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 2

33
1. A round line or district area regularly traversed by foot
police patrol.
A. Bureau
B. Division
C. Section
D. Beat

2. One of the advantage of this patrol is that the patrolman


knows the area and people in his beat.
A. Bicycle Patrol
B. Horse Patrol
C. Motorized Patrol
D. Foot Patrol

3. Backbone of the police service in the community.


A. Police Intelligence
B. Police Investigation
C. Police Patrol
D. None of the above

4. One of the following types of police patrol is currently


not used in the Philippines.
A. Mobile Patrol
B. Foot Patrol
C. Animal Patrol
D. Aircraft Patrol

5. It is the largest segment of a police station.


A. Police Patrol
B. Police Investigation
C. Police Intelligence
D. None of the Above

6. From the time of the receipt of the call by the police


dispatcher to the arrival of the mobile patrol at the scene.
A. Response Time
B. Preparation Time
C. Speed Time
D. None of the Above

7. Which of the following kind of patrol is most effective in


parade and crowd control.
A. Foot Patrol
B. Horse Patrol
C. Mobile Patrol
D. Aircraft Patrol

34
8. One of the advantage of this kind of patrol is stealth
silence for movement.
A. Foot Patrol
B. Bicycle Patrol
C. Mobile Patrol
D. Horse Patrol

9. An electronic equipment that has helped the police in its


record, storage, and location system.
A. Walkie Talkie
B. Vault
C. File Room
D. Computer

10. One electronic gadget or equipment that has assisted


immediately the police investigation and interrogation
in his work.
A. Walkie Talkie
B. Tape Recorder
C. Computer
D. None of the Above

Answer:
1. D
2. D
3. C
4. D
5. A
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. D
10. B

Patrol Organization Reviewer 3


1. Backbone of the police department.
A. Intelligence
B. Patrol
C. Investigation
D. Vice Control

2. Established the fist English police department, the London metropolitan police in 1829.
A. O.W Wilson
B. Sir Robert Peel
C. Henry Fielding
D. None of the Above

35
3. He laid the foundation for the first modern police force. he was appointed magistrate in Westminster in
1748.
A. Henry Fielding
B. Sir Robert Peel
C. O.W. Wilson
D. None of the Above

4. A Chicago Police department superintendent, he introduced a one man mobile patrol except in ghetto
and crime ridden section of the city. The rationale is that help is a microphone away.
A. O.W. Wilson
B. Sir Robert Peel
C. Henry Fielding
D. None of the Above

5. Required all men in a given town to serve on the night watch.


A. Hue and Cry
B. Shires
C. Parish constable
D. Watch and Ward

6. Ten tithings or 100 families under the charge of a constable.


A. Shire
B. Parish Constable
C. Beadies
D. Hundred

7. Groups of hundreds within a specific geographic area.They were put under the control of the King
and were governed by a shire-reeve or sheriff.
A. Shires
B. Parish Constable
C. Beadies
D. Tithings

8. Ten families who grouped together to protect one another and to assume responsibility for the acts of the
group member.
A. Hundred
B. Shires
C. Tithings
D. Beadies

9. Enacted in 1285 in England, it established a rudimentary criminal justice system in which most of the
responsibility for law enforcement remained with the people themselves.
A. The Hue and Cry
B. shire-reeve
C. Statute of Winchester
D. Magna carta

36
10.He was responsible for organizing and supervising the watch
A. Shire-reeve
B. Shire
C. Magistrate
D. Parish Constable

Answer:
1. B
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. D
6. D
7. A
8. C
9. C
10.D

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 4

1. He assisted the justices of the peace by presiding the courts, ordering arrest, calling witnesses and
examining prisoners
A. Parish Constable
B. Sheriff
C. Magistrates
D. Shire

2. This office was created to assist the shire-reeve in non urban areas
A. Justice of the Peace
B. Parish Constable
C. Magistrates
D. Watchmen

3. This office was created to assist the shire-reeve in urban areas.


A. Justice of the Peace
B. Parish Constable
C. Magistrates
D. Watchmen

4. Patrolling the streets from dusk till dawn to insure that all local people were indoors and quite and to
insure that no strangers were
roaming around.
A. Justice of the peace
B. Parish Constable

37
C. Magistrates
D. Watchmen

5. A system of apprehending criminals whereby a complainant goes in the middle of the street and shout
at the top of his voice calling all males to assemble and indicates the whereabouts of the culprit.
A. Royal Judge
B. Magistrates
C. Watchmen
D. Hue and Cry

6. He conducts Criminal investigation and give punishment.


A. Royal Judge
B. Magistrate
C. Watchmen
D. Parish Constable

7. Suspects were required to place their hands in boiling water. When not hurt, he will be acquitted, if not he
is guilty of the crime.
A. Hue and Cry
B. Shire
C. Trial by Ordeal
D. None of the Above

8. An Anglo-saxon period of policing system where the residents themselves were required to preserve the
peace and order and protect life and properties of the people.
A. Hue and Cry
B. Royal Judge
C. Trial by ordeal
D. Tun policing system

9. The cooperative human effort to achieve the purpose of criminal justice system.
A. Civil Administration
B. Police Administration
C. Patrol Administration
D. None of the above

10.This law established the Napolcom under the office of the President. It is also known as the Police Act of
1966.
A. R.A. 6975
B. C.A. 181
C. R.A. 4864
D. R.A. 4668

Answer:

1. C
2. A

38
3. B
4. D
5. D
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. C

Patrol Organization and Operation Reviewer 5

1. An area containing two or more beat, route, or post.


A. Sector
B. District
C. Area
D. None of the Above

2. A geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes usually


with its own station.
A. Sector
B. District
C. Area
D. None of the Above

3. A section or territorial division of a large city each composed of


designated districts.
A. Sector
B. District
C. Area
D. None of the Above

4. All personnel of the police department who have taken oath.


A. Duty officer
B. Subordinate officer
C. Sworn officer
D. Commanding officer

5. Describes the procedure that defines the duties of officers assigned to specific post or position.
A. Duty Manual
B. Mission Order
C. Special Order
D. Office Manual

6. The Japanese Military Police.


A. Kempetai
B. Sepuko

39
C. Arigato
D. Kimchi

7. The Manila Police Department was formally organized on this date.


A. July 31, 1901
B. July 31. 1902
C. August 1, 1901
D. August 1, 1902

8. The PC (Philippine Constabulary) was organized as the first insular police force on this date.
A. July 31, 1901
B. July 31, 1902
C. August 1, 1901
D. August 1, 1902

9. The First Chief of the PC (Philippine Constabulary).


A. Ronald John Hay
B. Henry Allen
C. George Cury
D. John Burnham

10. The First chief of police of Manila.


A. Henry Allen
B. George Cury
C. Howard Taft
D. Tomas Clark

Answer:

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. C
5. A
6. A
7. A
8. C
9. B
10. B

Police Operational Planning

Police Operational Planning - the act of determining policies and guidelines for police activities and
operations and providing controls and safeguards for such activities and operations in the department.
Involvesstrategies or tactics, procedures, policies or guidelines.

Operational Planning - the use of rational design or patten for all departmental undertakings rather than

40
relying on chance in an operational environment. The preparation and development of procedures and
techniques in accomplishing each of the primary tasks and functions of an organization.

Police Planning - an attempt by police administrators in trying to allocate anticipated resources to meet
anticipated service demands. The systematic and orderly determination of facts and events as basis for
policyformulation and decision making affecting law enforcement management.

Planning - the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained; involves
the determination of a course of action to take in performing a particular function or activity. The process of
developing methods or procedures or an arrangement of parts intended to facilitate the accomplishment of
a definite objective. The process of deciding in advance what is to be done and how it is to be done.

Plan - an organized schedule or sequence by methodical activities intended to attain a goal or objectives for
the accomplishment of mission or assignment. A method or way of doing something in order to attain
objectives and provides answers to the 5Ws and 1H.

Strategy - a broad design or method or a plan to attain a stated goal or objective.

Tactics - are specific design, method or a course of action to attain a particular objective in consonance with
strategy.

Procedures - are sequences of activities to reach a point or to attain what is desired.

Policy - a course of action which could be a program of


actions adopted by an individual, group, organization or government or the set of principles on which they
are based.

 case operational plan (COPLAN) - a definite target - specific activity conducted in relation to an
intelligence project under which it is affected. Several case operations may fall under one
intelligence project.- refers to a preparatory plan on how to carry out a case operation which is the
last resort to pursue intelligence objectives when normal police operations fail.

 command post/holding area - area where case conferences, briefings and debriefings are being
conducted by the responding agencies.
 dragnet operation - is a police operation purposely to seal off the probable exit points of fleeing
suspect from the crime scene to prevent their escape.

Management or Administrative Functions


1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
5. Staffing
6. Reporting
7. Budgeting

Guidelines in Planning

41
1. What - mission/objective
2. Why - reason/philosophy
3. When - date/time
4. where - place
5. How - strategy/methods

Characteristics of a Good Plan


1. A Plan must have a clearly defined objective
2. A Plan must be simple, direct and clear
3. A Plan must be flexible
4. A Plan must be attainable
5. A Plan must provide standards of operation
6. A Plan must be economical in terms of resources
needed for implementation.

Types of Plan
1. Procedural/Policy Plan
2. Operational Plan
3. Tactical Plan
4. Administrative/Management Plan
5. Extra-Departmental Plan

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 1

1. The determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be attained.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling

2. involves the determination and allocation of the men and women as well as the resource of an
organization to achieve pre-determined goals or objectives of the organization.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling

3. It involves the overseeing and supervising of the human resources and the various activities in an
organization to achieve through cooperative efforts the pre-determined goals or objectives of the
organization.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling

4. It involves the checking or evaluation and measurement of work performance and comparing it with
planned goals or objectives of the organization, and making the necessary corrective actions so that work
42
is accomplished as planned.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Directing
D. Controlling

5. The task of providing competent men to do the job and choosing the right men for the right job-involves
good selection and processing of reliable and well-trained personnel.
A. Staffing
B. Reporting
C. Budgeting
D. Controlling

6. The making of detailed account of activities, work progress, investigations and unusual in order to
keepevery one informed or what is going on.
A. Staffing
B. Reporting
C. Budgeting
D. Controlling

7. The forecasting in detail of the results of an officially recognized program of operations based onthe
highest reasonable expectations of operatingefficiency.
A. Staffing
B. Reporting
C. Budgeting
D. Controlling

8. This is intended to be used in all situations of all kinds, which shall be outlined to guide officers and men in
the field.
A. Field Procedure
B. Headquarter's Procedure
C. Special Operating Procedure
D. None of the Above

9. To be included in these procedures are the duties of the dispatcher, jailer, matron, and other personnel
concerned, which may be reflected in the duty manual. It also involves coordinated action on activity of
several offices.
A. Field Procedure
B. Headquarter's Procedure
C. Special Operating Procedure
D. None of the Above

10.Certain special operations also necessitate the preparation of procedures as guides.


A. Field Procedure
B. Headquarter's Procedure
C. Special Operating Procedure
D. None of the Above

43
Answer:

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. B
10. C

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 2


1. A general statement of intention and typically with a time horizon.
A. Goal
B. Objective
C. Plan
D. Strategy

2. Specific commitment to achieve a measurable result within a specific period of time.


A. Goal
B. Objective
C. Plan
D. Strategy

3. An organize schedule or sequence by methodical activities intended to attain a goal and objectives for the
accomplishment of mission or assignment.
A. Goal
B. Objective
C. Plan
D. Strategy

4. Is an attempt by administration to allocate anticipated resources to meet anticipated service demands.


A. Police Planning
B. Planning
C. Strategy
D. Plan

5. A process of preparing for change and copping uncertainty formulating future causes of action, the
process of determining the problem of the organization coming up with proposed resolution and finding
best solution.
A. Police Planning
B. Planning
C. Strategy
D. Plan
44
6. It is a broad design, method, a plan to attain a stated goal or objective.
A. Police Planning
B. Planning
C. Strategy
D. Plan

7. It is a specific design, method, or course of action to attain a particular objective in accordance with
strategy.
A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines

8. A sequence of activities to reach a point or to attain that which is desired.


A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines

9. A product of prudence or wisdom in the management of human affairs.


A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines

10.A rule of action for the rank and file to show them and they are expected to obtain the desired effect.
A. Tactic
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Guidelines

Answer:

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. A
8. B
9. C
10. D

Police Operational Planning Reviewer 3

45
1. Set of procedure to meet varying degree of emergency while at the same time providing
continuing police coverage of areas not affected by the emergency.
A. General Emergency Plan
B. Specific Emergency Plan
C. Policy
D. Guidelines

2. A sub-type of plan to meet unusual needs which is similar to general emergency plan but it is basically to
certain specific situation.
A. General Emergency Plan
B. Specific Emergency Plan
C. Policy
D. Guidelines

3. It relates to plans which are strategic or long range in application, it determine the organizations original
goals and strategy.
A. Strategic plan
B. Intermediate plan
C. Operational plan
D. None of the Above

4. It relates to plans which determine quantity and quality efforts and accomplishment. It refers to the
process of determining the contribution on efforts that can make or provide with allocated resources.
A. Strategic plan
B. Intermediate plan
C. Operational plan
D. None of the Above

5. It refers to the production of plans which determines the schedule of special activity and are applicable
from one week to less than a year duration.
A. Strategic plan
B. Intermediate plan
C. Operational plan
D. None of the Above

6. It is the basic principle in planning, organizing, and management of the PNP in support of the overall
pursuit of the PNP vision, mission, and strategic action plan of the national objective.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Functional Doctrine
D. None of the Above

7. The principles and rules governing the planning, organization, direction, and employment of the PNP
forces in the accomplishment of basic mission of maintenance of peace and order, crime prevention and
suppression and security and public safety operations.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine

46
C. Functional Doctrine
D. None of the Above

8. This provides guidance for special activities of the PNP in the broad field of interest such as personnel,
intelligence, operations, logistics, planning.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Functional Doctrine
D. None of the Above

9. Doctrine formulated jointly by two or more bureau in order to effect a certain operation with regard
to public safety and peace and order.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Complimentary Doctrine
D. Ethical Doctrine

10.It defines the fundamental principle governing the rules of conduct, attitude, behavior and ethical norm
of the PNP.
A. Fundamental Doctrine
B. Operational Doctrine
C. Complimentary Doctrine
D. Ethical Doctrine

Answer:

1. A
2. B
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. C
10. D

Notes:

1. Index Crimes - crimes against person


2. Non Index Crimes - crimes against properties
3. Characteristics of a good plan - SMART
a. Simple
b. Measurable
c. Attainable
d. Realistic
e. Time Bound

47
Police Operational Planning Reviewer 4
1. An organization is more effective if it enables the individual to contribute to the organization.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle

2. Organizations structure is effective if it is structured to aid the accomplishment of organizations objective


with minimum cost.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle

3. The vertical hierarchy of the organization which defines an unbroken chain of scale of units from top to
bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle

4. This implies a system of varied function arranged into a workable pattern. The line organization refers to
the direct accomplishment of the objective. The staff refers to the line organization which is an advisory or
facilitative capacity.
A. Principle of Unity of Objective
B. Principle of Organizational Efficiency
C. The Scalar Principle
D. Functional Principle

5. The right to exercise, decide and command by virtue of rank and position.
A. Authority
B. Doctrine
C. Discipline
D. None of the Above

6. It provides for the organizations objectives, it provides the various actions, hence, policies, procedures,
rules, and regulation of the organization are based on the statement of doctrines.
A. Authority
B. Doctrine
C. Discipline
D. None of the Above

7. It is imposed by command or self restraint to insure supportive behavior.


A. Authority
B. Doctrine
C. Discipline
D. None of the Above

48
8. Procedures for coping with specific situations and locations.
A. Procedural Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

9. Plans for the operation of special divisions like patrol, detective, traffic, vice, and juvenile control division.
A. Procedural Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

10. Standard operating procedures shall be planned to guide members in routine and field operations and in
some special operations.
A. Procedural Plan
B. Tactical Plan
C. Operational Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan
Answer:

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. B
9. C
10. A

Notes:
1. Scalar Principle
a. Unity of Command
b. Span of Control
c. Delegation of Authority
d. Chain of Command
2. Five Approaches in Planning
a. Synoptic Planning
- feasibility study
- acceptability study
- cost effective analysis
b. Must and Wants analysis
c. Incremental Planning
d. Trans-active Planning
e. Advocacy Planning

49
Police Operational Planning Reviewer 5

1. Standard Operating procedures shall be planned to guide members in routine and field operations and in
some special operations.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

2. Procedures for coping with specific situations at known locations.


A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

3. Plans for the operation of special divisions like patrol, detective, traffic, vice and juvenile control division.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

4. The active interest and participation of individual office is so vital to the success of the
integrated police programs tha the integrated police shall continually seek to motivate, promote and
maintain an active public concern in its affairs.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Tactical Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

5. It shall map out in advance all operations involved in the organizations management of personnel
and material and in the procurement and disbursement of money.
A. Policy/Procedural Plan
B. Operational Plan
C. Management Plan
D. Extra-Office Plan

6. Forecasting future events and determining the most effective future activities for the company.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating

7. Consist of the ways in which the organizational structure is established and how the authority and
responsibility are given to managers a tasked called delegation.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding

50
D. Coordinating

8. Managers must supervise subordinates in their daily work, and inspire them to achieve company goals.
Likewise it is the responsibility of managers to communicate company goals and policies to subordinates.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating

9. Concerned with activities designed to create a relationship between all the organizations efforts
and individual task.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Commanding
D. Coordinating

10. It is a manager's duty to observe and report deviations from plans and objectives, and to
make initiatives to correct potential deviations.
A. Planning
B. Organizing
C. Controlling
D. Coordinating

Answer:

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. D
10. C

Notes:

1. Types of Plans
a. Policy/Procedural Plan
b. Tactical plan
c. Operational Plan
d. Extra-Office Plan
e. Management Plan

2. Henry Fayol - (1841 - 1926) - concern was efficiency and


effectiveness of the entire organization characterized by

51
five specific functions.
a. Planning
b. Organizing
c. Commanding
d. Coordinating
e. Controlling

3. Five M of management
a. Manpower
b. Machine
c. Money
d. Means/Method
e. Material

Intelligence and Secret Service

Definition of Terms:

Intelligence Agency - is a government agency responsible for the collection,analysis or exploitation of


information and intelligence in support of law enforcement,national security,defense and foreignpolicy
objectives.

Intelligence Officer - is a person employed by an organization to collect,compile and analyze information


which is used to that organization.

Counter Intelligence - refers to effort made by intelligence organizations to prevent hostile or enemy
intelligence organization from successfully gathering and collecting intelligence against them.

Human Intelligence - category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human
sources.

Dead Drop/Dead Letter Box - is a method of espionage trade craft used to pass items between 2 individuals
using a secret location and thus not require to meet directly.

Live Drop - 2 persons meet to exchange items or information.

Dead Drop Spike - is a concealment device used to hide money,maps,documents,microfilm and other items.

Cut-Out - is a mutually trusted intermediary,method or channel of communication,facilitating the exchange


of information between agents.

Espionage/Spying - involves a government or individual obtaining information that is considered secret


of confidential without the permission of the holder of the information.

Agent Handling - is the management of agents,principal agents and agent networks by intelligence officers
typically known as case officers.
52
Case Officer - is an intelligence officer who is trained specialist in the management of agents and agent
network.

Agent - acts on behalf of another whether individual,organization orforeign government, works under the
direction of a principal agent or case officer.

Cryptography - is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third
parties called adversaries.

Eaves Dropping - Is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent.

Propaganda - is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward
some cause or position.

Flip - apprehended criminals who turn informants.

Snitches - jail house informants.

Means of Information Gathering


1.Overt
2.Covert

Intelligence Cycle - is the process of developing unrefined data into polished intelligence for the use of policy
makers.
1. Direction - intelligence requirements are determined by a decision maker to meet his/her
objective.
2. Collection - is the gathering of raw information based on requirements.
3. Processing - converting the vast amount of information collected into a form usable by
analyst.
4. Analysis - conversion of raw information into intelligence. It includes:
(1) integrating
(2) evaluating
(3) analyzing data and preparing intelligence product.
5. Dissemination - is the distribution of raw or finished intelligence to the consumer whose needs
initiated the intelligence requirement.
6. Feedback - is received from the decision maker and revised requirement issued.

Evaluation - systematic determination of merit, worth and significance of something or someone


using criteria against a set of standards.

Collation - is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

Crime Triangle
1. the offender
2. the victim
3. the location
53
Crime Intelligence - information compiled, analyzed and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent,
or monitor criminal activity.

Strategic Intelligence - information concerning existing patterns or emerging trends of criminal activity
designed to assist in criminal apprehension and crime control strategies for both short and long term
investigative tools.

Tactical Intelligence - information regarding a specific criminal event that can be used immediately by
operational units to further a criminal investigation plan tactical operations and provide for officer safety.

Open Source - refers to any information that can be legitimately obtained e. free on request, payment of a
fee.

Source - the place or person from which information is obtained.

Intelligence Assessment - is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended courses of action to


the leadership of an organization based on a wide range of available information sources both overt and
covert.

Intelligence Analysis - is the process of taking known information about situations and entities of strategic,
operational, or tactical importance, characterizing the known and with appropriate statements of
probability. the future actions in those situations and by those entities.

Cryptanalysis - from the Greek word Kryptos-hidden and Analyein-to loosen or to unite - is the art of
defeating cryptographic security systems and gaining access to the contents of encrypted messages without
being given the cryptographic key.

Intelligence and Secret Service Reviewer 1

1. Knowledge of a possible or actual enemy or area of operations acquired by the collection,evaluation


and interpretation of military information.
A. Combat intelligence
B. Police Intelligence
C. Military Intelligence
D. Counter intelligence

2. Knowledge of the enemy,weather and the terrain that is used in the planning and conduct of tactical
operations.
A. Combat intelligence
B. Police intelligence
C. Military Intelligence
D. Counter-intelligence

3. Activity pertains to all security control measures designed to ensure the safeguarding of information
against espionage, personnel against subversion and installations or material against sabotage.

54
A. Combat intelligence
B. Police intelligence
C. Military intelligence
D. Counter intelligence

4. Those which seek to conceal information from the enemy.


A. Passive counter intelligence measures
B. Active counter intelligence measures
C. Strategic intelligence
D. Tactical intelligence

5. Those that actively block the enemy's attempt to gain information of enemy's effort to engage in sabotage
or subversion.
A. Passive counter intelligence measures
B. Active counter intelligence measures
C. Strategic intelligence
D. Tactical intelligence

6. When the source of the information comes from a police intelligence officer of long experience and
extensive background, the evaluation of reliability of information is labeled.
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D

7. When there is no adequate basis estimating the reliability of an information,the evaluation of the
reliability of the information is labeled.
A. A
B. F
C. E
D. D

8. The current head of the PNP directorate for intelligence is


A. Catalino Cuy
B. Cipriano Querol Jr.
C. Lina Sarmiento
D. Angelito Pacia

9. Knowledge in raw form is known as


A. Intelligence
B. Information
C. Awareness
D. Cognition

10.The resolving or separating of a thing into its component parts.


A. Analysis
B. Evaluation

55
C. Collation
D. Collection

Remember the ff: Intelligence and Secret Service

Methods of reporting information


A. Evaluation of reliability of information - indicated by a letter as follows:
A - completely reliable
B - usually reliable - informant is of known integrity
C - fairly reliable
D - nor usually reliable
E - Unreliable
F - reliability not judge - no adequate basis estimating the
reliability of the source.

B. Evaluation of accuracy of information - indicated by numerals as follows:

1 - confirmed by other agencies


2 - probably true
3 - possibly true
4 - doubtfully true
5 - improbable
6 - truth can not be judged

1. C
2. A
3. D
4. A
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. B
10. A

Intelligence and Secret Service Reviewer 2

1. Ancillary materials that are included in a cover story or deception operation to help convince the
opposition or casual observers that what they are observing is genuine.
A. Walk-in
B. Warming room
C. Window Observing
D. Window dressing

2. A surveillance team usually assigned to a specific target.


A. Window observer
B. Window dressing
C. Stake-out team
D. Watcher team

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3. A location out of the weather where a surveillance team can go to keep warm and wait for the target.
A. Warming room
B. Rest room
C. Station room
D. Waiting room

4. A defector who declares his intentions by walking into an official installation, or otherwise making contact
with an opposition g government, and asking for political asylum or volunteering to work in place. Also
known as a volunteer.
A. Enemy traitor
B. Asylum seeker
C. Enemy defector
D. Walk-in

5. The methods developed by intelligence operatives to conduct their operations.


A. Trade craft
B. Operational technique
C. Trade secret
D. Operational secret

6. It focuses on subject or operations and usually short term.


A. Strategic intelligence
B. Counter intelligence
C. Tactical intelligence
D. Long-term intelligence

7. Concerns with the security of information, personnel, material and installations.


A. Strategic intelligence
B. Counter intelligence
C. Tactical intelligence
D. Long-term intelligence

8. Deals with political, economic, military capabilities and vulnerabilities of all nations.
A. Strategic intelligence
B. Counter intelligence
C. Tactical intelligence
D. Long-term intelligence

9. Tradecraft techniques for placing drops by tossing them while on the move.
A. Tosses
B. Dropping
C. Throwing
D. Drops

10.A dead drop that will be retrieved if it is not picked up by the intended recipient after a set time.
A. Picked drop

57
B. Timed drop
C. Abandoned drop
D. Recovered drop

You may want to read the ff: intelligence and secret service

A. Four Axioms of intelligence


1. Intelligence is crucial to intel security
2. Intelligence is crucial to all types of operations
3. Intelligence is the responsibility of all intelligence agencies
4. Intelligence of the government must be superior to that of the enemy.

B. Intelligence - product resulting from the collection, evaluation analysis, integration and
the interpretation of all available information.
- is a processed information.

C. Data + analysis = Intelligence

D. Police intelligence - used in the preparation and execution of police plans,polices and programs.

Answers: Intelligence and Secret Service

1. D
2. D
3. A
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. A
10. B

Intelligence and Secret Service Reviewer 3

1. Technical air sampler sensors designed to sniff for hostile substances or parties in a dark tunnel system.
A. Chemical sniffers
B.Tunnel sniffers
C. Dog sniffers
D. Air sniffers

2. A major electronic communications line, usually made up of a bundle of cables.


A. Cable line
B. Trunk line
C. Telephone line
D. DSL

3. A counter-surveillance ploy in which more than one target car or target officer is being followed and they
58
suddenly go in different directions, forcing the surveillance team to make instant choices about whom to
follow.
A. ABC technique
B. Star-burst maneuver
C. AC technique
D. Sudden change maneuver

4. A chemical marking compound developed by the KGB to keep tabs on the activities of a target officer. Also
called METKA. The compound is made of nitrophenyl pentadien (NPPD) and luminol.
A. Spy dust
B. Chemical dust
C. Sulfuric acid
D. Potassium nitrate

5. A ploy designed to deceive the observer into believing that an operation has gone bad when, in fact, it has
been put into another compartment.
A. Burned
B. Deceiving
C. Spoofing
D. Misleading

6. The special disguise and deception tradecraft techniques developed under Moscow rules to help the CIA
penetrate the KGB's security perimeter in Moscow.
A. Silver bullet
B. Golden bullet
C. Bronze bullet
D. Titanium bullet

7. Any form of clandestine tradecraft using a system of marks, signs, or codes for signaling between
operatives.
A. Ciphers
B. Signs
C. Signals
D. Code

8. Any tradecraft technique employing invisible messages hidden in or on innocuous materials. This includes
invisible inks and microdots, among many other variations.
A. Secret writing
B. Secret message
C. Hidden message
D. Hidden writing

9. An apartment, hotel room, or other similar site considered safe for use by operatives as a base of
operations or for a personal meeting.
A. Meeting place
B. Dead drop
C. Drop

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D. Safe house

10.When an operation goes bad and the agent is arrested.


A. Rolled up
B. Rolled down
C. Burned out
D. Burned down

Remember the ff: Intelligence and Secret Service

1. Sun Tzu - The Chinese general who wrote The Art of War in about 400 b.c.

2. Smoking-bolt operation - A covert snatch operation in which a special entry team breaks into an enemy
installation and steals a high-security device, like a code machine, leaving nothing but the "smoking bolts."

3. Information - unprocessed information or raw data.

4. Intelligence information - Information gathered or received which is of intelligence interests.

5. Intelligence community - It is an integrated and neatly organized entity composed of units or agencies
which have intelligence interest and responsibilities.

6. Informant - is anyone who can furnish information.

7.Rolling car pickup - A clandestine car pickup executed so smoothly that the car hardly stops at all and
seems to have kept moving forward.

8. Terms:
1. Wanted list - It is for crime suspects with warrant of arrest.
2. Watch list - It is for those without warrant of arrest.
3. Target list - It is for organized crime groups.
4. PIR - Priority Intelligence requirement
5. OIR - Other intelligence requirements
6. SOR - Specific order request

9. R.A. 8551 - Placed PNP as support to the AFP in Counter insurgency operations thru intelligence gathering.

10.The intelligence cycle (PNP Directorate for Intelligence)


1. Directing
2. Collecting
3. Processing
4. Dissemination and use

Definition of Terms: Next Page

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1. B
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. A

Intelligence and Secret Service Definition of Terms

2 Methods Of Collecting Information

Overt/Open – overt info. Are obtained from open and easily available sources like magazines, reports and files.
Covert/Close

3 Defined Objectives Of Police Intelligence

To assist the commander in the success of the team


Discover and Identify criminal activities
To assist in the apprehension of criminals

3 Types Of Channels In Special Communication Systems

1. Regular
2. Secondary
3. Emergency

4 Phases/Steps of Informant Recruitment

1. Selection
2. Investigation
3. Approach
4. Testing

Area of Interest – subject of information gathering (person,place,things or an activity)

Briefs – the form in which the finished product of intelligence is presented to the commander in the police
department.

Bugging – the placement of a hidden microphone in a particular room to obtain information.

Burned – the agent was identified and known.

CIA – established in 1946.

Ciples – are fundamental guides to action, broad statement of truth from which others are derived.

Classification/Types Of Police Intelligence

1. Strategic Intelligence
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2. Counter Intelligence
3. Line Intelligence

Coding – is the process of putting the codes and ciphers to plain text message.

Collate – to bring together and compare the truthfulness of the information.

Collection – to accumulate knowledge on a subject or area of interest.

Cooperative Members of the Community - a rich source of information on criminals, criminal activities and even
subversive groups.

Criminal Syndicate – it is a stable business with violence applied and directed at unwelcome competitors.

Criminal World – the social organization of criminals having its own social classes.

Cryptoanalysis – is the process of putting the plain text message tocodes and cipher.

Cryptograph – the art and science of making, devising, inventing, or protecting codes and cipher.

Counter Intelligence – type of intelligence activity which deals with defending the organization against it criminal
activities.

Counter Intelligence Security Measures

1. Physical Security – a system of barrier placed between the potential intruder and the material to be
protected.
2. Personnel Security – includes all security measures designed to prevent unsuitable individuals of doubtful
loyalty from gaining access to classified matter,securing facilities and to prevent theappointment,
employment, or retention as employees of such individuals.
3. Operational Security – measures taken in conducting operations or action in a secure and efficient manner.
4. Security Survey/Inspection – conducted in order to assist the chief of office in determining the security
measures required to protect key installation from possible sabotage, espionage, subversion and
unauthorized disclosure of or access to classified defense information or materials.
5. Community Security – is the protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized person
information of value which may be derived from the possession and study of communications or to mislead
unauthorized persons and the interpretation of the result of such study.

Counter Surveillance – if a surveillance team is watched by the supervisor or a designated unknown individual to
know if the team is doing its job as planned or is being watched by companions of the subject.

Covert Operation – if the information is obtained without the knowledge of the person against whom the informati
or document may be used or if the method or procurement is done not in an open manner.

Detection of Criminal – the primary purpose of police counter intelligence.

Decipher – to reconvert the cipher into plain text message.

Documentary Security Classifications

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1. Top Secret
2. Secret
3. Confidential
4. Restricted

Encipher – conversion of plain text message to ciphers.

Evaluation – it is the critical appraisal of information as a basis for its subsequent interpretation which includes
determining the pertinence of information and the reliability of the source.
- to judge the information as to its truthfulness or importance.

Financial Gain – the most common reason why an informer is giving information.

Frederick The Great – father of organized military espionage.

Information – are knowledge, data, news, opinion or the like transmitted from one person to another.

Integrate – to make the entire or all the information the subject matter.

Interpret – to explain the meaning or to expand the information from the unknown to known.

Intelligence – product resulting from the collecting information concerning an actual and potential situation and
condition relating to foreign activities and to foreign or enemy held areas.

- product resulting from collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of available information
concerning area of interest.

Interpretation – determining the significance of the information with respect to what is already known and it draws
conclusions as to the probable meaning of the evaluated information.

Kinds Of Surveillance

1. Surveillance of place
2. Tailing or shadowing
3. Undercover investigation or Roping

Line Intelligence – types of intelligence which is of immediate nature and necessary for more effective police planni
and operation.

Method of Casing

1. Personal Reconnaissance – the most effective


2. Map Reading
3. Research Work
4. Operational Data Research

Military Intelligence – it is an evaluated and interpreted information concerning an actual or possible enemy or
theater of operations including weather and terrain together with the conclusions drawn therefrom.

Need To Know Principle – in intelligence dissemination, even a ranking law enforcer who has no business on
the classified information is not furnished the report.

OB File – identification, location, and knowing the intents of criminal syndicates, notorious characters and even

63
people with subversive desires must be made available for use.

Order Of Battle – an intelligence document describing the identity, strength, command structure and
disposition of the enemy/criminals.

Organized crime – it is the combination of two or more persons for the purpose of establishing criminal activity.

Overt Operation – if the information or document are procured openly without regard as to whether the
subject of the investigation becomes knowledgeable of the purpose for which it is being gathered.

Parker – internal affairs is my defense and intelligence is my offensive arm.

Police Counter Intelligence – it is the detection, prevention, or neutralization of any activity inimical to the
harmony and best interest of the police organization.

Police Intelligence – an evaluated and interpreted information concerning organized crime and other major
police problems.

Reconnaissance – to gather specific or detailed information at a particular time and place.

Roping – undercover assignment, form of investigation in which the investigator assume a different and
unofficial identity/cover story in order to obtain information.

Safe House – a clandestine place where the intelligence agent and his superior meet.

Schulmoister – Napoleon's secret military agent.

Security Inspection – conducted in order to determine degree of compliance with established security policies
and procedures.

Stool Pidgeon – an individual who sells information to different groups of law enforcers.

Strategic Intelligence – intelligence which is primarily long range in nature with little or no immediate practical
value.

Sun Tzu – he was the writer of the book “Art of War”.

Surveillance – to gather general information over a wide area and takes a longer time frame.

Tactical Interrogation – a process or method to obtain information from a captured enemy.

Walshingham – protector of queen Elizabeth.

Wilhelm Von Stieber – a CIA intelligence officer who spied for soviet union from 1985 – 1994, he had
perpetrated the costliest breach of security in the agency's history.

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Industrial Security Management
RA no. 5487 - (as amended by PD no. 11) - Private security agency law.

Private Detective Agency - is any person who for hire or reward or on commission conducts or carries on or
holds himself out as conducting or carrying on a detective agency or detective service.

Private Detective - any person who is not a member of a regular police agency or armed forces who does
detective work for hire,reward or commission.

PADPAO - Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.

Watchmen/Security Guard - person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either
residential or business establishment or both or any building,compound or area for hire or compensation or
as an employee thereof.

Security Agency - any person, association, partnership or corporation who recruits, trains, muster
,furnishes, solicitindividuals or business firms, private or government owned or controlled corporation to
engage his services or those of its watchmen.

Who May Organize Security Agency


1. Any Filipino Citizen or a corporation, partnership or association.
2. With a minimum capital required by law.

 In case of corporation, association, or partnership - must be 100 % owned and controlled by Filipino
citizen.
 No person shall organize or have interest in more than one agency.

Qualification of an Operator or Manager of a Security Agency:


1. At least 25 years of age
2. College graduate and/or commissioned officer in the inactive service of the AFP
3. Good moral character
4. No previous record of any conviction of any crime/offense involving moral turpitude
5. Not suffering from any of the following disqualifications:

1. dishonorably discharged or separate from the AFP


2. mentally incompetent
3. addicted to the use of narcotic drugs
4. habitual drunkard

 An elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on account of the
function of their respective offices in the implementation and enforcement of the provision of RA
5487 and person related to such government employees by affinity or consanguinity in the third
civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly or indirectly in anysecurity guard agency.

Basic Qualification of a security Guard


1. Filipino citizen
2. High school graduate
3. Physically and mentally fit
4. Not less than 21 nor more than 50 years old
5. At least 5'4" in height
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6. Not suffering from any disqualification under RA
5487

 Veterans shall be given priority in employment as security guard or private detective.


 Person convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude shall not be employed as security guard or
private detective.
 Private detective, detective agency, security guard, security agency must first obtain license from
the PNP.
 Employees employed solely for clerical or manual work need not be licensed.
 The license shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in the agency office.
 The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all private detective and security
guard agencies.
 The City/Municipal Mayors has the power as director of the City/Municipal civil defense to deputize
private detective and security guards to help maintain peace and order or prevent or arrest law
violators in case of emergency or in times of disaster or calamity. They shall take orders from the
Chief of Police for the duration of the fire, inundation, earthquakes, riots or other emergency.
 A security guard or security agency is entitled to possess firearms.
 Firearm must not be higher than .45 caliber.
 Agency is entitled to possess firearm not exceeding one firearm for every security guard in its
employ.
 Security guard is entitled to possess not more than one riot gun or shotgun.
 Firearms shall be carried by the security guard only during his tour of duty in proper uniform within
the compound of the establishment except when he escorts big amount of cash or valuables in or
out of said compound.
 The Chief PNP shall prescribe the uniform, ornaments, equipment and paraphernalia to be worn by
the security guards.
 Uniforms must be different from the PNP/AFP.
 Salary of security guard - not lower than the minimum wage prescribe by law.

Limitations and Prohibitions on a Security Agency


1. No agency operating in the City of manila and suburbs may employ more than 1000 watchmen or
security guards.
2. No agency operating in other cities and first class municipalities may employ more than 500 watchmen
or security guards.
3. No agency operating in municipalities other than first class may employ more than 200 watchmen or
security guards.
4. No person, corporation, partnership or association may organize more than one agency in any one city
or municipality.
5. No agency shall offer, render or accept services to gambling dens or other illegal enterprises.
6. The extent of the security service being provided by any security agency shall not go beyond the
whole compound or property of the person or establishment requesting the security service except when
they escort big amount of cash.

Who can Issue rules and regulations to carry out the purpose of RA 5487? ans. the chief PNP, in
consultation with the Philippines Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.

What are the penal provisions for violation of RA5487 or its implementing rules? ans.
1. Suspension, fine or cancellation of license to operate with the forfeiture f bond filed with the

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Chief PNP.
2. Imprisonment ranging from 1 to 4 years and fine, in the discretion of the courts.

Physical security - describes the measures that are designed to deny access to unauthorized personnel from
physically accessing a building, facility, stored information and guidance on how to design structures to
resist potentially hostile acts.
- a system of barriers placed between a potential intruder and the material or installation
to be protected.

Security - the predictable state or condition which is free from harm, injury, destruction, intimidation or
fear. Freedom from fear or danger or defense against crime.

Physical Security System - a barrier or system of barriers placed between the potential intruder and the
matter to be protected. Protective device against hazards, threats, vulnerability and risks.

Purpose/Goals of Physical security

1. deter potential intruders - ex. warning signs, perimeter markings


2. distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - ex. using pass card
3. delay or prevent intrusion attempt - ex. wall, door lock, safe
4. detect intrusion and monitor/record intruders - e. CCTV, intrusion alarm
5. trigger appropriate incident responses - ex. security guards

How to deter potential intruders

1. install warning signs -


2. build fences
3. put vehicle barriers
4. install vehicle height restriction
5. implement restricted access point
6. install sight lighting and trenches

How to distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - access control at the

1. gates
2. doors
3. locks

How to detect intrusion

1. install alarms
2. install intrusion detection monitor
3. install video monitoring system - ex. cctv

Vigiles (in Rome) - origin of the watchmen although their principal duty was as a fire brigade.

Notable security guards:

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1. Frank Wills - detected the Watergate burglars ultimately leading to the resignation of US president
Richard Nixon.

Target hardening - the reduction in criminal opportunity, generally through the use of physical barriers,
architectural design and enhanced security measures of a particular location.

Defensible Space - the range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment under the control of its
residents.

Demography - the study of the characteristics of population groups.

Principles of Physical Security


1. An intruder must be able to acquire access to the property in order to benefit.
2. The type of access necessary will depend upon a number of variable factors and therefore may be
achieved in a number of ways.
3. There is no impenetrable barrier.
4. Security is built upon a system of defense in depth resulting to accumulated delay time which may lead
to the apprehension of the intruder.
5. Each installation is different from the others.

2 Kinds of Barriers
1. Natural
2. Artificial

5 Types of Barriers
1. Human
2. Animal
3. Natural
4. Energy/Electrical/Electronic
5. Structural

3 Line of Defense
1. Perimeter Barrier - 1st line of defense.
2. Building Exterior - 2nd line of defense.
3. Interior Controls - 3rd line of defense.

Perimeter Barrier - main purpose is to deny or impede access or exit of unauthorized persons.
Other Purposes
1. It defines the boundary of the property to be secured.
2. It creates a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry.
3. It delays intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders.
4. It assists in a more efficient and economical employment of guards.
5. It facilitates and improves the control of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

Components:
1. Types of Fencing (solid/full view)

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2. The top guard
3. Types of Protective Alarms Systems
4. Types of Protective and Emergency Lighting's
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers

Building Exterior - Components:


1. walls
2. Doors
3. Windows
4. Roof Openings
5. Fire Escapes
6. Protective Alarm Systems
7. Protective and Emergency lightnings
8. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers

Interior Controls - Components:


1. ID Systems
2. Protective Alarm Systems
3. Protective Emergency Lighting's
4. Communication Systems
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security
Systems/Energy Barriers
6. Restricted Areas (storage areas/utilities)
7. Access Control
8. Key Control
9. Emergency Plans
10.Guards

Natural barriers or features - such as cliffs,ravines,and rivers which delay or make more difficult to entry of
intruders.

Barriers - any line of boundary and separation,natural or artificial,places,or serving as limitation or


obstruction.Anything that bars,keep out,obstruct progress,or prevents encroachment or intrusion.

Structural barriers - features constructed by man regardless of their original intent that tends to delay the
intruder.ex.walls,ceilings,locks,safe,windows.

Human barriers - guards,charges of quarters,office personnel,shop workers etc. who stand between the
intruder and the matter to be protected.

Animal barriers - usually guard dog.ex. trained German shepherdsused as guards,goose,and turkeys can
also be included.

Energy barriers - usually electrical or electronics devices used to provide assistance to guard personnel.ex.
protective lightnings,antiintrusion devices.

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Full view fence - it is designed primarily to prevent physical access between two areas.Constructed in such a
way that visual access is permitted through the fence.

Physical Security Features:


1.Natural barriers - natural terrains features must be considered from the stand point of their values to
intruder as cover and concealment. Normally the first type considered very often we have to accept
and work around them.
2.Fences
a. solid fence - one is constructed in such a way that visual access through the fenced structure is
denied.
b. full view fence - constructed in such a way that usual access is permitted through the fence.

Advantages of a full view fence


1. removing patrols and stationary guards are able to keep area surrounding of the installation under
observation.
2. it does not create shadows which would provide cover and concealment for the intruder.

Disadvantages of a full view fence


1. It allows visual access to the installation, its personnel, its guard and its activities.
2. It allows the intruders to become familiar with the movements and the time schedule of the guard
patrols thereafter allowing him to pick the time for attempting penetration which would most
advantageous to the intruder.

Advantages of solid fence


1. Denies visual access of the installation of the intruder.
2. Denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the personnel, activities and the time
schedule of the movements of guards in the installations.

Disadvantages of solid fence


1. It prevents the guards from observing the area around the installation.
2. It creates shadows which may be used by the intruder for cover and concealment.

Minimum acceptable requirements for fence used security barriers


1. Height - 8 feet at a minimum.
2. Slack at the bottom - not to exceed 2 inches. If the fences are not tight then it should extend even
closer to the ground.
3. Wooden fence post - minimum horizontal dimension of 4X4 inches.
4. Steel fence post - the round type should at least be 2 inches at the smallest diameter.
5. Fence post - should be set in concrete or in firm soil using commercial drive anchors to a depth of 3
feet and the maximum distance post is 10 feet.
6. Fence top (Top Guard) - there should be something on the top of the fence to deter persons attempting
to go over fence. ex. use of barb wire overhang. The arms holding the barbwire should be extended at 45
degree angle in the direction of the expected approach.
7. Fence area - it should be declared trees and vegetation and debris of other materials which
would offer concealment of the intruder or would aid him in scaling the fence.
8. Fence Gates - gates should be limited to the no. necessary for efficient and sage operation of the

70
installation.
9. Fence Opening - all opening in the fence in excess of 96 inches must be locked barbed or screen in
such a way that they may be interlocked and opened from the inside and only by selected personnel.
10. Multiple fence - is used should at least be 10 feet apart and the overhang on the top of the inner
fence should point inward.

4 Basic functions that must be accomplished by the guard system


1. Detect intruders
2. Sound alarms
3. Apprehend unauthorized personnel
4. Identify authorized personnel

Personnel Control Identification


2 Types of identification
1. Personal Recognition - is the most effective
2. Artificial Identification - badges, passes etc.

System of Employment of Personnel Control Identification


1. Pass system - a method used by security to screen visitors or person admitted into building premises.
2. Single pass or Badge system - the least expensive and the least secure.
3. Group pass and Badge system - one ID for one group.
4. Multiple pass system - separate pass is required for access to various areas in need ex.color coding
5. Spot magnetized identification passes - a code may be placed in the device and when passes through a
machine, the code on the device is read, if it contains wrong code or no code at all,it will alarm.
6. Access list - it contains the names of authorized persons or personnel and is checked against
identification cards such as drivers licenses, draft registration etc.

Visitor control - the measures used would depend on the sensibility of the installation but could include the
following:
1. Escort - expensive but most secure
2. Time traveled - if there is a long delay or time lapse between the departure and arrival, the visitor may
be required to show cause for the delay.
3. Visitors logs - should contain identifying data, reasons of visit, time in and hour etc.
4. Visitors entrances - separate access for visitors and separate for employees .

Utility and maintenance personnel - escort system could be used. If these people visit the installations on a
regular basis some of the systems previously could be used.

Package control - there should be provisions made to check packages being taken in and taken out.

Photography - extreme caution must be exercised in areas where classified information is displayed to
preclude unauthorized taking of pictures of the installation.

Vehicular control and identification


* Most common identification is for registering at the headquarters or gates and putting of sticker on the
windows of the vehicles.
* For visitors,the following systems are used:

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1. Escort
2. Driver pool - the most secure but the most expensive.In this system,car is driven by qualified
driver employed by the installation from the entrance to its destination and after the conclusion of the
business of the visitor.car is driven back to the installations entrance.
3. Time travel - used in less sensitive installations
4. Grid system - a very complicated system. The installation is divided into grid ad squares like a
map.Each square is given a no. or letter designation. The visitor is then given a map and
shown the route to take to his destination and should not deviate from the prescribed route,
otherwise he could be stopped and questioned by the guards.
5. Search of vehicles - sign should be put at the entrance to the installation that any vehicle
entering is subject to search anytime.

Types of Protective Alarm Systems


1. Central station system - the control station is located outside the installations.When the alarm is
sounded by a subscriber, the central station notifies the police or protection agency.
2. Property system - the control system is located inside the installations with its own firefighter,law
enforcer,ambulance,or bomb disposal unit.
3. Local alarm - the signalling is near the alarm itself. When the intruder enters the installation,the alarm
goes off scaring the intruder.Purpose is just to scare not to apprehend intruder.
4. Auxiliary alarm - the installation owned the protective alarm with a unit in the nearest police
station so that in case of need,direct call is possible.

Kinds of Alarms
1. Intrusion alarm - any detecting devices using electric and their combinations to signal an alarm
when actuated.
2. Laser beam alarm - a laser emitter floods the wall or fence with a beam so that when this beam is
disturbed by a physical object,an alarm is activated
3. Photocell alarm - an invisible or visible beam is emitted and when disturbed,it activates an alarm
or mechanical device that opens a door or lift movable barriers,activated by light.

Basic component of an alarm system


1. Annunciation - the heart of the system of the detecting device and is the component that
activates the triggering unit.
2. Transmission - it transmit what is detected.
3. Triggering device - the one which emits those aural or visual signals or both.

Security Survey - The detailed check and audit of what an installation or plant does not have in relation to
its protection from hazards.

Security Inspection - a process where physical examination is conducted to determine compliance with
established security policies and procedures as a result of security survey.

Purpose of security survey


1. To determine existing state or condition of security
2. To locate weaknesses and possible defense
3. To determine degree of protection required

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Security hazards - an act or condition which result in a situation conductive to a breach of the protection
system and the subsequent loss or compromise of defense, information, company secrets, or damage to
property, personnel, or facilities.

Hazards - exposure to loss or injury.

Two General Categories of Security Hazards


1. Human hazard - caused by human action. Ex.sabotage, pilferage, theft
2. Natural Hazard - caused by natural phenomena.

Types of Human Hazards


1. Human carelessness
2. Accident
3. Disaffection
4. Disloyalty
5. Subversion
6. Sabotage
7. Espionage
8. Pilferage
9. Theft
10.Vandalism

Protective Security - measures taken by an installation or unit to protect against sabotage,espionage or


subversion and at the same time provide freedom of action in order to provide the installation or unit with
the necessary flexibility to accomplish its mission.

3 Aspects of Security
1. Physical Security - measures taken to prevent physical access or entry to an installation.
2. Personnel Security - measures taken to insure that only authorized personnel have access to
classified documents or information.
3. Document and Information Security

Types of Security
1. Physical Security - the most broad.
2. Industrial Security - security of business installations and industrial plants.
3. VIP Security - protection of high level officers and important personnel.
4. Bank Security - security of money and assets stored or in transit.
5. Hotel Security - security for hotel guest and their personal belongings and property as well as
properties of the hotel.
6. Document security - protection of vital records from loss or unauthorized access.
7. Communication Security - measures to prevent or delay the unauthorized person in gaining
information through communication.

Physical Security
* Protective barrier - is the physical type of security.
* Barrier - any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying illegal access into
installations.

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* Perimeter barrier - a medium or structures which define the physical limits of an installation or area
to restrict or impede access thereto. Any physical barrier used to supplement the protection of the
inside perimeter.
* Inside Perimeter - a line of protection adjacent to the protected area and passing through points of
possible entry into the area. ex. doors and windows
* Outside perimeter - a line of protection but some what removed from the protected area. ex.fence

Types of Perimeter Barrier Opening


1. Gates and Doors
2. Elevators
3. Air intakes,Exhaust tunnels
4. Clear Zone
5. Top Guard
6. Guard Control Stations
7. Tower
8. Barrier maintenance
9. Sign and Notices

Protective Alarms - supplemental physical barriers in a form of sound that cause alarm installed indoors or
outdoors in an installation.

Types of Alarm Systems


1. Metallic foil wire
2. Ultrasonic Detection Device
3. Vibration Detection Device
4. Microwave Motion Detection Device
5. Audio Detection Device
6. Photo Electric or Electric Eye

Kinds of Alarms
1. Bill Traps
2. Foot Rail Activator
3. Knee or thigh button
4. Foot button
5. Double squeeze button

Protective Lighting - provide illumination on areas to be secured that adds psychological deterrence.

Types of protective Lighting


1. Stationary luminary - consist of series of fixed luminaries to flood given area continuously
Example: glare protection type
2. Standby Lighting - provides continuous lighting through manual operations.
3. Movable Lighting - stationary or portable manually operated search lights.
4. Emergency Lighting - duplication of existing lighting system that is utilized in the event of
electric failure.

Types of Lighting Equipment

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1. Street lights - used in parking areas
2. Search Lights - highly focused incandescent lamps used to pinpoint potential trouble spot.
3. Flood Lights - project light in a concentrated beam used in boundaries and fences.
4. Fresnel Lights - wide beam units primarily used to extend illumination in long horizontal strips to
protect approaches to perimeter barrier.

Protective Locks and Keys


1. Lock - a mechanical,hydraulic,electrical or electronic device designed to prevent entry into a
building,room,container or hiding place and to prevent the removal of items without the consent
of the owner.
2. Padlock - portable and detachable lock having or sliding hasp that passes through a staple ring.
3. Peterman - A term used in England for lock picker, safe cracker and penetrators of restricted areas
or rooms.

Types of Locks
1. Lever locks - used in cabinets,drawers,safe deposit box.
2. Disc-Tumble Locks - used in car doors.
3. Warded Locks - offer little security,used only to provide privacy.
4. Combination Locks
5. Card Operated Locks
6. Electromagnetic Locks
7. Code operated Locks

Types of Keys
1. Master Key - a special key of opening a series locks.
2. Grand Master Key - a key that will open everything in a system involving two or more
master key groups.
3. Change Key - a key to a single lock within a master keyed system.
4. Sub Master Key - a key will open all lock with a particular area or grouping in a given facility.

Types of Security Cabinets


1. Safe
2. vault
3. File Room

Protective Cabinets - considered as the third line of defense against unauthorized persons.

Key Control - a system of controlling keys devised and regulated for disposal, storage and withdrawals.

Close-in Security Formations


1. One Man Security - 360 degrees coverage.
2. Two Man Security - Each guard has 180 degrees coverage.
3. Three Man Security - has equal areas of coverage
4. Four Man Security
5. Five Man Security - modified diamond.
6. Six Man Security - (defensive circle) too much crowd requires arm lock formation.
Note: Six Man Security is the most effective.

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Defensive In Depth Barriers
1. Outer Ring - securing sidewalks, in front of quarters or offices, covering all entrances, front,
center, side and rear.
2. Middle Ring - security covering inside quarters, office, residence, all stairways and elevators.
3. Inner Ring - immediately outside the high risk personnel door or the one closest to the VIP.

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 1

1. The Private Security Agency Law is known as


A. R.A. No. 5487
B. R.A. No. 5467
C. R.A. No. 5476
D. R.A. No. 5478

2. Any Person who, for hire or reward or on commission, conducts or carries on or holds himself or itself out
as conducting or carrying on a detective agency or detective service.
A. Private Security Guard
B. Private Detective
C. Private Security Agency
D. Private Detective Agency

3. Any Person who is not a member of a regular police agency or the Armed Forces of the Philippines who
does detective work for hire, reward or commission.
A. Private Detective Agency
B. Private Detective
C. Private Security Guard
D. Private Security Agency

4. Any Person who offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either residential or business
establishment or both, or any building, compound or area including but not limited to logging concession,
agricultural, mining, or pasture lands for hire or compensation or as an employee thereof is known as
A. Security Guard
B. Private Security Agency
C. Private Detective Agency
D. Private Security Agency

5. Any Person, Association, Partnership or Corporation who recruits, trains, muster, furnishes, solicits
individuals or business firms, private or government owned or controlled corporations to engage his
service or those of its watchmen is known as
A. Private Security Guard
B. Private Detective
C. Private Detective Agency
D. Private Security Agency

6. Security Agency must be owned and controlled by how many percentage of Filipino ownership?
A. 100% Filipino

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B. 90% Filipino
C. 75% Filipino
D. 60% Filipino

7. How many security agency may a person organize or have an interest in?
A. Four
B. Three
C. Two
D. One

8. The Operator or Manager of a security agency must be at least


A. 25 Years of Age
B. 30 Years of Age
C. 35 Years of Age
D. 40 Years of Age

9. The Operator or Manager of a security agency must be at least a


A. Ph. D. Degree Holder
B. Master's Degree Holder
C. College Graduate
D. High School Graduate

10. An Operator or Manager of a security agency must have no previous record of any conviction of any
crime or offense involving
A. Crimes Against Person
B. Crimes Against Property
C. Crimes Against Chastity
D. Moral Turpitude

Answer:

1. A
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. D
6. A
7. D
8. A
9. C
10. D

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 2

1. One of the following is not a disqualification for an operator or manager of a security agency
A. Mental Incompetent
B. Womanizer

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C. Narcotic Drug Addict
D. Habitual Drunkard

2. One of the following is not a requirement to qualify as a security guard


A. Filipino Citizen
B. College Graduate
C. Physically and Mentally Fit
D. Not More Than 50 Years Old

3. A Security Guard must be at least


A. 5'2" in Height
B. 5'3" in Height
C. 5'4" in Height
D. 5'5" in Height

4. A Security Guard must not be less than


A. 19 Years of Age
B. 20 Years of Age
C. 21 Years of Age
D. 22 Years of Age

5. Who has the power to promulgate the rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of R.A. No. 5487
A. The President of the Philippines
B. The DILG Secretary
C. The Chief of the PNP
D. The DOJ Secretary

6. Who has the power to exercise general supervision over the operation of all Private Detective or Security
Guard Agencies?
A. LGU
B. DILG
C. PNP
D. DOJ

7. A Security Agency is entitled to possess firearm in a number not exceeding


A. One Firearm For Every Two Security Guard
B. One Firearm For Every Three Security Guard
C. One Firearm For Every Four Security Guard
D. One Firearm For Every Five Security Guard

8. When may a security guard carry firearm outside of the establishment he is guarding?
A. In Case of Emergency or Disaster
B. When Summoned By PNP Member For Help
C. When In Hot Pursuit Of A Thief Or Robber
D. When He Escorts Big Amount Of Cash

9. A Security Agency operating in the City of Manila may employ not more than

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A. 500 Security Guards
B. 1000 Security Guards
C. 1500 Security Guards
D. 2000 Security Guards

10. A Security Agency operating in places other than Metropolitan Manila, other cities and first class
municipalities may employ not more than
A. 500 Security Guards
B. 1000 Security Guards
C. 15000 Security Guards
D. 2000 Security Guards

Answer:

1. B
2. B
3. C
4. C
5. C
6. C
7. A
8. D
9. B
10. A

Notes: In case of conflict between The Private Security AgencyLaw (RA No. 5487) and the
Implementing Rules and Regulations issued by the chief PNP, The Private Security Agency Law shall prevail.

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 3

1. A Security Agency operating in municipalities other than first class may employ
A. Not more than 200 security guard
B. Not more than 300 security guard
C. Not more than 400 security guard
D. Not more than 500 security guard

2. How many security agency may a person, partnership, or association organize in one city or municipality?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

3. Security Agencies may offer or render services to the following establishments except one
A. Night Clubs
B. Coffee Shops
C. Gambling Dens

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D. Restaurants

4. The Chief PNP in issuing rules and regulations implementing R.A. No. 5487 or the Private Security
Agency Law must consult with the
A. SAGSD
B. PADPAO
C. DILG
D. LGU

5. A Violation of the provisions of the private security agency law may result in any of the following except
one
A. Suspension
B. Fine
C. Cancellation of License To Operate
D. None of the Above

6. In a Security Agency, All of the following except one should secure a license
A. Those employed to manage the agency
B. Those employed to supervise the security guards
C. Those employed to do investigative work
D. Those employed solely to do clerical work

7. A Written Order or Schedule issued by a superior officer assigning the performance of private security or
detective services duties is known as
A. License To Operate
B. Designation Order
C. Duty Detail Order
D. License To Exercise Profession

8. In a Security Agency, Which of the following is allowed to issue Duty Detail Order?
A. The Branch Manager
B. The Security Guard Supervisor
C. The Most Senior Security Guard
D. The Chief Of The PNP SAGSD or Representative

9. New Applicants for a license to operate a Security Agency shall be required to obtain a minimum
capitalization of
A. 250,000 pesos
B. 500.000 pesos
C. 750,000 pesos
D. 1,000,000 pesos

10. No regular license shall be granted to any Private Security Agency unless it has a minimum of
A. 200 licensed private security personnel in its employ
B. 300 licensed private security personnel in its employ
C. 500 licensed private security personnel in its employ
D. 1,000 license private security personnel in its employ

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Answer:

1. A
2. A
3. C
4. B
5. D
6. D
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. A

Industrial Security Management Reviewer 4

1. No Regular License shall be granted to any company guard force unless it has a minimum of
A. 10 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
B. 30 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
C. 50 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ
D. 100 Licensed Guard Under Its Employ

2. No Regular License shall be granted to any private detective agency unless it has a minimum of
A. 10 Licensed Private Detective Under Its Employ
B. 30 Licensed Private Detective Under Its Employ
C. 50 Licensed Private Detective Under Its Employ
D. 100 Licensed Private detective Under Its Employ

3. What is the maximum number of private security personnel that a private security agency may employ?
A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000

4. What is the maximum number of private security personnel that a company guard force may employ?
A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000

5. What is the maximum number of private security personnel that a private detective agency may employ?
A. 500
B. 1000
C. 1500
D. 2000

6. A License to operate a private security agency shall be valid for how many years?

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A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

7. The Application for renewal of license to operate a private security agency shall be filed at least how many
days before expiry date?
A. 15
B. 30
C. 45
D. 60

8.Under the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. No 5487, What is required to be displayed at all
times in a conspicuous and suitable place in a security agencies office or headquarters?
A. Business Permit
B. DTI Registration
C. Articles of Incorporation
D. License To Operate

9. Services of any security personnel may be terminated on which of the following ground?
A. Expiration of Contract
B. Revocation of License To Exercise Profession
C. Physical and Mental Disability
D. All Of The Above

10. All of the following except one is a ground for the termination of the services of any security personnel
A. Violation of Pertinent Rules Promulgated by the PNP
B. Conviction of a Crime Involving Moral Turpitude
C. Lost of Trust and Confidence
D. Filing of a Criminal Offense in the Prosecutor's Office

Answer:

1. B
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. B
6. B
7. D
8. D
9. D
10. D

Industrial Security Management Definition Of Terms

3 Categories of Security Guards Belonging to the Blue Army

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1. Agency Guards
2. Company Guards
3. Government Security Guards

Access List – an authenticated list of personnel given to security allowing entry to a compound or
installation or a part thereof.

Alarm – a device that signals.

Clear Zone – the exterior and interior parallel area near the perimeter barrier of an industrial compound to
afford better observation and patrol movement.

Controlled Area – an area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas where entry is restricted.

Dry Run – practical test or exercise of a plan.

Ducks – in England, an owner to protect his compound used and they are not only effective but cheap to
maintain.

Duress Code – a type of code system so that security personnel when forced by armed men intending to
enter an installation can give alarm by the use of certain words in casual conversation with other personnel
in the installation.

Exclusion Area – a restricted area containing materials of security interest.

Human Made Hazards in an Industrial Firm

1. Pilferage
2. Sabotage
3. Arson

Key Control – the management of keys in a plant, office or business organization to prevent unauthorized
access.

Main Office – all agencies shall maintain a main office in their registered addresses.

PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operator

PCSUSIA/SAGSD – the government agency that issues licenses for private and government security guard.

Perimeter Barrier – the first line of physical defense of a building, compound, or comples viewing from the
outside.

Peterman – a term used in England for lock pickers, safe crackers and penetrators of restricted/prohibited
areas.

Private Detective – any person who does detective work for hire, reward or commission other than
members of the PNP, NBI, AFP, BJMP and other law enforcement agency of the government.

Private Detective – Qualifications – in addition to those prescribed for a security guard.

1. Holder of a Baccalaureate degree or Bachelor of Laws


2. Holder of a degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology

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3. Gaduate of a criminal investigation course offered by the PNP.NBI or any police training school or
detective training with authorized/recognized training center.
4. Advance ROTC/CMT graduate

Private Security Agency Law – RA 5487

Relative Criticality of Operation – the importance of an establishment with reference to the national
economy and security.

Relative Vulnerability – the susceptability of a plant or establishment to damage, loss, or destruction of


operation due to various hazards.

Restricted Area – if access is limited only to the authorized.

Safe – a metallic container used for the safekeeping of documents or other small items in an office or
installation.

SAGSD – Security Agency in Guard Supervisory Division

Security Guard – one who is a holder of a security guard license duly issued by the PNP

Security Guard – Qualifications

1. Filipino Citizen
2. High School Graduate
3. Physically and Mentally Fit
4. At least 18 yrs. Old but not more than 50 yrs. Old
5. Has undergone pre-licensing training course
6. Must not possess any of the disqualification for operator or manager.

Security Service Contract – agreement/contract between the agency and client stipulating among
other things the money to be paid by the client and salary of individual security guard.

Security Survey – also known as security audit, risk assessment, and vulnerability assessment.

Top Guard – this is an additional outwardly inclined structure usually barbed wires placed above a
vertical fence to increase physical protection from intruders of a certain area.

Vault – a heavily constructed container usually part of a building structure used for keeping and
protecting cash and documents.

Victimology – a special study concerned with what makes an individual a victim of crime.

Law Enforcement Administration Review Questions

1. The amount and nature of the demands of the police service


A.Clientele
B.Purpose
C.Time
D. Process Answer: C

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2. The PNP has a program which ensures the deployment of policemen in busy and crime prone areas. This
is called
A. patrol deployment program
B. roving patrol program
C. patrol and visibility program
D. police patrol program Answer: C

3. All regional appointments of commissioned officers commence with the rank of:
A. Senior Police Officer I
B. Inspector
C. Police Officer III
D. Senior Inspector Answer: B

4. In busy and thickly populated commercial streets like those in Divisoria, police patrol is very
necessary. Since there are several types of patrol, which of the following will you recommend:
A. Horse patrol
B. Mobile patrol
C. Foot patrol
D. Helicopter patrol Answer: C

5. It is the product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all available
information which oncerns one or more aspects of criminal activity and which is immediately or potentially
significant to police planning.
A. Investigation
B. Information
C. Data
D. intelligence Answer: D
6. These are work programs of line divisions which related to the nature and extent of the workload and the
availability
of resources.
A. administrative plan
B. operational plan
C. strategic plan
D. tactical plan Answer: B
7. It is the premier educational institution for the police, fire and jail personnel.
A. Philippine Military Academy
B. Development Academy of the Philippines
C. Philippine College of Criminology
D. Philippine Public Safety College Answer: D

8. A crew which is assigned to a mobile car usually consist of


A. a driver and intelligence agent
B. a driver and traffic man
C. a driver and a recorder
D. a driver, recorder and supervisor Answer: D

9. An industrial complex must establish its first line of physical defense. It must have

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A. the building itself
B. perimeter barriers
C. communication barriers
D. window barriers Answer:B

10. All of the following are members of the People’s Law Enforcement Board (PLEB), EXCEPT:
A. Three (3) members chosen by the Peace and Order Council from among the respected members of
the community.
B. Any barangay Captain of the city/municipality concerned chosen by the association of the
Barangay Captains.
C. Any member of the Sangguniang Panglungsod/Pambayan
D. A bar member chosen by the Integrated bar of the Philippines (IBP) Answer: D

11. It is the circumspect inspection of a place to determine its suitability for a particular operational purpose.
A. Inspection
B. Surveillance
C. Survey
D. Casing Answer: C

12. In the civil service system, merit and fitness are the primary considerations in the
A. two-party system
B. evaluation system
C. promotional system
D. spoils system Answer: C

13. In the de-briefing, the intelligence agent is asked to discuss which of the following:
A. his educational profile and schools attended
B. his personal circumstances such as his age, religious affiliation, address, etc.
C. his political inclination and/or party affiliation
D. his observations and experiences in the intelligence Answer: D

14. It is a natural or man-made structure or physical device which


is capable of restricting, determine, or delaying illegal access to
an installation.
A. alarm
B. wall
C. barrier
D. hazard Answer: C

15. What form of intelligence is involved when information is


obtained without the knowledge of the person against whom
the information or documents may be used, or if the
information is clandestinely acquired?
A. covert
B. overt
C. active
D. underground Answer: A

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16. The provincial Governor shall choose the provincial Director
from a list of ___________ eligible recommended by the
Regional Director, preferable from the same province, city,
municipality.
A. three (3)
B. five (5)
C. four (4)
D. Two (2) Answer: A

17. Republic Act 6975 provides that on the average nationwide,


the manning levels of the PNP shall be approximately in
accordance with a police-to-population ratio of:
A. one (1) policeman for every seven hundred (700)
inhabitants.
B. one (1) policeman for every one thousand five hundred
(1,500) C.inhabitants.
C. one (1) policeman for every five hundred (500)
inhabitants.
D. one (1) policeman for every one thousand (1,000)
inhabitants. Answer: C

18. In disaster control operations, there is a need to establish a


______where telephones or any means of communication
shall
A.ensure open lines of communication.
B.command post
C.operations center
D.field room Answer:B

19. Registration of a security agency must be done at the______.


A.Securities and Exchange Commission
B.National Police Commission
C.Department of National Defense
D.PNP Criminal Investigation Group Answer:D

20. The cheapest form of police patrol.


A. Bicycle Patrol
B. Foot Patrol
C. Motorcycle Patrol
D. Helicopter Patrol Answer: B
21. The budget is a _________________ in terms of expenditure
requirements.
A.tactical plan
B.financial plan
C.work plan
D.control plan Answer: B

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22. The term used for the object of surveillance is a subject while
the investigator conducting the surveillance is:
A.rabbit
B.surveillant
C.traffic enforcement
D.patrol Answer: A

23. It is a police function which serves as the backbone of the


police service. In all types of police stations, there is a specific
unit assigned to undertake this function in view of its
importance.
A.vice control
B.criminal investigation
C.traffic management
D.patrol Answer: D

24. It is the weakest link in security chain.


A.managers
B.Barriers
C.Personnel
D.inspections Answer:

25. Which of the following is considered as the most important


factor in formulating an effective patrol strategy?
A.training of station commander
B.adequacy of resources of the police station
C.rank of the patrol commander
D.salary rates of police personnel Answer: B

26. Who among the following have summary disciplinary powers


over errant police members?
A.District Director
B.Provincial Director
C.Chief of Police
D.Chief, PNP Answer: D

27. You are the Patrol Supervisor for the morning shift. You don’t
have enough men to cover all the patrol beats. Which of the
following will you implement?
A. assign roving mobile patrol with no foot patrol
B. assign mobile patrols only in strategic places
C. maintain your patrolmen at the station and just wait
for calls for police assistance
D. assign foot patrol in congested and busy patrol beats
but assign a roving mobile patrol to cover beats which
are not covered by foot patrol Answer: B

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28. The father of organized military espionage was:
A. Akbar
B. Alexander the Great
C. Genghis Khan
D. Frederick the Great Answer: D

29. Which of the following is the most common reason why informer
can give information to the police?
A.wants to be known to the policeman
B.monetary reward
C.as a good citizen
D.revenge Answer: B

30. To improve delegation, the following must be done, EXCEPT:


A. establish objectives and standards
B. count the number of supervisor
C. require completed work
D. define authority and responsibility Answer: C

31. What administrative support unit conducts identification and


evaluation of physical evidences related to crimes, with
emphasis on their medical, chemical, biological and physical
nature.
A. Logistics Service
B. Crime Laboratory
C. Communication and Electronic service
D. Finance Center Answer: B

32. Those who are charged with the actual fulfillment of the
agency’s mission are ________.
A. staff
B. supervision
C. management
D. line Answer: D

33. When the subject identifies or obtains knowledge that the


investigation is conducting surveillance on him, the latter is:
A. cut out
B. sold out
C. burnt out
D. get out Answer: C

34. Small alley like those in the squatters area of Tondo can be
best penetrated by the police through:
A. foot patrol
B. mobile patrol

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C. highway patrol
D. helicopter patrol Answer: A

35. Some of the instructions in foot surveillance are the following,


EXCEPT
A. stop quickly, look behind
B. drop paper, never mind what happens to the paper
C. window shop, watch reflection
D. retrace steps Answer: B

36. On many occasions, the bulk of the most valuable information


comes from:
A. business world
B. newspaper clippings
C. an underworld informant
D. communications media Answer: B

37. Highly qualified police applicants such as engineers, nurses and


graduates of forensic sciences can enter the police service as
officers through:
A. regular promotion
B. commissionship
C. lateral entry
D. attrition Answer: C

38. Police Inspector Juan Dela Cruz is the Chief of Police of a


municipality. He wants his subordinates to be drawn closer to
the people in the different barangays. He should adopt which
of the following projects?
A. COPS on the blocks
B. Oplan Bakal
C. Oplan Sandugo
D. Complan Pagbabago Answer: A

39. What should be undertaken by a Security Officer before he can


prepare a comprehensive security program for his industrial
plan?
A. security conference
B. security check
C. security survey
D. security education Answer: C

40. This patrol method utilizes disguise, deception and lying in wait
rather than upon high-visibility patrol techniques.
A. low-visibility patrol
B. directed deterrent patrol
C. decoy patrol

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D. high-visibility patrol Answer: A

41. It enforces all traffic laws and regulations to ensure the safety
of motorists and pedestrians and attain an orderly traffic.
A. Civil Relations Unit
B. Traffic Operations Center
C. Traffic Management Command
D. Aviation Security Command Answer: C

42. A method of collecting information wherein the investigator


merely uses his different senses.
A. observation
B. casing
C. research
D. interrogation Answer: A

43. In stationary surveillance, the following must be observed,


EXCEPT
A. never meet subject face to face
B. avoid eye contact
C. recognize fellow agent
D. if burnt out, drop subject Answer: C

44. Pedro is a thief who is eying at the handbag of Maria. PO1


Santos Reyes is standing a few meters from Maria.The thief’s
desire to steal is not diminished by the presence of the police
officer but the _______________ for successful theft is.
A. ambition
B. feeling
C. intention
D. opportunity Answer: A

45. Graduates of the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) are


automatically appointed to the rank of:
A. Senior Superintendent
B. Inspector
C. Senior Police Officer 1
D. Superintendent Answer: C

46. PNP in-service training programs are under the responsibility of


the:
A. PNP Directorate for Plans
B. PNP Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine
Development
C. PNP Directorate for Personnel and Records
Management
D. PNP Directorate for Comptrollership Answer: C

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47. One way of extending the power of police observation is to get
information from persons within the vicinity.In the police work,
this is called:
A. data gathering
B. field inquiry
C. interrogation
D. interview Answer: B

48. Dogs have an acute sense of _______________ thus, their


utilization in tracking down lost persons or illegal drugs.
A. smell
B. hearing
C. eating
D. drinking Answer: A

49. Intelligence on _________________ makes heavy use of


geographic information because law enforcement officials must
know exact locations to interdict the flow of drugs.
A. Logistics
B. Human Cargo Trafficking
C. Narcotics Trafficking
D. Economic resources Answer: C

50. Which of the following is most ideally suited to evacuation and


search-and-rescue duties?
A. motorcycle
B. helicopter
C. patrol car
D. bicycle Answer: B

51. A method of collection of information wherein the investigator


tails or follows the person or vehicle.
A. research
B. undercover operation
C. casing
D. surveillance Answer: C

52. This is a person who does detective work for hire, reward or
commission, other than members of the AFP, BJMP, provincial
guards, PNP or any law enforcement agency of the
government.
A. Secret Agent
B. “Tiktik”
C. Private detective
D. Undercover Answer: C

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53. The uprightness in character, soundness of moral principles,
honesty and freedom from moral delinquencies is referred to as
A. integrity
B. loyalty
C. discretion
D. moral Answer: A

54. Going east while foot patrolling and turning right after reaching
the end of your beat and turning right after reaching the other
end of the road and again turning right until you completed
the cycle by reaching back to your origin of patrolling.What
patrol pattern have you applied?
A. clockwise
B. straightway
C. counter clockwise
D. free-wheeling Answer: A

55. Which theory of patrol state that police visibility increases the
opportunity to apprehend criminals by soothing them and letting
them believe that their crimes will not be detected?
A. low profile theory
B. high visibility
C. theory of omnipresence
D. team policing Answer: A

56. Without air force capability, patrol operation that covers large
park areas, grassy fields or wooded areas requires the use of
A. bike patrol
B. horse patrol
C. marine patrol
D. helicopter patrol Answer: B

57. Which of the following refers to the long range planning?


A. Intermediate
B. Strategic
C. Medium
D. short Answer: B

58. The operational plan which is designed to met everyday or


year round needs is called
A. meeting unusual needs
B. extra office
C. regular operating programs
D. special operating programs Answer: C

59. Which of the following is the oldest type of patrol?


A. horse

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B. foot
C. canine
D. police Answer: B

60. The act of expelling a squatter by the legal process is called:


A. demolition
B. squadron
C. eviction
D. tear down Answer: C

61. Which of the following is not a commissioned officer?


A. Inspector
B. senior superintendent
C. asst. chief
D. chief superintend Answer: C

62. Which of the following words has the same meaning as the
word credibility?
A. ability
B. capacity
C. believability
D. vulnerability Answer: C

63. Which of the following best defines the word self-reliant?


A. observation
B. crime prevention
C. called for service
D. criminal apprehension Answer: C

64. All but one are the primarily line operation in police organization
A. patrol
B. records
C. investigation
D. traffic Answer: C

65. Criminals can hear the sound of the helicopter coming and so
element of surprise is lost which is one of the ________
of air patrol:
A. advantages
B. features
C. disadvantages
D. import Answer: C

66. What is the patrol used to locate prowlers, burglars hiding in


large buildings or stores, and the control of unruly crowds and
riots?
A. foot

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B. horse
C. bicycle
D. dog . Answer: D

67. Which of the following laws established the Police Organization


under the DILG?
A. R.A. 5487
B. R.A. 8551
C. R.A. 1174
D. R.A. 6975 Answer: D

68. Who is the most important officer in the police organization?


A. investigator
B. patrol officer
C. traffic officer
D. The Chief of Police Answer: B

69. Which of the following is the oldest warning device?


A. trumpet
B. horn
C. radio
D. siren Answer: A

70. What type of cover uses actual or true background?


A. artificial
B. multiple cover
C. natural
D. cover within a cover Answer: C

71. What is the principle of organization suggesting that


communication should ordinarily go upward and downward
through establish channels in the hierarchy?
A. Chain of Command
B. Span of Control
C. Unity of Command
D. Delegation of Authority Answer: A

72. What is the optional retirement for officers and new officers of
the police service?
A. 15 years
B. 25 years
C. 30 years
D. 20 years Answer: D

73. Governors and mayors, upon having been elected and having
qualified as such,are automatically deputized as representatives
of the

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A. NAPOLCOM
B. DND
C. PLEB
D. none of these Answer: A

74. It is constitutionally and legally mandated to administer and


control the Philippine National Police.
A. DILG
B. DND
C. NAPOLCOM
D. DFA Answer: C

75. It is the central receiving entity for any citizen’s complaint


against the members and officers of the PNP.
A. DILG
B. NAPOLCOM
C. PLEB
D. IAS Answer: C

76. When we say that a commander is directly responsible for any


act or omission of his subordinates in relation to the
performance of their official duties, we are referring to:
A. chain of command
B. delegation of responsibility
C. Command responsibility
D. span of control Answer: C

77. A police strategy which aims to directly involve members of the


community in the maintenance of peace and order by police
officers.
A. Integrated Police System
B. Comparative Police System
C. Police Visibility
D. Community Oriented Policing System (COPS)
Answer: D
78. No person in an organization can do all the tasks necessary for
accomplishing group objective. Also, no one should exercise all
the authority for making decisions.This refers to
A. chain of command
B. command responsibility
C. unity of command
D. delegation of authority Answer: D

79. Under RA 6975, a police officer is entitled to a longevity pay


equivalent to how many percent (%) of his monthly basic salary
for every five years of service, to be reckoned from the date of
his original appointment in the police, fire, jail or other allied

96
services?
A. 2 percent
B. 5 percent
C. 10 percent
D. 15 percent Answer: C

80. This term refers to the period when a police officer is actively
engaged in the performance of his duty.
A. off duty
B. off limits
C. on call
D. on duty Answer: D

81. The act of temporarily denying an officer the privilege of


performing his police duties in consequence of an offense and
violation of rules and regulations.
A. dismissal
B. restriction
C. suspension
D. reprimand Answer: C

82. The credential extended by the Civil Service


Commission/National Police Commission for the purpose of
conferring status for permanent appointment in the police
service.
A. police credibility
B. police visibility
C. Criminology Board Examination
D. police patrol examination
E. police eligibility Answer: E

83. In the history of our police force, who was the first Director
General of the Philippine National Police (PNP)?
A. Gen. Cesar Nazareno
B. Gen. Raul Imperial
C. Gen. Umberto Rodriquez
D. Gen. Recaredo Sarmiento Answer: A

84. The premier educational institution for the training, human


resource development and continuing education of all the
personnel of BJMP, BFP and PNP.
A. PNPA
B. PCCR
C. PNTC
D. PPSC Answer: D

85. Under the law,the city/municipal jail warden should have a rank

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of __.
A. Inspector
B. Chef Inspector
C. Senior Inspector
D. Superintendent Answer: C

86. The required rank for the Chief of Jail Bureau.


A. Chief Superintendent
B. Director General
C. Director
D. Deputy Director General Answer: C

87. It exercise supervision and control over the provincial jails.


A. BJMP
B. Bureau of Prisons
C. Department of Justice
D. Provincial Government Answer: D

88. The required rank for the head of the Fire Bureau.
A. Chief Superintendent
B. Director General
C. Director
D. Deputy Director General Answer: C

89. It exercise supervision and control over all city and municipal
jails.
A. BJMP
B. Bureau of Prisons
C. Department of Justice
D. Local Government Answer: A

90. The annual reservation percentage quota for women in the


PNP
A. 25%
B. 5%
C. 10%
D. 20% Answer: C

91. Which of the following administers and attends to cases


involving crimes against chastity?
A. CIDG
B. DSWD
C. Women’s Desk
D. Homicide Division Answer: C

92. They are automatically deputized as NAPOLCOM


representatives to exercise supervision and control over PNP

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units.
A. Chief of Police
B. Judges
C. Local Government Executives
D. Fiscals Answer: C

93. They have the authority to recommend to the Provincial


Director the transfer, reassignment of PNP members outside
of their town residences.
A. Regional Directors
B. Priests
C. Chiefs of Police
D. Mayors Answer: D

94. The head of a local peace and order council is the __.
A. judge
B. chief of police
C. mayor
D. governor Answer: C

95. The utilization of units or elements, of the PNP for the


purpose of protection of lives and properties, enforcement of
laws and maintenance of peace and order.
A. employment
B. deployment
C. assignment
D. designation Answer: A

96. The orderly and organized physical movement of elements or


units of the PNP.
A. employment
B. deployment
C. assignment
D. designation Answer: B

97. One of the following exercises control and supervision over the
PNP units during elections.
A. NBI
B. Ombusdman
C. COMELEC
D. DILG Answer: C

98. The number of eligible for which the Regional Director may
recommend for Provincial Director to the governor is __.
A. 2
B. 3
C. 5

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D. 4 Answer: B

99. Who is the current Chief of the PNP?


A. Nicanor Bartome
B. Nicanor Bartomeo
C. Nick Bartolome
D. Nicanor Bartolome Answer: C

100. The current PNP deputy director General for Administration is


A. Arturo Cacdac Jr.
B. Emilito Sarmiento
C. Rommel Heredia
D. Alexander Roldan Answer: A

101. Registration of a security agency as a corporation must be


processed at what particular government agency.
A. PNP SAGSD
B. NAPOLCOM
C. DND
D. SEC Answer: D

102. Minimum age requirement for security manager or operator of


a security agency.
A. 25 years old
B. 30 years old
C. 35 years old
D. 40 years old Answer: A

103. He exercises the power to revoke for cause licenses issued to


security guards.
A. Chief PNP
B. DILG Usec
C. NAPOLCOM chairman
D. DILG Secretary Answer: A

104. Refers to a natural or man made structure which is capable of


delaying illegal access to facility.
A. Wall
B. Fence
C. Barriers
D. Beach fronts Answer: C

105. It refers to means and ways that personnel and employees


making them security conscious.
A. Security Promotion
B. Security Education
C. Security Investigation

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D. Security Seminar Answer: B

106. Industrial management must establish the first line of physical


defense,it refers to
A. Perimeter barriers
B. The building itself
C. Door,Locks,Window barriers
D. Entry points where security guards are located Answer: A

107. Physical security is a system of barriers placed between the


potential intruder and the object matter to be protected.As
criminologists,this is simply a denial of
A. Opportunity to commit the offense
B. Opportunity to the object of protection
C. Access to the object of protection
D. Criminal instinct to surface in the potential offender Answer: C

108. Weakest link in the security chain.


A. Security Guards
B. Manager
C. Barriers
D. Personnel Answer: D

109. Perimeter barriers,protective lighting and ______ system are


known in industrial security as physical security.
A. Guarding
B. Reporting
C. Relieving
D. Accounting Answer: A

110. This is an additional outward inclined fixed structure usually


barbed wires placed above a vertical fence to increase
physical protection from intruders of a certain area,this is
known as
A. Cellar Guard
B. Tower Guard
C. Top Guard
D. Top Tower Answer: C

111. The exterior and interior parallel area near the perimeter
barrier of an industrial compound to afford better observation
and patrol movement is known as
A. Protective zone
B. Clear zone
C. Twilight zone
D. Patrol lane zone Answer: B

101
112. Protective guarding in a compound can be done by the use of
electronic hardware,human guards and even animals.In
England,an owner to protect his compound used this and they
are not only effective but also the cheapest to maintain.This
man is using
A. Doberman
B. Tame Tigers
C. Geese
D. Duck Answer: C

113. The government agency that issues licenses for private and
government security guard is
A. PNP SOSIA
B. Mayors office
C. PNP FEO
D. PNP SAGSD Answer: D

114. If access is limited only to unauthorized personnel,this


particular place is referred to as
A. Compromise area
B. Restricted area
C. Danger area
D. Exclusive area Answer: B

115. First measure undertaking before a comprehensive security


program for an industrial plan could be developed.
A. Security education
B. Security check
C. Security survey
D. Security Inspection Answer: C

116. A security of a plant or industrial firm is also known by other


terms except
A. Robbery evaluation
B. Vulnerability
C. Risk Assessment
D. Security Audit Answer: B

117. Today there are 3 categories of security guards belonging to


the blue army.
A. Government security guards
B. Company guards
C. Agency guards
D. Body guards Answer: D

118. Whether to put up its own security guard organic to the firm
or hire contractual agency guards have their individual merits

102
and disadvantages.To determine which type of guarding
system an industrial firm will require management must consult
A. A security consultant not connected to or owning a
security agency
B. A military intelligence officer
C. A police officer
D. A security agency owner Answer: A

119. As a security officer,you can not prevent nor protect natural


hazards like storm,earthquakes,floods and the like.In order to
reduce the disastrous effects of these natural hazards you
will
A. Call PAGASA and inquire when the next storm is coming
B. Alert your guards when hazards occur
C. Not take any concern of such hazards
D. Prepare a disaster or emergency plan
for these hazards for the firm Answer: D

120. Practical exercise or test of a plan or activity to determine its


effectiveness is called
A. Sham drill
B. Fire drill
C. Dry run
D. Evacuation plan Answer: C

121. The main reason for a personnel security investigation is


A. To weed out undesirable employees
B. To check loyalty of employees to the organization
C. To determine the character and reputation of certain
employees secretly tagged as risks.
D. Preclude assignment to sensitive positions for those
who are security risks. Answer: D
122. In an industrial firm there is a need for document security.As
security officer,you can advice management on this aspect
although this is not totally your assigned work.Document
security is not a protection of vital records from
A. Authorized handlers
B. Theft or loss
C. Compromise or destruction
D. Unauthorized access Answer: A

123. As a security chief of an industrial firm,inventory shows that


pilferage is rampant in the warehouses.What will be your
choice of action
A. To resign if you have failed your job
B. Deploy intelligence men in pilferage prone areas to
catch the culprit

103
C. Prepare your protective plans and confer with
management for their immediate implementation
D. Tighten checking at exists of vehicles of the
compound/complex
Answer: B

124. There are many types of electronic and electric protective


devices available for security buildings,storehouses and
compounds.One of the ff: is true
A. Electronics/electrical devices provide total protection
for the place to be safeguarded
B. Types of alarms needed can best be given by the
dealers of said devices
C. Each building or compound requires particular
electronic/electrical protective devices
D. Electronic/electrical devices eliminate human guards
Answer: C

125. The management of keys used in plant office or business


organization to prevent unauthorized access is referred to as
A. Security key control
B. Lock control
C. key control
D. Key management Answer: C

126. It is defined as system of barriers placed between the matters


protected and the potential intruder
A. Computer security
B. Personnel security
C. Document security
D. Physical security Answer: D

127. This type of alarm system utilizes a station located outside


the compound
A. Auxiliary system
B. Proprietary system
C. Central alarm system
D. Local alarm system Answer: C

128. It is installed as part of the building which holds up to 10,000


cubic meters of essential items.At least 12 ft. in height with
enough ventilation and fire proof of at least one hour.
A. Protective cabinet
B. File room
C. Vault
D. Safe Answer: B

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129. It is the susceptibility of a plant or establishment to
damage,loss or disruption of operations due to various
hazards.
A. Risk analysis
B. Risk assessment
C. Relative vulnerability
D. Relative criticality Answer: C

130. It refers to the importance of the establishment with


reference to the national economy and security.
A. Risk analysis
B. Relative vulnerability
C. Risk assessment
D. Relative criticality Answer: D

131. The association of all licensed security agencies operators


A. POAPAD
B. PADPAO
C. PODPAO
D. PAOPAD Answer: B

132.Who among below can own or operate security agency?


A. A Filipino citizen
B. Anyone provided he knows the job
C. An alien but living in the Philippines
D. All of them Answer: A

133. A licensed issued to operate security agency or company


forces.
A. Business license
B. License to engage in business
C. License to operate
D. All of them Answer: C

134. R.A. No. 5487 governs the operation of


A. Private detective
B. Company security
C. Private security forces/agencies
D. All of them Answer: D

135. A fact-finding prove to determine a plant adequacy and


deficiency all aspects of security with the corresponding
recommendation.
A. Security audit
B. Security survey
C. Security inquiry
D. Security operations Answer: B

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136. Barrier which includes but not limited to wall,fences,grill etc.
A. Structural barriers
B. Man made barriers
C. Physical barriers
D. Natural barriers Answer: B

137. One who steals due to his inability to resist the unexpected
opportunity and has little fear of detection.
A. Systematic
B. Outsider
C. Casual
D. Insider Answer: C

138. A barrier which includes but not limited to mountains, cliffs,


ravines, cliffs, etc.
A. Energy
B. Human
C. Natural
D. Animals Answer: C

139. Issued by the security guard for personnel to be admitted to


the company.
A. Duress code
B. Pass system
C. ID
D. Access list Answer: B

140. In a close-in security formations, a one man security covers


A. 360 degrees
B. 180 degrees
C. 45 degrees
D. 90 degrees Answer: A

141. A mechanical device of supplying water which can be manual


or motor driven.
A. Stand pipe
B. Fire extinguisher
C. Fire hydrant
D. Fire pump Answer: A

142.Intrusion alarm devices are designed to ______ and not


prevent criminals from trespassing and should be used normally
as an independent adjunct and not a replacement of the
human guard forces.
A. Detect
B. Deterred

106
C. Provide
D. Impeded Answer: A

143. An authenticated list of personnel given to security allowing


entry to compound or installation or part thereof.
A. Pass system
B. ID
C. Access list
D. Duress code Answer: C

144. The act or condition affecting the safe operation of the


facility caused by human action,accidental or intentional.It
includes sabotage,espionage,pilferage and
theft,disloyalty,disaffection and subversive activities.
A. Electronic hazard
B. natural hazard
C. Artificial hazard
D. Human hazard Answer: D

145. Example of the Security Communication system.


A. Telephone
B. Paging system
C. Radio
D. All of them Answer: D

146. The revised rules and regulations governing the organization


and operation of private detective and private security
agencies and company security forces throughout the
country.
A. Private security law
B. International law
C. Private law
D. Security law Answer: A

147. A metallic container used for the safekeeping of documents


or small items in an office or installation.
A. Steel cabinet
B. Drawer
C. Basket
D. Safe Answer: D

148. A heavily constructed fire and burglar resistant container


usually a part of the building structure used to keep and
protect cash,document and negotiable instruments.
A. Basket
B. Vault
C. Steel cabinet

107
D. Concrete coffin Answer: B

149. Steal or plastic pipes located in the building from the lowest
to the top floor with water under pressure for use in case of
fire.
A. Lowering pipe
B. Wet pipe
C. Top pipe
D. Stand pipe Answer: D

150. Who among below are exempted from pre-licensing training?


A. AFP and PNP retirees
B. Graduate of ROTC basic or advance
C. AFP and PNP veterans
D. All of the above Answer: D

151. Tenure of security personnel is based on


A. Can be extended by the client
B. The service contract between the agency and the
client
C. Labor only contracting between the agency and the
guard
D. Tenure provided by the labor code Answer: B

152. Before private security agencies render security services to


its clients,there must be a contract that must bind them,it is
called
A. Contract service
B. Service contract
C. Security contract
D. Security service contract Answer: D

153. Which below is a qualification for the operator or manager of


security agency.
A. Commissioned officer of AFP or PNP,inactive or retirees
B. At least 25 years of age
C. Filipino citizen
D. All of them Answer: D

154. A security force maintained and operated by any private


company for its own security requirements only.
A. Insular security force
B. Company security force
C. Government security unit
D. Private security unit Answer: B

155. A person who offers or renders personal services to watch or

108
secure a residence or business establishment or both is
A. Watchman
B. Security guard
C. B only
D. B and A Answer: D

156. Include all the security measures designed to prevent


unsuitable individuals or persons of doubtful loyalty to the
government from gaining access to classified matter or to any
security facility and to prevent appointment or retention as
employees of such individuals.
A. Security personnel
B. Employee security
C. Personnel security
D. Both A and C Answer: C

157. It is an inquiry into the character,reputation,discretion and


loyalty of individual in order to determine a persons suitability
to be given security clearance.
A. BI
B. LAC
C. NAC
D. PSI Answer: D

158. Consist of the investigation of the background of an individual


but limited only to some of the circumstances of his personal
life which are deemed pertinent to the investigation.
A. PSI
B. PBI
C. CBI
D. BI Answer: B

159. A thorough and complete investigation of all or some of the


circumstances or aspect of a persons life is conducted.
A. PSI
B. PBI
C. CBI
D. BI Answer: D

160. Among the following,which is the least expensive and least


secure personnel control identification system?
A. Multiple pass system
B. Group pass and badge system
C. Spot magnetized identification pass
D. Single pass or badge system Answer: D

161. Factors considered in background investigation except:

109
A. Integrity
B. Character
C. Personal prestige
D. Loyalty Answer: C

162. Motives that cause people to be disloyal


A. Character
B. Revenge
C. Moral
D. Reputation Answer: B

163. Weakness that makes people susceptible to pressure


A. Jealousy
B. Weakness of character
C. Close relative in foreign land
D. All of them Answer: D

164. A security unit maintained and operated by any government


entity.
A. Insular security force
B. Company security force
C. Government security unit
D. Private security agency Answer: C

165. Cosnsist of the investigation of the background of a person


particularly all the circumstances of his personal life
A. PSI
B. PBI
C. CBI
D. BI Answer: C

166. Any person,association,partnership,firm or private


corporation,who contracts recruits,trains,furnishes or post
any security guards to do its functions.
A. Insular security force
B. Company security force
C. Government security unit
D. Private security agency Answer: D

167. Shall be responsible to the detachment commander as far as


his shift is concerned.
A. Officer in charge
B. Shift in charge
C. Security guard on duty
D. Assistant detachment commander Answer: B

168. Before a security guard can practice his profession,he shall

110
possess a valid security license,What is this license?
A. Firearm license
B. License to operate
C. Drivers license
D. Security guard license Answer: D

169. How many firearms issued for every two guards employed by
the security agency is allowed by law?
A. 4
B. 3
C. 2
D. 1 Answer: D

170. Firearms of security agency should be covered with firearms


license issued by the PNP through its Firearm Explosive
Division under the civil security group renewable every
A. 4 years
B. 3 years
C. 2 years
D. 1 year Answer: D

171. The aspect of security which involves the application of


security measures For the protection and safeguarding of
classified information
A. Top secret
B. Information security
C. Personnel security
D. Documents security Answer: D

172. Refers to assigned information by one of the four classification


categories
A. Reclassify
B. Classified
C. Declassify
D. Security clearance Answer: B

173. Refers to the administrative determination that an individual is


eligible for access to classified matter.
A. Reclassify
B. Classified
C. Declassify
D. Security clearance Answer: D

174. Means loss of security which results from an unauthorized


persons obtaining knowledge of classified matter.
A. Vulnerability
B. Criticality

111
C. probability
D. Compromise Answer: D

175. These are information and material,the unauthorized disclosure


of which would cause exceptional grave damage to the
nation,politically,economically or from a security aspect,this
category is reserved for the nations closest secret and is to
be used with great reserve.
A. Restricted matters
B. Secret matters
C. Confidential matters
D. Top secret matters Answer: D

176. These information and material,the authorized disclosure of


which would endanger national security,cause serious injury to
the interest or prestige of the nation or of any governmental
activity or would be of great advantage to a foreign nation.
A. Restricted matters
B. Secret matters
C. Confidential matters
D. Top secret matters Answer: B

177. These information and material,the unauthorized disclosure of


which while not endangering the national security would be
prejudicial to the interest or prestige of the nation or any
government activity or would cause administrative
embarrassment or unwarranted injury to an individual or
would be of the advantage to a foreign nation.
A. Restricted matters
B. Secret matters
C. Confidential matters
D. Top secret matters Answer: C

178. It is information that in some special way relates to the status


or activities of the possessor and over which the possessor
asserts ownership.
A. Transmission security
B. Trade secret
C. Patents
D. Proprietary information Answer: D

179. It maybe a formula for a chemical compound,a process of


manufacturing,treating or preserving materials,a pattern for
machine or device or a list of customers.
A. Transmission security
B. Trade secret
C. Patents

112
D. Proprietary information Answer: B

180. It is the protection resulting from the application of various


measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized
persons in gaining information through communication.
A. Transmission security
B. Cryptographic security
C. Communication security
D. All of the above Answer: C

181. That component of communication security which results from


the provisions of technically sound crypto system and their
proper use.
A. Transmission security
B. Cryptographic security
C. Communication security
D. All of the above Answer: B

182. A system which uses words as the smallest element.


A. Transposition system
B. Code
C. Concealment
D. Cipher Answer: B

183. A system that manipulate 1,2 or 3 characters at a time.


A. Transposition system
B. Code
C. Concealment
D. Cipher Answer: D

184. It is the potential damage or loss of an asset.


A. Adversary
B. Risk
C. Security hazard
D. Criticality Answer: B

185. It is the impact of a loss as measured in financial terms.


A. Adversary
B. Risk
C. Security hazard
D. Criticality Answer: D

186. Eliminating or removing the risk totally from the


business,government or industrial environment for which the
risk manager has responsibility.
A. Risk self-assumption
B. Risk spreading

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C. Risk avoidance
D. Risk avoidance Answer: C

187. It is an act of spying.


A. Saboteur
B. Espionage
C. pilferer
D. Sabotage Answer: B

188. It is one of the most annoying and common human hazards


which security has to deal with.
A. Casual pilferage
B. Systematic pilferage
C. Pilferage
D. None of the above Answer: C

189. One who steals with pre conceived plans and takes always
any or all types of items or supplies for economic gain.
A. Casual pilferage
B. Systematic pilferage
C. Pilferage
D. None of the above Answer: B

190. What date is the Republic Act No. 5487 or the private security
agency law passed?
A. June 13, 1999
B. June 13, 1969
C. June 7, 2009
D. June 31, 1969 Answer: B

191. A natural hazards or acts of god.


A. Calamity
B. Phenomenon
C. Disaster
D. Force majeure Answer: D

192. A restricted area where visitors are limited in movement and


are usually escorted.
A. Exclusive area
B. Limited area
C. Restricted area
D. Protected area Answer: B

193. A structure placed above a vertical fence to increase


protection from intruder.
A. Guard house
B. Clear zone

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C. Tower guard
D. Top guard Answer: D

194.A conference similar to entrance conference,this is only done


after the completion of security survey.
A. Entrance conference
B. Briefing
C. Debriefing
D. Exit conference Answer: D

195. It is the lost that would be sustained if a given target or


combination of target where totally removed,destroyed or
both.
A. Risk reduction
B. Probable maximum loss
C. Risk transfer
D. Possible maximum loss Answer: D

196. Refers to the amount of loss a target would be likely to


sustain through theft and robbery.
A. Risk reduction
B. Probable maximum loss
C. Risk transfer
D. Possible maximum loss Answer: B

197. A term used in England for lock pickers,safe crackers and


penetrators of restricted rooms or area.
A. Superman
B. Peterpan
C. Batman
D. Peterman Answer: D

198. The badge or pass coded for authorization to enter specific


areas is issued to an employee who keeps it in his possession
until his authorization terminates.
A. Pass system
B. Pass exchange system
C. Single pass system
D. Multi pass system Answer: C

199. Company owned alarm system with a unit in the nearest police
station so that in case of need, direct call is possible.
A. Auxiliary alarm
B. Proprietary system
C. Local alarm system
D. Central station station system Answer: A

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200. The system consists of ringing up a visual or audible alarm
system near the object to be protected.
A. Auxiliary alarm
B. Proprietary system
C. Local alarm system
D. Central station system Answer: C

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