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MUSIC THEORY IN A NEW KEY


Musicianship, Chromatic Harmony, and
Jazz Improvisation Scales

by

Gil Trythall

©2009 Kba Software


Dallas, Texas, USA
www.musicstudy.com
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Contents
PREFACE............................................................................................................................7
METER, TEMPO, DURATION........................................................................................9
1. METER............................................................................................................................9
1a. Simple and Compound Meter........................................................................................9
2. TEMPO............................................................................................................................9
3. DURATION NOTATION...............................................................................................9
3a. Note and Rest Durations...............................................................................................9
3b. Dots and Ties................................................................................................................10
SCALES.............................................................................................................................11
4. SCALE BASICS............................................................................................................11
4a. Half-Step and Whole-Step ..........................................................................................11
4b. Diatonic Scale..............................................................................................................11
4c. Note-name.....................................................................................................................11
4d. Pitch..............................................................................................................................11
4e. Diatonic Tone...............................................................................................................11
4f. Chromatic Tone.............................................................................................................11
5. MODES . .......................................................................................................................12
5a. Modes and Keyboard White Keys ...............................................................................12
6. MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES ...............................................................................13
6a. Scale Step Names.........................................................................................................13
6b. Major Scale Pattern ..................................................................................................13
6c. Minor Scale Patterns....................................................................................................14
6d. Harmonic Minor Scale Pattern ..................................................................................15
6e. Natural Minor Scale Pattern .....................................................................................15
6f. Melodic Minor Ascending Scale Pattern ...................................................................16
6g. Dorian Minor Scale Pattern ......................................................................................17
INTERVALS......................................................................................................................18
7. INTERVALS..................................................................................................................18
7a. Interval Definition........................................................................................................18
7b. How to Identify Interval Size by Note Names ............................................................18
7c. How To Identify Interval Quality by Note Names and Half Steps.............................19
8. INTERVAL IDENTIFICATION WITH REFERENCE TO SCALES....................27
8a. How to Identify Interval Size and Quality with Reference to Scales.........................27
8b. Practice Interval Identification with Scale Reference................................................29
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9. INTERVAL TRANSPOSITION..................................................................................38
9a. Definition of ‘Transposition’ .....................................................................................38
9b. Interval Inversion.........................................................................................................38
9c. Complementary Intervals.............................................................................................38
KEYS ................................................................................................................................40
10. KEY AND SCALE......................................................................................................40
10a. Definition of Key........................................................................................................40
10b. Key Signature.............................................................................................................40
10c. The Key of The Composition.....................................................................................40
10d. Non-chord Tones........................................................................................................40
10e. Immediate Scale.........................................................................................................40
10f. Improvisation Scale ...................................................................................................40
10g. Relative Major and Minor Keys................................................................................41
10h. Parallel Major and Minor Keys................................................................................41
10j. Closely Related Keys...................................................................................................42
10k. Circle of Fifths...........................................................................................................42
TRIADS.............................................................................................................................44
11. TRIADS........................................................................................................................44
11a. Triad definition...........................................................................................................44
11b. Triad Identification: Roman Numerals and Chord Symbols....................................44
11c. Triad in Root Position................................................................................................45
11d. Triad Root, Triad Third, Triad Fifth ........................................................................46
11e. Triad Inversion...........................................................................................................46
11f. Triad in First Inversion..............................................................................................46
11g. Triad in Second Inversion..........................................................................................47
11h. Triad in Close Position; Triad in Open Position......................................................47
11j. Triad Qualities and their Intervals ............................................................................47
12. ROMAN NUMERAL SYMBOLS FOR TRIADS...................................................48
12a. Roman Numeral Chord Functions .........................................................................48
12b. Roman Numeral Symbols for Triads Spelled from Major Scales............................49
12c. Roman Numeral Symbols for Triads Spelled from Minor Scales ..........................49
12d. How to Spell Triads from Roman Numerals.............................................................50
13. CHORD SYMBOLS FOR TRIADS..........................................................................51
13a. How to Spell Triads from Chord Symbols.................................................................51
13b. How to Translate Roman Numerals to Chord Symbols...........................................52
SEVENTH CHORDS.......................................................................................................54
14. SEVENTH CHORD BASICS....................................................................................54
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14a. Seventh Chord Definition..........................................................................................54
14b. Seventh Chord Qualities and Functions...................................................................54
14c. Seventh Chord Names: Roman Numerals and Chord Symbols: ............................54
14d. How to Spell a Dominant Seventh Chord, V7.........................................................55
14e. How to Spell Minor Seventh Chords.........................................................................57
14f. How to Spell Full-diminished Seventh Chords.........................................................58
14g. How to Spell Half-diminished Seventh Chords.......................................................60
14h. How to Spell Major/Major Seventh Chords.............................................................62
14j. How to Spell Minor/Major Seventh Chords..............................................................64
14k. How to Spell V7 Chords With Raised Fifth, V7#5 . .................................................65
14l. How to Spell Added Sixth Chords..............................................................................66
15. SEVENTH CHORD FUNCTIONS...........................................................................68
15a. Spell Seventh Chord Functions in All Keys .............................................................68
15b. How to Identify the Tonic Scale Step Defined by a V7 ............................................68
15c. How to Identify the Tonic Scale Step Defined by a vii°7 ........................................70
15d . Tonic Scale Step Defined by a V7 or vii°7 Summary...............................................71
15e. Enharmonic vii°7 Chords..........................................................................................71
15f. Half-diminished Seventh Chords do Not Define a Tonic Scale Step........................71
15g. Minor and Major Seventh Chords do Not Define a Tonic Scale Step.....................71
DOMINANT NINTH, ELEVENTH, THIRTEENTH CHORDS.................................72
16. DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS WITH ADDED 9TH, 11TH, OR 13TH.......72
16a. Dominant 9th Chords...............................................................................................72
16b. Dominant 11th Chords...............................................................................................74
16c. Dominant 13th Chords...............................................................................................77
CADENCES......................................................................................................................80
17. CADENCES................................................................................................................80
17a. Cadence Definition ...................................................................................................80
17b. The Three Cadence Patterns.....................................................................................80
17c. Authentic and Deceptive Cadence Resolution .........................................................80
17d. Half Cadence..............................................................................................................81
17e. Plagal Cadence...........................................................................................................81
17f. Roman Numerals for Authentic Cadences................................................................81
17g. Chord Symbols for Authentic Cadences ..................................................................82
17h. How To Identify the Immediate Scale From Authentic Cadence Chord Symbols .83
17j. Roman Numerals for Deceptive Cadences.................................................................83
17k. Chord Symbols for Deceptive Cadences....................................................................84
17l. How To Identify the Immediate Scale From Deceptive Cadence Chord Symbols...85
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CHROMATIC HARMONY.............................................................................................87
18. CHROMATIC CHORDS...........................................................................................87
18a. Chromatic Chord Definition......................................................................................87
18b. Two Types of Chromatic Chords...............................................................................87
19. CHROMATIC CHORDS SPELLED FROM A NEW IMMEDIATE SCALE ...88
19a. How V7 (or V9, V11, V13) and viio7 determine the immediate tonic scale step......88
19b. Modulation.................................................................................................................88
19c. Difference between a Modulation and a Secondary Dominant...............................90
19d. Secondary Dominants................................................................................................90
19e. Secondary Dominant Chain......................................................................................97
19f. Secondary Dominant Chain in Lead Sheet...............................................................99
19g. ‘Borrowed’ Chords...................................................................................................100
19h. Harmonic Analysis of a Bach Chorale ..................................................................101
19j. Secondary viio7 and Borrowed Chord in a Jazz Standard......................................102
20. CHROMATICALLY ALTERED CHORDS ........................................................104
20a. Two Types of Chromatically Altered Chords ........................................................104
20b. The Immediate Scale Simultaneous with Chromatically Altered Chords.............104
21. CHROMATIC TONE REPLACES CHORD TONE............................................104
21a. Augmented Sixth Chords.........................................................................................104
21b. Neapolitan Sixth Chord...........................................................................................107
21c. Dominant Seventh Chords with Altered Fifth.........................................................108
22. CHROMATIC NON-CHORD TONE RESOLVES TO A CHORD TONE ..... 111
22a. Chords with Chromatic Passing Tones or Chromatic Appoggiaturas that Sound as
a Chord Tone Before Resolving to the True Chord Tone........................................ 111
SCALES FOR IMPROVISATION AND COMPOSITION.......................................113
23. IMPROVISATION SCALES WHEN IMMEDIATE SCALE IS MAJOR.........113
23a. Definitions: Immediate scale, Immediate Chord , Improvisation Scale ..............113
23b. How to Determine the Immediate Scale..................................................................113
23c. How to Determine Changes in the Immediate Scale .............................................114
23d. Improvisation Scales when the Immediate Chord is Spelled from a Major Scale .....
117
23e. Improvisation Scales for ‘Borrowed’ Chords . .......................................................118
23f. Immediate Scales for ‘September in the Rain’........................................................124
23g. Improvisation Scales for ‘September in the Rain’ .................................................124
24. TRITONE SUBSTITUTE V7 ................................................................................129
24a. Tritone Substitute V7 Definition..............................................................................129
24b. Immediate scales for ‘The Girl From Ipanema’.....................................................130
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23c. Improvisation scales for ‘The Girl From Ipanema’...............................................131
25. SECONDARY DOMINANT ‘BORROWED’ viio7................................................135
25a. Improvisation Scale when the Immediate Chord is a Secondary Dominant ‘Bor-
rowed’ viio7................................................................................................................135
25b. Immediate Scales for ‘All the Things You Are’ .....................................................136
25c. Improvisation Scales for ‘All the Things You Are’.................................................136
26. IMPROVISATION SCALES WHEN IMMEDIATE SCALE IS MINOR..........141
26a. Improvisation Scales when the Immediate Scale is Minor ...................................141
26b. Immediate Scales for ‘Orpheus’..............................................................................142
26c. Improvisation Scales for ‘Orpheus’.........................................................................142
CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................147
Index.................................................................................................................................148
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PREFACE

This book is a companion to the Kba Music software programs: Pitch ID, Rhythm
ID, Chord ID, Spell ID and Melodic ID.

If you do not read music, download the free NoteID.exe from www.musicstudy.
com, install the program, and practice pitch notation.

This text adds a fourth minor scale form - the Dorian minor used in jazz improvi-
sation. The minor scale is a major scale pattern with a lowered third scale step AND
variable sixth and seventh scale steps. The addition of Dorian minor, a minor scale with
raised sixth and lowered seventh, completes all minor scale possibilities.

Improvising and composing require the knowledge and identification of all scales,
intervals, chords, cadences, changes of scale, and chromatic harmony.

Practice the Kba computer programs every day. Short training periods are very
effective, 15-30 minutes daily is excellent. Begin at a level where your score is 90% or
better. Advance to the next level after mastering the previous.

When your score begins to fall, or you hit a ‘wall’ where you cannot improve your
score, this indicates that your ear is tired. Choose a different program or stop for that day.
Do not practice wrong answers for a long period of time.

Be patient. Tonal memory (ear training) takes time to develop; but you should see
regular improvement. Spell ID can proceed quickly. It is simple memorization.

One learns by sight, sound, and kinesthetic practice. Play all scales, intervals,
chords, and cadences on an instrument. Playing speeds memorization.

I gratefully acknowledge that many definitions in this manual are based on the New
Harvard Dictionary of Music, Belnap Press, c. 1986. All errors are my own.

Blue type indicates examples that apply the preceding text.

Red type indicates exercises to be completed with the Kba software programs. Prac-
tice Spell ID exercises until you are 100% accurate.
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Music is one of the finest creations of the human mind. I hope this book provides
some of the basic tools for musical performance, improvisation, composition, and under-
standing the grammar of music.

Gil Trythall
www.musicstudy.com
Dallas, Texas, USA
January, 2009


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METER, TEMPO, DURATION

1. METER

Meter organizes a regular succession of rhythmic beats (pulses) in a repeating pat-


tern. A time signature placed just after the clef sign and key signature indicates the meter.
The lower number of the time signature indicates the basic note-value of the pattern and
the upper number indicates the number of basic note-values (or their equivalent dura-
tions) in one complete pattern (bar or measure). A bar line indicates the end of each com-
plete pattern, measure, or bar.

A time signature of 4/4 indicates that each bar contains four quarter notes or their
equivalent durations. A time signature of 6/8 indicates that each bar contains 6 eighth
notes or their equivalent durations.

1a. Simple and Compound Meter

If the beat (pulse) subdivides into 2 equal note-values, the meter is simple meter. If
the beat (pulse) subdivides into 3 equal note-values, the meter is compound meter.

Memorize and identify simple and compound beat patterns with Rhythm ID.
2. TEMPO

The speed at which beats (pulses) are performed is the tempo, the number of regular
beats per minute. In moderate tempo, the beat normally equals the basic note-value. In
fast tempos, 2 or 3 basic note values may be combined in each beat.

3. DURATION NOTATION

3a. Note and Rest Durations

Pitch duration, the duration of each note-value relative to other note-values, is in-
dicated by black or white note coloring, the presence or absence of a note-stem, and the
number of flags attached to a note stem.

Silence is specified by rests, each with an individual graphic shape.


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There are seven basic note and rest durations. Each duration is relative to other dura-
tions, the time signature (meter), and the tempo.

1 A white note-head without a note-stem is a whole note. A whole note equals two
half notes.

2 A white note-head with a note-stem is a half note. A half note equals two quarter
notes.

3 A black note-head with a note-stem without a flag is a quarter note. A quarter note
equals two eighth notes.

4 A black note-head with a note-stem with one flag is an eighth note. An eighth note
equals two sixteenth notes.

5 A black note-head with a note-stem with two flags is a sixteenth note. A sixteenth
note equals two 32nd notes.

6 A black note-head with a note-stem with three flags is a 32nd note. A thirty-sec-
ond note equals two 64th notes.

7 A black note-head with a note-stem with four flags is a 64th note.

3b. Dots and Ties

Dots and ties create additional duration values. A dot after a note-head increases
the note duration by one-half of its value. Two or more notes may be joined together by
means of ties, curved lines, to form additional durations.
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SCALES
4. SCALE BASICS

4a. Half-Step and Whole-Step

A half-step consists of immediately adjacent keys on a keyboard. There is no inter-


vening key. A half-step is a semitone.

A whole-step consists of 2 half-steps in the same direction. A whole-step is a full-


step.

4b. Diatonic Scale

A diatonic scale has seven pitches arranged in a successive whole-step and half-step
pattern. Each pitch has an adjacent and different note-name.

4c. Note-name

A note-name is the letter (or syllable) name of a note. A note-name does not indicate
the exact pitch. The note-name C (Dó) refers to any C (Dó).

4d. Pitch

A note-name followed by an Arabic numeral indicates an exact pitch. Interval spell-


ing in Spell ID indicates keyboard middle C as C3. D3 is the D immediately above C3.
C4 is an octave above C3. C2 is an octave below C3.

NOTE: Numbered octaves are not standard in music theory. Some systems use C4 or
C5 to represent keyboard middle C.

4e. Diatonic Tone

A diatonic tone is a scale step in a major or minor scale.

4f. Chromatic Tone

A chromatic tone is NOT a scale step in the immediate major or minor scale.
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5. MODES

The church modes are the earliest surviving scales in western music. The written
sources date from the ninth century C.E. Eight consecutive keyboard white keys represent
a mode. The lowest and highest scale step is the mode final, the concluding tone.

5a. Modes and Keyboard White Keys

The names of the seven modes are:

Ionian: C to C on keyboard white keys.

Dorian: D to D on keyboard white keys.

Phrygian: E to E on keyboard white keys.


.
Lydian: F to F on keyboard white keys.

Mixolydian: G to G on keyboard white keys.

Aeolian: A to A on keyboard white keys.

Locrian: B to B on keyboard white keys.


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6. MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES

6a. Scale Step Names

Scale step names upwards in major and minor scale are:

Tonic = first scale step.

Super-tonic = second scale step.

Mediant = third scale step.

Sub-dominant = fourth scale step.

Dominant = fifth scale step.

Sub-mediant = sixth scale step.

Leading tone = seventh scale step one half-step below tonic.

Sub-tonic = seventh scale step one whole-step below tonic.

Tonic = eighth scale step.

6b. Major Scale Pattern

The major scale pattern up is: tonic, whole-step, whole-step, half-step, whole-step,
whole-step, whole-step, half-step to the tonic.

The major scale pattern has 2-2-1-2-2-2-1 half-steps (semi-tones) between pitches.
Each tone has a different note-name.

Memorize the 13 major scales with Spell ID, Contents > Scales > Major Scales.

Identify major scale steps by ear with Pitch ID > Key > Select Major keys. Begin
with the number of scale steps where you score 90% or better. Advance as the program
suggests.
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Practice melodic dictation in major keys with Melodic ID > Keys > Select major
keys. Begin with scale steps 1,2,3,4,5; turn Advance On and advance as suggested.

Major Scales:

6c. Minor Scale Patterns

The minor scale is a major scale with lowered third scale step AND variable (chang-
ing) sixth and seventh scale steps. For pedagogical purposes, the minor scale forms are
taught as the harmonic minor with lowered sixth and raised seventh scale steps; natural
minor with lowered sixth and seventh scale steps; melodic minor ascending with raised
sixth and raised seventh scale steps; and Dorian minor with raised sixth and lowered
seventh scale steps.

Determine the minor scale form by the immediate chord and voice leading require-
ments. V and viio chords require a raised seventh scale step; but smooth voice leading
requires a half-step or whole-step to and from the raised seventh scale step. Therefore the
sixth scale step is raised in melodic minor as required for smooth voice leading.

Identify harmonic minor scale steps by ear with Pitch ID > Key > Select minor
keys. Begin with the number of scale steps where you score 90% or better. Advance as
the program suggests.
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6d. Harmonic Minor Scale Pattern

The harmonic minor scale pattern has 2-1-2-2-1-3-1 half-step pattern. OR: The
harmonic minor scale is a major scale with the same tonic; but lower the third and sixth
scale steps one half-step.

Memorize the 12 harmonic minor scales with Spell ID, Contents > Scales > Harm.
min. Scales.

Practice melodic dictation in harmonic minor scales with Melodic ID > Keys > Se-
lect harmonic minor keys. Begin with scale steps 1,2,3,4,5. Use Melodic ID > Advance >
On and advance as suggested.

6e. Natural Minor Scale Pattern

The natural minor scale pattern has a 2-1-2-2-1-2-2 half-step pattern.

OR: The natural minor scale pattern is a major scale with the same tonic; BUT lower
the third, sixth and seventh scale steps one half-step,

Memorize the 12 natural minor scales with Spell ID, Contents > Scales > Nat.. min.
Scales.
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6f. Melodic Minor Ascending Scale Pattern

The melodic minor ascending scale pattern has a 2-1-2-2-2-2-1 half-step pattern
OR: The melodic minor scale ascending is a major scale with the same tonic; BUT lower
the third scale step one half-step. (Melodic minor descending is the same as the natural
minor scale.)
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Memorize the 12 melodic minor scales with Spell ID, Contents > Scales > Mel. min.
Scales.

Practice melodic dictation with melodic minor scales with Melodic ID > Keys > Se-
lect melodic minor keys. Begin with scale steps 1,2,3,4,5. Select Melodic ID > Advance
> On and advance as suggested.

6g. Dorian Minor Scale Pattern

The Dorian minor scale pattern has a 2-1-2-2-2-1-2 half-step pattern.

OR:

The Dorian minor scale is a major scale with the same tonic; BUT lower the third
scale step one half-step and lower the seventh scale step one half-step.

Memorize the 12 Dorian minor scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation
Scales > Dorian improv scales.
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INTERVALS
7. INTERVALS

7a. Interval Definition

An interval is the distance included in two pitches.

An interval name indicates the interval size (second, third, etc.) and the interval
quality (major, minor, diminished, augmented).

Determine interval size by the number of different letter note names included in the
two pitches. Determine interval quality (major, minor, diminished, augmented) by the
number of half steps included between the two pitches.

7b. How to Identify Interval Size by Note Names

For example,

(1) what is the interval size of C up to F?

C up to F includes four different letter note names: C, D, E, F.

Therefore C up to F is a “fourth”.

(2) What is the interval size of C down to F?

C down to F includes five different letter note names: C, B, A, G, F.

Therefore C down to F is a “fifth”.

(3) What is the interval size of G up to F?

G up to F includes 7 different note names, G, A, B, C, D, E, F.

Therefore G up to F is a ‘seventh’.

1 letter note-name included = unison,


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2 adjacent letter note names included = second,
3 adjacent letter note names included = third,
4 adjacent letter note names included = fourth,
5 adjacent letter note names included = fifth,
6 adjacent letter note names included = sixth,
7 adjacent letter note names included = seventh,
8 adjacent letter note names included = octave,
9 adjacent letter note names included = ninth,
10 adjacent letter note names included = tenth,
11 adjacent letter note names included = eleventh,
12 adjacent letter note names included = twelfth,
13 adjacent letter note names included = thirteenth,
15 adjacent letter note names included = two octaves or fifteenth.

7c. How To Identify Interval Quality by Note Names and Half Steps

The number of half-steps in an interval does not automatically indicate the correct
interval name. C to D# is an augmented second because the interval includes two letter
note names. C to Eb is a minor third because the interval includes three letter note names.
Both intervals contain 3 half-steps.

0 half-steps and 1 letter note name included = perfect unison


1 half-step and 2 adjacent letter note names included = minor second
2 half-steps and 2 adjacent letter note names included = major second
3 half-steps and 3 adjacent letter note names included = minor third
4 half-steps and 3 adjacent letter note names included = major third
5 half-steps and 4 adjacent letter note names included = perfect fourth
6 half-steps and 4 adjacent letter note names included = augmented fourth
6 half-steps and 5 adjacent letter note names included = diminished fifth
7 half-steps and 5 adjacent letter note names included = perfect fifth
8 half-steps and 5 adjacent letter note names included = augmented fifth
8 half-steps and 6 adjacent letter note names included = minor sixth
9 half-steps and 6 adjacent letter note names included= major sixth
10 half-steps and 6 adjacent letter note names included = augmented sixth
10 half-steps and 7 adjacent letter note names included = minor seventh
11 half-steps and 7 adjacent letter note names included = major seventh
12 half-steps and 8 adjacent letter note names included = perfect octave.
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PERFECT FOURTH AND PERFECT FIFTH

A perfect fourth has 4 adjacent letter note names and 5 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a perfect fourth above F?

Five half-steps above F is: A# or Bb. F up to Bb includes 4 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the perfect fourth above F is Bb.

(2) What note is a perfect fourth below E?

Five half-steps below E is B or Cb. E down to B includes 4 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the perfect fourth below E is B.

A perfect fifth has 5 adjacent letter note names and 7 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a perfect fifth above F#?

Seven half-steps above F# is C# or Db. F# up to C# includes 5 adjacent letter note


names..

Therefore the perfect fifth above F# is C#.

(2) What note is a perfect fifth below Eb?

Seven half-steps below Eb is: G# or Ab. Eb down to Ab includes 5 adjacent letter


note names.
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Therefore the perfect fifth below Eb is Ab.

Memorize interval spelling with Spell ID, Contents > Intervals > perf 5 and 4.

MAJOR AND MINOR THIRDS

A major third has 3 adjacent letter note name and 3 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major third above F#?

Four half-steps above F# is: A# or Bb. F# up to A# includes 3 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the major third above F# is A#.

(2) What note is a major third below G?

Four half-steps below G is: D# or Eb. G down to Eb includes 3 adjacent letter note
names.

Therefore the major third below G is Eb.

A minor third has 3 adjacent letter note names and 3 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor third above F#?

Three half-steps above F# is A. F# up to A includes 3 adjacent letter note names.

Therefore the minor third above F# is A.

(2) What note is a minor third below E?


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Three half-steps below E is C# or Db. E down to C# includes 3 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the minor third below E is C#.

MAJOR OR MINOR SIXTHS

A major sixth has 6 adjacent letter note names and 9 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major sixth above F#?

Nine half-steps above F# is: D# or Eb. F# up to D# includes 6 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the major sixth above F# is D#.

(2) What note is a major sixth below G?

Nine half-steps below G is: A# or Bb. G down to Bb includes 6 adjacent letter note
names.

Therefore the major sixth below G is Bb.

A minor sixth has 6 adjacent letter note names and 8 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor sixth above F?

Eight half-steps above F is Db or C#. F up to Db includes 6 adjacent letter note


names.
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Therefore the minor sixth above F is Db.

(2) What note is a minor sixth below G?

Eight half-steps below G is B. G down to B includes 6 adjacent letter note names.

Therefore the minor sixth below G is B.

Memorize interval spelling with Spell ID, Contents > Intervals > 3 and 6.

MAJOR AND MINOR SECONDS

A major second has 2 adjacent letter note names and 2 half-steps above or below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major second above Gb?

Two half-steps above Gb is: Ab or G#. Gb up to Ab includes 2 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the major second above Gb is Ab.

(2) What note is a major second below Gb?

Two half-steps below Gb is: Fb or E. Gb down to Fb includes 2 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the major second below Gb is Fb.

A minor second has 2 adjacent letter note names and 1 half-step above or below the
given note.:

For example,

(1) What note is a minor second above G?


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One half-step above Gb is: Ab or G#. G up to Ab includes 2 adjacent letter note
names.
Therefore the minor second above G is Ab.

(2) What note is a minor second below G?

One half-step below G is: Gb or F#. G down to F# includes 2 adjacent letter note
names.

Therefore the minor second below is F#.

MAJOR AND MINOR SEVENTHS

A major seventh has 7 adjacent letter note names and 11 half-steps above or below
the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major seventh above F#?

Eleven half-steps above F# is: E# or F natural. F# up to E# includes 7 adjacent let-


ter note names.

Therefore the major seventh above F# is E#.

(2) What note is a major seventh below G?

Eleven half-steps below G is: G# or Ab. G down to Ab includes 7 adjacent letter


note names.

Therefore the major seventh below G is Ab.

A minor seventh has 7 adjacent letter note names and 10 half-steps above or below
the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor seventh above F?


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10 half-steps above F is Eb or D#. F up to Eb includes 7 adjacent letter note names.


Therefore the minor seventh above F is Eb.

(2) What note is a minor seventh below F?

10 half-steps below E is F# or Gb. E down to F# includes 7 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the minor seventh below E is F#.

Memorize interval spelling with Spell ID, Contents > Intervals > 2 and 7.

AUGMENTED SECOND

An augmented second has 2 adjacent letter note names and 3 half-steps above or
below the given note

For example,

(1) What note is an augmented second above G?

Three half-steps above G is: A# or Bb. G up to A# includes 2 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the augmented second above G is A#.

(2) What note is an augmented second below G?

Three half-steps below G is: E or Fb. G down to Fb includes 2 adjacent letter note
names..

Therefore the augmented second below G is Fb.

DIMINISHED SEVENTH

A diminished seventh has 7 adjacent letter note names and 9 half-steps above or
below the given note.
26

For example,

(1) What note is a diminished seventh above G?

Nine half-steps above G is: E or Fb. G up to Fb includes 7 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore a diminished seventh above G is Fb.

(2) What note is a diminished seventh below G?

Nine half-steps below G is: A# or Bb. G down to A# includes 7 adjacent letter note
names.

Therefore a diminished seventh below G is A#.

Memorize interval spelling with Spell ID, Contents > Intervals > Aug 2 and Dim7.

AUGMENTED FOURTH

An augmented fourth has 4 adjacent letter note names and 6 half-steps above or
below the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is an augmented fourth above G?

Six half-steps above G is: C# or Db. G up to C# includes 4 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the augmented fourth above G is C#.

(2) What note is an augmented fourth below G?

Six half-steps below G is: C# or Db. G down to Db includes 4 adjacent letter note
names.
27

Therefore the augmented fourth below G is Db.

DIMINISHED FIFTH

A diminished fifth has 5 adjacent letter note name and 6 half-steps above or below
the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a diminished fifth above G?

Six half-steps above G is: C# or Db. G up to Db includes 5 adjacent letter note


names.

Therefore the diminished fifth above G is Db.

(2) What note is a diminished fifth below G?

Six half-steps below G is: C# or Db. G down to C# includes 5 adjacent letter note
names.

Therefore a diminished fifth below G is C#.

Memorize interval spelling with Spell ID, Contents > Intervals > Aug 4 and Dim 5.

8. INTERVAL IDENTIFICATION WITH REFERENCE TO SCALES

Memorize interval spelling with Spell ID, Contents > Intervals > Mixed.

8a. How to Identify Interval Size and Quality with Reference to Scales

Compare the interval to be measured to a major or minor scale. Consider the lower
note of the measured interval to be a tonic scale step and the upper note to be a scale step
above that tonic.

The 5 interval qualities in scales are:


28
(1) Perfect intervals. The first, fourth, fifth, and octave scale steps above the tonic
scale step of a major or minor scale are perfect intervals.

(2) Major intervals. The second, third, sixth, and seventh scale steps above the
tonic scale step of a major scale are major intervals.

(3) Minor intervals. The third, sixth and seventh scale steps above the tonic scale
step of a natural minor scale are minor intervals. Or, a minor interval is a major interval
lowered one half-step.

(4) Diminished intervals. A diminished interval is a perfect or minor interval low-


ered one half-step.

(5) Augmented intervals. An augmented interval is a perfect or major interval


raised one half-step.

A tritone is an augmented fourth or diminished fifth. A tritone consists of 3 full-


steps (3 whole steps).

A doubly augmented interval is an augmented interval raised one additional half-


step.

A doubly diminished interval is a diminished interval lowered one additional half-


step.

Identify intervals by ear with Pitch ID > Practice Intervals? > Intervals. Begin with
a few scale steps and increase the number of intervals each time you complete 50 inter-
vals with better than 90% accuracy.

INTERVALS GREATER THAN AN OCTAVE

An octave plus a major or minor second is a major ninth or minor ninth.


An octave plus a major or minor third is a major tenth or minor tenth.
An octave plus a fourth is an eleventh.
An octave plus a fifth is a twelfth.
An octave plus a sixth is a thirteenth
An octave plus an octave is a fifteenth.
29
8b. Practice Interval Identification with Scale Reference

Intervals in Major Scales:

Intervals in Minor Scales:

SPELLING FOURTHS AND FIFTHS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a perfect fourth (or perfect fifth) above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a major scale.

(2) The fourth (or fifth) scale step of that major scale is a perfect fourth (or perfect
fifth) above the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a perfect fourth above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F Major scale. The fourth scale step of an F Major
scale is Bb.

Therefore the note a perfect fourth above F is Bb.

(2) What note is a perfect fifth above G?

G is the tonic scale step of a G Major scale. The fifth scale step of a G Major scale is
D.

Therefore the note a perfect fifth above G is D.


30
To spell a note that is a perfect fourth (or perfect fifth) below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the fourth (or fifth) scale step of a major scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that major scale is a perfect fourth (or perfect fifth) below
the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a perfect fourth below Eb?

Eb is the fourth scale step of a Bb Major scale.

Therefore the note a perfect fourth below Eb is Bb.

(2) What note is a perfect fifth below G?

G is the fifth scale step of a C Major scale.

Therefore the note a perfect fifth below G is C.

SPELLING MAJOR THIRDS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a major third above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a major scale.

(2) The third scale step of that scale is a major third above the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major third above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F Major scale. The third scale step of an F Major scale
is A.

Therefore the note a major third above F is A.


31
To spell a note that is a major third below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the third scale step of a major scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that major scale is a major third below the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major third below E?

E is the third scale step of a C Major scale.

Therefore the note a major third below E is C.

SPELLING MINOR THIRDS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a minor third above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a minor scale.

(2) The third scale step of that minor scale is a minor third above the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor third above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F minor scale. The third scale step of an F minor scale
is Ab.

Therefore the note a minor third above F is Ab.

To spell a note that is a minor third below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the third scale step of a minor scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that minor scale is a minor third below the given note.

For example,
32

(1) What note is a minor third below F?

F is the third scale step of a D minor scale.

Therefore the note a minor third below F is D.

SPELLING MAJOR SIXTHS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a major sixth above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a major scale.

(2) The sixth scale step of that scale is a major sixth above the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major sixth above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F Major scale. The sixth scale step of an F Major scale
is D.

Therefore the note a major sixth above F is D.

To spell a note that is a or major sixth below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the sixth scale step of a major scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that major scale is a major sixth below the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major sixth below F?

F is the sixth scale step of a Ab Major scale.

Therefore the note a major sixth below F is Ab.


33
SPELLING MINOR SIXTHS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a minor sixth above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a natural minor or harmonic
minor scale.

(2) The sixth scale step of that scale is a minor sixth above the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor sixth above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F minor scale. The sixth scale step of an F natural mi-
nor or harmonic minor scale is Db.

Therefore the note a minor sixth above F is Db.

To spell a note that is a or minor sixth below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the sixth scale step of a natural minor or harmonic
minor scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that natural or harmonic minor scale is a minor sixth
below the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor sixth below F?

F is the sixth scale step of a A natural minor or harmonic minor scale.

Therefore the note a minor sixth below F is A.

SPELLING MAJOR SECONDS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a major second above a given note:


34
(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a major scale.

(2) The second scale step of that major or minor scale is a major second above the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major second above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F Major scale. The second scale step of an F Major
scale is G.

Therefore the note a major second above F is G.

To spell a note that is a major second below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the second scale step of a major scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that major scale is a major second below the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major second below F?

F is the second scale step of an Eb Major scale.

Therefore the note a major second below F is Eb.

SPELLING MAJOR SEVENTHS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a major seventh above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a major scale.

(2) The seventh scale step of that major scale is a major seventh above the given
note.

For example,
35

(1) What note is a major seventh above F?

F is the tonic scale step of an F Major scale. The seventh scale step of an F Major
scale is E.
Therefore the note a major seventh above F is E.

To spell a note that is a major seventh below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the seventh scale step of a major scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that major scale is a major seventh below the given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a major seventh below F?

F is the seventh scale step of a Gb Major scale.

Therefore the note a major seventh below F is Gb.

SPELLING MINOR SEVENTHS WITH SCALE REFERENCE

To spell a note that is a minor seventh above a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the tonic scale step of a natural minor scale.

(2) The seventh scale step of that natural minor scale is a minor seventh above the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor seventh above G?

G is the tonic scale step of a G natural minor scale. The seventh scale step of G
natural minor scale is F.
36
Therefore the note a minor seventh above G is F.

To spell a note that is a minor seventh below a given note:

(1) Consider the given note to be the seventh scale step of a natural minor scale.

(2) The tonic scale step of that natural minor scale is a minor seventh below the
given note.

For example,

(1) What note is a minor seventh below G?

G is the seventh scale step of an A natural minor scale.

Therefore the note a minor seventh below G is A.

SPELLING DIMINISHED SEVENTHS

To spell a diminished seventh above or below a given note:

A diminished seventh above a given note is a minor seventh upwards and lowered
(contracted) one additional one-half step.

For example,

(1) What note is a diminished seventh above G?

A minor seventh above G is F.

Therefore a diminished seventh above G is Fb. (Not E natural which is a major sixth
above G!).

A diminished seventh below a given note is a minor seventh downwards and raised
(contracted) one additional one-half step.

For example,
37

(1) What note is a diminished seventh below G?

A minor seventh below G is A.

Therefore a diminished seventh below G is A#. (Not Bb which is a major sixth be-
low G!).

SPELLING AUGMENTED FOURTHS

To spell an augmented fourth above or below a given note:

An augmented fourth above a given note is a perfect fourth raised (expanded) one
half-step.

For example,

(1) What note is an augmented fourth above G?

A perfect fourth above G is C.

Therefore an augmented fourth above G is C#. (Not Db which is a diminished fifth.)

An augmented fourth below a given note is a perfect fourth downwards lowered


(expanded) one additional one-half step.

For example,

(1) What note is an augmented fourth below G?

A perfect fourth below G is D.

Therefore an augmented fourth below G is Db. (Not C# which is a diminished fifth.)

SPELLING DIMINISHED FIFTHS

To spell a diminished fifth above or below a given note:

A diminished fifth above a given note is a perfect fifth lowered (contracted) one ad-
38

ditional half-step.

For example,

(1) What note is a diminished fifth above G?

A perfect fifth above G is D.

Therefore an diminished fifth above G is Db. (Not C#.)

An diminished fifth below a given note is a perfect fifth downwards raised (con-
tracted) one additional half-step.

For example,

(1) What note is a diminished fifth below G?

A perfect fifth below G is C.

Therefore an diminished fifth below G is C#. (Not Db which is aaugmented fourth.)


9. INTERVAL TRANSPOSITION

9a. Definition of ‘Transposition’

Transposition is the rewriting or performance of music at a pitch other than the


original pitch.

9b. Interval Inversion

Interval inversion is the octave transposition of one pitch in an interval above or


below the other.

9c. Complementary Intervals

Interval inversion produces the complementary interval.

A perfect unison inverts to a perfect octave.


39

A minor second inverts to a major seventh.

A major second inverts to a minor seventh.

A minor third inverts to a major sixth.

A major third inverts to a minor sixth.

A perfect fourth inverts to a perfect fifth.

An augmented fourth inverts to a diminished fifth.

Complimentary intervals reverse at the augmented fourth/diminished fifth.

A diminished fifth inverts to an augmented fourth.

A perfect fifth inverts to a perfect fourth.

A minor sixth inverts to a major third.

A major sixth inverts to a minor third.

A minor seventh inverts to a major second.

A major seventh inverts to a minor second.

A perfect octave inverts to a perfect unison.


40

KEYS
10. KEY AND SCALE

10a. Definition of Key

Key is the relationships between pitches that establish a single tonic scale step as
the tonal center of the composition, the tone to which all other tones relate.

10b. Key Signature

A key signature is an arrangement of sharps or flats (or their absence) at the begin-
ning of a staff. A key signature indicates the sharps or flats (or their absence) in the scale
of the key of the composition.

10c. The Key of The Composition

The ‘key of the composition’ is the name of the scale, as indicated by the key signa-
ture, from which all chords and non-chord tones are spelled at the beginning and end of a
composition.

10d. Non-chord Tones

Non-chord tones are those tones in the melody (or melodies) which are not tones in
the immediate chord.

10e. Immediate Scale

The immediate scale is the scale from which the chords and non-chord tones are
spelled at that point in a composition.

Scale changes occur in most compositions. Accidentals indicate the new scale steps.
The key signature does not change for brief changes of scale.

10f. Improvisation Scale

The improvisation scale contains the scale steps of the immediate scale arranged
upwards from the root of the immediate chord plus any chromatic alterations indicated by
41

the chord symbol. (See Section 22.)

10g. Relative Major and Minor Keys

Relative major and relative minor keys share the same key signature.

The tonic scale step of the relative minor key is the interval of a minor third below
the tonic scale step of its’ relative major. (The interval of a minor third is two letter note
names and 3 half steps up or down. See section 7.)

For example,

(1) What is the relative minor of C Major?

Two letter note names down is A which is 3 half steps distant from C.

Therefore the relative minor of C Major is A minor.

The tonic scale step of the relative major key is a minor third above the tonic scale
step of its’ relative minor.

For example,

(1) What is the relative major of Eb minor?

Two letter note names up from Eb is G. But the relative minor key must be only 3
half steps away and G is 4 half steps away.

Therefore the relative major key of Eb minor is Gb Major, 3 half steps up.

10h. Parallel Major and Minor Keys

Parallel major and parallel minor keys have the same tonic scale step.

For example,

What is the parallel minor of C Major?


42

(1) C Minor is the parallel minor of C Major.

10j. Closely Related Keys


Each key has five closely related keys.

A major key and its five closely related keys are: the major key and (1) its relative
minor; (2 and 3) the major key with a tonic scale step a perfect fifth higher and its relative
minor; (4 and 5) the major key with a tonic scale step a perfect fifth lower and its relative
minor.

For example,

(1) What are the five closely related keys of C Major?

The five closely related keys to C Major are: C Major and (1) A Minor, (2 and 3) G
Major and E Minor, (4 and 5) F Major and D Minor.

A minor key and its five closely related keys are: the minor key and (1) its relative
major; (2 and 3) the minor key with a tonic scale step a perfect fifth higher and its relative
major; (4 and 5) the minor key with a tonic scale step a perfect fifth lower and its relative
major.

For example,

(1) What are the five closely related keys to C minor?

C Minor and its five closely related keys are: C Minor and (1) Eb Major, (2 and 3) G
Minor and Bb Major, (4 and 5) F Minor and Ab Major.

10k. Circle of Fifths

The ‘Circle of Fifths’ is a clockwise arrangement of all major and minor key signa-
tures so that each adjacent tonic scale step completes the interval of a perfect fifth.

Clockwise movement from C Major/A minor increases each successive key signa-
ture by one sharp. Counterclockwise movement from C Major/A minor increases each
successive key signature by one flat.
43
44
TRIADS

11. TRIADS

11a. Triad definition

A triad consists of three pitches with alternate scale step note names.

A chord consists of three or more pitches sounding simultaneously or functioning as


if sounding simultaneously.

A triad is a chord; but a chord is not a triad unless the chord has only three notes
spelled from alternate scale steps.

11b. Triad Identification: Roman Numerals and Chord Symbols

Identify triads in two manners:

1. A Roman numeral identifies each triad by the scale step number of the root of the
triad in the immediate scale. Identify major triads with capital Roman numerals, minor
triads with small Roman numerals, diminished triads with small Roman numerals fol-
lowed by a superscript circle, o, and augmented triads with capital Roman numerals fol-
lowed by a superscript plus sign, +. Refer to the triad by the scale step name of the triad
root. A ‘i’ triad is a ‘tonic’ triad, a ‘ii’ triad is a supertonic triad, etc..

2. A chord symbol identifies each triad by the letter note name of the root of the
triad. A capital letter alone or followed by ‘Maj’ indicates a Major triad; a capital letter
followed by ‘min’, ‘m’, or ‘-’ indicates a minor triad; a capital letter followed by ‘dim’ or
a superscript circle, o, indicates a diminished triad, a capital letter followed by ‘aug’ or a
superscript plus sign, +, indicates an augmented triad.

Chord symbols provide rapid chord spelling.

Place chord symbols above the staff; Place Roman numerals below the staff.
45

11c. Triad in Root Position

A triad in root position places the triad root in the lowest sounding voice.
46
The intervals above the bass are a third and a fifth in any octave.

Place a triad in root position by arranging the triad notes in alternate note name
order.

For example,

What is the root position of triad notes D, B, and G?

The alternate note name order of D, B, G is G, B, D. Therefore the root position of


the triad is G, B, D.

11d. Triad Root, Triad Third, Triad Fifth

A triad root is the lowest alternate scale step.

F is the root of an F, A, C triad.

A triad third is the note name of the middle alternate scale step.

A is the third of an F, A, C triad.

A triad fifth is the note name of the highest alternate scale step.

C is the fifth of an F, A, C triad.

11e. Triad Inversion

Triad inversion places the triad third or fifth in the lowest sounding voice.

Triads related by inversion contain the same notes; but the triads do not contain the
same note in the lowest sounding voice.

11f. Triad in First Inversion

A first inversion triad has the triad third in the lowest sounding voice. The inter-
vals above the bass are a sixth and a third in any octave. A first inversion triad is a ‘sixth
chord’ because the lowest sounding voice completes the interval of a sixth with one of the
47
upper voices.

11g. Triad in Second Inversion

A second inversion triad has the triad fifth in the lowest sounding voice. The inter-
vals above the bass are a sixth and a fourth in any octave. A second inversion triad is a ‘64
triad because the lowest sounding voice completes intervals of a sixth and a fourth with
the upper voices.

11h. Triad in Close Position; Triad in Open Position

A triad in close position has no space for an additional triad note between any triad
notes.

An triad in open position has space for one or more additional triad notes between
any of the triad notes.

11j. Triad Qualities and their Intervals

Define triad quality by placing the triad in root position, close position.

There are four triad qualities: (1) Major, (2) Minor, (3) Diminished, and (4) Aug-
mented.

(1) MAJOR TRIAD QUALITY

A root position, close position major triad has:

(1) A major third between the root and third.


(2) A minor third between the third and fifth.
48
(3) A perfect fifth between the root and fifth.

(2) MINOR TRIAD QUALITY

A root position, close position minor triad has:

(1) A minor third between the root and third.


(2) A major third between the third and fifth.
(3) A perfect fifth between the root and fifth.

(3) DIMINISHED TRIAD QUALITY

A root position, close position diminished triad contains:

(1) A minor third between the root and third.


(2) A minor third between the third and fifth.
(3) A diminished fifth between the root and fifth.

(4) AUGMENTED TRIAD QUALITY

A root position, close position augmented triad contains:

(1) A major third between the root and third.


(2) A major third between the third and fifth.
(3) An augmented fifth between the root and fifth.

12. ROMAN NUMERAL SYMBOLS FOR TRIADS

12a. Roman Numeral Chord Functions

Roman numeral symbols appear below the staff on the beat where each chord be-
gins.

A Roman numeral symbol indicates:

(1) The scale step number of the triad root in the immediate scale.

(2) Major triad quality by a capital Roman numeral; minor triad quality by a
49
small Roman numeral; diminished triad quality by a small Roman numeral followed by
a small superscript circle ‘o’; augmented triad quality by a capital Roman numeral fol-
lowed by a superscript plus sign ‘+’.

12b. Roman Numeral Symbols for Triads Spelled from Major Scales

Triad qualities spelled from a major scale:

I (tonic triad) is a major triad.


ii (supertonic triad) is a minor triad.
iii (mediant triad) is a minor triad.
IV (sub-dominant triad) is a major triad.
V (dominant triad) is a major triad.
vi (sub-mediant triad) is a minor triad.
vii° (leading tone triad) is a diminished triad.

Memorize Triads from Roman numerals with Spell ID, Contents > Triad Func-
tions (Maj Keys). Spell in all keys.

12c. Roman Numeral Symbols for Triads Spelled from Minor Scales

Triads qualities spelled from a minor scale:

i (tonic triad) is a minor triad.


ii dim or ii° (supertonic triad) is a diminished triad.
III (mediant triad) spelled from a natural minor scale is a major triad.
III+ spelled from the harmonic or melodic minor scale is an augmented triad.
iv (sub-dominant triad) is a minor triad.
IV spelled from the melodic minor ascending scale is a major triad.
V (dominant triad) is a major triad.
v spelled from the natural minor scale is a minor triad.
VI (sub-mediant triad) is a major triad.
vi° spelled from the melodic minor ascending scale is a diminished triad.
vii° (leading-tone triad) is a diminished triad.
VII spelled from a natural minor scale is a major triad.

Note: Spell V and vii° from the harmonic minor or melodic minor ascending
scale. Spell i, ii°, III, iv, and VI from the natural minor scale. There are infrequent
50
exceptions when smooth voice-leading requires vi° or IV preceding V or vii°. v (a minor
triad on the fifth scale step and VII (a major triad on the seventh scale step of the natural
minor scale) also occur, but are less frequent.

Memorize Triads from Roman numerals with Spell ID, Contents > Triad Functions
(min Keys). Spell in all keys.

Identify triad Roman numeral functions by ear with Chord ID. Function/Chord/
Quality > Functions. Begin with the number of chords where you score 90% or better.
Advance as the program suggests.

12d. How to Spell Triads from Roman Numerals

The Roman numeral indicates the number of the scale step root of the triad in the
immediate scale and the triad quality.

A capital Roman numeral indicates a major triad.

A small Roman numeral indicates a minor triad.

‘°’ after a small Roman numeral indicates a diminished triad.

‘+’ after a capital Roman numeral indicates an augmented triad.

For example,

(1) What is the spelling of Eb Major: V?

The fifth scale step of Eb Major is Bb. The capital Roman numeral indicates a major
triad.

Therefore Eb Major: V = Bb, D, F.

(2) What is the spelling of B minor; iio?

The second scale step of B minor is C#. The superscipt ‘o’ indicates a diminished
triad.
51

Therefore B minor; iio = C#, E, G.

Memorize Triads from Roman numerals with Spell ID, Contents > Triad Functions
(parallel keys). Spell in all keys.

13. CHORD SYMBOLS FOR TRIADS

13a. How to Spell Triads from Chord Symbols

Popular music and lead sheets include chord symbols printed above the staff on the
beat where each chord begins.

A chord symbol indicates:

(1) The letter note-name of the triad root.

(2) Major triad quality by a capital letter alone or ‘Maj’; minor triad quality by
‘Min’ or ‘min’; diminished triad quality by a superscript ‘°’ or ‘dim’; augmented triad
quality with a superscript ‘+’ or ‘aug’.

(3) A chord symbol followed by a slash followed by a letter note-name indicates the
note in the lowest sounding voice. For example, Cmin/Eb indicates a C minor triad (C,
Eb, G) with Eb in the lowest sounding voice.

For example,

(1) Spell a GMaj triad?.

Begin on the G chord root and spell a major triad: G, B, D.

(2) Spell a Dmin triad?.

Begin on the D chord root and spell a minor triad: D, F, A.

(3) Spell an Edim. triad?

Begin on the E chord root and spell a diminished triad: E, G, Bb.


52
(4) Spell an Eaug triad?

Begin on the E chord root and spell an augmented triad: E, G#, B#.

Memorize Triads from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents > Chord Names:
Triads > keys to 3b or 2#.

Memorize Triads from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents > Chord Names:
Triads > keys to 3b or 4#.

Memorize Triads from chord symbols in with Spell ID, Contents > Chord Names:
Triads > keys to 6b or 6#.

Identify triad chord symbols by ear with Chord ID., Function/Chord/Quality >
Chord Symbols. Begin with the number of chords where you score 90% or better. Ad-
vance as the program suggests.

13b. How to Translate Roman Numerals to Chord Symbols

To translate a Roman numeral to a chord symbol:

(1) Indicate the note-name of the Roman Numeral scale step root as the letter note
name of the chord root.

(2) Indicate the triad quality after the letter note-name.

For example,

(1) What is the chord symbol for G Minor: V?

The fifth scale step of G minor is D. The capital Roman numeral indicates a major
chord. Therefore G minor: V = ‘DMaj’.

(2) What is the chord symbol for F minor: III?

The third scale step of F minor is Ab. The capital Roman numeral indicates a major
chord. Therefore F minor: III = ‘AbMaj’.
53

(3) What is the chord symbol for D minor: viio?

The seventh scale step of D minor is C#. The small circle indicates a diminished
triad. Therefore D minor: viio = ‘C#dim’, or‘C#o.

(4) What is the chord symbol for A Major: ii?

The second scale step of A Major is B. The small Roman numeral indicates a minor
triad. Therefore A Major: ii = ‘Bmin’.
54
SEVENTH CHORDS
14. SEVENTH CHORD BASICS

14a. Seventh Chord Definition

A seventh chord consists of four pitches with alternate scale step note names.

14b. Seventh Chord Qualities and Functions

A seventh chord consists of a major, minor, or diminished triad plus an additional


note that is a minor 7th, diminished 7th, or major 7th above the chord root.

There are 6 seventh chord types:

(1) Major/minor seventh chord, a major triad plus a minor seventh above the chord
root.

(2) Minor/minor seventh chord, a minor triad plus a minor seventh above the chord
root.

(3) Diminished/diminished seventh chord, a diminished triad plus a diminished sev-


enth above the chord root.

(4) Diminished/minor seventh chord, a diminished triad plus a minor seventh above
the chord root.

(5) Major/Major seventh chord, a major triad plus a major seventh above the chord
root.

(6) Minor/Major seventh chord, a minor triad plus a major seventh above the chord
root.

14c. Seventh Chord Names: Roman Numerals and Chord Symbols:

1. Roman numerals identify a seventh chord by the scale step number of the root of
the seventh chord in the immediate scale plus a ‘7’, ‘65’ if in first inversion, ‘43’ if in sec-
ond inversion, and ‘2’ if in third inversion,
55
2. Chord symbols identify a seventh chord by the letter note name of the chord root
followed by a:

(1) ‘7’ indicates a major triad plus a minor seventh above the chord root,

(2) ‘min7’ indicates a minor triad plus a minor seventh above the chord root,

(3) ‘o7’ indicates a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh above the chord root,

(4) ‘min7b5’ indicates a diminished triad plus a minor seventh above the chord root,

(5) ‘Maj7’ indicates a major triad plus a major seventh above the chord root,

(6) ‘minMaj7’ indicates a minor triad plus a major seventh above the chord root.

14d. How to Spell a Dominant Seventh Chord, V7

(1) DOMINANT SEVENTH: MAJOR/MINOR SEVENTH CHORD

A chord symbol capital letter followed by a ‘7’ indicates a major/minor seventh


chord.

A major/minor seventh chord is normally a V7. Each pair of parallel major and
minor scales has a unique dominant seventh chord.

Spell a major triad. Add a minor seventh above the chord root.

There are 13 V7 chords, one for each pair of parallel keys. For example, C Major
and C minor (parallel keys) have the same V7 or G, B, D, F. (There are thirteen because
F# and Gb require differently spelled V7 chords.)

For example,

(1) What are the notes in D7?

D7 indicates a D major triad, D, F#, A, plus a minor seventh above the chord root, C.

Therefore a D7 = D, F#, A, C.
56
(2) What are the notes in an E7?

E7 indicates a major triad, E, G#, B plus a minor seventh above the chord root or D.

Therefore an E7 = E. G#, B, D.

(3) What are the notes in an Eb7?

Eb7 indicates a major triad, Eb, G, Bb plus a minor seventh above the chord root or
Db.

Therefore an Eb7 = Eb. G, Bb, Db.

Memorize dominant seventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents >
7th Chord Symbols > Dominant 7ths.

Dominant Seventh Chords:


57
14e. How to Spell Minor Seventh Chords

(2) MINOR SEVENTH CHORD: MINOR/MINOR SEVENTH CHORD

A minor seventh chord is a minor/minor seventh chord, a minor triad plus an added
minor seventh above the chord root.
A chord symbol capital letter followed by ‘m7’ (or ‘min7’ or a ‘-7’) indicates a
minor/minor seventh chord.

Spell a minor triad. Add a minor seventh above the chord root.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in a Dmin7.

Dmin7 (or D-7 or Dm7) indicates a D minor triad D, F, A, plus a minor seventh
above the chord root or C.

Therefore the notes in a Dmin7 are D, F, A, C.

(2) What are the notes in a Emin7?

Emin indicates E, G, B; the ‘7’ indicates a minor seventh above the chord root or D.

Therefore the notes in an Emin7 are E, G, B, D.

(3) What are the notes in F#min7?

F#min7 = F#, A, C#, E.

There are 13 minor seventh chords.

Memorize minor seventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents > 7th
Chord Symbols > Minor 7ths.
58
Minor Seventh Chords:

14f. How to Spell Full-diminished Seventh Chords

(3) FULL DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORD: DIMINISHED/DIMIN-


ISHED SEVENTH CHORD

A full-diminished seventh chord is a diminished/diminished seventh chord, a di-


minished triad with a diminished seventh above the chord root.

A fully diminished seventh chord is always a viio7.

Therefore a viio7 chord uniquely defines the tonic scale step of the scale from which
it is spelled.

A chord symbol capital letter followed by ‘°7’ or ‘dim7’ indicates a full diminished
seventh chord. Spell a diminished triad. Add a diminished seventh above the chord root.
59

For example,

(1) What are the notes in D°7?

A diminished triad on D is D, F, Ab. The diminished seventh above D is Cb.

Therefore the notes in D°7 are D, F, Ab, Cb.

(2) What are the notes in C#°7?

A diminished triad on C# is C#, E, G. The diminished seventh above C# is Bb.

Therefore the notes in C#°7 are C#, E, G, Bb.

(3) What are the notes in B°7?

A diminished triad on B is B, D, F. The diminished seventh above B is Ab.

Therefore the notes in B°7 are B, D, F, Ab.

(3) What are the notes in A°7?

A diminished triad on A is A, C, Eb. The diminished seventh above A is Gb.

Therefore the notes in A°7 are A, C, Eb, Gb.

There are 12 full-diminished seventh chords.

Memorize full diminished seventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Con-
tents > 7th Chord Symbols > Full dim. 7ths.
60
Full Diminished Seventh Chords:

14g. How to Spell Half-diminished Seventh Chords

(4) HALF-DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORD: DIMINISHED/MINOR SEV-


ENTH CHORD

A half-diminished seventh chord is a diminished/minor seventh chord, a dimin-


ished triad with an added minor seventh above the chord root. (The symbol, Ø, indicates a
half-diminished seventh chord.)

A chord symbol capital letter followed by ‘m7’ (or ‘min7’ or ‘-7’) indicates a
minor triad plus a minor seventh added above the chord root. The ‘b5’ indicates that the
fifth above the chord root is lowered one-half step to complete a diminished fifth.

Spell a minor seventh chord, then lower the chord fifth one half-step.
61
For example,

(1) What are the notes in Emin7b5?

Emin7b5 indicates a E minor triad, E, G, B, plus a minor seventh above the chord
root or D, plus a lowered fifth, in this case a flatted B.

Therefore the notes in a Emin7b5 are E, G, Bb, D.

(2) What are the notes in a Dmin7b5?

Dmin7b5 indicates a D minor triad, D, F, A, plus a minor seventh above the chord
root or C, plus a lowered fifth, in this case a flatted A.

Therefore the notes in a Dmin7b5 are D, F, Ab, C.

(3) What are the notes in a F#min7b5?

F#min7b5 indicates a F# minor triad, F#, A, C#, plus a minor seventh above the
root or E, plus a lowered fifth, in this case a C# lowered to C natural.

Therefore the notes in a F#min7b5 are F#, A, C, E.

(3) What are the notes in an G#min7b5?

G#min7b5 indicates an G# minor triad, G#, B, D#, plus a minor seventh above the
root or F#, plus a lowered fifth, in this case a lowered D# to D natural.

Therefore the notes in a G#min7b5 are G#, B, D, F#.

Memorize half diminished seventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Con-
tents > 7th Chord Symbols > Half dim. 7ths.
62
Half Diminished Seventh Chords:

14h. How to Spell Major/Major Seventh Chords

(5) MAJOR/MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS

A major seventh chord is a major/major seventh chord, a major triad with a major
seventh above the chord root.

A chord symbol capital letter note name followed by ‘Maj7’ indicates a major/
major seventh chord. Some jazz lead sheets indicate major seventh chords (see 14h) by a
capital letter followed by a triangle.

Spell a major triad. Add a major seventh above the chord root.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in a DMaj7?


63
DMaj7 indicates a D major triad, D, F#, A, with an added major seventh above the
chord root or C#,

Therefore the notes in a DMaj7 are D, F#, A, C#.

(2) What are the notes in EMaj7?

EMaj7 indicates an E major triad, E, G#, B, with an added major seventh above the
chord root or D#,

Therefore the notes in EMaj7 are E, G#, B, D#.

There are 12 Major/Major seventh chords.

Memorize major/major seventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Con-
tents> 7th Chord Symbols > Major 7ths.

Major/Major Seventh Chords:


64

14j. How to Spell Minor/Major Seventh Chords

(6)MINOR/MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS

A chord symbol capital letter followed by ‘minMaj7’ (or ‘mMaj7’ or a dash


‘-Maj7’) indicates a minor triad with an added major seventh above the chord root.

Spell a minor triad. Add a major seventh above the chord root.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in a DminMaj7?

DminMaj7 indicates a D minor triad, D, F, A, with an added major seventh above the
chord root or C#.

Therefore the notes in a DminMaj7 are D, F, A, C#.

(2) What are the notes in Eminmaj7?

EminMaj7 indicates an E minor triad, E, G, B, with an added major seventh above


the chord root or D#,

Therefore the notes in a EminMaj7 are E, G, B, D#.

(3) What are the notes in Bbminmaj7?

BbminMaj7 indicates an Bb minor triad, Bb, Db, F, with an added major seventh
above the chord root or A,

Therefore the notes in a BbminMaj7 are Bb, Db, F, A.

Memorize minor/major seventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents
> 7th Chord Symbols > Minor/Major 7ths.
65

Minor/major Seventh Chords:

14k. How to Spell V7 Chords With Raised Fifth, V7#5

A chord symbol capital letter note name followed by ‘7#5’, ‘7Aug5’, or


‘7+5’ indicates a dominant seventh chord with the chord fifth raised one half-step.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in E7#5?

E7 indicates a major triad plus a minor seventh or E, G#, B, D. Raise the


chord fifth one half-step to B#.

Therefore the notes in E7#5 are E, G#, B#, D.

(2) What are the notes in Bb7#5?


66
Bb7 indicates a major triad plus a minor seventh or Bb, D, F, Ab. Raise the
chord fifth one half-step to F#.

Therefore the notes in Bb7#5 are Bb, D, F#, Ab.

Major and minor scales do not produce a seventh chord with a sharp fifth
above any scale step. The ‘7#5’ is a chromatic chord. (See section 20, Chromati-
cally Altered Chords.)

Memorize dominant seventh chords with sharp 5 from chord symbols with Spell ID,
Contents > 7th Chord Symbols > Dominant 7th#5.

Dominant Seventh With Raised Fifth:

14l. How to Spell Added Sixth Chords

Added sixth chords are triads plus an ‘added’ major sixth above the root.
67

A chord symbol with a capital letter note name followed by ‘6’ indicates a major
triad with an added major sixth above the chord root.

A chord symbol with a capital letter note name followed by ‘Min6’, ‘min6’, or
‘-6’ indicates a minor triad with an added major sixth above the chord root.

Spell a major or minor triad. Add a major sixth above the chord root.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in D6?

D6 indicates a major triad, D, F#, A plus an added major sixth above the root, B.

Therefore the notes in D6 are D, F#, A, B.

(2) What are the notes in Dmin6?

Dmin6 indicates a minor triad, D, F, A, plus an added major sixth above the root, B.

Therefore the notes in Dmin6 are D, F, A, B.

(3) What are the notes in Bb6?

Bb6 indicates a major triad, Bb, D, F, plus an added major sixth above the root, G.

Therefore the notes in Bb6 are Bb, D, F, G.

(4) What are the notes in Bbmin6?

Bbmin6 indicates a minor triad, Bb, Db, F, plus an added major sixth above the root,
G.

Therefore the notes in Bbmin6 are Bb, Db, F, G.

Memorize added sixth chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents > 7th
Chord Symbols > Added Sixths.
68

Added Sixth Chords

15. SEVENTH CHORD FUNCTIONS

15a. Spell Seventh Chord Functions in All Keys

Memorize seventh chords from Roman numerals in parallel keys with Spell ID,
Contents > 7th Chord Functions > CMaj/min.

Repeat to 100% accuracy in all keys.

15b. How to Identify the Tonic Scale Step Defined by a V7

A V7 uniquely identifies the tonic scale step of the scale from which the V7 is
spelled.

The V7 chord root is the fifth scale step of the scale from which the V7 is spelled.

The tonic scale step is a perfect fifth below the root of the V7.
69
HOW TO IDENTIFY THE ROOT OF A V7

Seventh chords may be inverted. The chord third, fifth, or seventh may appear in the
lowest sounding voice.

Place the chord tones in alternate letter note name order. The note names must be in
alternate note name order. C and D# are adjacent note names. C and Eb are alternate note
names. The lowest note is the chord root. The chord root is a perfect fifth above the tonic
of the scale from which it is spelled.

For example,

(1) What is the tonic scale step defined by the chord tones F, B, G, D?

Note names in alternate scale step order = G, B, D, F.

C is a perfect fifth below the root, G. Therefore the G7 defines a C tonic scale step.

(2) What is the tonic scale step defined by the chord tones D#, B, F#, A?

Note names in alternate scale step order = B. D#, F#. A.

E is a perfect fifth below the root, B. Therefore the B7 defines an E tonic scale step.

(3) What is the tonic scale step defined by the chord tones Eb, Ab, Gb, C?

Note names in alternate scale step order = Ab, C, Eb, Gb.

Db is a perfect fifth below the root, Ab. Therefore Ab7 defines a Db tonic scale step.

Define the tonic scale step from V7 chords in Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation
Scales > Tonic from V7.

There are 2 additional major/minor seventh chords: IV7 (blues sub-dominant)


spelled from a melodic minor ascending scale and VII7 spelled from a natural minor
scale. The IV7 and VII7 do not define an immediate tonic scale step without at least one
immediately adjacent chord spelled from the same scale.
70
15c. How to Identify the Tonic Scale Step Defined by a vii°7

A viio7 uniquely identifies the tonic scale step of the scale from which the viio7 is
spelled.

The vii°7 chord root is the seventh scale step of the harmonic minor scale from
which the vii°7 is spelled.

The tonic scale step defined by a vii°7 is a different letter note name one half-step
above the root of the vii°7.

HOW TO IDENTIFY THE ROOT OF A viio7

Seventh chords may be inverted. The chord third, fifth, or seventh may appear in the
lowest sounding voice.

Place the chord tones in alternate letter note name order. The note names must be in
alternate note name order. G and A# are adjacent note names. G and Bb are alternate note
names. The lowest note is the chord root.

For example,

(1) What is the tonic scale step defined by the chord notes C#, E, G, A#?

Note names in alternate scale step order = A#, C#, E, G.

B is one half-step with a different note name above the root of A#°7. Therefore A#°7
defines a B tonic scale step.

(2) What is the tonic scale step defined by the chord notes F, D, Ab, B?

Note names in alternate scale step order = B, D, F, Ab.

C is one half-step with a different note name above the root of B°7. Therefore B°7
defines a C tonic scale step.

Define the tonic scale step from viio7 chords in Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation
Scales > Tonic from viio7.
71
15d . Tonic Scale Step Defined by a V7 or vii°7 Summary

To identify the tonic scale step defined by a V7 or vii°7:

(1) Find a V7 or vii°7 chord.

(2) If the chord is V7, the tonic scale step of the immediate scale is a perfect fifth
below the chord root.

(3) If the chord is vii°7, the tonic scale step of the immediate scale is a different note
name, one half-step above the chord root.

15e. Enharmonic vii°7 Chords

An enharmonic pitch is the same pitch with a different note name. G# is an en-
harmonic Ab; Ab is an enharmonic G#.

An enharmonic chord has the same pitches but contains one or more different note
names. For example, G#, B, D, F is enharmonic with B, D, F, Ab.

There are only three enharmonic vii°7 chords; but each has four possible spell-
ings determined by the scale from which the vii°7 is spelled.

15f. Half-diminished Seventh Chords do Not Define a Tonic Scale Step

HALF-DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS, iiØ7, viØ7 AND viiØ7

A diminished/minor seventh chord, a half-diminished seventh chord, occurs above


the second scale step, iiø7, spelled from harmonic and natural minor scales, the sixth
scale step, viø7, spelled form melodic minor ascending, and the seventh scale step, viiø7,
spelled from a major scale. These chords do not have a unique scale step as a chord root.

Therefore a half-diminished seventh chord does not unambiguously define a tonic


scale step without at least one additional chord, immediately adjacent, spelled from the
same scale.

15g. Minor and Major Seventh Chords do Not Define a Tonic Scale Step
72
MINOR AND MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS

Minor/minor seventh chords, minor/major seventh chords, and major/major seventh


chords do not have a unique scale step as a chord root. Therefore, these chords alone do
not define the tonic scale step of the immediate scale.

DOMINANT NINTH, ELEVENTH, THIRTEENTH CHORDS


16. DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS WITH ADDED 9TH, 11TH, OR 13TH

16a. Dominant 9th Chords

A dominant ninth chord is a dominant seventh chord plus one alternate scale step
above the seventh. The added tone is a ninth above the chord root.

DOMINANT NINTH CHORD SYMBOL

A chord symbol with a capital letter note name followed by ‘9’ indicates a dominant
ninth chord.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in a G9 chord?

Spell a G7, add a major ninth above the root. Therefore the notes in G9 are G, B, D,
F, A.

(2) What are the notes in a Eb9 chord?

Spell a Eb7, add a major ninth above the root. Therefore the notes in Eb9 are Eb, G,
Bb, Db, F.

(3) What are the notes in a B9 chord?

Spell a B7, add a major ninth above the root. Therefore the notes in B9 are B, D#,
F#, A, C#.

Memorize dominant 9th chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents >
Dominant 9th Chords > Dominant 9ths.
73
Dominant Ninth Chords:

A chord symbol with a capital letter note name followed by‘7b9’ indicates a domi-
nant ninth chord with flatted ninth.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in a D7b9 chord?

Spell a D7, add a minor ninth above the root. Therefore the notes in D7b9 are D, F#,
A, C, Eb.

(2) What are the notes in a A7b9 chord?

Spell a A7, add a minor ninth above the root. Therefore the notes in A7b9 are A, C#,
E, G, Bb.

Memorize dominant 9th chords with flat 9 from chord symbols with Spell ID, Con-
tents > Dominant 9th Chords > Dominant Ninths (b9).

DOMINANT 9TH VOICING

Place the V9 and V7b9 in root position or first inversion. In most instances, place the
ninth in the highest voice.
74
The root, third, seventh, and ninth must be present in a ninth chord. The chord fifth
may be omitted.

Dominant Ninth Chords With Flat Ninth:

16b. Dominant 11th Chords

A dominant 11th chord is a dominant seventh without the chord third plus two
added alternate scale steps above the chord seventh. The added tones are a ninth and an
eleventh above the chord root.

DOMINANT ELEVENTH CHORD SYMBOL

A chord symbol with a capital letter followed by ‘min7’ followed by a slash and a
capital letter note name indicates a dominant eleventh chord.

The note name after the slash indicates the root of the chord.

Omit the chord third because the third completes a dissonant minor ninth interval
with the chord eleventh.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in Amin7/D?


75
Spell an Amin7 and add D in the lowest voice.

Therefore the notes in Amin7/D are D, A, C, E, G.

(2) What are the notes in Ebmin7/Ab?

Spell an Ebmin7 and add Ab in the lowest voice.

Therefore the notes in Ebmin7/Ab are Ab, Eb, Gb, Bb, Db.

Memorize dominant 11th chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents >
Dominant 11th Chords > Dominant 11ths.

Dominant Eleventh Chords:

A chord symbol with a capital letter followed by ‘min7b5’ followed by a slash and a
capital letter note name indicates a dominant eleventh chord with flatted ninth,

The note name after the slash indicates the root of the chord.

Omit the chord third because the third completes a dissonant minor ninth interval
with the chord eleventh.

For example,
76
(1) What are the notes in Gmin7b5/C?

Spell an Gmin7b5 and add a C in the lowest voice.

Therefore the notes in Gmin7b5/C are C, G, Bb, Db, F.

(2) What are the notes in Fmin7b5/Bb?

Spell an Fmin7b5 and add a Bb in the lowest voice.

Therefore the notes in Fmin7b5/Bb are Bb, F, Ab, Cb, Eb.

Memorize dominant 11th chords with flat 9 from chord symbols with Spell ID, Con-
tents > Dominant 11th Chords > Dominant 11(b9).

Dominant Eleventh Chords with Flat Ninth:

The chord third may be included if the chord eleventh is raised one half-step. The
raised (sharped) eleventh avoids the dissonant minor ninth between the chord third and
unaltered eleventh.

C7#4 indicates an augmented eleventh chord.

Memorize augmented eleventh chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents
> V7 #4 #5 > Dominant 7th sharp 4.
77

DOMINANT 11TH VOICING

The V11 is normally in root position with the 11th is in the highest voice.

The eleventh chord consists of six possible tones. The root, seventh and eleventh
must be present. Omit the third unless in an augmented eleventh chord. The fifth and
ninth are optional.

16c. Dominant 13th Chords

A dominant 13th chord is a dominant seventh plus three alternate scale steps above
the chord seventh. The added tones are a ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth above the chord
root.

DOMINANT THIRTEENTH CHORD SYMBOL

A chord symbol with a capital letter followed by ‘13’ indicates a dominant 13th
chord.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in D13?

Spell a dominant seventh chord on D. Add a 9th, 11th, and 13th above the chord
root.

Therefore the possible notes in a D13 are D, F#, A, C, E, G, B.

(2) What are the notes in C13?

Spell a dominant seventh chord on C. Add a 9th, 11th, and 13th above the chord
root.

Therefore the possible notes in a C13 are C, E, G, Bb, D, F, A.

Memorize dominant 13th chords from chord symbols with Spell ID, Contents >
Dominant 13th Chords > Dominant 13ths.
78
Dominant Thirteenth Chords:

A chord symbol with a capital letter followed by ‘7b13’ indicates a dominant sev-
enth with an added ninth, eleventh, and minor 13th above the chord root.

For example,

(1) What are the notes in G7b13?

Spell a dominant seventh chord on G. Add a 9th, 11th, and lowered (flatted) 13th
above the chord root.

Therefore the possible notes in a G7b13 are G, B, D, F, A, C, Eb

(2) What are the notes in D7b13?

Spell a dominant seventh chord on D Add a 9th, 11th, and lowered (flatted) 13th
above the chord root.

Therefore the possible notes in a D7b13 are D, F#, A, C, E, G, Bb.

(3) What are the notes in Bb7b13?

Spell a dominant seventh chord on Bb Add a 9th, 11th, and lowered (flatted) 13th
79

above the chord root.

Therefore the possible notes in a Bb7b13 are Bb, D, F, Ab, C, Eb, Gb.

Memorize dominant 13th chords with flat 13 from chord symbols with Spell ID,
Contents > Dominant 13th Chords > Dominant Thirteenths (b13).

Dominant Thirteenth Chords With Flat 13th:

DOMINANT 13TH VOICING

Place the V13 or V7b13 in root position or first inversion. The thirteenth is normally
in the highest voice.

A thirteenth chord consists of 7 possible tones - the complete scale from which it
is spelled. The root, third, seventh, and thirteenth must be present. The 11th is normally
omitted. The 5th and 9th are optional.
80
CADENCES

17. CADENCES

17a. Cadence Definition

An authentic cadence is a V or viio chord immediately followed by a I or i chord


spelled from the same scale.

A deceptive cadence is a V or viio chord immediately followed by a vi or VI chord


spelled from the same scale.

A V or vii° followed by a I, i, vi, or VI defines the tonic scale step and the major or
minor immediate scale.

A V or vii° chord is the first chord in every cadence.

A V or vii° chord occurs once in every 2 to 8 successive chords in tonal music.

17b. The Three Cadence Patterns

There are three cadence patterns.

1. An authentic cadence is a V or vii° followed immediately by a I or i chord


spelled from the same scale.

2. A deceptive cadence is a V or vii° followed immediately by a vi or VI chord


spelled from the same scale. (vi° spelled from melodic minor ascending scale is rare, but
does occur.)

3. A retrogression and cadence is a V or vii° followed immediately by a IV, iv,


ii, or ii° (the retrogression) followed immediately by an authentic or deceptive cadence
spelled from the same scale. There may be more than one retrogression before the con-
cluding cadence.

17c. Authentic and Deceptive Cadence Resolution

The authentic cadence resolution is the I or i chord following the V or vii°.


81
The deceptive cadence resolution is a vi or VI (or vi°) chord following the V or vii°.

17d. Half Cadence

A half cadence pauses on the V or vii° chord before resolution.

17e. Plagal Cadence

A ‘plagal cadence’ is a IV, a major sub-dominant triad, followed immediately by I, a


major tonic triad.

A ‘plagal cadence’ accompanies the ‘a-men’ after the authentic cadence at the end of
a hymn or similar composition.

A IV to I chord succession elsewhere in a composition is not a ‘plagal cadence’.

A ‘plagal cadence’ does not unambiguously define the scale from which it is spelled.

17f. Roman Numerals for Authentic Cadences

An authentic cadence is a V or vii° chord immediately followed by a I or i spelled


from the same scale.

For example:

(1) Spell C Major: V7, I.

C Major: V7 = G, B, D, F. C Major: I = C, E, G.

Therefore, C Major: V7 = G, B, D, F; C Major: I = C, E, G.

(2) Spell Eb minor: V7, i.

Eb minor V7 = Bb, D, F, Ab. Eb minor: i = Eb, Gb, Bb.

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tic Cadences > V7 Functions.
82
Memorize Roman numeral viio7 authentic cadences with Spell ID, Contents > Au-
thentic Cadences > viio7 Functions.

17g. Chord Symbols for Authentic Cadences

Chord symbols for authentic cadences in each scale/key are:

C Major: G Maj or B dim precedes C Maj.


C Minor: G Maj or B dim precedes C Min.
F Major: C Maj or E dim precedes F Maj.
F Minor: C Maj or E dim precedes F Min.
Bb Major: F Maj or A dim precedes Bb Maj.
Bb Minor: F Maj or A dim precedes Bb Min.
Eb Major: Bb Maj or D dim precedes Eb Maj.
Eb Minor: Bb Maj or D dim precedes Eb Min.
Ab Major: Eb Maj or G dim precedes Ab Maj.
Ab Minor: Eb Maj or G dim precedes Ab Min.
Db Major: Ab Maj or C dim precedes Db Major
C# Minor: G# Maj or B# dim precedes C# Min.
Gb Major: Db Maj or F dim precedes Gb Maj.
F# Major: C# Maj or E# dim precedes F# Maj.
F# Minor: C# Maj or E# dim precedes F# Min.
G Major: D Maj or F# dim precedes G Maj.
G Minor: D Maj or F# dim precedes G Min.
D Major: A Maj or C# dim precedes D Maj.
D Minor: A Maj or C# dim precedes D Min.
A Maj.: E Maj or G# dim precedes A Maj.
A Min.: E Maj or G# dim precedes A Min.
E Major: B Maj or D# dim precedes E Maj.
E Minor: B Maj or D# dim precedes E Min.
B Major: F# Maj or A# dim precedes B Maj.
B Minor: F# Maj or A# dim precedes B Min.

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Cadences > V7 Chord Symbols.

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>viio7 Chord Symbols.
83
17h. How To Identify the Immediate Scale From Authentic Cadence Chord
Symbols

If the first chord in an authentic cadence is major, it is V. The tonic scale step is a
perfect fifth below the root of the V.

If the first chord in an authentic cadence is diminished, it is vii°. The tonic scale step
is a different letter note-name, one half-step above the root of the vii°.

The second chord in an authentic cadence is the tonic triad. If the quality of the tonic
triad is major, the immediate scale is major. If the quality of the tonic triad is minor, the
immediate scale is minor.

For example:

(1) What is the immediate scale of Ab7 followed by Dbmaj?

Ab7, a major triad with added minor seventh = V7. Therefore the tonic scale step is
a perfect fifth below or Db. Dbmaj is a major triad. Therefore the immediate scale is Db
major.

(2) What is the immediate scale of D°7 followed by Ebmin?

D°7, a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh = vii°7. Therefore the tonic scale
step is a different letter note name, one half-step above the root of the vii° or Eb. Ebmin
is a minor triad. Therefore the immediate scale is Eb natural minor.

Memorize the immediate scale defined by chord symbols for authentic cadences
with Spell ID, Contents > Authentic Cadences > Immediate Scale.

17j. Roman Numerals for Deceptive Cadences

A deceptive cadence is a V or vii° immediately followed by a vi or VI spelled from


the same scale.

For example:

(1) Spell F Major: V7, vi. (Deceptive cadence in F Major.)


84
F Major: V7 = C, E, G, Bb. F Major: vi = D, F, A.

(2) Spell E minor: V7, VI.

E minor: V7 = B, D#, F#, A. E minor: VI = C, E, G.

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Cadences >V7 Functions.

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Cadences > viio7 Functions.

17k. Chord Symbols for Deceptive Cadences

Chord symbols for deceptive cadences in each scale are:

C Major: G Maj or B dim before A Min.


C Minor: G Maj or B dim before Ab Maj.
F Major: C Maj or E dim before D Min.
F Minor: C Maj or E dim before Db Maj.
Bb Major: F Maj or A dim before G Min.
Bb Minor: F Maj or A dim before Gb Maj.
Eb Major: Bb Maj or D dim before C Min.
Eb Minor: Bb Maj or D dim before Cb Maj.
Ab Major: Eb Maj or G dim before F Min.
Ab Minor: Eb Maj or G dim before Fb Maj.
Db Major: Ab Maj or C dim before Bb Min.
C# Minor: G# Maj or B# dim before A Maj.
Gb Major: Db Maj or F dim before Eb Min
F# Major: C# Maj or E# dim before D# Min.
F# Minor: C# Maj or E# dim before D Maj.
G Major: D Maj or F# dim before E Min.
G Minor: D Maj or F# dim before Eb Maj.
D Major: A Maj or C# dim before B Min.
D Minor: A Maj or C# dim before Bb Maj.
A Major: E Maj or G# dim before F# Min.
A Minor: E Maj or G# dim before F Maj.
E Major: B Maj or D# dim before C# Min.
85
E Minor: B Maj or D# dim before C Maj.
B Major: F# Maj or A# dim before G# Min.
B Minor: F# Maj or A# dim before G Maj.

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Cadences > V7 Chord Symbols.

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Cadences > viio7 Chord Symbols.

17l. How To Identify the Immediate Scale From Deceptive Cadence Chord
Symbols

If the first chord in a deceptive cadence is major, it is V. The tonic scale step is a
perfect fifth below the root of the V.

If the first chord in a deceptive cadence is diminished, it is vii°. The tonic scale step
is a different letter note-name, one half-step above the root of the vii°.

The second chord in a deceptive cadence is a vi or VI submediant triad.

If the second chord is minor, it is vi and the immediate scale is a major scale with
the tonic defined as above.

If the second chord is major, it is VI and the immediate scale is a minor scale with
the tonic defined as above.

For example:

(1) What is the immediate scale of Eb7 followed by Fm?

Eb7, a major triad with added minor seventh = V7. Therefore the tonic scale step is
a perfect fifth below the root of the V7 or Ab.

Fm is a minor triad spelled on the sixth scale step of Ab Major. Therefore it is a


deceptive cadence and the immediate scale is Ab major.

(2) What is the immediate scale of B°7 followed by Ab?


86

B°7, a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh = vii°7. Therefore the tonic scale
step is a different letter note-name, one half-step above the root of the vii°7 or C.

Ab is a major triad spelled on the sixth scale step of C natural minor. Therefore it is
a deceptive cadence and the immediate scale is C natural minor.

(3) What is the immediate scale of C#o7 followed by BbMaj?

C#o7, a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh = vii°7. Therefore the tonic scale
step is a different letter note-name, one half-step above the root of the vii°7 or D.

Bb is a major triad spelled on the sixth scale step D natural minor. Therefore it is a
deceptive cadence and the immediate scale is D natural minor.

Memorize the immediate scale defined by chord symbols for deceptive cadences
with Spell ID, Contents > Deceptive Cadences > Immediate Scale.
87
CHROMATIC HARMONY
18. CHROMATIC CHORDS

18a. Chromatic Chord Definition

A ‘chromatic’ chord has tones that are NOT in the scale of the key of the
composition, the scale indicated by the key signature and beginning and ending chords
and melodies.

Most compositions contain chords spelled from scales other than the scale of the
key of the composition,. These ‘chromatic’ chords contain accidentals - sharps, flats, or
naturals that are (1) required by scale steps in the new immediate scale OR (2) tones
from the chromatic scale.

When the immediate scale changes within a composition, accidentals indicate the
new scale steps. The key signature does not change for brief changes of scale.

18b. Two Types of Chromatic Chords

There are two types of chromatic chords:

(1) Chords spelled from a new immediate scale. These are diatonic chords that
contain accidentals required by the new immediate scale. Chords spelled from a new im-
mediate scale are modulations (see 19b), secondary dominants (see19d), secondary viios,
secondary dominant chains (19e), and borrowed chords (see 19g).

(2) Chords in which one or more chromatic tones substitute for a chord tone. This
occurs in two manners:

(2a) A chromatic tone replaces a chord tone. These chromatic chords include Aug-
mented Sixth chords (see 21a), Neapolitan Sixth chords (see 21b), and V7 (V9, V11,
V13) chords with raised (sharped) fifth or lowered fifth indicated as a raised (sharped)
fourth (see 21c).

(2b.) The chromatic tone resolves to a chord tone, completing the chord before the
next chord arrives (see 22a). These include the famous ‘Tristan Chord’ (see example
below).
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19. CHROMATIC CHORDS SPELLED FROM A NEW IMMEDIATE SCALE

Most ‘chromatic’ chords are diatonic chords spelled from a new immediate scale.

When the scale changes, spell all chords and non-chord tones from the new
immediate scale, adding accidentals as required.

19a. How V7 (or V9, V11, V13) and viio7 determine the immediate tonic scale
step

Memorize the spelling of all dominant seventh chords with Spell ID, Contents >
Seventh Chord Symbols > Dominant Sevenths.

A V7 chord (or V9, V11, V13) is spelled from one and only one scale. That scale
has a tonic scale step a perfect fifth below the root of the V7.

Therefore a V7 chord (or V9, V11, V13) defines the tonic step of the scale from
which it is spelled.

Chord(s) preceding and/or following the V7 define the major or minor scale
quality.

A viio7 chord is spelled from one and only one scale. That scale has a tonic scale
step with a different note name one half-step above the root of the viio7.

Therefore a viio7 chord defines the tonic step of the scale from which it is
spelled.

Chord(s) preceding and/or following the viio7 define the major or minor scale
quality.

NOTE: Lead sheet chord symbols often label viio7 chords incorrectly leading to
incorrect identification of the tonic scale step. Examine the immediately preceding and
following chords to identify the correct viio7 chord symbol.

19b. Modulation

Modulation consists of two or more immediately adjacent chords spelled from a new
89
immediate scale, one of which must be a V, V7, V9, V11, V13, vii°, or vii°7.

Spell a modulating V or viio from a new immediate scale and immediately precede
and/or follow the V or viio with chords and non-chord tones that are scale steps in the
new immediate scale.

A new I or i chord preceding or following the V or viio may occur but is not re-
quired. For example, ii followed by V7, both spelled from the same new immediate scale,
is a modulation.

Direct modulation, an abrupt change of scale without a V or viio, also occurs.

NOTE: A modulation does NOT require a pivot chord, a chord spelled from the
previous scale whose chord tones also occur in the new scale.

NOTE: A modulation does NOT require a new tonic chord.

There are numerous modulations in the literature that do NOT contain a pivot chord
or a tonic chord.

For example:

(1) What is the immediate scale defined by D7 preceded by Amin?

The D7 is a dominant seventh chord constructed ONLY on the fifth scale step of a G
scale. Amin is a ii triad in the scale of G Major.

Therefore, the immediate scale is G Major.

(2) What is the immediate scale defined by B7 followed by Emin?

The B7 is a dominant seventh chord constructed ONLY on the fifth scale step of an
E scale. Emin is a i triad in the scale of E minor.

Therefore, the immediate scale is E minor.

(3) What is the immediate scale defined by A9 preceded by Bmin?


90

The A9 is a dominant ninth chord constructed ONLY on the fifth scale step of a D
scale. Bmin is a vi triad in the scale of D Major.

Therefore the immediate scale is D Major.

19c. Difference between a Modulation and a Secondary Dominant

Modulations and secondary dominants each require a V (or V7, V9, V11, V13) or
viio (or viio7) chord. The difference between a secondary dominant and a modulation is:

(1) TWO or more adjacent chords including the required V or viio and accompany-
ing non-chord tones (if any) spelled from a NEW immediate scale indicate a modulation.

(2) ONE V or viio chord and accompanying non-chord tones (if any), spelled from
a new immediate scale and preceded and/or followed by chords spelled from a DIFFER-
ENT scale or scales indicates a secondary dominant or secondary viio.

19d. Secondary Dominants

A secondary dominant satisfies two conditions:

1. Only chord and non-chord tones spelled from a different scale or its’ parallel scale
precede and follow the secondary V or viio chords.

2. The secondary V or viio resolves in a cadence pattern to a chord whose chord


tones and accompanying non-chord tones (if any) are spelled from the scale immediately
preceding the secondary dominant.

Only a V or vii° (or a V7, V9, V11, V13 or vii°7) may be a secondary dominant.

Spell a secondary dominant V or vii° (or V7, V9, V11, V13 or vii°7) from a new
immediate scale and resolve (follow) the secondary dominant in an authentic or deceptive
cadence pattern to a chord spelled from the previous scale.

Spell all tones in (and any non-chord tones simultaneous with) the resolution chord
from the immediately preceding scale or its’ parallel scale. Otherwise, a modulation or a
secondary dominant chain (see 19e) occurs.
91

In most instances, a secondary V7 or vii°7 resolves in an authentic cadence pattern.


Infrequently, a secondary V7 or vii°7 resolves in a deceptive cadence pattern.

SECONDARY V7’s IN AUTHENTIC CADENCES

Spell a secondary dominant, a V (or V7, V9, V11, V13) chord, from a new scale
with a tonic scale step that is the root of a chord on the second, third, fourth, fifth, or sixth
scale step in the immediately preceding scale or its’ parallel scale.

Examine the triad indicates after (or below) the line in the symbol for the V7 sec-
ondary dominant. If the triad is major, the immediate scale for the spelling of the V7
secondary dominant is a major scale with the root of that triad as the tonic. If the triad is
minor or diminished, the immediate scale for the spelling of the V7 secondary dominant
is a harmonic or melodic minor scale with the root of that triad as the tonic.

HOW TO SPELL SECONDARY V7’s IN AUTHENTIC CADENCES

For example,

(1) Spell F Major: V7/V, followed by V7.

The triad on the fifth scale step of the F Major scale is a C major triad. Therefore the
immediate scale for the spelling of the secondary V7 is C Major.

C Major: V7 = G, B, D, F; therefore F Major: V7/V = G, B, D, F.

The resolution chord is F Major: V7 = C, E, G, Bb.

(2) Spell D minor: V7/ii, iiØ7.

The chord on the second scale step of the D minor scale is an E diminished triad.
Therefore the immediate scale for the spelling of the secondary V7 is E minor.

E minor: V7 = B, D#, F#, A; therefore D minor V7/ii = B, D#, F#, A.

The resolution chord is D minor: iiØ7. (‘Ø’) indicates a half-diminished seventh


chord.)
92

D minor: iiØ7 = E, G, Bb, D.

Memorize secondary V7’s in authentic cadences with Spell ID, Contents > Second-
ary V7’s > Keys to 1b or 1#

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ary V7’s > Keys to 3b or 2#

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ary V7’s > Keys to 4b or 4#

SECONDARY V7’s IN DECEPTIVE CADENCES

Spell the secondary V7 as above.

Determine the immediate scale for spelling the deceptive resolution from the name
of the triad after (or below) the line in the symbol for the deceptive resolution. If the triad
is major, the immediate scale for the spelling of the deceptive resolution chord is a
major scale with the root of that triad as the tonic. If the triad is minor or diminished, the
immediate scale for spelling the deceptive resolution is a minor scale with the root of that
triad as the tonic.

HOW TO SPELL SECONDARY V7’s IN DECEPTIVE CADENCES

For example,

(1) Spell F Major: V7/V, vi7/V.

The triad on the fifth scale step of the F Major scale is a C Major triad. Therefore the
immediate scale is C major.

C Major: V7 = G, B, D, F; therefore in F Major: V7/V = G, B, D, F.

The deceptive resolution is vi7/V. This indicates a vi7 chord in the new immediate
scale of C Major,

C Major vi7 = A, C, E, G; therefore in F Major: vi7/V = A, C, E, G.


93

NOTE: A, C, E, G is iii7 in F Major. Therefore no modulation occurs unless the


deceptive resolution chord is accompanied by non-chord tones or following chords only
in the new immediate scale of C Major.

(2) Spell D minor: V7/VI, vi7/VI.

The triad on the sixth scale step of the D minor scale is a Bb Major triad. Therefore
the new immediate scale is Bb major.

Bb Major: V7 = F, A, C, Eb; therefore in D minor: V7/VI = F, A, C, Eb.

The deceptive resolution chord is vi7/VI. This indicates a vi7 chord in the new im-
mediate scale of Bb Major.

Bb Major: vi7 = G, Bb, D, F; therefore D minor: vi7/VI = G, Bb, D, F.

NOTE: G, Bb, D, F is iv7 in D minor. Therefore no modulation occurs unless the


deceptive resolution chord is accompanied by non-chord tones or following chords only
in the new immediate scale of Bb Major.

In the Beethoven example below, the second bar contains a deceptive resolution of a
secondary dominant. The chord of resolution is IV in the immediate scale preceding the
secondary dominant (E Major); therefore no modulation occurs. The scale changes only
for the spelling of secondary dominant, a dominant seventh spelled from the scale of C#
minor.
94

SECONDARY vii°7’s IN AUTHENTIC CADENCES

Spell a secondary viio or viio7 chord from a new scale with a tonic scale step that is
the root of a chord on the second, third, fourth, fifth, or sixth scale step in the immediately
preceding scale or its’ parallel scale.

Identify the note name of the triad after (or below) the line in the symbol for the
vii°7 secondary dominant. A vii°7 chord occurs only on the seventh scale step of the
harmonic minor scale. Therefore, spell the vii°7 chord from a harmonic minor scale with
the root of the indicated resolution triad as the tonic.

HOW TO SPELL SECONDARY vii°7’s IN AUTHENTIC CADENCES

For example:

(1) Spell D Major: vii°7/V, V7.

The fifth scale step of the D Major scale is A. Therefore the immediate scale is an A
harmonic minor scale.

A harmonic minor: vii°7 = G#, B, D, F; therefore D Major: vii°7/V = G#, B, D, F.


95
The authentic resolution chord is V7.

D Major: V7 = A, C#, E, G.

(2) Sell C minor: vii°7/iv, iv7.

The fourth scale step of the C minor scale is F. Therefore the immediate scale is an F
harmonic minor scale.

F minor: vii°7 = E, G, Bb, Db; therefore C minor: vii°7/iv = E, G, Bb, Db.

The authentic resolution chord is iv7.

C minor: iv7 = F, Ab, C, Eb.

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ondary viio7’s’s> Keys to 1b or 1#

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ary viio7’s’s> Keys to 3b or 2#

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ondary viio7’s > Keys to 4b or 4#

SECONDARY vii°7s IN DECEPTIVE CADENCES (RARE)

Spell the secondary viio7 as above.

Determine the immediate scale for spelling the deceptive resolution from the name
of the triad after (or below) the line in the symbol for the deceptive resolution. If the triad
is major, the immediate scale for the spelling of the deceptive resolution chord is a
major scale with the root of that triad as the tonic. If the triad is minor or diminished, the
immediate scale for spelling the deceptive resolution is a minor scale with the root of that
triad as the tonic.

HOW TO SPELL SECONDARY vii°7’s IN DECEPTIVE CADENCES


96
For example:

(1) Spell D Major: vii°7/V, vi7/V.

The fifth scale step of the D Major scale is A. Therefore spell the vii°7 from the im-
mediate scale of A harmonic minor.

A harmonic minor: vii°7 = G#, B, D, F; therefore D Major: vii°7/V = G#, B, D, F.

The deceptive resolution is D Major: vi7/V. The triad on the fifth scale step of the D
Major scale is A Major. This indicates a vi7 chord spelled from the new immediate scale
of A Major.

A Major: vi7 = F#, A, C#, E; therefore D Major vi7/V = F#, A, C#, E.

NOTE: F#, A, C#, E is iii7 in D Major, the previous scale. Therefore no modulation
occurs unless the deceptive resolution chord is accompanied by non-chord tones or fol-
lowing chords only in the new immediate scale of A Major.

(2) Spell C minor: vii°7/VI, vi7/VI.

The normal sixth scale step of the C minor scale is an Ab. Therefore spell the vii°7
from the immediate scale of Ab harmonic minor.

Ab harmonic minor: vii°7 = G, Bb, Db, Fb; therefore C minor: vii°7/VI = G, Bb,
Db, Fb.

The deceptive resolution chord is C Minor: vi7/ VI. The triad on the sixth scale step
of C minor is Ab Major. This indicates a vi7 chord in the immediate scale of Ab Major.

Ab Major: vi7 = F, Ab, C, Eb; therefore C minor: vi7/VI = F, Ab, C, Eb.

NOTE: F, Ab, C, Eb is vi7 in Ab Major, the previous scale. Therefore no modula-


tion occurs unless the deceptive resolution chord is accompanied by non-chord tones or
following chords only in the new immediate scale of C minor.

(3) Spell E minor: vii°7/VI, vi7/VI.


97

The normal sixth scale step of the E minor scale is a C. Therefore spell the vii°7
from the immediate scale of C harmonic minor.

C harmonic minor: vii°7 = B, D, F, Ab; therefore E minor: vii°7/VI = B, D, F, Ab.

The deceptive resolution is E Minor: vi7/ VI. The triad on the sixth scale step of the
E minor scale is C Major. This indicates a vi7 chord in the immediate scale of C Major.

C Major: vi7 = A, C, E, G. Therefore, E minor: vi7/VI = A, C, E, G.

NOTE: A, C, E, G is iv7 in E minor; the previous scale. Therefore no modulation


occurs unless the deceptive resolution chord is accompanied by non-chord tones or fol-
lowing chords only in the new immediate scale of C Major.

(4) Spell G Major: vii°7/V, vi7/V.

The fifth scale step of the G Major scale is D. Therefore spell the vii°7 from the im-
mediate scale of D harmonic minor.

D harmonic minor: vii°7 = C#, E, G, Bb; therefore G Major vii°7/V = C#, E, G, Bb.

The deceptive resolution is G Major: vi7/ V. The triad on the fifth scale step of the
G Major scale is D Major. This indicates a vi7 chord in the immediate scale of D Major.

D Major: vi7 = B, D, F#, A. Therefore, G Major: vi7/V = B, D, F#, A.

NOTE: B, D, F#, A is iii7 in G Major, the previous scale. Therefore no modulation


occurs unless the deceptive resolution chord is accompanied by non-chord tones or fol-
lowing chords only in the new immediate scale of D Major.

19e. Secondary Dominant Chain

A secondary dominant chain consists of immediately successive V triads (or V7, V9,
V11, V13 chords), each spelled from a scale whose tonic is a perfect fifth above the next
V. The concluding V resolves in an authentic or deceptive cadence.

A secondary dominant chain satisfies two conditions:


98

1. Only chord and non-chord tones in the previous scale or its’ parallel scale precede
and follow the succession of secondary V chords.

2. The concluding secondary V resolves in a cadence pattern to a chord whose chord


tones and accompanying non-chord tones (if any) are spelled from the scale immediately
previous to the secondary dominant chain.

HOW TO SPELL A SECONDARY DOMINANT CHAIN

Determine the immediate scale from which to spell each of the secondary domi-
nants. As above, identify the note name and quality of the triad immediately after (or
below) the line in the symbol for the V7 secondary dominant. Then spell each secondary
dominant in succession and the concluding resolution.

For example:

(1) Spell C Major: V7/V/V followed by V7/V followed by V7.

Determine the chord of resolution for the first V7 in the secondary dominant chain.
C Major: V7/ V/V = V7 of D Major of G Major. V7 of D Major = A7 or A, C#, E, G.

Therefore C Major: V7/V/V = A, C#, E, G.

Determine the chord of resolution for the second V7 in the secondary dominant
chain. C Major: V7/V = V7 of G Major = D7 or D, F#, A, C.

Therefore C Major: V7/V = D, F#, A, C.

Determine the concluding chord in the secondary dominant chain.

Therefore C Major: V7 = G7 or G, B, D, F.

(2) Spell D minor: V7/V/VI followed by V7/VI followed by VI.

Determine the chord of resolution for the first V7 in the secondary dominant chain.
D minor V7/V/VI = V7 of F Major of Bb Major. V7 of F Major = C7 or C, E, G. Bb.
99

Therefore D minor: V7/V/VI = C, E, G, Bb.

Determine the chord of resolution for the second V7 in the secondary dominant
chain. D minor: V7/VI = V7 of Bb Major. = F7 or F, A, C, Eb.

Therefore D minor: V7/VI = F, A, C, Eb,

Determine the chord of resolution in the secondary dominant chain.

Therefore D minor: VI = Bb, D, F.

19f. Secondary Dominant Chain in Lead Sheet

In ‘Five Foot Two’ below, the key of the composition is C Major. The second chord
is an E7 that resolves to an A7, a successive V7 chord with root a perfect fifth lower
than the E7. The A7 resolves to a D7 with root a perfect fifth lower than the A7. The D7
resolves to a G7 which resolves to C Major: I.

The chord succession is therefore a secondary dominant chain resolving to a tonic


triad.

Secondary Dominant Chain:


100
19g. ‘Borrowed’ Chords.

A ‘borrowed’ chord is a chord spelled from the immediate parallel scale.

The parallel minor scale is the minor scale with the same tonic scale step as the im-
mediate major scale. The parallel major scale is the major scale with the same tonic scale
step as the immediate minor scale.

Spell a borrowed chord from the minor scale with the same tonic scale step as the
immediate major scale (frequent); OR, spell a borrowed chord from the major scale with
the same tonic scale step as the immediate minor scale (infrequent).

‘Alterations’ of dominant chords such as V9b, V11b9, or V13b are also chords ‘bor-
rowed’ from the parallel minor scale if the immediate scale is major.

For example:

(1) Spell the borrowed sub-dominant, C Major: iv.

The parallel minor of C major is C minor.

Therefore the borrowed sub-dominant of C Major is C minor: iv or F, Ab, C.

(2) Spell the borrowed sub-mediant, G Major : VI.

The parallel minor of G major is G minor.

Therefore the borrowed sub-mediant of G Major is G minor: VI or Eb, G, Bb.

(3) Spell the borrowed tonic, Bb Major : i.

The parallel minor of Bb major is Bb minor.

Therefore the borrowed tonic of Bb Major is Bb minor: i or Bb, Db, F.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords by ear with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed iv.
101
Identify ‘borrowed’ chords by ear with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed i.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords by ear with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed iio.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed VI.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed i, iv.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed i, VI.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed iv, iio.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed iio, VI.

Identify ‘borrowed’ chords with Chord ID > Levels > Major + Borrowed i, iio, iv, VI.

19h. Harmonic Analysis of a Bach Chorale

The following analysis of J. S. Bach’s ‘Ach wie Nichtig, ach wie Flütig’ includes
new immediate scales, a secondary dominant, and borrowed chords.

Bar 1, beats 2 and 3, the key signature and the V-i in A minor establishes A minor as
the key of the composition.

Bar 2, beats 2 and 3, the V-I in C Major indicates a new immediate scale of C Major.

Bar 3, beat 3, is a IV7 spelled from the A melodic minor ascending scale.

Bar 3, beats 3.5 and 4, the V7 followed by i in A minor indicates a new immediate
scale of A minor.

Bar 4, beat 3, the A major triad is a chord borrowed from A major.

Bar 5, beats 1-3, the V-1 in D minor indicates a new immediate scale of D minor.

Bar 6, beat 4, the D major triad is a chord borrowed from D Major.


102
Bar 7, beats 1-3, the V-I in C Major indicates a new immediate scale of C Major.

Bar 9, beats 3 and 4, the V-i in A minor indicates a new immediate scale of A mi-
nor.

Bar 10, beat 1, the B7 chord is a secondary dominant of V, or E major. The immedi-
ate scale from which this secondary dominant chord is spelled is E Major.

Bar 10, beat 4, the A major triad is a tonic chord borrowed from A major.

19j. Secondary viio7 and Borrowed Chord in a Jazz Standard


103

In George Gershwin’s ‘Embraceable You’, the chord in bar 2 is a viio7, C#, E, G, Bb,
which defines D as the tonic scale step. The next chord is a ii7 in G Major followed by a
V7 in G Major. Therefore the viio7 chord in bar 2 is a secondary dominant and not a mod-
ulation. The immediate scale for bar 2 is a D Major scale, the key of the dominant, with a
flatted sixth scale step (Bb) because the viio7 is ‘borrowed’ from D harmonic minor.

The F7 chord in bar 6 is a major/minor seventh chord that would normally define
a Bb tonic. However, the B natural in the melody, a non-chord tone, indicates that the
immediate scale is not Bb Major. Instead, the F7 is a VII7 spelled from the scale of G
natural minor, a chord ‘borrowed’ from the G natural minor scale.
104
20. CHROMATICALLY ALTERED CHORDS

20a. Two Types of Chromatically Altered Chords

A chromatic scale step replaces a diatonic chord tone in two manners.

(1) A chromatic scale step replaces a chord tone. These chromatic chords include
Augmented and Neapolitan Sixth chords and V7 (V9, V11, V13) chords with raised
(sharped) or lowered (flatted) fifths.

(2) A chromatic scale step resolves to a chord tone, completing the chord before the
next chord occurs. These include the famous ‘Tristan Chord’ (see below).

20b. The Immediate Scale Simultaneous with Chromatically Altered Chords

When a tone from the chromatic scale replaces a diatonic chord tone, the chro-
matic scale step replaces the original diatonic scale step in the immediate scale for
the duration of the chord.
21. CHROMATIC TONE REPLACES CHORD TONE

21a. Augmented Sixth Chords

There are three augmented sixth chords: Italian Augmented Sixth, German Aug-
mented Sixth, and French Augmented Sixth. Some authorities include a fourth, a ‘doubly
augmented sixth’ which is a respelling of the German Augmented Sixth chord.

The augmented sixth chord is normally (but not always) in first inversion. The chord
third is in the lowest voice.

When the chord third is in the lowest voice, the interval of an augmented sixth ap-
pears between the lowest voice and one of the upper voices.

The chord immediately following an augmented sixth chord is normally a V, V7, or


I 4 spelled from the immediate scale.
6

ITALIAN AUGMENTED SIXTH

The Italian Augmented Sixth is an altered subdominant triad (IV or iv) spelled from
105
the immediate scale.

If the immediate scale is major, raise (sharp) the root, lower (flat) the third, and place
the chord in first inversion.

If the immediate scale is minor, raise (sharp) the root and place the chord in first
inversion.

For example,

(1) Spell C Major: Italian Augmented Sixth chord (It A6).

C: IV = F, A, C. Raise the root to F#; lower the third to Ab. Place the chord in first
inversion.

Therefore C Major: Italian A6 = Ab, C, F#.

(2) Spell Eb minor: Italian Augmented Sixth chord (It A6).

Eb Minor: iv = Ab, Cb, Eb. Raise the root to A natural; the immediate scale is minor
so the third is already lowered to Cb = no action. Place the chord in first inversion.

Therefore Eb minor: Italian A6 = Cb, Eb, A natural.

Memorize Italian Augmented Sixth Chords with Spell ID, Contents > Augmented
Sixths > Italian Sixths.

GERMAN AUGMENTED SIXTH

The German Augmented Sixth is an altered subdominant seventh chord (IV7 or iv7)
spelled from the immediate scale.

If the immediate scale is major, raise (sharp) the root, lower (flat) the third, lower
(flat) the seventh, and place the chord in first inversion.

If the immediate scale is minor, raise (sharp) the root, lower (flat) the seventh, and
place the chord in first inversion.
106

For example,

(1) Spell G Major: German Augmented Sixth chord (Gr A6).

G: IV7 = C, E, G, B. Raise the root to C#; lower the third to Eb; lower the seventh to
Bb, and place the chord in first inversion.

Therefore G Major: German A6 = Eb, G, Bb, C#.

(2) Spell A minor: German Augmented Sixth chord (Gr A6).

A Minor: iv7 = D, F, A, C. Raise the root to D#, lower the seventh to Cb, and place
the chord in first inversion.

Therefore Eb minor: Italian A6 = F, A, C, D#.

Memorize German Augmented Sixth Chords with Spell ID, Contents > Augmented
Sixths > German Sixths.

FRENCH AUGMENTED SIXTH

The French Augmented Sixth is an altered supertonic seventh chord (ii7 or iiØ7)
spelled from the immediate scale.

If the immediate scale is major, raise (sharp) the third, lower (flat) the fifth, and
place the chord in second inversion.

If the immediate scale is minor, raise (sharp) the root and place the chord in second
inversion.

For example,

(1) Spell F Major: French Augmented Sixth chord (Fr A6).

F Major: ii7 = G, Bb, D, F. Raise the third to B natural; lower the fifth to Db, and
place the chord in second inversion.
107
Therefore F Major: French A6 = Db, F, G, B natural..
(2) Spell D minor: French Augmented Sixth chord (Fr A6).

D minor iiØ7 = E, G, Bb, D. Raise the third to G#, and place the chord in second
inversion.

Therefore D minor: French A6 = Bb, D, E, G#,

Memorize French Augmented Sixth Chords with Spell ID, Contents > Augmented
Sixths > French Sixths.

Augmented Sixth Chords in C:

21b. Neapolitan Sixth Chord

NEAPOLITAN SIXTH CHORD

The Neapolitan Sixth Chord is an altered supertonic triad (ii or iio) spelled from the
immediate scale.

If the immediate scale is major, lower (flat) the root, lower (flat) the fifth, and place
the chord in first inversion.

If the immediate scale is minor, lower (flat) the root and place the chord in first
108
inversion.
The Neapolitan Sixth chord normally resolves to a V, V7 or I 64 spelled from the im-
mediate scale.

For example:

(1) Spell F Major: Neapolitan Sixth (N6).

F Major ii = G, Bb, D. Lower the root to Gb; lower the fifth to Db, place the triad in
first inversion.

Therefore F Major: N6 = Bb, Db, Gb.

(2) Spell C minor: Neapolitan Sixth (N6).

C minor iio = D, F, Ab. Lower the root to Db; place the triad in first inversion.

Therefore C minor: N6 = F, Ab, Db.

Memorize Neapolitan Sixth Chords with Spell ID, Contents > Neapolitan Sixths

21c. Dominant Seventh Chords with Altered Fifth

Dominant V7, V9, V11, V13, V7b9, V11b9, and V7b13 chords may have a raised or
lowered chord fifth. This alteration is frequent in jazz styles.

The raised fifth is indicated as in ‘C7#5’ or ‘F Major: V7#5’.

For example:
109

(1) Spell C Major: V7#5.


C Major: V7 = G, B, D, F. Raise the fifth, D, to D#.

Therefore C Major: V7#5 = G, B, D#, F.

(2) Spell A7#5.

A7 = A, C#, E, G. Raise the fifth, E, to E sharp.

Therefore A7#5 = A, C#, E#, G.

(3) Spell Eb7#5.

Eb7 = Eb, G, Bb, Db. Raise the fifth, Bb, to B natural.

Therefore B7#5 = Bb, D E natural, Db.

Dominant Sevenths with Raised Fifth:


110

Memorize dominant sevenths with raised fifth with Spell ID, Contents .> V7 #4 #5 >
Dominant 7th sharp 5.

The V7 with flatted fifth is normally indicated as a V7 with raised fourth as in C7#4
or F Major: V7#4. Omit the fifth when the fouth is raised. (The sharp 4 is the same note
as an augmented 11th.)

For example:

(1) Spell D Major: V7#4.

D Major: V7 = A, C#, E, G, Omit the fifth. Raise the fourth above the root, D, to D#.

Therefore D Major: V7#4 = A, C#, D#, G.

(2) Spell Bb7#4.

Bb7 = Bb, D, F, Ab. Omit the fifth. Raise the fourth above the root, Eb, to E natural.

Therefore Bb7#4 = Bb, D, E natural, Ab.

(3) Spell E7#4.

E7 = E, G#, B, D. Omit the fifth. Raise the fourth above the root, A, to A#.

Therefore E7#4 = E, G#, A#, D.


111

Dominant Sevenths with Raised Fourth:

Memorize dominant sevenths with raised fourth with Spell ID Contents .> V7 #4 #5
>Dominant 7th sharp 4.
22. CHROMATIC NON-CHORD TONE RESOLVES TO A CHORD TONE

22a. Chords with Chromatic Passing Tones or Chromatic Appoggiaturas that


Sound as a Chord Tone Before Resolving to the True Chord Tone

The chromatic passing tone or chromatic appoggiatura resolves immediately up or


down by one half-step to a chord tone, completing the chord before the next chord ar-
rives.

The source of the chromatic tone is counterpoint, the combination of simultaneous


melodies. Melody consists of successive chord tones and non-chord tones. Determine the
112

name of a non-chord tone by the melodic motion to and from the immediately preceding
and following chord tones. The names of single non-chord tones are: passing tone, neigh-
boring tone, escape tone, anticipation, appoggiatura, free tone, suspension, and pedal
point.

The following table presents the nine possible single non-chord tone patterns.

Non-Chord Tone Motion to chord tone from chord tone


passing tone step step
neighboring tone step step
escape tone step skip
anticipation step or skip repeated note
appoggiatura skip step
free tone skip skip
suspension sustained step
irregular suspension sustained skip
pedal point sustained sustained

See H. Gilbert Trythall: EIGHTEENTH CENTURY COUNTERPOINT, Brown and


Benchmark, 1993, for a complete discussion of tonal counterpoint as practiced by J. S.
Bach. Out of print, used copies sometimes available from Amazon.com.

Richard Wagner: Prelude to Tristan and Isolde, Bars 1-7


113

SCALES FOR IMPROVISATION AND COMPOSITION

23. IMPROVISATION SCALES WHEN IMMEDIATE SCALE IS MAJOR

23a. Definitions: Immediate scale, Immediate Chord , Improvisation Scale

The immediate scale is the scale from which chords and non-chord tones are
spelled at that point in the music. The immediate scale is a continuous pattern with scale
steps above and below the tonic.

The immediate chord is the chord at that point in the music.

The improvisation scale is the immediate scale beginning on the root of the imme-
diate chord. The improvisation scale is a continuous pattern with scale steps above and
below the tonic.

23b. How to Determine the Immediate Scale

V7 chords or viio7 chords define the tonic scale step of the immediate scale. Chords
immediately preceding and/or following the V7 or viio7 define the immediate major or
minor scale quality.

(1) The immediate scale for V7 chords is a scale beginning on a tonic scale step
114
a perfect fifth below the root of the V7 chord. If preceding and/or following chords
are spelled from a major scale, the immediate scale is major. If preceding and/or
following chords are spelled from a minor scale, the immediate scale is minor.

(2) The immediate scale for viio7 chords is a scale with a different note name
beginning on a tonic scale step one half-step above the root of the viio7 chord. If pre-
ceding and/or following chords are spelled from a major scale, the immediate scale
is major. If preceding and/or following chords are spelled from a minor scale, the
immediate scale is minor.

23c. How to Determine Changes in the Immediate Scale

A V7 or viio7 chord defines the new tonic scale step when the immediate scale
changes. Direct modulation, a change of scale without a V7 or viio7, also occurs.
First:

Using the key signature and opening and closing chords, determine the major or
minor scale from which chords and non-chord tones are spelled at the beginning and end
of the composition. That scale is the key of the composition.

Next:

1. Examine each successive V7 (or V9, V11, V13) chord to determine the tonic scale
step of the new immediate scale which each defines.

For example,

(1) What is the tonic scale step defined by G7?

A perfect fifth below the root of the G7 is the tonic scale step, C.

(2) What is the tonic scale step defined by A7?

A perfect fifth below the root of the A7 is the tonic scale step, D.

Identify tonic scale steps with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation Scales > Tonic
from V7
115

2. If the chord and accompanying non-chord tones immediately preceding and fol-
lowing the V7 (or V9, V11, V13) chord are spelled from a scale with a different tonic,
the V7 may be a secondary dominant; OR, if another V7 (or V9, V11, V13) chord with a
root a perfect fifth lower follows immediately, it is a V7 in a secondary dominant chain.

3. If the chord and accompanying non-chord tones immediately preceding and/or
following the V7 (or V9, V11, V13) are spelled from a scale with the same tonic, the V7
defines the tonic scale step in a new or continuing major or minor immediate scale.

For example:

(1) What is the immediate scale defined by a Bb7 immediately preceded by Fmin?

A Bb7 defines Eb as the tonic of the immediate scale. If the preceding chord is
Fmin, it is a ii in Eb Major.

Therefore the immediate scale is Eb Major.

(2) What is the immediate scale defined by a Bb7 immediately preceded by


Fmin7b5?

A Bb7 defines Eb as the tonic of the immediate scale. If the preceding chord is
Fmin7b5, it is a iiØ7 in Eb minor.

Therefore the immediate scale is Eb minor.

(3) What is the immediate scale defined by a A7 immediately followed by Bmin?

A7 defines D as the tonic of the immediate scale. If the following chord is Bmin, it
is a vi in D Major.

Therefore the immediate scale is D Major.

(4) What is the immediate scale defined by an A7 immediately followed by Bb?

An A7 defines D as the tonic of the immediate scale. If the following chord is Bb, it
is a VI in D minor.
116

Therefore the immediate scale is D minor.

Identify the immediate scale with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation Scales > ii7,
V7 immediate scales

Identify the immediate scale with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation Scales > iiØ7,
V7 immediate scales

4. Examine each viio7 chord. A viio7 chord defines a tonic scale step with a different
note name a minor second above the root of the viio7.

For example,
(1) What is the tonic scale step defined by C#dim7?

A minor second above the root of the C#dim7 is the tonic scale step, D.

(2) What is the tonic scale step defined by Edim7?

A minor second above the root of the Edim7 is the tonic scale step F.

Identify tonic scale steps with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisation Scales > Tonic
from viio7

NOTE: Lead sheet chord symbols frequently misspell viio7 chord symbols. Depend-
ing on spelling, a viio7 chord defines four different tonics. Examine chords immediately
preceding and following the viio7 to determine the correct chord symbol for the viio7.

If the chord and accompanying non-chord tones immediately preceding and/or fol-
lowing the viio or viio7 chord are spelled from a scale with a different tonic, the viio7 may
be a secondary dominant, or a chord in a secondary dominant chain.

If the chord and accompanying non-chord tones immediately preceding and/or fol-
lowing the viio7 are spelled from a scale with the same tonic, the viio7 indicates a new or
continuing immediate scale.

For example:
117

(1) What immediate scale does a Bo7 immediately preceded by Fmin define?

A Bo7 defines C as the tonic of the immediate scale. If the preceding chord is Fmin,
it is a iv in C minor.

Therefore the immediate scale is C minor,

(2) What immediate scale does a C#o7 immediately followed by DMaj define?

A C#o7 defines D as the tonic of the immediate scale. If the following chord is D
Major, it is I in D Major.

Therefore the immediate scale is D Major. The C#o7 is a chord ‘borrowed’ from D
minor.

23d. Improvisation Scales when the Immediate Chord is Spelled from a Major
Scale

When the immediate chord is spelled from an immediate major scale, the improvi-
sation scale is the immediate scale beginning and ending on the root of the immediate
chord.

For example:

(1) What is the improvisation scale for C Major: Dmin7 (C Major: ii7)?

The root of the immediate chord is D.

Therefore the improvisation scale is a C Major scale beginning and ending on D or


D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for C Major: G7 (C Major: V7)?

The immediate scale is C Major. The root of the immediate chord is G.

Therefore the improvisation scale is a C Major scale beginning and ending on G or


G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G.
118

(3) What is the improvisation scale for Bb Major: F7 (Bb Major: V7)?

The immediate scale is Bb Major. The root of the immediate chord is F.

Therefore the improvisation scale is a Bb Major scale beginning and ending on F or


F, G, A, Bb, C, D, Eb, F.

(4) What is the improvisation scale for D Major: Bmin (D Major: vi)?

The immediate scale is D Major. The root of the immediate chord is B.

Therefore the improvisation scale is the D Major scale beginning and ending on B or
B, C#, D, E, F#, G, A, B.

Memorize improvisation scales when the immediate scale is major with Spell ID,
Contents > Improvisation Scales > Major improv scales.

23e. Improvisation Scales for ‘Borrowed’ Chords

A ‘borrowed’ chord is a chord spelled from the immediate parallel minor scale when
the immediate scale is major.

When i7, iiØ7, iv7, and viio7 chords spelled from a minor scale are ‘borrowed’ into
major, change the ‘borrowed’ chord tones in the immediate major scale steps. Then,
if the seventh scale step of the immediate major scale is NOT a chord tone, i.e. if the
seventh scale step of the immediate scale is a non-chord tone, lower the seventh scale
step of the immediate major scale one half-step.

As previous, the improvisation scale is the immediate scale beginning on the root of
the immediate chord.

1. Spell a ‘borrowed’ i7 immediate scale by applying the ‘borrowed’ chord tones to


the immediate major scale. The immediate scale and the improvisation scale is the Dorian
minor scale.

For example,
119

(1) What is the improvisation scale for G Major: Gmin7 (G Major: i7)?

The immediate scale is G Major; but the i7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from G minor. Ap-
ply the altered chord tones to the immediate G Major scale, B to Bb, and F# to F natural.

The immediate scale and the improvisation scale are G, A, Bb, C, D, E, F, G.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for A Major: i7 (A Major: Amin7)?

The immediate scale is A Major; but the i7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from A minor. Ap-
ply the altered chord tones to the immediate A Major scale, C# to C natural, and G# to G
najtural.

The immediate scale and the improvisation scale are A, B, C, D, E, F#, G, A.

Memorize borrowed i7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisa-
tion Scales > Dorian improv scales

2, Spell a ‘borrowed’iiØ7 immediate scale by applying the ‘borrowed’ chord tone to


the immediate major scale and lowering the seventh scale step of the immediate major
scale one half step.

For example:

(1) What is the improvisation scale for C Major: iiØ7 (C Major: Dmin7b5)?

The immediate scale is C Major; but the iiØ7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from C minor. Ap-
ply the ‘borrowed’ chord tone to the immediate C major scale, A to Ab. Lower the sev-
enth scale step of the C Major scale: B to Bb.

The immediate scale is C, D, E, F, G, Ab, Bb, C. The improvisation scale is D, E, F,


G, Ab, Bb, C, D.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for F Major: Gmin7b5 (F Major: iiØ7)?

The immediate scale is F Major; but the iiØ7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from F minor.
120
Apply the ‘borrowed’ chord tone to the immediate F major scale, D to Db. Lower the
seventh scale step of the F Major scale, E to Eb.

The immediate scale is F, G, A, Bb, C, Db, Eb F. The improvisation scale is G, A,


Bb, C, Db, Eb F, G.

Memorize borrowed iiØ7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisa-
tion Scales > Borrowed iiØ7 scales

3. Spell a ‘borrowed’ iv7 immediate scale by applying the new chord tones to the
immediate major scale and lowering the seventh scale step of the immediate major scale
one half-step.
For example:

(1) What is the improvisation scale for C Major: Fmin7 (C Major: iv7)?

The immediate scale is C Major; but the iv7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from C minor.
Apply the ‘borrowed’ chord tones to the immediate C major scale, A to Ab, and E to Eb.
Lower the seventh scale step of the C Major scale, B to Bb.

The immediate scale is C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C. The improvisation scale is F, G,


Ab, Bb, C, D, Eb, F.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for Bb Major: iv7 (Bb Major: Ebmin7)?

The immediate scale is Bb Major; but the iv7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from Bb minor.
Apply the ‘borrowed’ chord tones to the immediate Bb major scale, G to Gb, and D to
Db. Lower the seventh scale step of the Bb Major scale, A, to Ab.

The immediate scale is Bb, C, Db, Eb, F, Gb, Ab, Bb. The improvisation scale is Eb,
F, Gb, Ab, Bb, C, Db, Eb.

Memorize borrowed iv7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisa-
tion Scales > Borrowed iv7 scales

4. Spell a ‘borrowed’viio7 immediate scale by applying the new chord tones to the
immediate major scale. (The seventh scale step is the root of the viio7 borrowed chord
121
and cannot be altered.)

(1) What is the improvisation scale for Bb Major: viio7 (Bb Major: Adim7)?

The immediate scale is Bb Major; but the viio7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from Bb minor.
Apply the ‘borrowed’ chord tone to the immediate Bb Major scale, G to Gb.

The immediate scale is Bb, C, D, Eb, F, Gb, A, Bb. The improvisation scale is A,
Bb, C, D, Eb, F, Gb, A.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for G Major: F#o7 (G Major: viio7)?

The immediate scale is G Major; but the viio7 chord is ‘borrowed’ from G minor.
Apply the ‘borrowed’ chord tone to the immediate G major scale, E to Eb.

The immediate scale is G, A, B, C, D, Eb, F#, G The improvisation scale is F#, G,


A, B, C, D, Eb, F#.

Memorize borrowed viio7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvi-
sation Scales > Borrowed viio7 scales

5. Less frequent ‘borrowed’ chords are IVb7 and VII7.

IVb7 and VII7 chords are major/minor seventh chords like V7’s, Their immediate
scales are major scales beginning on a tonic scale step a perfect fifth below the root of the
IVb7 or V7.

For example,
(1) What is the improvisation scale for C Major: IVb7 (C Major: F7)?

The immediate scale is C Major; but the IVb7 chord is a major/minor seventh chord
‘borrowed’ from C minor.

Therefore the immediate scale is a major scale beginning on a tonic scale step a per-
fect fifth below the root of the IVb7 chord or Bb, C, D, Eb, F, G, A, Bb.

Therefore the improvisation scale is F, G, A, Bb, C, D, Eb, F.


122

(2) What is the improvisation scale for F Major: Bb7 (F Major: IVb7)?

The immediate scale is F Major; but the Bb7 chord is a major/minor seventh chord
‘borrowed’ from F minor.

Therefore the immediate scale is a major scale beginning on a tonic scale step a per-
fect fifth below the root of the Bb7 chord or Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C, D, Eb.

Therefore the improvisation scale is Bb, C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb.

Memorize borrowed IV7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisa-
tion Scales > Borrowed IV7 scales

For example,
(1) What is the improvisation scale for Eb Major: VII7 (Eb Major: Db7)?

The immediate scale is Eb Major; but the VII7 chord is a major/minor seventh chord
‘borrowed’ from Eb minor.

Therefore the immediate scale is a major scale beginning on a tonic scale step a per-
fect fifth below the root of the Db7 chord or Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, F, Gb.

Therefore the improvisation scale is Db, Eb, F, Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for D Major: C7 (D Major: VII7)?

The immediate scale is D Major; but the C7 chord is a major/minor seventh chord
‘borrowed’ from D minor.

Therefore the immediate scale is a major scale beginning on a tonic scale step a per-
fect fifth below the root of the C7 chord or F, G, A, Bb, C, D, E, F.

Therefore the improvisation scale is C, D, E, F, G, A, Bb, C.

Memorize borrowed VII7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents > Improvisa-
tion Scales > Borrowed VII7 scales.
123

In the following jazz standard examples:

(1) The top line is a lead sheet, the melody with chord symbols.

(2) The middle line is the improvisation scale.


124

(3) The bottom line places the immediate chords in root position. Performance
would position these chords for smooth voice leading in rhythm patterns appropriate to
the style.

(4) Roman numeral harmonic analysis is below the staff.

(5) Chords with added sixths are placed in root position for the purpose of harmonic
analysis. Therefore the analysis of a C Major: F6 (F, A, C, D) is C Major: ii7 (D, F, A, C).

(6) the symbol ‘o’ indicates a diminished triad or a fully diminished seventh chord.

(7) the symbol ‘Ø’ indicates a half diminished seventh chord.

23f. Immediate Scales for ‘September in the Rain’

Bars 1-4: Eb Major immediate scale (V7 = Bb13, bar 6), the key of the composition
Bar 5: Eb Major: ii7b5 ‘borrowed’ chord.
Bars 6-8: Eb Major immediate scale.
Bars 9-16 repeat 1-8 immediate scales.
Bars 17-20:Ab Major immediate scale (V7 = Eb7, bar 18).
Bars 21-22 Bb Major immediate scale (V7 = F7, bar 21).
Bars 23-24 Eb Major immediate scale.(V7 = Bb7, bar 23).
Bars 25-32 repeat 9-16 immediate scale.

23g. Improvisation Scales for ‘September in the Rain’

The key of the composition is Eb Major.

Bar 5 contains an Fmin7b5, a iiØ7 chord borrowed from the parallel Eb minor scale.
Apply the altered chord tone to the immediate Eb major scale, C, to Cb. Lower the sev-
enth scale step of the Eb Major scale, D to Db. The immediate scale is Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb,
Cb, Db, Eb. The improvisation scale is F, G, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, F.

In bar 6 the Bb7, a V7, defines the tonic scale step and immediate scale of Eb Ma-
jor, The improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on Bb, the root of the Bb7.
125

Bar 7 beats 1 and 2 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale.

Bar 7 beats 2 and 3 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on F, the
root of Fmin7.

Bar 8 beats 1 and 2 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on C, the
root of Cmin7.

Bar 8 beats 3 and 4 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on Bb,
the root of the Bb7. Raise the fifth scale step of the improvisation scale to agree with the
raised fifth in the Bb+7 chord symbol.

Bars 9-16 repeat bars 1-8 without the ‘turn around’ (I, vi7, ii7, V7#5) in bars 15-16.

The Eb7 in bar 18 indicates an Ab tonic. The preceding and following chords are
spelled from the Ab Major scale. Therefore the immediate scale in bars 17-20 is Ab Ma-
jor.

The improvisation scale in bar 17 is an Ab Major scale beginning on Bb, the root of
Bbmin7.

The improvisation scale in bar 18 is an Ab Major scale beginning on Eb, the root of
Eb7.

The improvisation scale in bars 19-20 is an Ab Major scale.

The F7 chord in bar 22 indicates a Bb tonic. The preceding chord, Cmin7, is spelled
from the Bb Major scale. Therefore the immediate scale is Bb Major beginning in bar 21.

The improvisation scale in bar 21 is a Bb Major scale beginning on C, the root of


Cmin.

The improvisation scale in bar 22 is a Bb Major scale steps beginning on F, the root
of F7.

The Bb7 chord in bar 23 indicates an Eb tonic. The following chord, Eb Major, is
spelled from the Eb Major scale. Therefore the immediate scale beginning in bar 23 is an
126

Eb Major scale,

The improvisation scale in bar 23 is an Eb Major scale beginning on Bb, the root of
Bb7.

The Bb7#5 in bar 24 indicates a chromatically altered sharp 5 (+5) chord tone. Raise
the fifth tone of the Bb7 chord, F to F# in the improvisation scale.

Bars 25-32 repeat bars 9-16.


127
128
129
24. TRITONE SUBSTITUTE V7

24a. Tritone Substitute V7 Definition

A tritone substitution V7 is a dominant seventh chord (major/minor seventh chord)


that is three whole steps (a tritone: 6 semitones) away from the dominant seventh chord
which it replaces.

A tritone substitution V7 replaces only V7 chords.

In the following example, ‘The Girl from Ipanema’, the Gb7 in bar 6 replaces
(substitutes for) a C7. Both chords contain the same tritone enharmonically. In a C7, the
tritone is between E and Bb, resolving to F and A. While in an Gb7, the same tritone ex-
ists between Fb (E) and Bb.

The immediate scale for any major/minor seventh chord is a major scale above a
tonic scale step that is a perfect fifth below the root of the major/minor seventh chord.
The improvisation scale is that scale beginning and ending on the root of the major/minor
seventh chord. In addition, for a tritone substitution V7, raise the fourth scale step of
the improvisation scale one half-step to include the root of the replaced V7.

For example:

(1) What is the improvisation scale for a Gb7 that is a tritone substitution V7?

The immediate scale for a Gb7 (major/minor seventh chord) is the scale of Cb Ma-
jor, Cb, Db, Eb, Fb, Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb.

The improvisation scale is the immediate scale begiining on the root of the Gb7 or
Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, Fb, Gb.

In addition, for a tritone substitution V7, raise the fourth scale step of the im-
provisation scale, Cb, one half-step to C natural.

Therefore the improvisation scale is; Gb, Ab, Bb, C natural, Db, Eb, Fb, Gb.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for a Bb7 that is a tritone substitution V7?
130
The immediate scale for a Bb7 (major/minor seventh chord) is the immediate scale
of Eb Major, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C, D, Eb.

The improvisation scale is the immediate scale beginning on the root of the Bb7 or
Bb, C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb.

In addition, for a tritone substitution V7, raise the fourth scale step of the im-
provisation scale, Eb, one half-step to E natural.

Therefore the improvisation scale is; Bb, C, D, E natural, F, G, Ab, Bb.

(3) What is the improvisation scale for a A7 that is a tritone substitution V7?

The immmediate scale for an A7 (major/minor seventh chord) is the immediate scale
of D Major, D, E, F#, G, A, B, C#, D.

The improvisation scale is the immediate scale beginning on the root of the A7 or
A, B, C#, D, E, F#, G, A..

In addition, for a tritone substitution V7, raise the fourth scale step of the im-
provisation scale, D, one half-step to D#.

Therefore the improvisation scale is; A, B, C#, D#, E, F#, G, A.

Memorize Tritone Substitute V7 improvisation scales with Spell ID, Contents >
Improvisation Scales > Tritone Subs. V7 scales.

24b. Immediate scales for ‘The Girl From Ipanema’

Bars 1-2 F Major immediate scale, the key of the composition.


Bars 3-4 C Major immediate scale, a secondary dominant, V7 of C Major.
Bar 5 F Major immediate scale.
Bar 6 Chord is a Gb7 tritone substitute V7 for C7. Altered Cb Major immediate
scale.
Bars 7-8 F Major immediate scale.
Bars 9-16 repeat bars 1-8.
Bars 17-18 F# Major immediate scale (direct modulation).
Bars 19-20 Major/minor seventh chord, immediate scale is E major.
131
Bars 21-22 F# Dorian minor immediate scale
Bars 23-24 G Major immediate scale (V7 = D9 in bars 23-24).
Bars 25-26 G minor immediate scale
Bars 27-28 Chord is a Eb7 tritone substitute V7 for A7. Altered Ab Major immediate
scale.
Bar 29 G Major immediate scale (V7 = D7 in bar 30).
Bar 30 G Major immediate scale with #4 required by chord.
Bar 31 F Major immediate scale (V7 = C7 in bar 32).
Bar 32 F Major immediate scale with #4 required by chord.

23c. Improvisation scales for ‘The Girl From Ipanema’

The ‘Girl from Ipanema’ includes tritone substitution V7’s, secondary dominants,
and borrowed chords .

In bars 1-2, the immediate scale, improvisation scale, and key of the composition is
F Major.

In bars 3-4, The G7, V/V, secondary dominant defines an immediate scale of C
Major (key of the dominant). The improvisation scale is a C Major scale beginning on the
G root of G7.

In bar 5, the improvisation scale is an F Major scale beginning on G root of Gmin7.

In bar 6, the immediate scale for the tritone substitute Gb7 (replacing a C7) is a ma-
jor scale with tonic scale step a perfect fifth below the root of Gb7. Therefore the immedi-
ate scale is Cb Major and the improvisation scale has the scale steps of Cb Major begin-
ning on the Gb root of the Gb7. IN ADDITION, because this is a tritone substitute V7,
raise the fourth scale step of the improvisation scale, the Cb, to C natural. The immediate
scale for improvisation is: Gb, Ab, Bb, C natural, Db, Eb, Fb, Gb.

In bars 7-8, the immediate scale is F Major.

Bars 9- 16 repeat bars 1-8.

Bars 17-18 is a direct change to the immediate scale of F# Major. The improvisation
scale is an F# Major scale.
132

In bars 19-20 The B9 (IV9) is a major/minor seventh chord with added ninth. There-
fore the immediate scale is a major scale with a tonic scale step a perfect fifth below the
root of the B9 or E, F#, G#, A#, B, C#, D#, E. The improvisation scale (beginning on the
root of the B9) is B, C#, D#, E, F#, G#, A, B.

In bars 21-22 the improvisation scale is F# Dorian minor scale.

In bars 23-24 the D9 defines a G tonic. The E natural indicates a G major immediate
scale. The improvisation scale is a G Major scale beginning on D, the root of the D7.

In bars 25-26 the improvisation scale is G Dorian minor.

In bars 27-28, the immediate scale for the tritone substitute Eb7 is a major scale with
tonic scale step a perfect fifth below the root of Eb7. Therefore the immediate scale is Ab
Major and the improvisation scale has the scale steps of Ab Major beginning on Eb, the
root of the Eb7. IN ADDITION, because this is a tritone substitute V7, raise the fourth
scale step of the improvisation scale, Ab, to A natural. The improvisation scale is: Eb, F,
G, A natural, Bb, C, Db, Eb.

In bar 29 the improvisation scale is G major beginning on A, root of the Amin7.

In bar 30 the improvisation scale is a G major scale beginning on the D root of the
D7#4. Raise the fourth scale step of the improvisation scale, G, one half-step to G# to
agree with the chord. The improvisation scale is D, E, F#, G#, A, B, C, D.

In bar 31 the improvisation scale is an F major scale beginning on G.

In bar 32 the improvisation scale is an F major scale beginning on the C root of the
C7#4. Raise the fourth scale step of the improvisation scale, F, one half-step to F# to
agree with the chord. The improvisation scale is C, D, E, F#, G, A, Bb, C.

A Da Capo (return to the beginning) repeats the first 8 bars ending at Fine (end).
133
134
135
25. SECONDARY DOMINANT ‘BORROWED’ viio7

25a. Improvisation Scale when the Immediate Chord is a Secondary Dominant


‘Borrowed’ viio7

When the immediate chord is a ‘borrowed’ viio7/V, the immediate scale is a major
scale with a tonic scale step that is the root of the V. Alter the scale steps of the immedi-
ate scale to agree with the chord tones of the viio7. (The seventh scale step of the immedi-
ate scale is a chord tone and cannot be lowered as in other ‘borrowed’ chord scales.) The
improvisation scale is the altered immediate scale beginning and ending on the root of the
viio7.

For example:

(1) What is the improvisation scale for Ab Major: Ddim7 (Ab Major: viio7/V)? This
chord occurs in Bar 32 in ‘All the Things You Are’ below .

The viio7 chord is a ‘borrowed’ chord, functioning as a secondary dominant of Eb


Major, the key of the dominant of Ab Major. The immediate scale of the ‘borrowed’
Ddim7 is an Eb Major scale. Lower the sixth scale step of the immediate scale, C to Cb to
agree with the chord tone.

The immediate scale becomes Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, Cb, D, Eb.

The improvisation scale begins on the root of the Ddim7.

Therefore the improvisation scale is D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, Cb, D.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for C Major: Edim7 (C Major: viio7/IV)?

The viio7 chord is a ‘borrowed’ chord, functioning as a secondary dominant of F


Major, the key of the sub-dominant of C Major. The immediate scale of the ‘borrowed’
Edim7 is an F Major scale. Lower the sixth scale step of the immediate scale, D to Db to
agree with the chord tone.

The immediate scale becomes F, G, A, Bb, C, Db, E, F.

The improvisation scale begins on the root of the Edim7.


136
Therefore the improvisation scale is E, F, G, A, Bb, C, Db, E.

25b. Immediate Scales for ‘All the Things You Are’

Bars 1-5 Ab Major immediate scale (V7 = Eb7, bar3).


Bars 6-8 C Major immediate scale (V7 = G7, bar 6).
Bars 9-13 Eb Major immediate scale (V7 = Bb7, bar 11).
Bars 14-21 G major immediate scale (V7 = D7b9, bar 14.)
Bars 22-23 E Major immediate scale (V7 == B7, bar 22).
Bar 24 C# melodic minor immediate scale. Augmented triads occur only on the III+
triad in the melodic minor ascending scale.
Bars 25-36 Ab Major immediate scale (V7 = Eb7, bar 27).

25c. Improvisation Scales for ‘All the Things You Are’

‘All the Things You Are’ has immediate scale changes, ‘borrowed’ chords, and a vii7
secondary dominant.

The key of the composition is Ab Major.

In bar 1 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale beginning on F root of Fmin7.

In bar 2 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale beginning on Bb root of


Bbmin7.

In bar 3 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale beginning on Eb root of Eb7.

In bar 4 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale.

In bar 5 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale beginning on Db root of


DbMaj7.

In bar 6 the improvisation scale is a C Major scale beginning on G root of G7.

In bars 7-8 the improvisation scale is a C Major scale.

In bar 9 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on C root of Cmin7.


137
In bar 10 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on F. root of
Fmin7.

In bar 11 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on Bb root of Bb7.

In bar 12 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale.

In bar 13 the improvisation scale is an Eb Major scale beginning on Ab root of


AbMaj7.

In bar 14, beats 1 and 2, the Amin7b5 is a’ borrowed’ chord. Alter the scale step in
the immediate G Major scale, E, to agree with the chord tone, Eb. Lower the seventh
scale step, F#, to F Natural. The immediate scale is now G, A, B, C, D, Eb, F natural, G.
The improvisation scale is A, B, C, D, Eb, F, G, A.

In bar 14, beats 3 and 4, the D7b9 is a’ borrowed’ chord. Alter the scale step in the
immediate G Major scale, E, to agree with the chord tone, Eb. The seventh scale step is a
chord tone. Therefore retain the F# scale step. The immediate scale becomes G, A, B, C,
D, Eb, F#, G. The improvisation scale is D, Eb, F#, G, A, B, C, D
.
In bars 15-16 the improvisation scale is an G Major scale.

In bar 17 the improvisation scale is a G Major scale beginning on A root of Amin7.

In bar 18 the improvisation scale is a G Major scale beginning on D root of D7.

In bar 19 the improvisation scale is a G Major scale.

In bar 20 the improvisation scale is a G Major scale beginning on C root of CMaj7.

In bar 21 the F#min7b5 is a’ borrowed’ chord. Alter the scale step in the immediate
E Major scale, C#, to agree with the chord tone, C. Lower the seventh scale step, D#, to
D Natural. The immediate scale is now E, F#, G#, A, B, C, D, E. The improvisation scale
is F#, G#, A, B, C, D, E, F#.

In bar 22 the improvisation scale is an E Major scale beginning on B root of B7.


138

In bar 23 the improvisation scale is an E Major scale..

In bar 24 the immediate scale is C# melodic minor: C#, D#, E, F#, G#, A#, B#, C#.
(The IIIaug chord occurs ONLY on the third scale step of a melodic minor scale). The
improvisation scale is an C# melodic minor ascending scale beginning on E root of Eaug.

Bars 25-29 repeat bars 1-5.

In bar 30, beats 1 and 2, the Dbmin7 is a’ borrowed’ chord. Alter the scale steps in
the immediate Ab Major scale to agree with the chord tones, F to Fb and C to Cb. Lower
the seventh scale step to Gb. The immediate scale becomes Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, Fb, Gb,
Ab. The improvisation scale is Db, Eb, Fb, Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db.

In bar 30, beats 3 and 4, the Gb9 is a major/minor seventh chord and the immediate
scale is the major scale on a tonic scale step a perfect fifth below the root of the V7, a Cb
Major scale. The improvisation scale is a Cb Major scale beginning on Gb, the root of the
Gb9 chord.

In bar 31 the improvisation scale is the Ab Major scale.

In bar 32 the Do7 viio7 chord is a ‘borrowed’ chord, functioning as a secondary


dominant of Eb Major, the key of the dominant of Ab Major. Spell a ‘borrowed’ Ddim7
from an Eb Major scale but lower the sixth scale step, C, to Cb to agree with the chord
tone. The immediate scale becomes Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, Cb, D, Eb. The improvisation scale
is D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, Cb, D.

In bar 33 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale beginning on Bb root of


Bbmin7.

In bar 34 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale beginning on Eb root of Eb9.

In bars 35-36 the improvisation scale is an Ab Major scale.


139
140
141
26. IMPROVISATION SCALES WHEN IMMEDIATE SCALE IS MINOR

26a. Improvisation Scales when the Immediate Scale is Minor

When the immediate scale is a minor scale:

(1) Spell i, iio, III, iv, v, VI, and VII chords from the natural minor scale.

(2) Spell V and V7 chords from the melodic minor ascending scale (use ascending
form up and down).

(3) Spell viio7, V7b9, V11b9, V7b13 chords from the harmonic minor scale.

(4) Spell vio and III+ chords from the melodic minor ascending scale (use ascending
form up and down).

For example,

(1) What is the improvisation scale for Eb minor: Bb7 (Eb minor: V7)?

The immediate scale is Eb minor. When the immediate scale is a minor scale, spell a
V7 from the melodic minor scale ascending (use up and down).

Therefore the improvisation scale is an Eb melodic minor scale beginning on Bb, the
root of Bb7, or Bb, C, D, Eb, F, Gb, Ab, Bb.

(2) What is the improvisation scale for C minor: Dmin7b5 (C minor: iiø7)?

The immediate scale is C minor. Spell iiø7 from the natural minor scale.

Therefore the improvisation scale is a C natural minor scale beginning on D, the root
of Dmin7b5, or D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C, D.

(3) What is the improvisation scale for G minor: Gmin7 (G minor: i7)?

The immediate scale is G minor. Spell i7 from the natural minor scale.

Therefore the improvisation scale is a G natural minor scale beginning on G, the root
142
of Gmin7, or G, A, Bb, C, D, Eb, F, G.

(4) What is the improvisation scale for D minor: C#dim7 (D minor: viio7)?
The immediate scale is D minor. Spell viio7 from the harmonic minor scale.

Therefore the improvisation scale is a D harmonic minor scale beginning on C#, the
root of C#dim7, or C#, D, E, F, G, A, Bb, C#.

26b. Immediate Scales for ‘Orpheus’

Bars 1-5 A minor immediate scale (V7 = E7, bar 2), the key of the composition.
Bars 6-7 C Major immediate scale (V7 = G7, bar 6).
Bare 8 D minor immediate scale (V7 = A7, bar 8).
Bars 9-12 C Major immediate scale (V7 = G7, bar 10).
Bars 13-20 A minor immediate scale (V7 = E7, bar 14).
Bars 21-24 D minor immediate scale (V7 = A7b9, bar 21).
Bars 25-end A minor immediate scale (V7 = E7, bar 26 and following).

26c. Improvisation Scales for ‘Orpheus’

‘Orpheus’ has changes of the immediate scale to the sub-dominant scale of D minor
and the relative major scale of C Major. In addition ‘Orpheus’ has the rare modal domi-
nant, v, in bars 35 and 39.

Bar 1 improvisation scale is A natural minor.

Bar 2, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on B, the root
of the iiø7 chord.

Bar 2, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is A melodic minor ascending (use up and
down) beginning on E, the root of the E7 chord.

Bars 3-5 improvisation scale is A natural minor.

Bar 6, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is C Major beginning on D, the root of the
Dmin chord.

Bar 6, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is C Major beginning on G, the root of the
143
G7 chord.

Bar7 improvisation scale is C Major.

Bar 8, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is D natural minor beginning on E, the root
of the iiø7 chord.

Bar 8, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is D melodic minor ascending (up and
down) beginning on A, the root of the V7 chord.

Bar 9 improvisation scale is C Major beginning on D, the root of the Dmin chord.

Bar 10, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is C Major beginning on D, the root of the
Dmin chord.

Bar 10, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is C Major beginning on G, the root of the
G7 chord.

Bar 11 improvisation scale is C Major.

Bar 12, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is C Major beginning on A root of the
Amin chord.

Bar 13 improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on B, the root of the iiø7
chord.

Bar 14 improvisation scale is A melodic minor ascending beginning on E root of E7


chord.

Bar 15 improvisation scale is A natural minor.

Bar 16, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on B, the
root of the iiø7 chord.

Bar 16, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is A melodic minor ascending (up and
down) beginning on E, the root of the E7 chord.
144

Bars 17-20 duplicate bars 1-4.

Bar 21 improvisation scale is D harmonic minor beginning on A root of the A7b9


chord.

Bar 22, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is D natural minor beginning on E root of
the iiø7 chord. Bar 22, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is D melodic minor ascending
beginning on A root of the A7 chord.

Bars 23-24 improvisation scale is D natural minor.

Bar 25, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on D root of
the Dmin chord.

Bar 25, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on B, the
root of the iiø7 chord.

Bar 26 improvisation scale is A melodic minor ascending beginning on E root of E7


chord.

Bar 27 improvisation scale is A natural minor.

Bar 28, beats 1 and 2, improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on B root of
iiø7chord.

Bar 28, beats 3 and 4, improvisation scale is A harmonic minor beginning on G#


root of G#dim chord.

Bars 29-30 improvisation scale is A melodic minor ascending beginning on E root of


the E7 chord.

Bars 31 - end improvisation scale is A natural minor beginning on chord roots as


indicated.
145
146
147
CONCLUSION

The suggested improvisation scales are a beginning point from which to develop
your style. Chromatic non-chord tone embellishments are also useful. Use your ear to
develop improvisation scales that sound well with the immediate chord.

If you have worked through this book, listened and responded with better than 90%
accuracy to all exercises in Pitch ID, pitch and intervals, Spell ID, Chord ID, Rhythm ID
and Melodic ID, you have an excellent musical foundation.

The advanced musical disciplines of Form and Analysis and Counterpoint are also
important. I have written two books on counterpoint:

Sixteenth Century Counterpoint by H. Gilbert Trythall,

Eighteenth Century Counterpoint by H. Gilbert Trythall.

Both books are out of print but used copies may sometimes be found on Amazon.
com.

I wish you much success.

Gil Trythall
Dallas, Texas, USA
January 2009
148
Index
A
accidentals 87
added sixth chords 66
anticipation 112
appoggiatura 112
Augmented intervals 28
authentic cadence 80
authentic cadence resolution 80

B
beats 9
borrowed chord 100,  124
borrowed chords 87

C
cadences
and immediate scale 85
and scale/key identification 83,  85
authentic cadence 80
chord names in authentic 82
chord names in deceptive 84
deceptive cadence 80
first chord in 80
half cadence 81
plagal cadence 81
spell authentic cadence 81
spell deceptive cadence 83
chord
defined 44
chord names
and lead sheets 51
Chord symbol definition 55
chord symbol name 44
chromatic appoggiaturas 111
Chromatic Chords 87
chromatic passing tones 111
chromatic scale 87
chromatic tone 11
chromatic tones 111
circle of fifths 42
clef sign 9
149
closely related keys 42
compound meter 9
counterpoint 111
Counterpoint 111

D
Da Capo 132
deceptive cadence 80
deceptive cadence resolution 81
diatonic
scale 11
tone 11
diminished/diminished seventh chord 58
Diminished intervals 28
diminished/minor seventh chord 60
direct modulation example 131
dominant 9th chord
definition 72
voicing 73
dominant 11th chord
voicing 77
dominant 13th chord
definition 77
voicing 79
Dorian minor scale pattern 17
Dots and ties 10
doubly augmented interval 28
doubly diminished interval 28

E
enharmonic chord 71
enharmonic pitch 71
escape tone 112

F
Fine 132
free tone 112
French Augmented Sixth 106

G
German Augmented Sixth 105

H
150
half-step 11

I
immediate scale 40
immediate scale defined 113
improvisation scale 113
improvisation scale defined 40
interval
augmented fourth 37
defined 18
diminished fifth 37
diminished seventh 36
inversion 38
major seventh 33,  34
minor seventh 35
quality 18
size 18
transposition 38
interval names
eleventh 19
fifteenth 19
fifth 19
fourth 19
ninth 19
octave 19
second 19
seventh 19
sixth 19
tenth 19
third 19
thirteenth 19
twelfth 19
unison 18
intervals
complementary interval 38
half-steps in 19
major third 30,  32,  33
minor third 31
perfect fifth 29
perfect fourth 29
perfect intervals 28
Italian Augmented Sixth 104

K
151
key
and closely related keys 42
defined 40
immediate scale 87
key signature 40
key of the composition 87,  124

L
lead sheet 123

M
major intervals 28
major/major seventh chord 62
major minth 28
major scale pattern 13
major tenth 28
middle C 11
minor intervals 28
minor/minor seventh chord 57
minor ninth 28
minor tenth 28
mode
Aeolian 12
defined 12
final 12
Ionian 12
Locrian 12
Lydian 12
Mixolydian 12
Phrygian 12
modulation 87

N
Neapolitan Sixth Chord 107
neighboring tone 112
new immediate scale 87
non-chord tones 40,  111
Note ID.exe 7
note-name
defined 11

P
parallel major 41
152
parallel major scale 100
parallel minor 41
parallel minor scale 100
passing tone 112
pedal point 112
Perfect intervals 28
pitch
defined 11
Pitch duration 9
pivot chord 89
pulses 9

R
relative major 41
relative minor 41
retrogression 80
Roman numeral definition 54
Roman numeral name 44
Roman numerals
and chord names 52
and triads 49,  50

S
scales
harmonic minor scale pattern 15
melodic minor scale pattern 16,  17
natural minor scale pattern 15
scale step names
dominant 13
mediant 13
sub-dominant 13
sub-mediant 13
super-tonic 13
secondary dominant 87,  115
and chormatic chords 91,  94
only V or vii° chord 90
secondary dominant chain 115
secondary dominant example 131
secondary dominants
chromatic chord 87
with authentic resolution 91
secondary viio 87
semitone 11
seventh chord
153
definition 54
dominant seventh chord root 68
dominant seventh chords 55
dominant seventh chord with #5 65
full-diminished seventh chord 58
full-diminished seventh chords 59
half-diminished seventh chord 60,  71
IV7 (blues sub-dominant) 69
major/major seventh chord 62
major seventh chord 62
minor seventh chord 57
simple meter 9
suspension 112

T
tempo 9
time signature 9
tonal music 80
triad
defined 44
triads
64 triad 47
and chords 44
augmented triad 48
close position 47
diminished triad 48
first inversion triad 46
major triad 47
minor triad 48
open position 47
root position 45
second inversion triad 47
sixth chord 46
triad fifth 46
Triad inversion 46
triad root 46
triad third 46
triangle symbol 62
tritone 28,  129
tritone substitute Gb7 131,  132
tritone substitution 129,  130
turn around 125

W
154
whole-step 11