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Platypus Facts

This placid-looking male platypus has a secret weapon: spurs on its hindfeet that are connected
to a gland that produces toxic venom. Males use them against predators or in battles with other
males during mating season. A strike from a toxic platypus spur can kill a dog. Native to the
rivers of eastern Australia, platypus are monotremes—unlike most other mammals, monotremes
never evolved live birth, but instead lay eggs like their amniote ancestors. Monotremes produce
milk for their young but lack nipples; instead, their milk oozes out of ducts of their mammary
glands onto specialized patches of skin.
Credit: © AMNH/ R. Mickens

The platypus is one of the most unusual creatures in the animal kingdom. Platypuses (which is
the correct plural form, not "platypi") have a paddle-shaped tail like a beaver; a sleek, furry body
like an otter; and a flat bill and webbed feet like a duck. In fact, the first time a platypus was
brought from Australia to Britain, people couldn't believe that it was a real animal. They thought
that a trickster had sewn two animals together, according to the BBC.

Platypuses are among the few venomous mammals. Males have a spur on the back of their hind
feet that is connected to a venom-secreting gland. More venom is secreted during mating season,
leading researchers to think that the spurs and venom help males compete for mates, according to
the Australian Platypus Conservatory. The venom is not life threatening to humans, but it can
cause severe swelling and "excruciating pain."

Size & appearance


A typical platypus is 15 inches (38 centimeters) from its head to the end of its rump. Its tail adds
an additional 5 inches (13 cm) to the animal's length. An individual weighs about 3 lbs. (1.4 kg),
though platypuses that live in colder climates are bigger than those living in warmer areas,
according to the Australian Platypus Conservatory.
Scientists have found fossils that suggest that ancient platypuses where twice as large as the
modern variety, at 3.3 feet (1 meter) long.

Platypuses have dense, thick fur that helps them stay warm underwater. Most of the fur is dark
brown, except for a patch of lighter fur near each eye, and lighter-colored fur on the underside.

Their front feet have extra skin that acts like a paddle when the animals are swimming. When
platypuses are on land, their webbing retracts, making the claws more pronounced. The animals
walk awkwardly on their knuckles to protect the webbing.

The bill of a platypus, sometimes called a duck-billed platypus, has a smooth texture that feels
like suede. It is also flexible and rubbery. The skin of the bill holds thousands of receptors that
help the platypus navigate underwater and detect movement of potential food, such as shrimp.

All of the monotremes, or egg-laying mammals such as the platypus and echidna, lost their

Habitat
Platypuses live in only one, small area of the world. These creatures make their homes in the
freshwater areas that flow throughout the island of Tasmania and the eastern and southeastern
coast of Australia. While they are in the water a lot, they will also waddle onto the riverbanks to
dig burrows with their claws. These burrows are tunnels that have rooms or chambers.
Platypuses also live under rock ledges, roots or debris.

Though they exist on only one side of one continent, platypuses weather many climate extremes.
They have been found in plateaus, lowlands, tropical rainforests, and the cold mountains of
Tasmania and the Australian Alps. Their waterproof, thick fur keeps platypuses warm in chilly
temperatures, and their big tails store extra fat for energy.
Platypuses usually spend their time hunting for food, and a hunt can last 10 to 12 hours. They are
most active during nighttime and dusk, because they are nocturnal. This means they sleep during
the day. When not hunting, they stay in their burrows.

Diet
Platypuses are carnivorous, which means they eat meat but not plants. They hunt for their food in
the water where they live. As they swim, they try to detect food along the muddy bottom of the
river, stream, pond or lake using their sensitive bills. When platypuses find something
interesting, like shellfish, insects, larvae or worms, they scoop it up in their bills, store it in their
cheek pouches and swim to the surface. Since they only have grinding plates and no teeth,
platypuses use any gravel or dirt they scooped up while on the bottom of the waterbed to mash
their food into digestible pieces.

Baby platypuses
Most mammals give birth to live young. Platypuses, however, lay eggs. They are a species of
primitive mammals called monotremes. Echidnas, or spiny anteaters, are the only other
mammals that lay eggs.

When the female platypus is ready to have her young, she will burrow down inside the ground on
the riverbank and seal herself into one of her tunnel rooms. Then, she will lay one or two eggs
and place them between her rump and her tail to keep them warm. After about 10 days, the eggs
hatch and the little, bean-sized babies will nurse for three to four months. Around the time of
weaning, baby platypuses can swim on their own.

Classification/taxonomy
The taxonomy of the platypus, according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System
(ITIS), is:

 Kingdom: Animalia
 Phylum: Chordata
 Class: Mammalia
 Order: Monotremata
 Family: Ornithorhynchidae
 Genus and species: Ornithorhynchus anatinus

Conservation status
Platypuses are not endangered. The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the
animals as a "Least Concern," though the organization admits it has no idea how large or small
the platypus population may be. This is due, primarily, to lack of worldwide research and data on
the species.
Other facts
Platypuses swim with their front feet and steer with their tails and back feet. They have
waterproof fur, skin that covers their ears and eyes, and noses that seal shut to protect the
animals while they are underwater. Though platypuses are made for the water, they can't stay
completely submerged. They can only stay underwater for 30 to 140 seconds.

Platypus' skeletons resemble those of reptiles. They both have pectoral girdles and splayed legs.

These short creatures are much better at moving through water than across land. They use 30
percent more energy walking across land than swimming through the water, according to the
Australian Museum of History.

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