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Akanksha Kumari
DFT – 6
Roll No. – 06
Assignment 1

Submitted to – Asst. Prof. Ettishri Rajput

Date – 22/02/2019


Continuous production or processing is the method of producing large quantities of standardized
products using standardized production process along with the continuous physical flow of materials.
In the 20th century, Toyota developed a method called “continuous flow” in order to keep the clients
loyal, by delivering the right value at the right time to them. The process is also called “continuous
flow” because of the continuous production of products and then sent to the market as per the
customer’s high demand. It is used when high volumes of identical products are required. In
continuous processing, products are processed through a series of stages, being transferred
automatically from one process to the next. Some of the examples of continuous production are oil
refining, manufacturing of detergents, printing of newsprint, petrochemical, pharmaceutical,
cement, sugar, fertilizer industries, etc.

Continuous flow is one of the important attributes of lean manufacturing used to improve
production efficiency and adding value continuously. It allows the movement of a single product
through every step of the process instead of splitting them into item lots. It sometimes stops for
periodic scheduled maintenance but generally run without break. Shutting down one of the lines
may involve several days of lost production. Most of the parts of the system are computer controlled.
Employees do the diagnostic checks, carry out the spot quality control audits and deal with issues
raised during the inspection process at the end of the production line. In the continuous production
system, the items are produced for the stocks and not for specific orders.

A sales forecast is done to estimate the demand of the product and prepare a master schedule to
look upon the sales forecast according to past orders and level of inventory and for more effective
coordination of various departments. The input materials are standardized and a standard set of
processes and sequences are adopted. Sampling takes place at different stages of production. After
each production run, large sizes of a lot of final product is produced which had gone through a
definite sequence of operations in a pre-determined order. Quality is not compromised by
continuous monitoring.

Takt time is one of the most important factors for maintaining a continuous flow. It is useful in
reducing the inventory costs and wait time of work items. It utilizes capacity in the best possible way
to meet customer demand. This process eliminates the breaks between different steps thus reducing
human error making it more reliable.

The continuous production system is divided into two three types of production, namely Mass
Production Systems, Process Production System and Assembly Line. Mass production is carried out
on a number of machines arranged accordingly to the sequence of operations. Several numbers of a
product are manufactured at a time and stocked in a warehouse waiting for the sales. Electronics,
automobiles, and bicycles industries are some of the examples of mass production industries. But, in
process production systems, a single product is produced and stocked in warehouses until it is
demanded in the market. The flexibility of these plants is almost zero due to the production of only
one product. Chemicals, cement, etc. are examples of process production industries.

The third one is an assembly line in which a production run adds components and parts to an item in
steps. Assembly line process is employed in assembling automobiles, televisions, computers, etc.
Each machine directly receives material from the previous machine and the material is passed on
directly to the next machine.
Continuous production accelerates the efficient production by minimizing the waste, energy
consumption and usage of raw material. Minimum and constant material and equipment handling is
required, which makes it more easily accessible for the operators to use the machine, hence
minimizing the error. The workforce is comprised of skilled and unskilled workers. A large amount of
capital is needed for investment in machinery and equipment but on the other hand return on
investment is also high. Training to workers and staff members is provided whenever there is a
change in product and equipment which happens very rarely. There is a higher rate of production
with reduced cycle time. The unit cost of each product is lower due to the higher volume of
production. Material and inventory are controlled and handled in a better way.

But on the other hand, in a continuous production system, flexibility to accommodate and process a
number of products does not exist. A large amount of money is required for setting flow lines.
Variations in the products are extremely low. There is a heavy loss during slack demand period. Rigid
maintenance and upkeep of machines are required all the time. It is difficult to adjust to new
situations and specifications. It is difficult for an organization to judge, given the high volumes of
inputs and outputs on a continuous production line, exactly how much raw materials and how many
components and parts will actually be required.

Continuous production system gives a minimum WIP inventory because there is no waiting period
which is a result of continuous and progressive processing of material. The product is passed on to
the next stage immediately after the completion of the first stage. Therefore, material handling is
minimized and full use of automation can be made out of this. The large fixed costs in a continuous
production system can be distributed over a high volume of output. Continuous processing requires a
smaller physical footprint, which is a more environmentally friendly option. A continuous system is
mostly acceptable by organizations which intend to produce a limited variety of products on a large
scale. Continuous production system can be applied to those industries which satisfy the
requirements like uniform demand, high volume of production and product standardization. In the
pharmaceutical industry, the continuous processing would take all the ingredients in a single
production line at one end, and the finished pill would come out the other end. New applications of
continuous processing for the manufacture of new therapies are currently under development in the
pharmaceutical industry.


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