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International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in Engineering

Volume 4, Issue 3, 2017


Available online at www.ijiere.com
International Journal of Innovative and Emerging
Research in Engineering
e-ISSN: 2394 - 3343 p-ISSN: 2394 - 5494

Design of Flexible pavement by CBR method according Traffic


volume study data
Prof.Varsha Lanjewar1, Anil patle2, Lokesh Chawale3, Ashwini Bhoge4, Trupti Dharmik5, Priyanka Ilme6,
Rohit Kohre7, Sudhir Atrahe8
1
Assistant professor, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,varshalanjewar1984@gmail.com
2
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,anilpatle1994@gmail.com
3
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,lchawaleash@gmail.com
4
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,bhogeashwini24@gmail.com
5
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,truptidharmik20694@gmailcom
6
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,Ilmepriyanka@gmail.com
7
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,rohit.kohre@gmail.com
8
Research scholar, M.I.E.T. Shahapur, Bhandara,Maharashtra,atrahe420@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: -
It is very important to overcome the problems of failure of flexible pavements of roads due to improper design.
For the determination of bearing capacity of soil. C.B.R. Proper design of roads according to the traffic count
and bearing capacity of foundation soil of road is necessary. To design flexible pavement it is necessary to
determine the physical properties of soil like Optimum moisture content, maximum dry density and bearing
capacity of soil To make the bituminous concrete the selection of proper grade of bitumen are essential for that
grade penetration test necessary to performed. Gradation of aggregate is very essential for making bituminous
concrete.
Keywords: Flexible Pavements, traffic volume study, California Bearing Ratio Value test, Gradation of
aggregate.

I.INTRODUCTION

The purpose of pavements is to carry traffic safely conveniently and economically over its extended life .the pavement
must provide smooth riding quality with adequate skid resistance and have adequate thickness to insure that the traffic
loads are distributed over an area so that the stresses and strain at all levels in the pavements and subgrade are within the
capabilities of materials at each levels. Then pavement is the actual travel surface especially made durable and serviceable
to withstand the traffic load commuting upon it. Pavement grand friction for the vehicles thus providing comfort to the
drivers and transfers the traffic loads from the upper surface to the natural soil. The California bearing ratio method is used
for calculating bearing capacity i.e. mechanical strength of soil. In 1928 California division of highway in the U.S.A.
developed CBR method for pavement design. The quantity of base course and sub-base material is properly given by
California bearing ratio method. The CBR method of pavement design gives the total thickness requirement of the
pavement above a subgrade. The CBR method performs on soil sample is based on the strength parameter of subgrade soil
and subsequent pavement material.

II.EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMMES

It is very important to know the different properties of soil i.e. Optimum moisture content and Maximum Dry Density
test. To know the property, quality and exact proportion of aggregate it is necessary to conduct the test like Impact test,
Abrasion test and Flakiness index test is performed. Similarly to know the different properties and grade of the bitumen
the test like Ductility test and penetration test is performed on the Bitumen.

A. Collection of soil sample

The soil sample for testing of the soil, sample is taken from near the road site where the availability of the specimen is
suitable. The ground is excavated up to the depth 3.5 feet; the sample is taken at 2.5feet, 3feet, and 3.5feet.
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Volume 4, Issue 3, 2017
B. Traffic Volume Study

It is very much necessary to calculate the total traffic before the design of pavement thickness. Vehicle travelling from
roads transfer ESWL to the surface of the ground. So it is essential to calculate at what amount of vehicles travelling from
particular area to be design. Traffic volume study gives idea to determine a suitable thickness of pavement for the analysis
and trends of traffic the traffic volume study is very much essential. For the purpose of planning their traffic operation and
for the planning and designing the existing facilities traffic volume study gives better idea. Traffic volume changes
according to time to time. [1]

The methods of counting traffic volume are as follows:-

I) Mechanical counters

II) Manual count

From the above method Manual count method is used for calculating the traffic volumes.

Manual count Method: - Manual counts are done by trained persons. For the manual counts of traffic volume daily peak
hour is considered for a particular institute. The traffic volume may be calculated on peak hour at Incoming time and
Outgoing time. For the design purpose two day traffic counting is done. The result of two day traffic is as follows

Table 1. Traffic volume data.

Time Two Four Bus Tractor Bicycles Total


wheeler wheeler

Day 1 10.45 148 12 1 1 20 182


to
11.45

4.45 115 12 1 1 20 149


to
5.15

Day 2 10.45 159 10 1 1 24 205


to
11.45

4.45 150 10 1 1 24 186


to
5.15

From the above data of traffic volume the average traffic volume taken as 195 commercial vehicles per day.

For the design purpose the average traffic volume increased to 10 times ADT.

C. Computation of design traffic:-

The design traffic in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles to be carried during the design life of the road should
be computed using the following equation, from IRC 37-2001

365𝑥((1+𝑟)𝑛 −1)𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐷x𝐹
N= ……………..equation (i)
𝑟

Where,

N= the cumulative number of standard axles to be catered for in the design in the terms of msa.

A= initial traffic in the year of completion of construction in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day

D= lane distribution factor

F= vehicle damage factor


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n=design life in years

r=annual growth rate of commercial vehicles (0.075)

Calculation:-

365𝑥((1+0.075)10 −1)𝑥1950𝑥0.75𝑥4.5
N=
0.075

= 33.98 msa

=30 msa

D. Testing on soil sample:-

1. OMC and MDD Test.

Optimum moisture content and Maximum Dry density test performed to determine the moisture content for the CBR test.
Optimum Moisture content is the water content at which maximum dry density. For the design of new roads as per the
IRC recommendation the subgrade soil sample should be compacted at OMC to proctor density whenever suitable
compaction equipment is available to achieve this density in the field. Maximum Dry Density is the peak dry unit weight.
The observation table for OMC and MDD are as follows

Table 2. Observation table of OMC and MDD test.

W=W1- Volume of Bulk Water content Dry


W2 mould (V) Density (%) density(g/cc)
(Ƴb)

1880 1000 1.88 0 -

1726 1000 1.73 10 1.57

1722 1000 1.72 12 1.54

1740 1000 1.74 14 1.53

1762 1000 1.76 16 1.52

1734 1000 1.73 18 1.47

1780 1000 1.78 20 1.48

2050 1000 2.05 24 1.65

2
dry density g/cc

1.5

0.5

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Optimum moisture content %

Figure1.Graph of OMC and MDD.

From the above graph the result of OMC and MDD test are as follow

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Table 3.Result of OMC and MDD.

Test Results
1) OMC 10%

2) MDD 1.57g/cc

Table 4. Result of CBR test

Sr.no Penetratio Load (kg) Load on plunger (kg/cm2) = Standard CBR value (%) =
. n(mm) Load/area of plunger Load Load on plunger
*100/standard load

Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample Sample Sample Sample Sampl Sample 2 Sample 3


3 1 2 3 e1

1 2.5 36 37 34 1.83 1.88 1.73 70 2.61 2.69 2.47

2 5.0 42 45 43 2.14 2.29 2.19 105 2.04 2.18 2.09

2. CBR TEST

California Bearing Ratio is the ratios of force per unit area required for penetrate into the soil mass with circular plunger
of 50 mm diameter at the rate of 1.25mm/min. The CBR value is recorded at 2.5 mm and 5mm penetration. By using
average CBR value and traffic count in msa referred CBR design chart (recommended by IRC) Gives depths of
construction. [2]

Figure 2.California bearing ratio test.

Average CBR Value for 2.5 mm = (2.61+2.69+2.47)/3 = 2.59 %

Average CBR Value for 5 mm = (2.04+2.18+2.09)/3 = 2.10 %

The average CBR Value = 2.35 is taken as 3%

For 3% CBR value and Traffic volume of 30 msa referring IRC37-2012 gives different Crust thickness.

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Figure 3.Graph of pavement thickness as per IRC 37-2012.

From Graph,

Thicknesses of different crust of flexible pavement are as follows:-

Granular Sub-base = 380 mm.

Granular base = 250 mm.

Dense bituminous macadam = 140 mm.

Bituminous concrete = 40 mm.

Bituminous concrete (40 mm)

Dense bituminous macadam (140mm)

Base course (250mm)

Granular sub-base (380mm)

Figure 4.Different crust thickness as per IRC 37-2012

Soil Subgrade layer: - The soil subgrade is a layer of natural soil prepared to receive the other layers of the pavement.
The load of pavements are ultimately supported by the soil subgrade and dispersed to the earth mass below.

Sub-base course:-It is layer of selected granular soil, stabilized soil or gravels, boulders ,broken stones ,bricks etc. the
main purpose of providing sub-base layer is to permit the building of relatively thick pavement at low cost.

Base course:-It is the foundation layer, designed for its structural stability. The main function of the base course in
flexible pavement is to improve the load supporting capacity by distributing the load through s finite thickness.

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Dense Bituminous macadam: - It is the binder course used for roads with more number of heavy commercial vehicles. In
dense bituminous macadam mix there is a wide scope for varying the gradation to obtain a good mix without affecting
the durability of pavement.

Wearing course:-It is that component of pavement with which the wheels of vehicles are in actual contact. The main
purpose of wearing course is to provide smooth and dense riding surface that resist the pressure exerted by tyres.

For design of bituminous concrete surface gradation of aggregate is important.

E. TEST ON AGGREGATE:-

1. IMPACT TEST:-

This test used to know the toughness of an aggregate and maximum impact value for wearing surfaces is 30%.

Take oven dried sample of an aggregate passing from 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve (A).

After than filled the mould in three layers by tamping each layer 25 times and fixed the mould on impact testing machine
by giving 25 blows.

Then sieve the sample by 2.36 mm IS sieve therefore wt. Retained on this sieve taken as B.
𝒘𝒕.𝒓𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒏 𝟐.𝟑𝟔𝒎𝒎 𝒔𝒊𝒆𝒗𝒆
Impact value = ∗ 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝒘𝒕.𝒓𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒆𝒅 𝒐𝒏 𝟏𝟎 𝒎𝒎 𝒔𝒊𝒆𝒗𝒆

Wt. retained on 2.36 mm sieve =50 gm.

Wt. retained on 10 mm sieve = 415 gm.


50
Impact value = ∗ 100
415

= 12.05 %

Figure.5 Impact Test

2. ABRASION TEST:-

This test is used to determine the abrasion value of an aggregate and maximum permissible value for wearing surface is
30%.The abrasive charge shall consist of cast iron spheres or steel spheres approximately 48 mm in diameter and each
weight between 390 and 445 gm. The test samples consist of clean aggregate which has been dried in an oven at 105 0c to
1100c.then no. of charge applied according to selected grade. The revolution per min given according to selected grade.
Then the crushed material pass through 1.7 mm sieve.

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Figure 6: Abrasion value Test

Weight of gm. of saturated surface dry sample (A) = 5000gm


Weight of gm. of friction passing through 1.70 mm IS sieve (B) = 940 gm.
Aggregate Abrasion Value = B/A x 100
= 940/5000 x 100
= 18.8 %

F. GRADATION OF AGGREGATE:-

The gradation of aggregate is very much essential for fixing the proper proportion of aggregate for bituminous concrete
surface. The gradation of aggregate is done by trial method. Due to the proper gradation of aggregate the well graded
aggregate is selected improves strength of surface course also improves resistance to absorption of water. [3]

12.5 mm

10 mm

4.75 mm

Pan

2.36 mm

600 micron

300 micron
150 micron
75 micron
Pan

Figure7. Sieve arrangment for gradation test

Result of Gradation Test:- the gradation of aggregate is done by trial and error method.

TRIAL 1:-Table 5 Gradation of aggregate by 15% 10 mm aggregate and 85% 6mm aggregate.

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Sieve size Percentage of Cumulative % Grade 1


mm Wt. retained wt. retained passing

20 - - - -
12.5 0 0 100 100
10 0.40 8 92 80-100
4.75 1.10 23.91 76.09 55-75
2.36 1.18 33.71 66.29 35-50
0.6 1.107 47.71 52.29 18-29
0.3 0.21 17.31 82.69 13-23
0.150 0.08 7.97 92.03 8-16
0.075 0.085 9.2 90.8 4-10

TRIAL2:-Table 6 Gradation of aggregate by 18% 10 mm aggregate and 82% 6mm aggregate.

Sieve size Percentage of Cumulative % Grade 1


Mm Wt. retained wt. retained passing

20 - - - -
12.5 0 0 100 100
10 0.45 9 91 80-100
4.75 1.15 25.27 74.73 55-75
2.36 1.29 37.94 62.06 35-50
0.6 1.209 57.29 42.71 18-29
0.3 0.51 56.60 43.40 13-23
0.150 0.1 25.57 74.43 8-16
0.075 0.095 32.64 67.36 4-10

TRIAL3:- Table 7 Gradation of aggregate by 20% 10 mm aggregate and 80% 6mm aggregate.

Sieve size Percentage of Cumulative % Grade 1


Mm Wt. retained wt. retained passing

20 - - - -
12.5 0 0 100 100
10 0.5 10 90 80-100
4.75 1.17 26 74 55-75
2.36 1.90 57 43 35-50
0.6 1.029 72 28 18-29
0.3 0.316 79 21 13-23
0.150 0.072 85 15 8-16
0.075 0.012 93 7 4-10

From the above trials, the proportion of aggregate for bituminous concrete surface is found to be 20% aggregate of 10
mm and 80% aggregate of 6mm.

G. TEST ON BITUMEN:-

For the selection of proper grade of bitumen test on it is very essential to know its properties. Bitumen is available
in a different grades and qualities. To know the suitability of binders various physical test have been specified by agencies
like ASTM, Asphalt Institute, and ISI. For classifying bitumen and studying the performance of bituminous pavement the
penetration and ductility test are essential. The penetration test determines the hardness or softness of bitumen by measuring
depth of penetration in tenth of millimeter. In the flexible pavements construction where bitumen binder is used, it is
important that the binders form ductile thin films around the aggregates. Binder improving the physical interlocking of
aggregate bituminous mixes.

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1. PENETRATION TEST: -

The sample of bitumen is maintained at 25 oc.the bitumen is softened at sufficient softening point then poured into the
mould. The sample container is kept in water bath at 25oc for an hour. Three penetrations are made on this sample 10 mm
apart.by considering average penetration value the grade of bitumen is decided. The results of penetration test are as
follows.

Table 8.Penetration test result

Penetration dial reading Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Initial 0 0 0
Final 62 61 65
Penetration value 62 61 65

Figure 8.Penetration test apparatus

The average penetration value = (62+61+65)/3= 62.67mm =63 mm.

The average value of penetration test lies in between 60 to 70 hence the grade of bitumen is 60/70.

2. DUCTILITY TEST: -

It is test give ductility value of bitumen. The binder material which does not possess sufficient ductility would crack and
thus provide pervious pavement surface. The test is believed measured the adhesive property of bitumen and its ability to
stretch. The result of ductility test is as follows.

Figure 9. Briquette mould with sample.

The ductility value varies from 5 to over 100 cm for different grades of bitumen. The ISI specified minimum Ductility
value of 75cm for the bitumen of grade 45 and above.

From the test, Ductility value =78 cm.

As per IRC recommendation 5-7 % bitumen by weight of aggregate is mixed for bituminous concrete surface design.

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III. CONCLUSION

1) The less quantity of material is used for the construction of flexible pavement is saving huge quantity of
money i.e. Economical.
2) The crust thickness is depending on the CBR value i.e. higher the CBR value lower is the thickness of
pavement.
3) The CBR value of subgrade is improved by soil stabilization.
4) To select well graded aggregate proper gradation is important.
5) For selecting proper grade of bitumen penetration and ductility test is performed which determine physical
properties of bitumen sample.

IV. REFERENCES

[1] Khanna S.K., Justo C.E.G. “Highway Engineering”, published by Nem Chand & Bros, Civil Lines, Roorkee
247667, India. Ninth Edition (2011):
[2] Khanna S.K., Justo C.E.G. “Highway Engineering”, published by Nem Chand & Bros, Civil Lines, Roorkee
247667, India. Ninth Edition (2011)
[3] Khanna S.K., Justo C.E.G. “Highway Engineering” , published by Nem Chand & Bros, Civil Lines, Roorkee
247667, India. Ninth Edition (2011)
[4] Equation (i) From IRC 37-2001 THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS (2001):“Guidelines for the Design of
Flexible Pavements (second Revision)
[5] Khanna S.K., Justo C.E.G. “Highway Engineering” published by Nem Chand & Bros, Civil Lines, Roorkee
247667, India. Ninth Edition (2011)
[6] INDIAN ROAD CONGRESS (2012):-“Tentative Guidelines for the Design Of flexible pavements”
[7] THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS (2001):“Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements (second Revision)

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