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Electrical Network Switching

Hello my friends, how are you? I hope so and in today's article we will talk about switching networks,
let's imagine a machine in operation and suddenly the power of the utility, but you have the power of
the generator that provides adequate power and supports such current for such a machine as could
you design such a system?

Remember of course there are much more modern and automated, sophisticated means such as
automatic transfer keys, but take this article as an attachment exercise.

Network Switching
In some systems the power failure in a power line can not cause equipment to stop. In these cases,
we use an auxiliary line, totally independent of the main line, to supply energy to the system while
the fault in the main line and its causes are studied to normalize the situation

. In this article a circuit is proposed that detects the lack of energy in a and switches the equipment
to another line. The two networks must have the same voltage level and the same phase
sequence. Proposed System Operation

In the proposed system (below in the control diagram), the 1M5 tag motor must be operated via the
auxiliary network (network 2) if there is a fault in the main network (network 1). The motor is
supported by the network 1. If this network falls, the circuit automatically disconnects the motor from
the network 1 and connects it to the network 2. In order for the system to work, the procedure for
starting and operating the networks must be followed. Accompany:

Departure through Network 1 and Preparation of Network 2


 With the two circuit breakers 1F0 and 1F1 off, the circuit breaker 1F0 of the network 1 is
switched on;

 We started the engine with the 1S1 button. 1K1 is energized, seals through 1K1 (13; 14) and
drives the engine through its main contacts. Also opens 1K1 (21; 22), preventing the energization of
1K2;

 We turn on circuit breaker 1F1 of network 2. At this time the operator checks if the two
networks are active through 1H1 and 1H3, and if the motor is connected by network 1 through 1H2
which are the indicative lights on the panel.
The 1M5 motor is currently operating normally through the network 1. Network 1

Failure (Network 1 Idle / No voltage)

 1K1 is de-energized because it is connected to network 1; 1K1 (21; 22) returns to the NF
position by energizing 1K2, which will keep the engine running;

 1H1 off (network 1 off), 1H3 on (network 2 on) and 1H4 on (engine supported by network2).
The normal working condition (grid 1 supporting the motor) must be restored as soon as possible, so
at the most appropriate time the circuit breaker 1F0 must be reconnected and return the drive to 1K1
through 1S1 (1S1 1K1), which deactivates 1K2 through of 1K1 (21; 22)).

Advertisement: ➨ Important: The two networks must have the same phase sequence (exactly as in
the diagram) to prevent a short circuit to restore the functioning of the network 1. A security
procedure to restore normal conditions would stop the system with the deactivation of the network 2
and restarting the operation by performing the above-mentioned network starting procedure
1. Overload Protection Considerations

In this example we have a single overload relay installed, which would in principle make it difficult to
install the single closed contact 1F4 (95; 96) to turn off the control circuits of networks 1 and 2. This
problem was solved using open contact 1F4 (97 ; 98) of the thermal relay for activating the relay
1d1. In an eventual overload, the 1F4 (97; 98) energizes 1d1 that turns off 1K1, while the 1F4 (95;
96) contact will turn off 1K2.

The overload must be recognized by eliminating the cause and resetting the thermal relay. When
executing a new system start, 1S1 (1; 2) deactivates 1d1.

Stopping the Engine

With the engine running through network 1, you can stop it by pressing 1S0.

It is important to note that it is necessary to deactivate network 2 before a new match. To do this, the
circuit breaker 1F1 is switched off. If the starting procedure is not followed, the motor will go through
network 2, which is the auxiliary network, not the main one.

Publicity: Command and Work Diagram 1 ° Let's observe the control circuit totally off.

Click on the image to enlarge

2 ° we will observe in operation by the network 1 normally driven motor.

Operation:

1- First, connect the mains 1 only via the 1F0 circuit-breaker, then start the motor via 1S1;
2- With the engine running, we connected the mains 2 via the 1F1 circuit-breaker;
3- A fault in the network 1 will turn off 1K1 and 1K2 will enter to keep the engine running, notice that
it is being powered by the auxiliary network.

Publicity:

Obs: 1H3 and 1H4 connected indicate that the auxiliary network is maintaining the motor, an
intervention will be necessary to regularize the situation and re-operate through the main
network. Under no circumstances may the auxiliary network be used for normal operation in this
case.
Click on the image to enlarge

3 ° Let us observe in operation by the network 2 in this case, where the circuit breaker of the network
1 is deactivated, and when the circuit breaker 2 is activated, the control starts.

Click on the image to enlarge

Good this is guys, I hope you have enjoyed this article, leave your comment if you have any
suggestions on how to improve this system. Remember these tips are for everyone and not for me,
so you can help with our projects.